A History of Colonial Virginia: The First Permanent Colony in America

By William Broaddus Cridlin

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A History of Colonial Virginia: The First Permanent Colony in America

by William Broaddus Cridlin, Secretary of the Virginia Historical Pageant Assocaition;
Registrar Virginia Society of Sons of the American Revolution
Printed by Williams Printing Company, Richmond, Virginia, 1923

Can be purchased at http://www.archive.org/details/historyofcolonia00crid


    For a number of years the author of this work has been greatly interested in study of the History of Virginia, his native State.

    The deeper he has delved into the records of the Colonial period, the more has he been impressed with the dearth of material, dealing with many important events and characters, found available to the general reading public.

    When first engaged in research, there was no thought of giving the results of the investigation to public print. It was only deemed a pleasant pastime for idle hours, fostered by earnest desire to know more of the part taken, by our colonial ancestors, in the foundation and development of the great Republic of today.

    The information, thus obtained, impressed the writer with the sad fact that Virginians, as a class, have not been as loyally enthusiastic in endeavor to familiarize themselves with the important legacies the colony has bequeathed to the American Nation, as have the citizens of other sections where later colonies were planted.

    This lack of knowledge has not been entirely through failure of interest on the part of Virginia citizens, but, owing, one is constrained to believe, to the fact that information to be obtained is, often, only available in rare and costly works; timeworn, musty manuscripts, filed away in National and State Libraries, or, within the pages of old record books, yet to be catalogued or indexed.

    No criticism, intended or implied, is lodged against the school histories written by gifted Virginians of today. These authors have found it necessary to cover a wide range of historical data, within a limited number of pages. In thus attempting to write the history of the various periods, viz., Colonial, Revolutionary, 1812, Mexican War, War between the States, World War, and many events, commercial and otherwise, of the present time, it is to be noted that abridgement has been found an absolute necessity.

    The author, of this volume, has not attempted to cover more than the "Period of Formation," which extended from the first settlement to the time of the so called, "Bacon's Rebellion." Even in this, much has been omitted when found immaterial or treated of in works available to the general public.

    The "Period of Transition"--The interval between the First Declaration of Independence, July 4th, 1676; and the signing of the Declaration of July 4th, 1776, may be treated of in a volume to be published later.

    The prime object of the writer, when the chapters of this volume were first prepared for publication, was to interest Virginians in the Historical Pageant, staged ire the Capital City, the week of May 22nd, 1922, and give assurance of the mass of material available for preparation of such an enterprise.

    The articles appeared, weekly in the Richmond Times Dispatch, running through a series covering seven or eight months, and the reception by the public was a source of gratification to the author. In fact, there were so many requests, that the series appear in book form, he was constrained to feel, not only repaid for the labor and time taken in preparation of the articles, but, justified in revising and preparing them for publication in book form, at a price within the means of anyone desiring to possess a copy.

    The author wishes to tender acknowledgment of valuable data secured through study of the works of eminent Virginians, authors colonial and modern. The Majority of these works are rare and out of print, now available, only to visitors of the Congressional Library, Virginia State Library, Virginia Historical Society, or libraries of the University of Virginia, William and Mary, Hampden-Sidney, and other of the older colleges of the State. Few private libraries treasure copies of these rare and costly volumes.

    Among works examined, and from which valuable information has been obtained, may be mentioned, Tyler's"Cradle of the Republic"; Brown's-"First Republic"; Collections of the Virginia Historical Society; and the Histories of Virginia, by Captain John Smith, Beverly, Stith, Campbell, Chambers, Howe, and others. Graham's History of the United States, in unabridged form, has proven of great value in parallel reading.

    To Messrs. William G. Stanard, Librarian of the Virginia Historical Society; Morgan P. Robinson, State Archivist; Earl G. Swem, Librarian of the College of William and Mary; and Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, the Historian, appreciation is expressed for counsel and advice, at all times freely given. The data, furnished the author by Rev. F. Joseph Magri, relative to the early Spanish settlements in Virginia, has proven invaluable in the preparation of the chapter on that subject. To him testimonial of appreciation is also expressed.

    That a colony was planted in Virginia, at or near Jamestown, in 1526, again on the Rappahannock in 1570, is not generally known.

    Many have given ear, to the myth of the ten or twelve year old Pocahontas' love for Captain Smith and to vilifications against the patriot Bacon and his followers, without attempt to refute them. They know nothing regarding the genesis of the country of their birth, nor of the one in which they now reside.

    Is the school boy, or girl, of today, as familiar with the correct names of the vessels used to transport the colonists to Jamestown, in 1607, as with that of the ship which brought the Pilgrims to Plymouth Rock, in 1620, thirteen years afterward? Do they realize the service rendered the colony by the converted Indian boy, Chanco? Can they tell the story of the career and adventures of the "Treasurer?"

    These questions are not designed to embarrass the reader, but, to induce Virginians to give more attention to the study of Colonial History, not alone within the pages of this volume, but wherever information can be obtained.

    The "Pageant of Virginia," written and dramatized by Dr. Thomas Woods Stevens, was intended to impress all, who were so fortunate as to attend the great production, with the wonderful history of the commonwealth. So well was it presented, and acted by Virginians, ably assisted by the masterly reading of Rev. A. W. Homy, as Mage of the Tower, it will never be forgotten by those who witnessed its delightful pageantry.

    This volume is sent forth, to assist in the awakened interest the Pageant aroused, and to instil into the hearts of both those who were present, and those who could not attend, a greater love and reverance for their State.

    With this explanation of the purpose for which the volume is published, it is sent forth, with the hope that its readers may find, within its pages, inspiration to emulate those who never hesitated to yield up their lives a sacrifice to service for future generations.

    May the reader find inspiration to take a part in perpetuating their memory, ever remembering that posterity should be given just cause to be as proud of us as we have reason for revering those who have gone before. This accomplished, the mission of the volume will not have proven in vain.

    W. B. CRIDLIN.



    "What is Time, That he should master us?"[1]

    When the Founders of the Nation settled at Jamestown, the whole country-, with the exception of small patches cleared by fire, was a vast forest. The thick and lofty groves grew-, died and decayed without interruption by the hand of man, except where a few were felled by aid of sharp stones.

    In the Tidewater section, the river sides were covered with swamps, marsh and stagnant water. There were no domestic animals, of any kind, but the deer, moose, elk, bear, wolf and a species of lion, squirrels, rabbits and other quardrupeds, summing up in species to the number of twenty-eight, roamed the forest at will. It is recorded that there were eighty-six varieties of birds in great abundance. In the streams there were almost every known variety of fish, and in the woods the natives found chestnuts, grapes, walnuts, crab-apples, whortlehe rries, strawberries, etc.; they cultivated, with crude instruments of wood and stone, corn (Pogatour), beans, peas, pompions, mellons, potatoes and otheruseful vegetables. Special attention was paid to the raising and preparation of tobacco (Uppowac) of which both sexes were verve fond of smoking and offering as incense to their Deities.

    It seems almost unbelievable, when one reads that the labor of the squaws, who. alone cultivated the soil, secured a yield per acre equal to, if not greater, than that produced by our practical farmers with aid of modern machinery.

    The Indians of Virginia were members of the great Algonquin Nation, whose territory extended along the southern borders of the present State [with exception of a small strip occupied by the Manakins, of the Tuscarora tribe, (Monacan), the Manahoac and small tribes of Chowanoc, Nottoway and Meherrin, who with their neighbors, the Cherokees of western North Carolina, were of the Iroquoise Nation. The Algonquin territory extended along the northern shores of the Ohio to its confluence with the Mississippi, following the eastern bank of the river to the Lake of the Woods and Lake Winnipeg in Canada. The Great Lakes, with the exception of Erie, Ontario and the eastern shore of the Huron, were within their borders, and, in fact, all of Canada east of the points mentioned was zealously claimed as Algonquin hunting ground, on which the Iroquois must not venture, thence, but southward from Lake Champ lain they held sway along the Atlantic Coast as far as the South Carolina border.

    Apparently, the Iroquoise were dwellers in the Eastern section of the continent before the arrival of the Algonquins, for a wedge was driven between the Cherokees and Tuscaroras in the South and the "Five Nations" of the Iroquoise in the North. The "Five Nations," or tribes, were surrounded on all sides by Algonquin enemies. Neither nation was descendant from the original inhabitants of Virginia. Their forefathers had conquered a race much their superior in knowledge of the arts and sciences of civilization; a people who understood the use and manufacture of metal instruments of war and peace.

    We have little knowledge of them other than relics excavated from the great mounds, tumuli and earthworks, still to be found, in the western section of the State and extending as far as the Mississippi. We have a lasting memorial to these Alleghee in having given our mountains the name of the Alleghanies.[2]

    The Algonquins were the first Indians met by the colonists who landed at Jamestown, Roanoke Island, Provincetown and Plymouth. Their Nations were divided into tribes, such as the Powhatan, Pamunkey, Mattaponi and others. These were subdivided into families or clans, each clan being descendant from a remote ancestress. Descent was from the female side of the house and each had a symbol, or coat of arms, that distinguished one family from another.

    The clan names were representative of some animal, bird or reptile, such as bear, eagle or snake, illustrated by crude pictures drawn in colors upon shield or tepee, and tatooed upon the face or body. A clan's family would dwell in one house lengthened as the family grew. Sometimes as many as 100 persons occupied one hut. The tepees were crudely framed of bent saplings and covered with mats of bark or grass, and there being no chimneys, the smoke of the fireside escaped through holes in the roof or door. An injury to a member of a clan was an injury to all, and the offender, or his clan, must pay in like manner. The chief men of each clan formed the Council of the tribe, presided over by the hereditary chief, who was not necessarily the War Chief, as this honor was conferred upon a leader who had distinguished himself by prowess and strategy in battle.


    Should a chief desire to declare war on an enemy, the Council would solemnly deliberate on the question, and, if an affirmative decision was made, the best orators would be sent to other friendly tribes in the neighborhood, in an attempt to show cause for declaration of war and the advantage it would he for them to become allies.

    Before beginning hostilities, it was considered proper end honorable to send an ultimatum to the enemy, though this was not always observed, and for this purpose a tomahawk, painted red, was used. The enemy would send a similar hatchet in return. Sometimes a hastily formed scouting party would capture one of the members of the challenging tribe, torture and dispatch him, leaving the body-, in which the red tomahawk was imbedded, where it could be easily- discovered.

    When either party desired peace, a pipe elaborately carved and embellished with tribal insignia, was sent to the enemy. The messenger was safe from capture or harm and the communication received with respect by the War. Council. If peace was accepted, the two Councils would meet, smoke the pipe of peace and exchange belts of wampum to he kept as memorials of the pledge of friendship. Wampum was made from shell laboriously cut into button-like shape and pierced by stone instruments. The most valuable was the purple section found in the round clam, and it is stated that, notwithstanding the labor required in cutting out and forming these buttons, there were great quantities in possession of the Indians.

    A prisoner of war was not necessarily tortured and executed. The mother or father of a son lost in battle could claim the captive and have him adopted into the tribe, though sometimes by ordeal, and he became a son of the bereaved parent, assuming the name of the one who had been slain. The amount of pain an Indian captive would suffer without evincing distress, has ever been a source of amazement to the white race. He would stoically- stand the torture, with a smile of derision, chant of the wonderful exploits of his tribe, berate his captors for their clumsiness in the execution, and proudly boast of the artistic manner in which he and companions had tortured members of the enemies' family.

    Both men and women tatooed their faces and bodies, the flesh being scarified in crude designs and pigments of red, blue, etc., inserted in the wound. Healing, it would thus remain visible in outline, for life. Both sexes pierced their ears and inserted therein sticks of gradually increasing sizes until the desired opening was obtained. Ornaments of all kinds were suspended therefrom, and the more hideous and repulsive the warrior could obtain, the better it suited his purpose. Ofttimes live snakes a foot or more long, or lizards and other reptiles wiggled and squirmed about their faces, the tails passing through their ears and being firmly secured.

    The warrior's head was bare on one side, the hair having been pulled out strand by strand, but a scalp lock was always worn, adorned with feathers and painted porcupine quills, serving as a challenge to an enemy to take it if he could, just as a small boy of today puts a chip upon his shoulder and gives his companions the "dare." The right side of the hair was cut short to prevent it being caught in the bow string, when the wind was blowing. If a warrior be lefthanded his hair was cut on the left side.

    The Indian wore no beard, the hair being pulled out with tweezers made of two flat stones or shells; hirsute adornment being considered a sign of femininity by the Indian beaux. Indian maidens shaved their heads around the ears and forehead, ,wearing their hair down the back. This was accomplished by rubbing the hair between two sharp stones or shells. When they were married, the hair was permitted to grow, and they took great pride in its length. In some southern tribes, a newly made widow would cut the long hair from her head and strew it upon the grave of her deceased husband. She could not marry again until the hair was of former length.

    Clothing was designed to give freedom of movement and was made from woven grass, bark, feathers or tanned skins upon which the hair remained. Leggings of skin were worn to protect the limbs from briars and undergrowth while moccasions of deer skin, skilfully tanned and ornamented, formed protection for their feet.

    In warm weather the young boys and girls were nude. They worshipped the Great Spirit, who was feminine and supposed to dwell in the moon, and an evil spirit called Hobamocko. The redbird was the ambassador and news carrier of the Great Spirit, therefore, held as sacred. To the Great Spirit they gave reverence and expressed gratitude for natural benefits, while to the other, it was thought necessary to pay assiduous devotion, else he inflict with his wrath. The evil spirit was masculine.

    Every important object had a tutelary divinity, and each individual a guardian spirit. Upon the death of a brave warrior he would be transported to a Happy Hunting Ground, far away to the southwest, there to pursue, without hunger or fatigue, such favorite employments as would render an eternity delightful. His favorite weapons were buried with him for use in the other world. If his scalp was taken in battle, there was doubt of his enjoying the blessings above mentioned, unless, buried with him, were the scalps he had taken, which he was supposed to barter in return for his own. Probably they fancied that in the Happy Hunting Ground there were dealers in scalps, such as we find dealing- in tickets, the scalpers of today.

    Their weapons of stone, arrows, tomahawks, etc., were made, with infinite pains and labor. The head of the tomahawk was often forced through the center of a young sapling and there imbedded until the wood of the sapling grew around it. The handle would then be cut to the proper length for use.

    The men spent their time making weapons, hunting, fishing, and at war. The women did all of the menial work and were required to erect their tents, pull them down and carry them in their migrations.


    1. Quotations at head of each chapter are from "The Pageant of Virginia".
    2. The Iroquoise called them the "Mooneyed People," their tradition being that they could not see well in the day time and that they were easily conquered. The Algonquins having no such tradition, gives further proof of latter settlement.

    THE SUMMER OF 1497

    "Stand up, stout seamen. Give us now your tale."

    To John Cabot and his three sons, Lewis, Sebastian and Sancto, must be bestowed the honor of first discovering the mainland of North America,[1] and viewing the shores of Virginia. Some doubt has been expressed as to Lewis and Saneto having accompanied their father, but it is known that Sebastian, the second son, made the voyage.

    Cabot sailed under commission of Henry VII of England, and was a native of Genoa (as was Columbus) though he had spent most of his life as a citizen of Venice. He settled at Bristol, England, in 1472.

    The adventurers were supplied with a ship by the King, and four small vessels accompanied, (furnished by merchants of Bristol) to act as consorts. The commission was dated March 5, 1495, and Cabot was directed "to discover and occupy isles or countries of the heathern or infidels, unknown to Christians; accounting to the king for a fifth part of the profit upon return." He was commanded to "plant the English banner on the walls of their castles and cities and to maintain with the inhabitants a traffic exclusive of all competitors."

    Cabot did not set sail from Bristol until 1497. Sailing northwest-he first arrived at Davis Straits. Thence, turning southward, Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia were sighted on June 24. Nova Scotia was given the name of Prima Vista (First View). Sailing onward he discovered a large island which he called Newfoundland, and in the waters near by first observed the immense schools of cod, which still abound in that section of North America. He reported that the cod were so numerous "they sumtymes stayed his shippes." The voyagers continued along the coast until they reached the Capes of Virginia, possibly going as far south as the Carolina Coast. Victuals running low, Cabot landed and trafficed with the nativesobtaining supplies for use while returning to England. As a result of this traffic turkeys were first introduced into England.

    Some writers claim the voyage to Virginia was made while on a second expedition, one year later, but John Cabot died in England in 1498.

    The fickle Henry had turned his attention toward war with Scotland and had also commenced negotiations for the marriage of his son, Prince Arthur, to Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. He had lost interest in the Cabot enterprise and had no wish to antagonize the claims of the Spanish sovereigns, who asserted proprietary rights to the New World through the prior discoveries of Columbus.

    Sebastian Cabot entered the service of Spain, and made a number of voyages to South America, but never returned to Virginia.

    It was while Sebastian Cabot was in the service of Spain that the German schoolmaster, Woldseemuler, who had transformed his name into Hylacomlyus, proposed to members of the Academy that the new continent be called "America," in honor of his friend Amerigo Vespucci, the false claimant to been the first discover of the continent.

    Does it not appear a singular coincidence that Columbus, in the service of Spain; Cabot in the service of England, and Americus Vespucius, were Italians, and that another Italian, in the service of France, should be the next explorer to visit Virginia?

    Giovanni Verrazano (born 1480, died 1572) a Florentine, in the service of Francis L, of France, on a voyage along the eastern coast of North America, landed near Cape Charles in 1524, 27 years after the visit of Cabot. He explored the peninsular and expressed the opinion that the Chesapeake was an arm of the Pacific Ocean. He makes mention of this conclusion on a map he drafted 'at the time. Verrazano captured a number of Indian children and carried them to France as proof of his discovery, but before returning to Europe he sailed as far north as Newfoundland, and en route visited New York harbor and Narragansett Bay, also explored the Neighboring Coast. Claiming right of prior discovery he named the entire country Nova Francia (New France) and declared it a possession of the French throne. On his return to Europe, he found France at war with Germany and Spain, and as a result, the voyage of Verrazano proved as abortive as had the explorations of Cabot. Had Henry VII., or Francis I, only realized the vast extent of the New World, or could they have dreamed of its wonderful possibilities, what a different story would be written of America of today.

    Nova Francia, Nueva Espana, New Amsterdam, (New Holland), Virginia; truly America was blessed with a multiplicity of names bestowed upon it by the rival claimants to its territory. Happily the last was to prove the survivor of the three others.


    1. The voyages of the Northenmen are not considered in modern discovery, as they were productive of no permanent benefit. The record of their adventures are confined only to Sagas and Egas of Iceland, unknown in Europe when Columbus made discovery of Santo Domingo.


    "My Sovereign By long inheritance and the will of Rome Doth hold these shores in fee . . . Our Florida."

    Were it not for letters, maps and official documents, discovered in the old archives of Spain, nothing would he known of the Spanish attempt to colonize Virginia.

    Fortunately, through these faded manuscripts, we know that as early as 1526 the Chesapeake and its tributaries here explored, thirty--two years after Columbus' first voyage, and antedating the Jamestown settlement of 1607 by eighty-three years.

    The documents record that one rear after the exploration of the peninsula by- Verrazano, Lucas Vasques de Ayllon, a lawyer and judge of Santo Domingo, obtained a patent from King Charles (Carlos) of Spain,[1] authorizing him to explore and plant a settlement, on the American mainland, and charging him to Christianize the inhabitants.

    It was in June, 1526, that de Ayllon set sail, with three small vessels, from Puerto de la Plata, Santo Domingo. Accompanying him were six hundred men, women and children, with sufficient supplies and 150 horses. As special companions and advisors of de Ayllon. there sailed Father Antonio de 'Montesinos (who had become celebrated in Spain, and was persona non grata to the Santo Domingo authorities, on account of his "indomitable warfare against the traffic in slaves." `'With him were Father Antonio de Cervantes and Brother Peter de Estrada, all being of the order of St. Dominic.

    De Ayllon entered the Chesapeake Bay, which he named Madre de las Aguas ('Mother of Waters), and ascending the Guandape (James River) landed at a place he called St. -Michael. (San Miguel).

    Ecija, the Spanish pilot, who entered the Chesapeake, in 1609, in search of information regarding the English, settlement, reported to his government that the colony was located on the exact spot chosen by- de Ayllon for settlement.

    De Ayllon and his followers constructed rude puts, a chapel AN-as erected and temporary defenses planned.

    His settlement at St. Michael[2] was the second colony attempted on the maintaind d of North America, the first having been located by Police de Leon, at Charlotte Harbor, Florida, in 1521.

    Little is known of the trials and vicissitudes of the little settlement, other than that de Ayllon died of fever within four months after landing and the colonists passed through a severe winter exposed to both disease, hostile Indians and insurection of negro slaves which decimated their ranks and left the survivors almost hopeless of rescue. Within one rear after the colony was established, Francis Gomez, who had succeeded to the command, embarked the survivors upon two ships, one having sunk, and sailed for Santo Domingo. En route one of the ships founded, with all on board, and only- one hundred and fifty of the six hundred ever reached home again. Among those who returned was Father Montesinos. Thus ended, in disaster, the first Spanish settlement in Virginia, called by them Nueva Espana (New Spain).

    No further attempt at colonization was made until 1570, when Menendez, Governor of Florida, desirous of a colony on the Chesapeake, fitted out an expedition headed by Fathers Segura and Louis Quiros, assisted by six Jesuit Brothers, named Soli, Mendes, Linares, Redondo, Gabriel Gomez and Sancho Zevalles.

    The expedition planted, its little colony on the banks of the Rappahannock, but was soon betrayed by a supposedly converted Indian who had received the baptismal name of Don Louis de Valasco.

    de Valasco conspiring with other Indians massacred the unsuspecting Spaniards to a man, and it was not until the following spring that Mendes learned through a pilot, he had sent with supplies, of the disaster that had befallen.

    He immediately sailed for Axacan, as the settlement was called, captured and hanged the murderers. Shortly before their execution, the manuscripts relate, the murderers were converted and baptised by Father Rojel, a Jesuit Missionary who accompanied the punitive expedition.

    Some years ago, a skeleton enclosed in an iron cage was discovered near the banks of the Rappahannock. It leads one to speculate upon the probability of this grim find being all that remained to remind future generations of the second Spanish attempts to Colonize Virginia.

    The exact location of Axacan is lost in uncertainty. Was it a local name or that of the country? The nearest surviving Indian word that suggests the name, is "Occoquan, a town in Prince William County.

    When Captain John Smith explored the Rappahannock, he found an Indian, ('Moscow) with whom he could converse and use as an interpreter. Tosco was of fighter complexion than the other natives and wore beard. Evidently he was a descendant of the ill fated colony. Smith and Newport had found an Indian, whom they used as interpreter, on their voyage to the falls of the James, just ten days after landing at Jamestown, and it is reported they- also saw a youth of light complextion and an old Indian with a beard. Presumably they were descendants from the Spanish settlement at St. Michaels.

    The last record of Spanish visits to the Chesapeake is contained in a report by Pedro Menendez sent to Philip II, of Spain. It was written in 1565 and in it he states that for some years "bison skins were brought down the river (Potomac) and thence carried along shore in canoes to the French seated at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. Within two years 1564-65, he had obtained from the Indians, in trade, 6000 skins." (See Bul. 30; pt. 2; p. 798, B. Am. Eth.)

    The Indian name of the tribe of traders was Patawomeck which translated meant "They go and come" i. e.-travel for trade. The river received its name from the tribe using it for transportation of pelts, etc.


    1. Ferdinand died in 1576. Carlos (Charles), his grandson, succeeded him. Carlos died in 1588 and was succeeded by Philip II. It was Philip II who, through his ambassador, Gondomar, envoy to the court of James I. and later Charles I, used every endeavor, through diplomacy, intrigue and bribery, to destroy the infant colony at Jamestown.
    2. Called by the Spaniards - San Migue de Guandape. Guandape was the name given the James River and the new territory. The river has had four names-Guandape, Powhatah, King's and James.
    3. Rev - F. Joseph Magri, M. A. D. D., has favored the compiler of volume with the following references. They substantiate the Authenticity of the reports on Spanish settlements in Virginia.
    4. Barcia--Ensayo Chronolozico pp. 1-12-6; Fernandez--Historia Ecclesiasticade Nuestros Tiempos, (Toledo, 1611); Navarette-Real Cedulaque Continenceo Asiento Con Lucas V asquez de Ayllon. Collection de Verages C. Descubrimientos (Madrid, 1829), pp. 153-6; Tanner-Societies Militans, (1675 pp. 447-51).


    "The grapes in hearing-ay, a fragrant shore, Wi' scarlet birds, and flowers all wild and rich."

    It was July 2nd. (O. S.) 1584, when the first expedisent out by Walter Raleigh. anchored in Orakoke Inlet, off the coast of that part of Florida, later given the name of Virginia, and now within the confines of North Carolina. The Indian name for the region was Wingandacoa, and Winginia was king.

    The expedition was in joint command of Captains Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow, and had left England on April 27.

    Grapes and fruit appeared in such abundance, growing to the very borders of the sea, even covering shrubs and trees, that the adventurers were enraptured at the sight and landed upon the island of Wococan, thinking themselves upon the mainland. This island was not far from Roanoke, where was seated Granganameo, brother of the king.

    hour days after the adventurers had landed they were visited by Granganameo with assurance of friendship and hospitality. On a second visit, several days afterwards, his wife and children accompanied him. It is related that the woman who was "very bashful and modest," had a hand of white coral about her forehead and from her ears extended a string of pearls of the "bigness of peas," that hung down below- her waist. Other members of the company were "decked in red copper and such ornaments" as -were then in fashion among the Indians. Granganameo, "eat and drank very merrily," and traded "leather, coral, and divers kinds of dyes" with his hosts.

    He sent daily- supplies of game, fish, fruit and vegetables, and such friendly relations were thus established that Captain Amidas and seven others of the adventurers paid a visit to Granganameo at Roanoke. Arriving at the town, found to consist of nine houses,-the Indian prince being absent,-his wife received them with great courtesy and kindness.

    That the reader may realize the real character of the Indian, when treated with friendly consideration and respect, I quote Stith's account of this first reception of the English adventurers in the home of this hospitable family.

    "She made some of her people dram their boat up to prevent its being injured by beating of the surge; some she ordered to bring them ashore on their backs, and others to carry their oars to' the house, for fear of being stole. When they came into the House, she took off their cloaths and stockings, and washed them, as likewise their feet, in warm water."

    "When their dinner was ready, they were conducted into an inner room (for there were five in the House, divided by mats) where they found Hominy, boiled venison, and roasted fish; and as a Desert, Melons, boiled roots, (probably sweet and Irish potatoes, the ]as' then unknown in Europe, but later to find great favor in Ireland, when introduced there by - Raleigh), and Fruits of various sorts. * * * In short, she omitted nothing that the most generous hospitality and hearty desire of pleasing- could do, to entertain them."

    What a commentary upon our boasted Christian civilization when we read of the Indian hospitality-, and compare the intolerance of the men of the second expedition, who, for such a trifling offense as loss of a silver cup, (?) burned one of the Indian towns, and destroyed their corn. The first expedition had returned to England in September of the same year, taking with it Manteo and Wanchese, two Indian subjects of Granganameo. They were welcomed with great acclaim. Elizabeth bestowed her name upon the region and knighted Raleigh.

    The advantageous accounts given by the adventurers, and the two Indians, caused Sir. Edward Greenville to head a second expedition. He set out the following April (1585) with seven ships and a full supply of risen and necessary equipment. Greenville landed at the island formerly- occupied by the first expedition (Wococon), but soon selected a party to explore the mainland, under his personal command.

    Here occurred the tragedy, of which mention has been previously made.

    The Indians had regarded the English as a superior race of beings, even considering them as direct descendants from the gods; and, there being no women with them, they at first thought all of the white race to be masculine.

    What a trifling excuse was seized upon by this bully to wreak vengeance upon a defenseless village and trusting people. How out of proportion the offense, if it occurred, was the exaction of the penalty-. Here was first sown the dragon's teeth that changed a confiding King and subjects from open-hearted friendship to secret enmity-. Can we he surprised that the native began to lose confidence in this strange white race from across the sea; that they began matching their wits in endeavor to prevent successful colonization; that two years later the colony at Roanoke, having taken possession of the island on which the Indians had given the first expedition such a hospitable reception-should disappear?

    When Greenville returned to England he left 108 persons as a colony, and they, deserting Wococan, chose Roanoke as their place of habitation. When a place was selected for settlement little deference was shown any objection of the original inhabitants to giving up their place of abode. There was nothing for the Wingandacoa to do but move their village to some less coveted spot on island or mainland.

    This has been the bitter experience of the poor Indian, from the discovery of America, even unto the present generation. Let us, at least, do them the justice of reviewing the history of their race, its trials and tragedies, without the prejudice of the past centuries, with that Christian charity they so ofttimes richly deserve. We are Christians, but what would we do if we should discover a strange race of people landed within our territory, squatted upon the land we call our own, and using strange engines of destruction against those of our people who endeavored to protest against being dispossessed? Should find that, not satisfied with the land already seized, they were making exploitation with intention of seating other newcomers of their race? Is it not possible for the strange race to regard our mode of living just as crude as the intolerant Greenville considered the dwellers in the village he destroyed? Had Greenville been a Penn, and some of the Colonial leaders even as Smith, the massacres of 1622 and 1644. would never have occurred, nor Bacon had reason to defy the authority- of the besotted Berkeley.

    The explorations of Captain Lane and the colonists left at Roanoke by Greenville in 1585, resulted in the discovery of the Chesapeake Bay and Elizabeth River, and upon their return to England with Sir Francis Drake, they gave such a glowing account of the desirability of the Chesapeake section as a site for establishing a permanent colony, Raleigh and his associates were enthusiastic in desire to send out another expedition, with instructions to found a colon- at the newly discovered site.

    The hospitality of the Chesapeake Indians, seated on the hanks of the Elizabeth, evidently induced the discoverers to bestow the name upon the great bay, since proven to he one of the most important land-locked harbors of the world, folly justifying the old Spanish appellation.

    Greenville, unaware that his colon- had returned with Drake, left England for America before they arrived, therefore, upon reaching Roanoke Island, he found the settlement deserted. Leaving a party, variously estimated at from fifteen to fifty, he shortly sailed for home. These men were never heard of again, evidently having be en massacred by the Indians in retaliation for the great wrong suffered from the exploring party of Greenville's first expedition.

    The next expedition, under Captain John White, was sent out b\- Raleigh, with explicit directions to seat his colony on the shores of the Chesapeake, but, failing to reach this harbor, by design of their Spanish pilot, Simon Ferdinaneo, and narrowly escaping shipwreck, they found themselves off Roanoke Island, glad to escape the perils of the sea. Here the settlement was again established. White expected to find the then left Greenville, but a destroyed fort and the bones of one man were all that remained of the part, though the cabins of the members of the first expedition remained uninjured.

    The Indians who had been dispossed by Greenville had not again established settlement on the Island and Granganameo, who had befriended the colonists at Wococan, was dead. His wife, who had entertained them with such genuine proof of friendship and hospitality, had returned to her people.

    White's colonists found they must 'depend upon their own resources Overtures with the Indians under Wingina were attempted with ill success, even Manteo, the Indian who had spent some time in Europe, been concerted and partly educated, could not persuade his tribesmen to again put trust in the men from across the seas. Several women being in the expedition, the Indians perceived they had been mistaken in their supposition that the white race was masculine and descended from the gods. This, influenced them to no small degree, in their future actions toward the white intruders.

    George Howe, one of the council, was slain by some of Wingina's men while either hunting or wandering away from the settlement. Friendship could not be re-established, for the Indian never forgets. Determined to revenge the death of Howe, Governor White, Captain Stafford and twenty-four men, well armed and equipped, made a secret night landing on the main land near what was supposed to be the village of Wingina.

    The surprise was complete, and one Indian shot before it was discovered that a mistake had been made. The Indians were a party from Croatan, clansmen of Manteo, who, on his account had continued friendly. That the Indian never forgets may be again recalled by the tragedy of the "Lost Colony." Governor White, having returned to England for supplies, had been delayed by war with Spain and the report of a projected attack by the Invincible Armada. Virginia Dare, his granddaughter, was born during his absence, her mother (Ellinor) being the wife of Ananias Dare, a member of the council.

    It was the Indians of Croatan who had been attacked without cause, one of their number shot, their corn confiscated. It was "Croatan" found carved upon the post, a silent messenger of the fate of Virginia Dare, her mother, father and the hundred or more settlers, when in 1589 White returned to Roanoke.

    Was the "C. R. O." crudely cut upon the tree, or the "Croatan," carved upon the post, a sign left by the colonists to indicate they were leaving the island? No. The writer is of opinion that only starvation and distress could have caused these men to abandon their settlement for the purpose of seating elsewhere, and it had been agreed that a cross would lie carved, as a sign of distress, should necessity require such a course.

    Again, is there a valid explanation of why the houses had been taken down and a palisade erected? The Indians were accustomed to erect such forts for defense, and Powhatan had a similar one near the falls of the James.[1]

    Would the Roanoke colonists have buried their clothing and other impedimenta? No! "The Indian never forgets." Vision the converted (?) Manteo returning to his tribe, his clansmen's anger at the English, his joining them in plotting destruction: The secret landing and attack, planned as had the English in their descent upon them; the massacre; disposal of the bodies in the sea; the clothing and impedimenta placed in a cache for future use, if necessary, as was the Indian custom; the houses pulled down to construct the palisado.

    Picture Manteo, the converted Indian, who had received several years of training in England, idly carving "C. R. O." in crude letters upon a tree; his smile of delight as he cut upon the post "Croatan," the name of his tribe. How his tribesmen must have grinned and danced in delight when he explained the significance of this warning to Governor White (should he return) that the Indian never forgets a wrong. Is it not an Indian characteristic that they should thus desire to show their day of reckoning had come? The smoke rising from the island, seen by White, was probably caused by Indian watchers signaling to their distant brethren the arrival of English ships. The discharge of the ship's cannon, in warning of arrival, gave ample time for the Indians to disappear ere landing was made. Manteo never again was seen among the English. His tribe was revenged, he was a Red Man, a savage to the end of his days.

    The English, within less than four years, had twice reaped what they had sown. In both cases the innocent paid the penalty and the guilty escaped. Greenville and the unfortunate White lived to see the result of their folly.

    Discouraged by this tragedy, no other attempt at colonization was made during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Raleigh, discouraged and impoverished by his losses in the several ventures under his patent, assigned his interest to Sir Thomas Smith and a company of London merchants, who are said to have been satisfied, for eighteen years, with petty traffic along the Atlantic Coast.


    1. So well was Powhatan's palisade constructed, it is stated, it would have been impossible for hostile Indians to have taken it. It was purchased by Smith and given the name of None Such, with the intention of seating West and his company there in security.


    "Folk of Virginia: forward from the hour When first Virginia's name rang clear."

    Three hundred and fourteen years have come and gone since that day in May, 1607 when a little band of Englishmen landed at Jamestown, to establish the first Anglo-Saxon Colonyand plant the first germ of Democracy upon the Western Continent. What a far cry there is from the puny little settlement, with its many vicissitudes, to the great Commonwealth of to-day.

    With only 105 members in the Colony, its territory extended from the thirty-fourth to the forty-fifth parallel, corresponding to the southern border of North Carolina and the southern line of Nova Scotia. It was divided by charter into the first or Southern Colony, designated for administration by the London Company, and the second, or Northern Colony, apportioned to the cities of Bristol, Exter and Plymouth, associated with the western section of England.

    The first charter was dated April 10, 1606. It stipulated that two settlements were to be founded, at least 100 miles apart, with jurisdiction along the coast to within fifty miles of each other. Each was granted jurisdiction within 100 miles of the seashore and promised that "No other of our subjects shall be permitted or suffered to plant or inhabit behind or on the back side of them towards the main land without the express license or consent of the Counsel of the Colonies." Any settlement made within the jurisdiction of the Colonies would be required to pay five in every hundred of value in such wares as they should "traffick, buy or sell." It was under this provision in 1613, that Henrick Corstraensen and his Dutch companions, in their trading camp on Manhattan Island, paid taxes to the Governor of Virginia in acknowledgment of Virginia's sovereignty.

    As the centuries have advanced and population increased Virginia's territory has gradually decreased, until, with the loss of West Virginia during the Civil War, it has become small indeed in proportion to its original vast extent. Since its cession of the Northwest Territory in 1787 so many states have been carved fromits original boundaries it has been rightly named, "The Mother of States." How proudly we look, in retrospect, upon the heroic struggles of our Anglo-Saxon forebears and read of their determined efforts to blaze out of an unknown wilderness a civilization never equaled by man.

    The three small, vessels on which the Colonists came, to America-"Sarah Constant" of 100 tons, Captain. Christopher Newport; "Good Speed," 40 ton, Captain Bartholomew Gosnold; and the pinnace "Discovery," 20 tons, Captain John Ratcliffe-after a voyage of over four months arrived off Cape Henry on April 26th and anchored off Jamestown on Thursday, May 13, 1607. Having debarked, their Chaplain, Rev. Robt. Hunt, led them in a prayer of thanksgiving to God for safe delivery from the terrors of the deep, and Newport proclaimed leis sovereign, James I, as lawful ruler of the entire region.

    How different the reception, by the Indians, of the voyagers sent out by Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Summers and others, from that received by the colonists of 1585 ! Lane was welcomed by the Chesapeakes; Newport and Grosnold's men savagely attacked upon landing at Cape Henry in search of water. Twentytwo years had passed; the white race had, by their acts, destroyed the pedestal upon which they had beets placed, and instilled into the hearts of the red race was a spirit of enmity and distrust. What Greenville had sown, the colonists of 1607 must reap, at least in part. Yet, welcome and good will awaited the voyagers when they landed on the western shore of the bay. It is probably true that the Indians of Kicoughtan were not advised of the tragic experience of their Algonquin brethren of Croatan. Had the colonists of 1607 profited by the example of the Raleigh expedition? Apparently not!

    When the three small ships arrived at the capes, Captain John Smith had been in close confinement for thirteen weeks. He had been arrested while the ships were taking on water and supplies at the Canaries. There had been quarrel and dissension ever since leaving Blackwall, even while stormbound off the coast of England for a period of six weeks.

    Smith was charged with conspiring to murder the members of the council, usurp the government and declare himself king of Virginia. The absurdity of this charge is evidenced, as the personnel of the council was not known until the expedition arrived within the capes, and Smith was the one man of the expedition who understood how to deal with the aborigines.

    The members of the council whose names were found in the sealed box, when opened upon reaching Chesapeake Bay, were. Bartholomew Grosnold, John Smith. Edward Maria Wingfield, Christopher Newport, John Ratcliffe, John Martin and George Kendall. The council elected Wingfield as its president "the first executive officer in Virginia.[1] Wingfield held office about three months, and was succeeded by Captain John Ratclifie. The settlers were not satisfied with Ratcliffe's management of affairs. He was soon succeeded by Captain Smith, as the popular choice of the Colony. Smith retained the presidency until his embarkation for England. Captain Geo. Percy administered the government after Smith's departure.

    The Colonists of 1607 were not the first Englishmen to enter the capes and partly explore the Chesapeake Bay.[2]

    It is recorded by Stith that a party from the Roanoke Colonly entered the capes in 1585 and explored to the South of the Bay, discovering the Elizabeth river on the banks of Which the Chesapeake Indians were seated. Stith doubts that the name Chesapeake means "Mother of Waters" as many assert, but suggests that it is derived from the Indian tribe of that name. He thinks it may owe the interpretation of "Mother of Waters" from translation of an old Spanish map upon which it is described as "'Madre de las Aguas."

    In describing the seat of the Chesapeakes, probably near Norfolk, it is asserted by the Roanoke Colonists that "for pleasantness of situation, for temperature of clime, fertility of soil and commodiousness to the sea, it was not to be excelled by any in the world."

    When Newport entered the Chesapeake Bay some days were spent in endeavor to find a passage over the shoals that prevented the ships, though of small tonnage, entering the James river. They had almost decided to abandon the attempt, after many soundings had been made off Willoughby Spit, where the channel was discovered on the Point Comfort side.[3]

    Captain Newport, in charge of the expedition, found among his instructions that he was to settle a Colony at a safe point on a navigable river, but, before making permanent settlement, was to explore the said river., ascertain how far it was navigable and whether it sprung out of the mountains or lake. It was suggested that it might afford passage to the "Other Sea."

    In accordance with these instructions, Newport set out from Jamestown as soon as home defense could be temporarily organized. He explored the Powhatah,[4] as the river was called by the Indians, as far as the falls: His party consisted of twenty-three adventurers. Among them was Captain John Smith who had been released from confinement after arriving in Virginia when it was found, upon opening the sealed instructions given by the London Company, that Smith was appointed a Member of the Council. Smith had not as yet been permitted to act with the Council though his worth was recognized by Newport in such an expedition as he was embarking upon. This fact probably saved the little party from destruction, for upon reaching "Turkey Island" an Indian was added to the party, as interpreter, who evidently could converse in the Spanish language. Smith having spent some time in the wars of Spain, was familiar with this tongue.[5]

    The Newport exploring party left Jamestown at noon Thursday, Way 21st arriving at the Falls on the afternoon of the 23rd and landing there on Whit-Sunday May 24th (O. S.)[6] During the entire voyage the English were treated with friendship and respect, being entertained by the Passpaheghs seated at Sandy Point, the Quiyoughcohanocks whose chief village was located where here Claremont is now situated; the Arrohatecks whose chief town was near what is now Dutch Gap canal; and by the Powhatans at the Falls of the James. King Powhatan, whose village was on the north bank of the river just east of where Fulton now stands, first refused permission for the adventurers to come ashore on the 23rd, but through the medium of the interpreter a parley was arranged. After spending the. night on an island and having joined Powhatan in repast, the Indian King relented and they ascended the river in their schallop. Powhatan followed along the shore and met 'them at a small island below the falls. This island is now part of the mainland near the northside abutments of Mayor's Bridge. Here it was that Newport set up a cross and took possession of the, land in the name of the King of England. On the cross there was inscribed the words--Jacobus Rex 1607"Newport's name was written below the inscription. It is said that they christened the stream, "King's river"-Thus the river has been called lay three names-Powhatan,[7] King's and James. Powhatan became very much offened at the ceremony of planting the cross and evading towards the shore he started return to the village. The Indian warriors, taking this as indicative of his hostility, began closing in upon the little party and would probably have massacred them, had it not been for the Indian interpreter hastening after the King, under instructions of Newport and Smith, with explanation that the cross was an indication of friendship. He explained that the upright planted in the. ground was to typify Powhatan as Lord of the country; the transverse section to represent Newport and his followers, bound to the Indian King by the ties of friendship and brotherly love. Powhatan accepted the explanation, returned to the island, called off his warriors, embraced Newport, and the crisis was passed.

    What a surprise it must have been for them to fume on return to the settlement that au attack had been made by the Indians, one boy killed and seventeen men wounded. Stith records that "Had not a cross-bar shot from the ships happened to strike a bough from a tree among them the English had been all cut off, being securely at work, and their arms in dry fats." Evidently there was cause for provocation. Is it reasonable to judge the Indians as the sole perpetrators of this first attack upon the settlement, without cause, while the, three ships of the expedition still lay at anchor within a few- yards from shore. Had there been only a savage desire to destroy- would the Passpaheghs, who lived in the neighborhood, have received with every assurance of friendship the little exploring party of Newport and Smith and yet attacked the larger force at Jamestown?

    We do know that upon return of the explorers, Smith's demand for a trial, on the charges that had been the cause of his disgrace, was reluctantly granted, resulting in his vindication and a fine of 200 pounds charged against the President of the Council in reparation. Smith gave the money for public use of the Colony, as he was satisfied with the verdict. The Rev. Hunt preached a sermon on "Peace and Concord" and (note the significance)-"The day- after, being the fifteenth of June, the Indians voluntarily sued for Peace." When the English were peaceful so we find the Indians expressing a desire to be. Smith had no minor part in bringing about the ending of a situation frought with such danger as to bid far to prove a parallel of the Roanoke tragedy.

    At the time that the English arrived Powhatan, the Indian king, was about seventy years of age and had several villages moving from one to the other as suited his convenience in making collections from his sub-chiefs. He required eighty per cent. of all revenues to be payable. to him and woe unto an Indian who secured a prize pelt who did not offer it to the despotic Chieftan. It seems surprising that he should have had such control over the various tribes when his own tribe had only about fifty warriors. He had the power of life and death not only over individuals but clans and it is said that he utterly annihilated the Chesapeakes and the Kicoughtans for some fancied wrong, notwithstandingtheir combined force was three times that of his own men.

    The Indian name for Virginia is said by Tyler in his "Cradle of the Republic" to have been "Attanoughkomouclc," meaning "band enclosed for producing or growing," that is, a plantation.

    In the summer of 1607 Smith continued his explorations, following the river down to Kiccoughtan (Kecoughtan) and across to Waroskoyack (Isle of Wright), making journies along the shore line, exploring the creeks, etc., in that section. In the fall he began mapping out the country along the banks of the Chickahominy, exploring the river as far as possible for him to use a canoe.

    On September 17th, and again in November, there was a trial by jury at Jamestown. This English custom was inaugurated within a few months after the arrival of the colonists.

    January 8, 1608, the first ship to arrive in the colony, since the settlement, anchored off Jamestown and landed what is termed the first supply of colonists who together with others, from a ,ship arriving on the 20th of April, gave a total of 120 additional members, three in excess of the original number of settlers. There had been sixty-seven deaths in the interval and the colony now numbered 158.

    Newport, who had sailed for England shortly after his exploration of the James, having left the pinnace "Discovery" for use of the Colony, returned in his two ships with the second supply of seventy more colonists, giving Jamestown a total of 200 men, after deducting for twenty-eight deaths.

    He had received express orders, when in England; to explore the country west of the falls of the James, where dwelt the Monacans, hereditary enemies of Powhatan. In deference to the Indian King, no attempt had been made to push west of the now site of Richmond, and it appears that Smith protested against the project, for, declared he "every effort should be subordinated to that of placing Jamestown in a state of defense." Some writers claim it was Smith's purpose to do the exploring himself, after the return of Newport, and thus have the honor of discovery should he find a passage to the sea. Be that as it may, Newport followed out his instructions and explored at least forty miles above the falls, reaching what is now the boundary of Goochland. In order to pass the falls his boat was constructed in five( sections for easy portage, taken apart below the falls and the parts re-assembled after passing the rocks. It seems strange to us that such experienced men should still have had an idea that the James would furnish an outlet to the "South Sea" (Indian Ocean) though it still lingered in the minds of the colony for years after Newport's explorations.[8]


    1. Campbell's History of Virginia
    2. See pp. 23-24
    3. It was on account of their joy at finding deep water that Point Comfort received its name. The name was afterwards changed to Old Point Comfort to distinguish it from New Point Comfort, a cape guarding the entrance to Mob Jack Bay (originally Mock Jack, said to be so called on account of echoes from the wooded shore mocking the sailors' voices). New Point Comfort also guards the entrance to the York.
    4. The lower section of the river east of Sandy Point, was called Passpaheghs.
    5. Smith found an Indian, with whom he could converse, not only on the voyage up the James, about nine days after landing at Jamestown, but also used as interpreter, Mosco, and Indian met on his exploration of the Rappahannock. It is reasonable to assert that these interpreters had some knowledge of the Spanish language, a boy being found with one of them of light complexion, eyes and hair. Had they knowledge of English it would have proven a clue to the lost Colony of Roanoke. The Jamestown colonists made a number of attempts to discover the fate of their fellow countrymen, urged so to do by positive orders from England. Explorations were made as far south as the Chowan River in effort to discover their fate.
    6. Campbell made the error of placing the date of the landing as June 10th, making the interval twenty-eight days after the landing at Jamestown. As a matter of fact only eleven days had intervened. He first made error of seven days, according to, the old style or Julian calendar by which we record the landing at Jamestown, then added ten days, the difference between the Julian calendar and the new style, or Gregorian. If one but reads the diary of Archer, or searches the calendar of that year, it can be easily ascertained that Whit-Sunday came on May 24th. The new style calendar had not come into general use in the English speaking world, and the new Year was calculated from March.
      In later years, Smith, (in his history), used the Gregorian calendar and this accounts for apparent discrepancies in the dates mentioned by him and those quoted by other Colonial writers.
    7. Spaniards called it Guandape. See p. 17.
    8. The fact that the Volga, Tanais and Dwina rivers had their sources in the same section yet flowed each into a different sea gave encouragement to the thought that such might prove their good fortune in finding an outlet. Picture our distance from India and contrast it with the lack of knowledge the colonists had as to the extent of the western continent, for, as you already know, the Indians were so-called by being mistaken for inhabitants of the Asiaic country.
      Such things seem absurd to the reader of today, yet it is true that, when President Jefferson sent Lewis and Clarke on their explorations to the Pacific coast, he warned against the mammoth, saber tooth tiger and other prehistoric animals, as—fossils having been found in Kentucky—he feared the section through which they passed would probably prove to be the ranging ground of these, long extinct species.


    "Aye-we must eat. Corn, for God's love, if there's nought else, give us corn."

    1607-Smith made his first explorations in the Tidewater section, was captured by the Indians and saved by Pocahontas. The pinnace "Virginia" built in 1607 was the first vessel of American construction

    1608-Population 158-Within one year of the first settlement 120 additional colonists had arrived, but sixty-seven of the original number had died. On October 6 Newport arrived with seventy new colonists, but twenty-eight had died since May and the population only totaled 200.

    1609-Population about 190. Smith explored the Chesapeake and its tributaries, trading with the Indians for corn to supply the colony.[1]

    In the Autumn of 1609, he was severely burned by an accidental explosion of powder, stored in the shallop in which he was returning to Jamestown from Nonesuch (site of Richmond). He had attempted to establish a new settlement of one hundred and twenty persons, under `Vest, but, much to his disgust, had failed.

    Owing to his great suffering, and lack of means for proper treatment in Virginia, he embarked for England "above Michaelmas," (Sept. 29th). He had been with the colony a little over two years and had not only saved the settlers from starvation but protected them from the Indians. The savages feared him more than all the others combined. Smith, on numerous occasion had given them cause to respect, as well as fear his skill in directing the colony's affairs. With Captain Percy, and fifteen companions in adventure, he had ascended the York (then the Charles) to the present site of West Point--(West's Point) and, though surrounded by several hundred hostile warriors, under Opecahancanough, had singled out the wiley Chieftain, seized his scalp lock, and pointing a pistol to his breast; made demand that the Indians throw down their arms and supply him with corn. Such acts as this, compelled the Indians to fear attempting treachery and proved the means of saving the colony from starvation or massacre. While Smith ,vas risking his life in search of food for the settlers, many of them not only made no effort to relieve the situation, but spent hours of idleness at Jamestown playing quoits and pitching horseshoes upon the streets.

    It was a sad day for the Colony- when Smith embarked.

    He left behind him three ships and seven boats, commodities ready for trade with the Indians; corn, newly gathered, ten weeks' provisions in the store; twenty-four pieces of ordnance; 300 muskets, with other arms and ammunition more than enough for the men; one hundred trained soldiers, nets for fishing, and tools for all kinds of work, sufficient apparel, six mares and a horse (the Indians had no horses), five or sit hundred hogs, a like number of hens and chickens, some sheep and goats.

    Starvation Time Comes.[2]

    By June, 1610, of 490 left by Smith, there were only sixty alive. This period is recorded as "starving time." On June 10, Deleware arrived with supplies and ninety new colonists, just in time to intercept Gates the morning after deserting Jamestown. Gates had provisions for only sixteen days and intended taking the starving band to Newfoundland in the hope of meeting with assistance from an English fishing fleet. The Colonists returned to Jamestown, where they received Lord Deleware and joined him in giving thanks to God for saving them in such dire necessity and peril. Delaware established a health resort near Hampton, probably at Buckroe, in order to acclimate newcomers before forwarding them to Jamestown. This was the first quarantine and health resort established in America.

    1611-When Sir Thomas Dale arrived with colonists, cattle and a year's supply of provisions, he found the settlers had only a three months' supply of food in store and that the chief occupation of the inhabitants was playing at bowles in the streets. Dale set them to work felling timber, etc., also planting a crop of corn at Kicquotan, near the fort erected there.


    1. The second charter was granted in 1609. Sicklemore had been sent by Smith to visit the country of the Chowanocks in an attempt to ascertain if there could be any trace of the lost colony and had returned without any information whatever.
    2. This scene, and others depicting the landing at Jamestown and its tragic history, was illustrated in the Virginia Historical Pageant, May 22-29, 1922. Those who had the pleasure of witnessing this great dramatic picturization of Virginia's past, can never forget the realizism of the scenes, dramatized by Dr. Thomas Woods Stevens, and, acted by Virginians, many of them descendants of the colonial characters they represented.


    "The colony Creeps from this marshbound island, up the stream Plantation by plantation."

    A description of the Jamestown settlement having been given with an outline of the progress of the colonists centered about that settlement, and having pointed out the salient features in the founding of the other colonies, this chapter will have to do with the attempt of Deputy-Governor Dale to found a city fifty miles further up the James River.

    It was in June 1611, that Sir Thomas Dale sailed up the James to select a proper site for the new town he had been instructed to found in Virginia. There were several very- good reasons why such a town should he founded. In the first place, the colony was in jeopardy of surprise attacks by- the Spaniards. That war-like nation looked with great jealousy- upon English colonization in America. They- had, by right of discovery-, claimed all of the coast of North America, and were using every endeavor to gain information as to the situation and condition of the English. As yet they- had not located the settlement, and it was feared that upon being discovered at Jamestown the colony would be destroyed. The town of Henricus could be better defended, owing to its situation. Then again, the low, marshy terrain of Jamestown was thought to be the cause of the great mortality among the settlers, where as, the site for the new- city, being more elevated and with better drainage, would minimize this great drawback to the colony's efforts at successful colonization.

    While in search of a new location, Dale ascended the River as far as the falls, and then returned to "A high-land invironed with the Mayne River, near to an Indian Town called Arrahattocke." If this settlement proved a success, it was the intention to abandon Jamestown, unless conditions there greatly improved.

    In a letter to the Prime Minister, Dale stated, "I have surveyed a convenient, strong, healthie and sweet seate to plant the new town in, from whence might be no more remove of the principal seate; and in that form to build, as might accommodate the inhabitants, and the Title and Name which, it hath pleased the Lords, all readie to appoint for it." The name selected by the Privy Council had been Henrico (Henricus : Henricopolis) in honor of Henry, Prince of Vales, the patron of the Company-. The Prince of Wales was an enthusiastic supporter of the plan to colonize Virginia, and his untimely death, November 16th, 1623, was a great loss to the colony.-. Had he lived, and succeeded to the Crown, the history of Virginia would have been much less full of the tragedies and sufferings of its founders.

    It was Dale's intention to erect five fortifications for the protection of the colony, viz: Point Comfort, ( Fort Algernoune)[1], Kiskiack, Jamestown, Henrico, and at the Falls (nowRichmond). He requested that a standing army of two thousand men be sent from England. The army was never dispatched, but, with the aid of political prisoners sent over, Dale began preparing the defense of the new town, to secure it against the Indians, "in the midst of whom, he was resolved to set down," as he was convinced that a settlement at Henrico would command the security of that part of the colony situate above its site. Having selected the site, Dale returned to Jamestown, secured the approval of Lieutenant Governor Gates, and returned in September, with about three hundred men, to the place selected. It was reported that "within ten days he had fortified seven acres of ground, which in honor of the Noble Prince Henrie (whose royal heart was ever strongly affected to that section) he called by the name of Henrico." Strong watch-towers were constructed at each corner of the town (five); also a "fair and handsome church and store houses." By the middle of January 1612, he had constructed houses for himself and men, and made ".Henrico much better and of more worth than all the work ever since the Colony began, therein done." (It was reported that the first stories of these houses were constructed of brick, burnt in that vicinity.)

    On the Salisbury side (the south side of the River, the north side being called the Popham side), a hospital was constructed, containing eighty beds for the sick and wounded, and keepers were appointed, "To attend them for their comfort and recoverie." The place where this hospital was located w as a section of Coxendale, called Mount Malady. It may be well to explain here that the North side of the River ,vas named after the patron of the North Virginia colony-, Chief Justice Popham, and the South Side after the patron of the South Virginia colony, the Karl of Salisbury, Prime Minister of England.

    In fortifying Henrico, three parts being already environed by the James River, Dale cut a "Dutch gap" at the narrowest point, and erected a palisade on the side toward the town. This was called Dutch Gap by Dale, as he was in the military service of Holland, and was furloughed, for a limited time, by request of the Virginia Company. In the wars of the Lower Countries, he had become familiar with this method of defense. If was not the attempted completion of this gap by Germans under command of General B. F. Butler in the Civil war, that gave the name to this piece of engineering, though this is the general impression which has prevailed.

    Evidently the intention of Dale was to make this gap deep enough to permit the passage of vessels, for prior to the war between the. States, a channel was open half way across the peninsular, the work having been interrupted by the Indian massacre of 1622.

    About two miles from the town, a pale (palisade fence) two miles in length, was placed from the James River to the Appomattox, and there were several block houses on this line of defense. This was to secure a fertile section of land between the James and Appomattox, so that the planters could raise corn and tobacco without interruption by the Indians. Ralph Hammer says that sufficient crops could be raised in this section to have supported ever- immigrant that could be expected to arrive within the colony for three years. Coxendale was also impaled, and secured by block houses. Here the colonists began the raising of quantities of hogs and cattle.

    In 1619, Brown state s in his, "First Republic in America," that, "The City- of Henricus included Henrico (Farrar's Island), extending thence on both sides of James River to the westward, the pale run by Dale between the said river and the Appomattox River being the line on the South Side." It was represented in the House of Burgesses by Thomas Dowse and John Polentine. Henrico having keen selected as the site for a college and university, the first college in America, ten thousand acres were set by, as agreed, and the limits of the corporation were extended from the Falls of the James on the Popham side to what is now called Farrar's Island.. Part of the University land was impaled on the Salisbury side, around Coxendale, to which was added one hundred acres of plebe land for a primary school, and one thousand acres (?) to belong to the college. The college was for the purpose of educating Indian boys and girls, whereas the project for the larger institution comprehended including within its scope, the education of sons and daughters of the colonists. Fifty tenants were sent from England to tend the college land, there wages to be pro-rated on a fifty per cent basis of the profits.

    In 1622, construction of the university buildings had' begun and a number of houses had been added, among them a guest house or tavern, and the little settlement lead every right to look forward toward rapid growth and prosperity. But, while man proposes and plans, without being able to look into the future, with any accuracy, all of those calculations proved as naught. It was this year, March 22nd, that the massacre entirely destroyed both the inhabitants and their habitations. Henricus was never rebuilt. Only a monument stands sentinel to mark the spot where this great tragedy occurred and commemorate the efforts of these hardy colonists, to establish the first English city in the New World. It may be observed by those passing through Dutch Gap.


    1. Fort Algernoune (Old Point Comfort) was so named by George Percy, President of the King's Council in 1609. The name was selected in honor, of the founder of his family William Algernoune de Percy, who came from France to England, with William the Conqueror, in 1066. He was called Algernounce, (which means whiskers) on account of his wearing a beard, to distinguish him from the other William of the Conquest.


    "Between the red folk and her Englishmen. A link of peace, that while she lived, held firm."

    1612-Newport arrive with supplies and explored the Potomac. Pocahontas, having been sent by her father to the Northern Neck in order to hide her from the English, was lured upon a vessel of Argall's fleet in the Potomac River, through the treachery of Chief Japazaws and his wife. The price for her betrayal was a copper kettle. She was taken captive to Jamestown and never permitted to return to her tribe.

    1613-Governor Dale made treaty with the Chickahaminies by which they were adopted as "Tassautessus" (Englishmen). Bermuda Hundred, Charles City Hundred, Curles, Rocksdale Hundred and Shirley Hundred were located and the Virginia lottery was estableshed in London.

    1614-Pocahontas married John Rolfe at Jamestown and was baptized as Rebecca. John Rolfe introduced the culture of tobacco by the colonists, thereby, establishing a trade in this commodity greatly to the profit of the colonists. As tobacco was not raised in England, there was quite an increase in English immigration to Virginia when it was found that the growing of the plant could be made profitable. Salt works were located on Smith's Island. There is no record of the number of new colonists that came over between 1611 and 1614.

    1613-Since landing at Jamestown, 1607, the colony had been communistic in all of its workings. The planters were supposed to labor jointly in preparing and harvesting their crops, and to 1>e fed out of the common store.

    Theoretically, the arrangement was an ideal one, but many had taken advantage of it, and shirked work where ever possible. It is recorded that many concerned themselves only in the sharing of the results of the labor of the more industrious_ caring not, nor thinking not, of the final result of such action.

    The King had issued instructions that this system should prevail for five years from the landing, and the time having lapsed, Sir Thomas Dale, the Governor, disgusted with the results obtained, determined to, adopt some method to better fit the requirements. He allotted three acres of cleared land to each colonist on which was to be planted a crop as supplementary to two bushels of corn allotted from the store. It was ordered that each Jamestown colonist should give one month's time to tilling his own soil; the eleven months remaining to public service.

    At Bermuda Hundred a more liberal plan was inaugurated. Here the planters were given eleven months for personal work and one month was allotted for public service. On account of this concession each planter was required to pay into the common store a yearly tribute of two and one-half barrels of corn.

    1614-Sir Thomas Dale, learning that the French had made settlement within the borders of Northern Virginia, sent Captian Argall to dislodge them. He surprised settlements at Port Royal and St. Croix, (now New England), dispersed them and captured two ships lately arrived from France. These vessels, loaded with supplies, were taken to Jamestown as prizes. The French sailors had escaped, but the colonists found much good apparel, furniture and provisions in the cargo. This successful expedition is an evidence of the Jamestown colonists' determination to protect their charter rights, and did much to prevent the French from planting further colonies along the shore of Northern Virginia, paving the way for the successful landing and peaceful settlement of the Pilgrims at Provincetown and Plymouth, six years afterwards.

    This v ear overtures were made to Powhatan, requesting) the hand of his youngest daughter in marriage to an Englishman. In his reply he asserted, "he held it not a brotherly part to bereave him of his two darling children at once." . . . "That there was already a pledge of one of his daughters, which, as long as she lived, would be sufficient, but if she should die he promised to give another."

    In 1612 Pocahontas is said to have had living, twenty brothers, eleven sisters and eleven stepmothers. Her father's name was Wauhunsenacawah (Wahunsonacock) sometimes called Ottaniack, or Mannatowick, by his subjects, though we read of him only as Powhatan.

    In 1614 Smith made a voyage to Northern Virginia, and charted the coast. He gave it the name of New England and the name was later confirmed. He never returned to Jamestown.

    1616-Three hundred and fifty-one persons estimated as living in the colonies. John Rolfe and Pocahontas, his wife, with their little son, Thomas, embarked for England, taking with them a party of Indians of both sexes. They arrived at Plymouth on June 12, 1616. Pocahontas did not have the opportunity of bidding goodby to her father, as he was not in the vicinity of Jamestown at the time of her departure. She never saw him again.

    Pocahontas was well received in England. It is said that she used good English and was very civil and ceremonious, after the English fashion.

    When Smith visited Pocahontas she expressed surprise at finding him alive, asserting that she had been told that he was dead. She insisted upon calling him father and that he should call her his child. What pathos there was in the meeting again of these two great figures in Virginia colonial history. The 12-year-old child, developed into a comely matron, thus meeting again the man whom she had worshiped as a great hero. Any child, raised far from the marts of civilization would look with wonder and reverence upon a visitor v ho, dressed in wonderful raiment, preformed deeds, that to the child mind appeared supernatural, and yet failed not to bestow gifts and affection. Truly, Pocahontas as a child must have reverenced Smith as a being superior to any man she had ever conceived of meeting, and the mature woman never forgot the impression first made upon her immature mind. Is it at all strange that she should look up to him and say. "Thou art my father-call the thy child?"

    The granting of 100 acres, as a premium for each person brought into the colony, was reduced to fifty acres, allowed only to those who came over themselves, or brought others over. (Many records of these old grants are still on file in the Virginia Land Office.) So many colonists had begun the raising of tobacco as a paying crop, and giving little attention to the cultivation of corn, a rule was made that no tobacco should be set until such a proportion of corn ground had been planted as would prove sufficient to maintain the master and each servant whom he employed.

    1617-John Rolfe, having been appointed secretary and recorder general of Virginia, embarked with his wife and little son for return to Jamestown. Gravesend was the port of embarkation, but the ship had not cleared when the Princess Pocahontas was fatally stricken. It is recorded that "it pleased God at Gravesend to take Pocahontas to his mercy in about the two and twentieth year of her age. * * * She died agreeably to her life, a most sincere and pious Christian."

    The bereaved husband returned to Virginia after placing his little son, Thomas Rolfe, in the care of Sir Lewis Steukley, viceadmiral of the County, of Devon. though within a short time he was taken to London by his uncle, Henry Rolfe, with whom he remained until he received his education. Young Rolfe, not content to remain in England longer than necessary, returned to Virginia as soon as his school days were over. His father lad been killed in the massacre of 1622. He became a person of fortune and distinction in the colony, one child, a daughter, surviving him. She married Colonel Robert Rolling, and their descendants have ever occupied an eminent position in the Old Dominion. Many prominent families are proud of direct descent from this Indian princess. The wife of ex-President Wilson is one of the descendants, as was John Randolph, of Roanoke.

    It was in 1617 that Lambert discovered a new method for curing tobacco, adding much to its marketable value. Prior to this time, tobacco was cured in piles or heaps. Lambert discovered that it cured better, and was much improved in flavor when strung on lines in separate bundles. Tobacco thus cured was called "sweet scented," and many old records give evidence of its being demanded in trade in preference to that cured by the original process.

    There were fifty-four laborers and eighty-one farmers, plus those of the gentleman class not enumerated, settled in the colony in 1617.


    In May, 1618, a great storm visited the settlement. At Jamestown, hailstones "poured down that measured eight or nine inches in circumference."[1]

    A decree was issued by the Governor requiring every colonists to attend church, on Sunday and holidays, or "lye neck and heels that night and be a slave to the colony the week." The second offense was punishable by slavery for a month, and for a third offence, "he should serve for a year and a day."

    Lord Delaware on his way toy Virginia with 200 new colonists died off the coast near the mouth of the bay which bears his name. Thirty of the emigrants died enroute and the ships, blown out of their course, landed the survivors on the coast of Northern Virginia (New England). Here, while recuperating, they spent the time hunting and fishing with such success they were enabled to bring a good supply with them to Jamestown.

    Three new settlements were established, viz.--Flowerdieu Hundred, Martin's Hundred and Maycock's Hundred. The word "Hundred" is a term used by the English to designate a shire or parish. Originally, it was supposed to have one hundred citizens or families in its jurisdiction. Some of the old English terms relating to property are now obsolete. A "Hyde" was sufficient land to support one family; a "Hyde and a Half," about 120 acres. Property transfer was by "Turf and Twig." The purchaser received from the seller a piece of turf and a twig from a tree to indicate that the ownership, both land and woods, was transferred to the new owner.

    Powhatan died in 1618 and was succeeded by his brother Opitchapan, a cripple. Opecancanough, a younger brother,[2] assumed the title of "King of Chickahominy." but, being of commanding presence and crafty of nature, to which was added a savage hatred of anything English, he was the real leader of the Indians until, upon death of Opitchapan, he became king of the Powhatans.

    It was in 1618 that Sir Walter Raleigh, the founder of the Roanoke Colony and guardian angel of the first settlers was beheaded in London. His incarceration and execution will ever be a blot upon the reign of King James I.


    Sir Edwin Sandys assumed control of the affairs of the London Company-. He was democratic and liberal in the administration of his office, and had an abiding faith in the future of the Virginia colony. He did more toward furthering its interests than the previous administration, it having been interested only as to what returns could be secured from the investments Of the London stockholders.

    Sir Geo. Yeardley came to Virginia with a commission as Governor and an order to arrest Capt. Argall. Governor Argall had been ruling the colony with an eye single to his own interest and gain. To obtain his desire he had faltered at nothing, even condemning to death those who had the termerity to oppose him. Friends of Argall in England succeeded informing him of Yeardley's mission and he fled the colony twelve days prior to the new Governor reaching Jamestown. One of the most important documents ever sent the colony, letters patent, granting permission to elect an Assembly, was brought over by Yeardley. Each of the 11 burroughs were authorized to elect two representatives. Yeardley called the General Assembly, to meet in the church at Jamestown, in June 1619. This was the First Representative Legislative Assembly that ever met in America. The Assembly was called the House of Burgesses, as Burroughs were representated, counties not yet having been formed, and the name was retained ever afterwards. The 11 Burroughs sending representatives to the 1st Assembly were Argall's Gift, Charles City, Flowerdieu Hundred, Henricus, James City, Lawnes Plantation, Martin's Brandon, Martin's Hundred, Capt. Ward's Plantation, Smythes Hundred and Kicquotan.

    Emulating the House of Commons, it is stated, they sat in assembly with their hats on. They selected their own speakers, while the Council, (upper house), appointed by the Crown, was presided over by the Governor.

    Magistrates and other crown officers were authorized to have jurisdiction in the several burroughs. Nothwithstanding the fact that we have long since foresworn allegiance to a king, we still retain the name "Coroner," a word meaning "officer of the crown." Money was raised in England to establish a college in Virginia and 10,000 acres of land laid off for seating a university at Henricopolis (now- Dutch Gap). Fifty farmers were sent over to tenant the college lands "at halves," with promise of like number the next year. It was anticipated these tenants would produce a college revenue of 500 English pounds per year. George Thorpe, a kinsman of Sir Thomas Dale, was appointed, the following spring, to act as superintendent of the college.


    1. Brown—The First Republic. p. 278.
    2. Some historians doubt Opecancanough's blood relationship. The claim is advanced that neither chief was of the Algonquin race, Opecancanough, coming from Mexico; Powhatan, from Cuba. I have not found substantuation of this claim.


    "And from this meeting Have grown all congresses and states, All government... for our America."

    Tyler, in the "Cradle of the Republic," estimates the of colonists that came to Virginia from December, 1618, to November 1619, as 840, leaving about 900 alive in the colony in December, 1619. Of 1,440 persons accounted as having emigrated from England, five hundred and fort had died.

    It was in 1619 that the Puritan refugees in Holland, having, heard through Captain Smith, who visited them, the wonders of the new world, an account of his explorations, and probably having examined his maps, decided to make an attempt to plant a colony, on the southside of the Hudson in Northern Virginia. Permission was secured from the London Company to make their settlement within Virginia territory. One hundred and twenty persons sailed from Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620, landing at Patuxent (New Plymouth) on December 11. The first landing was at Provincetown but it was not considered as desirable a location as Plymouth.


    In 1620, when the Separatists, or Pilgrims, landed at Plymouth there were 2,200 colonists living at or near Jamestown.

    Ninety maids voyaged from England to marry Virginia planters. No transportation was charged, provided a maid married a farmer, but should she select a husband with some other trade or profession, transportation fee was to be paid by the one chosen. No maid was permitted to marry a servant, though she was permitted to accept or reject a suitor, the only restriction being that the husband must be a free man and well able to care for her. So successful was this venture, sixty more maids came over the following year, all bringing testimonials of gentle birth and good character. The husbands of the second contingent were required to pay from 120 to 150 pounds of "sweet-scented" tobacco to cover the cost of transportation.

    According to Smith's "History of Virginia." twenty-one ships were sent to Virginia in 1620. On them came 1,300 then, women and children. * * * Sir Edwin Sandys, in his report to the London Companv, seated, "With in the year there have been sent out eight ships at the company°s expense, and four other by private adventure." And that "these ships have transported 1,260 persons, wherefore 650 were for the public use, and the other 611 were for private plantations." He reported that "many patents have passed to various adventurers and and their associates, who have undertaken to transport to Virginia great multitudes of people with much cattle." He also reported 150 persons had been seat over to set up three iron works, and directions had been given for making cordage, hemp and flax, from the growing of silk-grass,"which grew there naturally in great abundance, and is found upon experience to make the best cordage and line in the world."

    Experts to Make Wine.

    Sufficient then had been sent over to erect sawmills, make pitch, tar, pot and soap ashes; also experts were included in making wine from the excellent grapes found in the colony, and "plenty of silk-worm seed of the best sort," were exported for experiment in silk culture. The last in fact, was a second supply, from His Majesty's own store. Sandys reported the salt works had been restored and there were "Hopes of such plenty, as not only to serve the colony for the present, but also shortly to supply the great fishery on those :American coasts." (New England).

    Various contributions were made in England, and in the colony, for the purpose of creating a fund to be used in the education of Indian boys and girls. Salaries of ministers, fixed by law, were to be 1,500 weight of tobacco and sixteen barrels of corn, then estimated at about 200 pounds sterling.

    In September, the Earl of Southampton was elected treasurer "without ballot, but general acclamation and erection of hands."

    The writer records the above details that the reader may be informed of the condition of the Virginia Colony when the 120 Pilgrims landed at Plymouth.


    On July .4, 1621, King James, The First, granted the fourth charter to the London Company. It authorized "two supreme councils, in Virginia, for better government of the said colony." One was designed as "the Council of State," whose office was to assist the Governor with "care, advice and circumspection." The first appointees of the Council of State were Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor of Virginia; Captain Francis `Vest, Sir George Yeardley, knight; Sir William Neuse, knight marshal of Virginia; (after whom Newport News (New Porte Neuse) received its name).[1] George Sandys, treasurer; George Thorpe, deputy of the college; Captain Thomas Neuse, deputy for the company; Rev. Robert Pawlet, Mr. Leech, Captain Nathaniel Powell, Christopher Davidson, secretary; Dr. Pots, physician to the company; Roger Smith, John Berkley, John Rolph, Ralp Hamor, John Pounds, Mitchell Eapworth, 'Mr. Harwood and Samuel Macock. The members of the council were to reside "about or near the Governor" and were to meet quarterly. The other council was to consist of the House of Burgesses and members of the Council of State. This council was to be called "once yearly and no oftener," unless for extraordinary occasion. It was to be called "the General Assembly," a lame still used for our Legislature. This provision in the charter was a confirmation of the Letters Patent under which the House of Burgesses met in 1619.

    The General Assembly was granted "free power to treat, consult and conclude as well of all emergent occasions, concerning the public weal of the said colony, and every part thereof, as also to make, ordain and enact such general laws and orders for the behoof of the said colony and every part thereof. * * *"

    The General Assembly was instructed to follow the "policy of the form of government of the realm of England," but the said laws were to be confirmed by the General Quarter Court of the London Company. It was stipulated that this would not be required (report to the General Court) after the "Government of the colony shall once have been well framed."

    The Virginia lottery, by which 29,000 pounds sterling had been received, now being at an end, it was found necessary to raise additional revenue for use of the company in its Virginia enterprise. To assist in creating interest and revenue, Captain John Smith was requested to write a "History of Virginia" for the "effect which such a general history, deduced to the life, would have throughout the kingdom," and also because "a few years would consume the lives of many whose memories retained much and might also devour those letters and intelligences, which yet remained in loose and neglected papers."

    Captain Smith accepted the commission. His history of Virginia was published and found circulation not only throughout England, but in the Virginia colony. Copies, or reprints, of this work are treasured heirlooms in some of the old Virginia families.


    Sir Francis Wyatt arrived in Virginia, October, 1621, with a fleet of nine ships, a number of colonists and a commission as Governor to succeed Sir George Yeardley. He assumed the office on November 18. It is said that his instructions from the company contained forty-seven articles, among them being orders to suppress gaming, drunkenness and "excess in apparel." No person, "except the Council, Heads of Hundreds and Plantations, with their wives and children, should wear gold on their clothes, or any apparel of silk, except such as had been raised by their own industry." Smith reports that the Governor and council answered to this by asserting "they knew of no excess in apparel except in the price of it."

    One article suggested that the "best disposed" of the Indians should be employed by the, planters in order to reconcile them to a "Civil Way of Life," and that a certain number of Indian children should be, "Brought up in the first elements of Literature," and "the most towardly of these should be fitted for the; College; in the building of which they proposed to proceed as soon as any Profit arose from the Estate appropriated for that use."

    They were commanded to make only 100 pounds of tobacco per head, per year, and take all possible care to, "Improve that proportion in Goodness." In order to assist in overcoming the deficiency in the Treasury, the company issued a number of Rolls (permits) for sale to the planters. One roll was a permit to buy from the Cape Merchant (Storekeeper) at such a moderate price as would justify the money advanced. Another roll granted subscribers an allotment of land, according to the number of maids sent over to marry the colonists. The land was to be laid off and formed into a town to be known as "Maidstown." Another roll was a permit to establish a glass furnace to make beads to be used as currency in trading- with the Indians. The fourth roll permitted the holder to voyage age among the Indians and purchase skins and furs.

    The population in Virginia at this time was given as near 4,000.

    Rev. Mr. Copeland, chaplain of the "Royal James," on a voyage from East India to England, raised a sum of £70, among the ship's company, to be used in building a free school in Virginia. Two anonymous subscribers later made gifts to increase the fund to £125. It was decided to use this fund to build a school in Charles City to he known as East India School, in recognition of the gift having- been started on an East India ship. One thousand acres of land, five servants and an overseer ",ere allotted by the company to support a Master and usher. The graduates of the school were to be admitted to the college at Henricopolis (Dutch Gap). Rev. Mr. Copeland was appointed master, and carpenters were sent over the following year to construct the school building.

    The first negroes, bought into the colony arrived in 1619, on a Dutch ship (?-the Treasurer) and were distributed among the planters to assist them in raising tobacco. It is said that Opecancanough, seeing them for the first time in 1621, thought that God had shown displeasure at some of the planters by turning them black.

    It was in 1621 that Captain Gookin arrived from Ireland (Newse Towne) with the first Irish immigrants. They were eighty in number, and settled at Newport News, of which mention has been made. This same year Lieutenant Jabez Whitaker erected a Guest House at Jamestown, for accommodation of visitors and newcomers. It is reported that the Planters contributed 11500 towards the venture. This may be said to have been the first traven or hotel in America.

    Great distress was suffered by the planters, on the adoption of the method of Garbling by the officials of the Crown in England. "Garbling" was so called from the fact that an officer was appointed to examine tobacco stored in English warehouses and throw out all garble or trash. Advantage was taken of this law, to such extent, much tobacco was confiscated to the Government, though of fine quality, and. after the tax on the balance was paid, there was ofttimes a loss instead of gain. In consequence of this practice the tobacco trade of Virginia was virtually ruined. Notwithstanding the protests of the company and colonists the practice continued. In order to gain relief the commodity was diverted to Holland, until the King, learning of it, interfered.


    1. First founded by a colony, under Samuel Gookin, from Neucetown (Neuse of Newse), Ireland. The settlers were both Irish and English. The land was part of a tract owned by Sir William Neuse and his, brother. The tract was large and embraced most of what is now Elizabeth City County. The general, presumption, of late years, has been that the name was in honor of Capt. Christopher Newport, but this is a mistake. Manuscript reports of British officers stationed there during the Revolution, are dated from New Port Neuse. (Department of Archives, State Library.)


    "When the swift savage axe Flashed in the fire-light, treacherous, and fell, And all the far plantations shook with death."

    As previously noted, the death of Powhatan in 1618 had left as successor to his throne, after short interregnum, the treacherous and vindictive Opechancanough, a deadly secret enemy of the colonists. Protesting love and affection for them, for four years he plotted their destruction, while with crafty and unrelenting deliberation he sought and secured the promise of co-operation from the sub-chiefs and tribes who either acknowledged his overlordship . or came within the sphere of his influence.

    The marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas, while staying the hand of Powhatan and causing him faithfully to observe the treaty of peace, then entered into, had not produced the lasting effect nor good-will and understanding among the two races as had at first seemed fully consummated. The Indians were deeply offended that the English refused to follow the example of Rolfe and continue intermarriage with the women of their tribes. Not only did the settlers decline these advances, but sent to England for their wives.

    Unfortunately, the colonists, not yet understanding the true traits of Indian character, were unaware of having thus instilled into the hearts of their savage neighbors, a feeling of offended pride and' mortification. Little did they then realize an Indian never forgets nor forgives an affront and that this was an additional offense added to other grievences. Yet, they had not been neglected by the colonists. Attempts at conversion had been made, trade had been established and many were employed by individual planters to assist in the various vocations of the time.

    Encouraged in the cultivation of friendly intercourse they were welcomed guests at the planters' tables and admitted into their homes and habitations. Though accepting the tender of hospitality, encouraged by their wily chieftain, the spirit of hate was ever cultivated and revenge found lodgment in the secret recesses of their savage breasts. It was during this unguarded intercourse with the whites that the Indians formulated their plan for a general massacre-the indiscriminate slaghter of every' man, woman and child in the colony.

    Opechancanough, distinguished for fearlessness and rancorous hate, renewed the treaty that his more humane brother, Powhatan, had entered into and faithfully guarded. Availing himself of the feeling of security this act produced among the whites, he prepared his followers for the final act in the great tragedy he had projected with such consummate skill.

    Each tribe, except those on the Eastern Shore, who were without the sphere of his influence, he carefully plepared, for the day of massacre, with that single mindness of purpose characteristic of Indian revenge.

    A writer of that period asserts that, "notwithstanding the long interval that elapsed between the formation and execution of their present enterprise, and the perpetual intercourse that subsisted between them and the white people, the most impenetrable secrecy was preserved; and so consummate and fearless was their dissimulation, they were accustomed to borrow boats, from the English to cross the river, in order to concert and communicate the progress of their designs."

    The death of Nemattanow, one of their celebrated sub-chiefs, seems to have furnished Opechancanough the final argument to sharpen the ferocity of the waiting Indians and give them sense of ample provocation.

    The Indian, Nemattanow, (Jack of the feather) by courage, craft and good fortune, had obtained great repute among his countrymen. In skirmishes and engagements with other Indian tribes, and in former hostile clashes with the English, he had exposed his person with a bravery that so surprised his savage companions and so instilled them with awe and astonishment that to them his body was apparently invulnerable; therefore, his person had been invested with the character of sanctity.

    Emboldened by his continued successful achievements, Nemattanow treacherously murdered a planter named Morgan, and fell, in turn, a victim to revengeful fury of the farmer's sons. Finding the pangs of death fast approaching he entreated his captives to conceal his fate and grave, that the secret of his mortality might never be revealed. The young men acceded to the request, but the secret was discovered, and amidst the lamentations of his tribesmen, Opechancanough issued his secret call to arms.

    The colonists, unsuspicious of the treachery of their friends (?), not only continued instructing them in the handling of firearms, but furnished them with rifles, powder and ball to assist in hunting and in defense against their enemies. God pity the innocence of these confiding Englishmen.

    Differing from the colonists in New England and New Amsterdam, who mostly seated themselves in towns and fortified stockades, the liberty loving Virginians disbursed themselves along the rivers and lowlands of the Tidewater section, each intent to found a home in which he and family could enjoy the blessings of peace, undisturbed by an over-abundance of neighbors. The land was fertile, the climate ideal, the arrangement a happy readjustment of conditions left behind them in the mother country, now far removed. Again, were nor the Indians their goods friends upon whom they could call for assistance in any emergency which might befall?

    This condition, of course, did much toward making the ask, upon which Opechancanough had set his subchiefs to work, a comparatively easy one. The Indians, instructed to be more friendly- than ever before, brought fish and game as daily presents to the planters' doorsteps. Assistance was given in the preparation of crops and guides furnished in hunting and exploration. Seated as guests at the planter's table, they partook of the food and hospitality of the unsuspecting host and his happy wife, fondled their little ones and listened to their infant prattle as the inquisitive children climbed upon their laps and played with the bright colored beads that dangled from their necks.

    Good Friday, March 22, 1622, dawned bright and clear. Young mothers, humming homeland nursery songs, cuddled cooing offsprings to their breasts and smiled in day dreams of the happy years to come. Housewives hastened preparations for the morning meal that husband and his Indian guests might eat their fill and smoke their Peace Pipe at the door. We picture Superintendent Thorpe. lately arrived from England, pointing out the foundation of the university building the workmen had just commenced to lay; explaining to his new acquaintances the wonderful benefit it would prove to the Indian boys and girls; John Rolfe, reading aloud the last letter from his young son in England and exhibiting the handwriting that appeared so unintelligible to his Indian guests. How proud, he thought, they must be of this child of Pocahontas, their beloved and lamented Princess.

    Was their no soul-piercing eye to read their thought; no mighty arm to stay their savage breasts? No Pocahontas hearted youth or maid to give them \varniag of their pending fate? No Nantaquas? Aye! One, and only one, found pity in his heart. Chanco, a converted youth, working for his patron and godfather, Richard Pace, first learned the story of the plot on the night before the massacre. His brother, spending the night with him, gave orders from the Indian chief that he should strike his patron down, when came the hour of noon, next day. Chanco, dissembling, drew forth the story- in the full, then, as his brother sped away to join his band, made haste to awaken the sleeping Pace and give him notice of the plot. Pace succeeded in warning Jamestown and the adjacent planters, but those more distant could not be reached in time.

    At mid-day, the hour arranged, the Indian war hoop signaled throughout the settlements; each savage swooping down upon the victim selected for his scalping knife. Surprised, defenseless, there fell within the hour, mid every brutal outrage familiar to the savage race, 347 souls. Neither age nor sex found mercy given them. Defenseless children, babes at breast, mere added numbers to the slain.

    Six members of the Council, Superintendent Thorpe, John Rolfe, and many of the colonists, most influential citizens, met death that day. No quarter was shown to anyone who could not save his life by stout defense.

    Henricopolis, destroyed, was never built again. The first university projected in America was forever to be abandoned.

    On the morning of Good Friday, March 22, 1622, there were 1,240 people in the colony; that afternoon only 893 survived and many of these would have fallen victims of the massacre had not Chanco, the converted Indian, given warning.

    The disastrous tragedy came very near proving fatal to the young colony. It had struggled through may adversities for fifteen years, and at last was justified in feeling it had established permanent settlements on the shores of the Chesapeake and James.

    To the planters, happy in the thought that not only were they seated upon fertile acres of their own, crops justifying the labor they placed' upon them and with presuming their neighbors, the Indians, to be apparently friendly-, the massacre came as a flash of lightning from a clear sky. The colony seemed doomed. The months from 'March until December gave the crucial test as to whether the settlement should prove a failure, or, arising from its ashes, should push forward with more determination than ever. Had it been a decision to be debated by the colonists alone, a satisfactory solution could have been made by the survivors, but there were powers beyond the sea, intrigue, deceit and every other discouragement brought to bear upon them before the Virginians could again find security in the rebuilding of their shattered estates.

    Such was the dread produced by this terrible massacre, in which more than one-fourth of the entire colony had been slain, host of the survivors left their plantations and hastened to Jamestown for protection. Huddled together in unwholesome quarters, they awaited in fear a repitition of attempted annihilation. Many, panic-stricken, secured passage in vessels returning to England, and not one in ten of the plantations could muster an inhabitant.

    Hawthorne, the historian, asserts that 2,000 settlers left the colony, but this error is evident, as there were only 893 survivors. The colony- was not abandoned. Concentration, at the more easily- defended plantations, was decided upon. The suggestion that Jamestown be abandoned and the colonists retire to Eastern Shore, where they could the better defend themselves, was rejected.

    The points of concentration selected were Sherley Hundred, Flower dieu Hundred, Passapahey, Kicquotan and Southampton Hundred. Samuel Jordan, of Jordan's Point, and Mr. Gookin, with his Irish settlers at Newport News (New Porte Neuce) refused to obey the order of the Governor and remained to defend themselves against all assaults. One heroic woman, Mrs. Proctor, a proper, civil and modest gentlewoman, defended her estate for a month, till she, with all with her, were obliged by the English officers to go with them, and to leave their substance to the havoc and spoil of the enemy. Edward Hill, also, at Elizabeth City, "altho' much mischief was done to his cattle, yet did himself alone defend his house, whilst all his men were sick and unable to give him any assistance." (Stith) Preparations for various manufactures were abandoned. The people were so terrified they feared to work; in the fields, and crops were neglected. A winter of famine was the grim prospect.

    Abandon Projected University

    Henricopolis was destroyed never to be rebuilt, and the projected university abandoned; John Berkeley and the twenty skilled workmen at the iron works, erected at Falling Creek, had been among the slain; the first iron mine and foundry in the colony would never be reopened.[1] Maurice Berkeley, son of John, was temporarily assisting in erecting glass and salt works on Eastern Shore, therefore, escaped the fate of his Falling Creek companions. Experiments in mining and forging had also been made, near Providence Forge. Deposits of good ore have lately been found in that vicinity.)

    (Before closing this chapter relating to the massacre, let us consider the tragedy of Northern Neck, which also occurred in 1692. This time we find the Indians the victims, under somewhat similar circumstances, and the English the aggressors.)

    Sent to Defend Friends

    There were bad Indians but just as truly there were intolerant enemies of the red race among those who had taken possession of their lands. Let us for example, consider an episode in which the cowardly and intriguing Captain Isaac Maddison descended upon the unsuspecting and friendly Potowmacks[2] in 1622. I again quote the language of Stith, "Captain Crowshaw had been living at peace with the Indians with only one white attendant. * * * * * Under pretense of business (Captain Maddison who had built within the enclosure occupied by Crowshaw) sent for the King to his stronghouse; where, having locked him and his son, and four others up, and set a guard of five Englishmen upon the house, he fell on the town (surrounding the enclosure) with the rest of his company and slew thirty or forty men, women and childen. The poor King being surprised at such an unexpected assault called out, and begged him to cease from so undeserved cruelty, but he gave not. over the execution till he had slain or put to flight all the town. Then he returned and taxed the King of treachery who denied it bitterly, and told him it was some contrivance of those who wished his destruction for being a friend of the Indians."[3]

    "After this Maddison led him, his son and two others to his ship, promising to set them at liberty as soon as his men were all safely aboard; and the King, very readily and effectively, ordered his subjects not to shoot at nor annoy the English whilst they were going on board. But not withstanding this, Maddison, contrary to all good faith carried them prisoners to Jamestown; where they lay till the October following." These prisoners after having been confined four months were released by the payment of ransom demanded of their people.

    Maddison had been sent to the Potowmacks with thirty men commissioned by the Governor to defend these friends of the English against the common enemy. We see the result.

    This is one of the many recorded instances that caused the Indians of both Virginia and New England to look with hate and suspicion upon the white race; a condition wisely avoided by Penn and his Quaker followers.

    With the desire to do justice to a race that has received little sympathy at the hands of many of our historians. yet saddened with the thought that so many innocent men, women and children, struggling bravely to find homes in a new land, had to pay the penalty of the folly of others, I pay this tribute to the Virginia Indians.

    So little do we understand them even to this day- that many express astonishment even doubt that Pocahontas, an Indian, could find it in her heart to prove such a true friend to an alien race. It is even claimed by some that she was of part English blood. Virginia Dare, some say, may have been her mother or grandmother. As a matter of fact, Virginia Dare was only about 8 years older than Pocahontas, and the Indian Princess was not ashamed of her pure Indian blood.


    1. It was used in time of Wm. Byrd, for awhile, but the iron was brought from elsewhere. Ingots from this foundry have lately been located.
    2. Original spelling—Patawomeck. See p. 19.
    3. The Indian King was—Japazaws.


    "The mighty deeds and' dreams that they have locked Into gray volumes of the prisoned past."

    The history of Virginia contains so much of romance and tragedy, adventure, pathos and humor, the writer finds himself embarrassed in any attempt he may make to cover each phase.

    We have studied the tragic experiences of the settlers from the very hour they landed at Jamestown.. until the terrible massacre of 1622. Perhaps it would be best for the sake of continuity, to discuss the effect of the massacre and the defection of certain members of the company and colony, in order that we may best understand the excuse that James I. gave as reason for justification in annulling the charter of the London Company, and placing the colon`- directly under control of the Crown.

    But, before going into this discussion, let us, for the time being, as it will lead up to one of the reasons given as a cause of dissention, follow the adventures of Captain Samuel Argall and his famous ship, the Treasurer. This vessel with its adventurous commander, had much to do with the success of the Virginia Colonial Enterprise, and the Treasurer's career should he as familiar to the boys and girls-aye, the older people--of Virginia, as is the Mayflower to the people of New England. [A ship called the "Mayflower" was making regular voyages between England and Virginia in 1641.]

    On August 2, 1612, the Treasurer, Captain Samuel Argall, commanding, sailed from England, and arrived at Point Comfort, September 27, following. On this voyage the ship brought over sixty-two colonists. It had been ,commissioned to come to Virginia and "drive out foreign intruders," who might attempt settlement within the boundaries of the patents of James I. Argall had been specially instructed to investigate the report that Louis XIIL, of France, had granted a patent to Madam de Guercheville (a lady of honor to his Queen), to all that part of North America extending from the St. Lawrence River to Florida, and that she was seating colonists within the bounds of the Virginia grant. The charter of the Treasurer stipulated that the ship was to be "wholly employed in trade and other services, for relieving the colonie," and to be in service one year. The ship was owned jointly by Lord Governor West, Lord Rich, Argall and others, and was chartered by the London Company. Lord Rich, above mentioned, was afterwards created the Earl of Warwick, and his connection with this ship in the later days of its piratical career will be mentioned later.

    The Treasurer's battery consisted of fourteen guns, and she was manned by sixty musketeers, "trained for sea service," one of the requirements being that they should be adept at boarding the prizes, and putting their defenders to the sword. The first adventure of the Treasurer in Virginia waters was an expedition against the Indians along the Nansemond River. Governor Dale accompanied Argall on the trip, and "escaped killing very narrowly" in one of the attacks on an Indian village. It was reported that this expedition procured a quantity of corn for the colony.

    In December of the same year Argall sailed the Treasurer up the Pembroke (Rappahannock) and Potomac Rivers, where he traded with his friend, the King of Pastancy, and obtained' 1,400 bushels of corn. He exchanged hostages, and on February- 11, returned to Point Comfort.

    The next month (January- 1613) the Treasurer ascended the Rappahannock River as far as the falls. There Argall explored into the country, where he reported seeing many buffaloes, and claimed he discovered "sundry mines."[1]

    It was while on this trip Argall learned that Pocahontas was visiting the King of the Patowomacks, and resolved to secure her by strategy "for the ransoming of so many Englishmen as were prisoners of Powhatan.' . . . Descending the Rappahannock, he entered the Potomac, and through bribery of Japazaws,[2] persuaded her to go aboard the ship and refused to permit her return. In the Treasurer, Argall delivered his prisoner to Gates at Jamestown. Returning to Old Point he superintended the building of a frigate and a fishing boat. After selecting a number of the crew to fish off Cape Charles, "for relief of the men at Henrico," the Treasurer sailed along the eastern side of the hay in search of good harbors for boats and barges. There Argall found "great store of fish, both shellfish and others."

    It was in July of this year that the Treasurer sailed for the coast of Northern Virginia in search of French settlements. Mount Desert was captured and several ships taken, along with a number of French prisoners, among them being Captain La Saussaye, the commander. A ship of 100 tons, a barque of twelve tons, supplies and fifteen prisoners, were brought to Jamestown, the commandant and fourteen others having been placed in a small shallop, with permission to sail for France. It seems almost miraculous that they succeeded in reaching their mother country- after a voyage of tyro months across the ocean.

    When the Treasurer returned to Jamestown there were already Spanish and Indian prisoners quartered there, so we find that they had quite a variety of nationalities confined in their keep. The Treasurer returned to the northern coast in October and destroyed several more. French settlements. The two French ships accompanied Argall on this trip, the larger one being commanded by Turner, his lieutenant. He destroyed St. Croix and Port Royal eliminating every "token of French names and French claims as he had been commanded to do." At each of these places he set up a cross, upon which was carved notice of English ownership of that section.

    The ships began the return voyage on November 9, and Argall experienced the first miscarriage of his hitherto well-laid plans. A great storm sank the barque and the ship commanded by Turner was apparently lost, though it arrived in England, in a much battered condition, the following January. The Treasurer succeeded in weathering the storm, and Argall entered Chesapeake Bay- three weeks afterward. Notwithstanding the fact that he had suffered the loss of the other two vessels, en route, he anchored the Treasurer off 'Manhattan Island,[3] and required the Dutch Governor, seated there, to "submit himself, companyand' plantation to his Majesty and to the Governor and government of Virginia," thereby acknowledging that the Jamestown Colonly had priority- of claim to the territory. It was in March following that the Treasurer sailed up the Pamunkey[4] (York) and anchored off Wereowocornoco. On board, Argall had as guests Sir Thomas Dale the Lieutenant-Governor, Ralph Hamor, John Rolfe and Pochahontas. It is said that the intention of the voyage was to induce Powhatan to pay a large ransom for the surrender of his beloved daughter, but Argall and Dale were not aware that the little god, Cupid, was a passenger, and a romance, later to become famous in the annals of American History-, was being enacted in their very presence.

    Ralph Hamor, having been taken into the secret, was commissioned by Rolfe to inform Dale of his love for Pocahontas, and his desire to marry her. Dale was greatly pleased with the news, Pocahontas permitted to acquaint her people of her bethrothal and the Treasurer again returned to Jamestown, with the happy couple on board. Can you not picture the proud old ship, sailing up the James; her flags flying; her arrival off Jamestown with fanfare of trumpets and boom of guns; the cheering of the officers and men, amid their drinking to the health of the happy couple? The marriage was solemnized on or about April 15, a few days after the return of the ship. The ceremony took place in the little church, while the Treasurer, in gala attire, rode at anchor in the James, nearby.

    On June 23 this ship sailed for England, with the news of the marriage. Captain Argall was accompanied by Ralph Hamor and three of the French prisoners. Can you not picture the delight of Argall and Turner when they- met again; each having thought the other dead? What a joyous time, that first reunion in the cabin of the Treasurer must have been.

    The ship again returned to Virginia, leaving England in February, 1615. Having visited the fishing grounds en route, Argall did not arrive at his destination until the early summer. The next account we have of the ship was a voyage to England, May, 1616. On board as passengers, were Sir Thomas Dale, Captain John Martin, John Rolfe, his wife and little son, Thomas (the child is supposed to have been named after Sir. Thomas Dale, who acted as godfather). On board there were also a. number of young Indians of both sexes "to be educated in England." Dale reports that he left the colony "in great prosperity and peace, contrary to anye mens exspectatyons." Captain Yeardley remained in Virginia as deputy-governor.

    The Treasurer arrived in England on June 13, 1616, and safely landed all of its distinguished passengers, with the exception of one, Francis Landrye-who with Done Piego Molino, and a companion, had been taken prisoners when they- visited Algernoune Fort (Old Point) in July-, 1611-he had been hung from a yardarm en route to England. This man was a pseudo-Spaniard, suspected of being a deserter from the British Navy. He had denied his British nationality so persistently during the five years of his captivity, that it had been impossible for his captors to prove his guilt as he was seconded by Molino in this contention.

    He and Molino (who masqueraded as a common sailor, through afterward proved a grande of Spain), had been a continued source of trouble to the Jamestown authorities, having conducted a secret correspondence with Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador to England. In their correspondence they had endeavored to persuade the King of Spain not only to invade, but to destroy the Virginia colony-. They, even sent samples of rich silver ore to incite his cupidity-, claiming that rich mines were located within Virginia. Evidence was secured, while en route to England, that enabled Dale and Argall to execute the British traitor.

    At the Michaelmas term of the Quarter Court, November, 1616, Captain Argall was selected deputy-governor of Virginia; Captain Ralph Hamor, vice-admiral; Captain John Martin, master of ordnance, and John Rolfe, secretary and recorder. This hastened Argall's return to the colony-, and he did not, therefore, wait for the Treasurer, but sailed in the "George" on March 31, 1617. Pocahontas was to have returned on this vessel with her husband and child, but owing to her death Rolfe left the young Thomas in England, and sailed on the vessel, in order to assume his new duties. Ralph Hamor also returned at the same time.

    The command of the Treasurer, though the ship was still owned in great part by Argall, was given to Captain Daniel Elfrith. The ship, after taking Dale and his party- to the mother country, apparently, did not return direct to Jamestown in Way of that year. Before leaving, Elfrith had received' a commission from Charles Emannuel I. (Duke of Savoy) granting him the right to prey upon the shipping of Spain-with the James River as a place of retreat. England being at peace with Spain, such a commission could not have been legally obtained under English registry, and so the Count Scarnafissi, the duke's ambassador in England, was bribed to obtain this commission from the great Duke of Savoy (Savoy was in Southern Italy).

    The Treasurer was supposed to have cleared, laden with provisions and fishing tackle, while in reality she was loaded with arms and ammunition. - It has been charged that the commission from the Duke of Savoy was obtained by Lord Warwick, who, with Lord de la Warr and Argall, teas part owner of the ship. The Treasurer was manned with some of the ablest men of the colony, as soon as it reached Virginia and, provisioned. it sailed for the Spanish dominions in the West Indies. Here she immediately- began depredations along the coast, and is known to have taken a large Spanish ship prior to Way 1619.

    The Treasurer returned to Jamestown in September, 1619 in consort of "a man-of-war of blushing." The arrival of these two ships and the cargo they brought with them have been the cause of many speculations and incriminations. Evidently the Treasurer is the ship alluded to as a "Dutch man-o'-war" that brought the first negroes to the colony-. The man-o'-war of Flushing no doubt must have been the Hopewell, commanded by Captain John Powell. The last named ship had previously been reported to have turned pirate and joined the Treasurer. There was every reason to suppress the names of the two ships that were permitted to land their cargoes at Jamestown, and both Powell and Elfrith were hardadventurers who did not hesitate to carry out the wishes of their employers. The report that these ships were Dutch was in keeping with the general report on all ships that had turned pirate. Brown, in his "First Republic" states, "The reports sent to England were evidently written more for the purpose of concealing the facts than of revealing them." It is not known ,when these two ships again cleared from Virginia waters, but at least twenty- negroes were left at Jamestown.

    The first news received in England regarding the adventures of this ship was sent by Abraham Pearcie, the cape merchant, who reported to the London Company in a letter sent over on the Gift of God. "There was a constant report in Virginia, and that not without many apparent probabilityes, that the ship [the Treasurer] was gone to rob the King of Spayne's subjects by seeking pilliage in the West Indies, and that this was done by direction from my Lord of Warwick."

    John Rolfe, and other officials of the colony, being friendly to the Warwick party, tell nothing of the piracy of the ships by name. On one of the expeditions of the Hopewell, a cargo of hides was captured, and landed at Somers Island, but the Governor, fearing he would be called to account, re-shipped them to Jamestown, and reported that they had been destroyed.

    By May 1619 the Spanish ambassador to England had heard of the piratical voyages of the Treasurer and made complaint to both the Company and the Crown, and shortly afterwards Sir Edwin Sandys received a letter from Sir George Yeardley, with a full account of the pirates escapades. The communication was read to the council after the name of Lord Warwick had been blotted out, though Captain Argall's had been left. Everything was done to prevent Warwick's name being mentioned in the affair, for it was thought it would not only prejudice the King against him, but ruin his estate. It seems very strange therefore, notwithstanding the fact that Sandys used his best endeavor to protect Warwick from being known as connected with the piracy of the Treasurer, a feud should have broken out between these two noted men, which leading to a new alignment of factions within the Company, continued in bitter opposition to the time of its dissolution. It seems that Warwick tooq offense at Sandys' taking any notice whatever of the charges and it is said that it was Warwick who sent a fast ship from England to Jamestown to -,yarn Argall and give him passage home before he could be apprehended under a warrant sent out for his arrest. It is also known that Yeardley arrived at Jamestown only a few days after Argall escaped. Brown quotes Rich as saying, "when the Lords of the Privy Council wished Sandys to be wary of the court, he in open court said `that now the business must lie wholly upon Alfred (Elfrith) who -vas and is, and intends to continue Pyrate accurst, and at ye same time told ye councill that if he were hanged for his labor, were no matter.'" And he further quotes the following entry in the Privy Council Register of March 7th"This day Sir Edwin Sandys, Governor, and others of the Virginia Company, represented unto this Board that whereas a shipp called the Treasurer sent out to the West Indies at such tyme as Captaine Argall was Governor of Virginia, and had committed offenses against the Spaniards, and that by Publique Letters from the colonye that act was by them disavowed. So likewise, the Councill and Companie of Virginia here joined in the letter disclay ming of the same of which their especiall care to give unto his Majesties friends and allies no offence their letters gave good allowance and approbation." It appeared also by the letters produced at the Board, that the Spanish Agent here residing hath received satisfaction for the offence aforesaid."

    At the time of this writing the Treasurer `vas at Somers Islands, still engaged in piratical cruises against the Spanish, and is known to have delivered fourteen negroes to the Governor of the Island. The career of this ship created a commotion not only in Virginia, England and Spain, but naturally also in the Netherlands, owing to the claim having been made that she was a Dutch man-o'war.

    What became of the Treasurer after the arrival of Nathaniel Butler, as new governor of Somers Islands, and his report to England of her continued deprecations, the writer has not succeeded in ascertaining, but may we not rest in expectation that some noted Virginia writer may, use the adventures of this ship as the basis for a story of the sea? The career of the Treasurer should be as familiar to the boys and girls of Virginia as any ship of colonial or modern times.


    1. Prior to 1565, Indians brought buffalo skins down the Potomac River to trade with the Spaniards. Some of the skins were transported by canoes, along the coast, as far North as St. Lawrence River. It is recorded in old Spanish manuscript that, in 1564-5, six thousand skins were traded in this way. See p. 19.
    2. A Copper Kettle was the Bribe.
    3. Now site of New York.
    4. First called Charles by the English. Gloucester Point was called Tyndall's Point.


    "These years when the young colony, struck down By massacre and fear, took heart, and stood,"

    We can imagine the shock sustained, not only by the London Company, but friends of the colonists in England, when news of the massacre was brought by refugees from the stricken settlements.

    Let us consider, for a fee moments, the situation in the mother country. The Company `vas torn with dissension, Southhampton and Edwin Sandys, contending desperately against the intrigues of the Court Party, led by Warwick and others, who-aided and abetted by the King, were filled with consternation and alarm upon reception of the news of the massacre.

    For the time being, colonization was discouraged. Antiquated arms in the "Tourer of London" were overhauled and shipped to Virginia, as being of sufficient use for defense against the weapons of the Indians, though not of any value "in modern European warfare." The King sent, as a loan, twenty barrels of powder, and Lord St. John, of Basing, made a present of sixty coats of mail, while the city of London and private citizens made contributions toward an emergency fund. The King volunteered to send over 400 young men, selected from the several shires, in place of those who had perished, but failed to keep his promise.

    More ample supplies would have been sent to Virginia and assistance given, but for dissensions existing among the patentees. Made up of every class of English citizen, rival factions intrigued and debated; and the line of demarcation between the Court Party and the Country Party was becoming evident-a condition slowly leading toward the Cromwellian usurpation of the English throne.

    Alarmed at the liberal opinions expressed and public spirit shown in these debates, on the one side, as against those who advocated endorsing his restrictions of the tobacco trade, on the other, the King glady seized upon the Virginia tragedy as a pretext to appoint a commission to examine into the transactions of the company- since its first establishment. It gave him the excuse to increase his effort to secure the control of affairs, annul the charter, and take over the administration through appointees of his own. With this excuse, he made use of the members of the Court Party, as pawns at chess, to checkmate the effort of the liberal minded men, who, as officers and members of the council of the company, dared to question and protest against his arbitrary ruling. To obstruct it in defense, all papers and charter books were seized, two of the principal officers were arrested, and all letters from the colony, directed to the company, were intercepted.

    A great number of witnesses were interrogated, among them being Captain John Smith, who expressed the opinion that greater military precaution should have been taken. He suggested a discontinuance of transporting criminals to its shores, but refused to make accusation against the faults of any official, naively stating that "I have so much ado to amend my own, I have no leisure, to look into any other man's particular failings."

    The commissioners did not permit representatives of the company to be present at the hearings, and they were only appraised of the terms of the report after the findings had been made. After a rebuke of their administration they were informed that a new charter would be issued, which would commit the powers of government into fewer hands, and if they (the members of the Company) did not voluntarily submit to the decree the King was resolved to enforce his purpose by due process of law.

    Blinded by avarice and greed, he little realized (possibly he would not have cared, as long as it was to his profit), that Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador to his court, was secretly directing every move he made. Guard your King! would have been apropos as the game progressed.

    Gondomar, with prophetic vision, almost uncanny, had warned his King (Philip III.) that effort should be made by intrigue, or otherwise, to check the growth of the Virginia and Bermuda colonies. "Else," said he, "from them there will arise another England in America, of equal dread and annoyance to New Spain, as that in Europe is to the Old." Gondomar was a power at court, and had the ear of the English King.

    Having no thought of permitting its culmination, he arranged for a marriage between Crown Prince Charles and the Infanta of Spain. With this bait he secured assurance that no aid would be sent to the Palatonate in its contest with the League. He had the English fleet recalled from the Spanish coast, and secured the dismissal of all ministers opposed to the Spanish policy. One may ask-"How does this concern Virginia?" It was simply part of the intrigue of a nation who had never forgotten the defeat of the invincible Aramada, and who hated the English more than any other nation with whom they must contend for the commerce of the world, especially the growing trade of the new colonies along the Atlantic coast.

    The founding- of the colony at Jamestown had furnished a barrier against further colonization projects of the Spanish throne, and, as Gondomar well said, would prove a menace to the future progress of those Spanish colonies already founded. It was Gondomar who whispered into the ear of the King, persuading him to demand of the Virginia Company the importation to England of 60,000 pounds of Spanish tobacco each year. The King had listened with interest, for Spanish tobacco, with a market price much higher than the product raised in Virginia, would give the King a revenue far in excess of a like amount of tobacco sent from the Virginia colony.

    It was Gondomar who evidently whispered into the ear of the King that the opportune time had arrived for the overthrow of the Virginia Company-, who dared to thwart his will, when news of the massacre arrived. Had Sandys and his friends (may Virginia ever revere their memory) yielded without protest, Virginia would have suffered to such an extent the injustice intended them by the King, it is doubtful if the young colony could have survived. The tide of emigration was turning northward; new colonies were being formed on Massachusetts Bay- and other points along the New England Coast.

    The Plymouth colony having settled at Plymouth Rock in December of 1620, receiving their patent from the newly chartered New England Company on June 11, 1621, were receiving new additions to their numbers, and no massacre had sent terror to the hearts of their friends and relatives, in England, to cause a stay of emigration to them.

    Had Sandys and Southampton abandoned the Virginia colony-, where could it have looked for help? It is true these friends of Virginia were finally defeated in their every endeavor, notwithstanding their appeal to Parliament, and the expressed sympathy of that body, yet the Virginians had time to recover, at least in a measure, from the shock of the massacre, ere the King could succeed in annulling the charter.

    In the midst of these distractions of the company and King in England, the little colony was struggling to regain a more sturdy foothold than ever before. Sir Francis Wyatt the Governor, began making overtures with Opechancanough for the return of Mrs. Boyce and nineteen other colonists who were held prisoners at Pamunkey. He invited the Indians back to their usual habitations to plant their corn. The intent was to surprise them when the corn was full-grown, drive them out of the country and confiscate the crops. For this purpose, Governor Wyat trained 500 menu but the wily Opechancanough refused to walk into the trap. There is no record of the fate suffered by the English prisoners other than - Mrs. Royce; she was sent back by Opatchapan,[1] the dethroned brother of Opechancanough. "She was naked and unapparaled, in manner and fashion like one of their Indian queens."

    Among- the Indian chieftains the only friend left to the English upon whom they- could rely fur corn, was Japazaws, chief of the Patowmacks, who had delivered up Pocahontas to Argall. To him Governor West looked for assistance. Vain hope Japazaws was the unfortunate chief previously mentioned as having been imprisoned by Maddison, and compelled to witness the destruction of his village and forty of his tribe.[2]

    Midst these tragic surroundings (1623) George Sandys, living in Virginia, wrote his translation of the Metamorphoses of Ovid, one of the first literary productions in America. It was afterwards published in England, and dedicated to Charles the First. Dryden mentions the author with respect and commendation, in the preface of his own translation of the same work.

    Notwithstanding the set-back given the Virginia colony, in 1622, Captain Francis West, of Virginia, expelled interlopers from the fisheries of New England, and ships from Jamestown carried supplies to the starving people, there seated, preventing the probable abandonment of that colony during the severe winter through which they had to pass. In 1622 there were forty-two vessels plying between Virginia and England, and by Christmas Day the 893 survivors of the massacre had been augmented by 2,500 souls, and seventeen sea-going ships were anchored off Jamestown. Their officers and crews had the opportunity to attend Christmas services in the Jamestown Church.

    The colony was saved. Governor Wyatt reported that in defense against the Indians during that year, more of the red men had lost their lives than had been the total from 1607 to the time of the massacre. Truly 1622 was the crucial year in the history of the colony, and notwithstanding the many after vicissitudes, the permanence of its settlement was assured. Again, may I add, it was in 1622 that these Virginia planters showed their contempt for the orders from the King by sending tobacco in their own ships direct to Holland and refusing to transport it first to England. Sandys, in reply to the King, when complaint was made of this, informed His Majesty that, as a number of the Virginians owned their own ships, it was beyond his power to force them to accede to the order.

    By direct importation, the Virginians saved the English import duty, also confiscation of one-third of their crop (to the King), as would have been the case had they accepted James' demand.

    One of the colonists, Edward Waters, had been captured by, the Nansemond Indians, and taken, with his wife, a prisoner to their village on the Nansemond River. During a storm they escaped in a canoe and landed at Kicquotan. I mention this colonist especially, as he had been one of the three Englishmen (Carter, Waters and Chard) who, when shipwrecked upon the Somer Islands in 1610, discovered a block of ambergris weighing 160 pounds and valued at about 10,000 pounds sterling. The adventures of these men, and the disposition of this great block of ambergris, the largest ever found, forms an interesting story too long to dwell upon in this volume.

    The death of John Berkeley and his iron workers, who were in charge of the iron foundry at Falling Creek, proved not only a misfortune, in that the iron works were destroyed, but the secret of the location of a vein of lead, known to John Berkeley alone, was lost.

    No white man has ever since discovered its location, and the Indians, though they brought in samples from time to time, would never divulge the secret of its location.


    1. This indicates him still alive, although he had been reported as dead when Opechancanough succeeded him.
    2. From the surroundings, he was, evidently, the same chief.


    "Men prospered, far from those bleak struggles when England, divided, turned upon the King."

    Now that we have considered the importance of the events of 1622, and the bearing they had upon the history of the Virginia Colony, let us in this chapter study-, in parallel, something about the other colonies that were being founded, in order that we may have a true understanding of the position occupied by the other of States, as compared with her younger sisters. Be it remembered, that when the first charter was granted it was stipulated that there should be two companies, the London Company, for Southern Virginia colonization; the Plymouth, for Northern Virginia. The last named company began operations at once, and sent out a vessel in 1606, for the purpose of planting a colony within its charter bounds, but the expedition came to grief, as the ship was captured by the Spaniards, and the English taken prisoners to Spain. The Spanish government, by right of discovery, claimed jurisdiction in American waters, and did not hesitate to use every effort toward preventing English colonization. The second expedition sent our from Plymouth landed at Saga hadoc (Kennebec) in the autumn of 1607, and built a small fort, which they named St. George.

    The expedition, consisting of 100 planters under Captain George Popham, was brought to Northern Virginia by Admiral Rawley Gilbert. They built and fortified a storehouse, but when Gilbert returned to England, after a stay of two months, only forty-five planters remained at the settlement.

    The Southern Colony had been planted at Jamestown on the 13th of May of that year, therefore antedating the Northern settlement by several months. The settlement at Sagahadoc was a failure.

    The suffering of the men was severe, their warehouse was destroyed by fire, and after a terrible winter, and the death of their leader, Henry Pophan, they returned to England on a relief vessel sent them in the spring of 1608. The few survivors declared the country to be "a cold, barren, mountainous desert, where they found nothing but extreme extremities."

    So bitter was their account of suffering- and distress upon the bleak coast, where they- had seated themselves, it was not until 1614 that further attempt was made to secure information of the country, other than such as was returned through the medium of fishing fleets who ventured into those waters in search of cod.

    Thus had died aborning the only direct effort made by the Plymouth Company to seat a colony- in Virginia.

    In 1614 Captain John Smith was employed and sent on a voyage of trade and discover-,-. He drafted a map of the coast which he presented, on his return, to Prince Charles, who, in token of his pleasure at receiving the map and report of Smith, named that section New England.

    In order for one to understand the conditions in England at this time, it would be necessary for a more extensive review of the writings that specialize on this subject. In this paper only slight mention will be made of the salient features connecting it with the Plymouth Colony. There were in England at that time several sects of Protestants, or Dissenters from the Church of England, who objected seriously to abiding by the laws, laid down by- the King, requiring them to adhere to the established church.

    They objected to any form of worship in which there was any display whatever, and they were bitterly opposed to the Sabbath being observed in any manner other than religious worship. The King permitted what we term, in our modern day, a wide-open Sunday, with all kinds of pleasure being tolerated. The Brownists, Puritans, Presbyterians, etc., uttered emphatic protests; the King countering with orders of arrest or banishment. A party of these Brownists fled to Holland, and there, under their pastor, Robinson, at Leyden, they worshiped and observed their Sundays as the dictates of their conscience required.

    But, these people found, after remaining for some time in Holland, that the younger generation was being subjected to the temptations of the freedom permitted the native children by the burghers. Not being scrupulous in religious affairs, the burghers were willing for the Brownists to worship as they desired, reserving the same right for themselves.

    It `vas at this time that Edwin Sandys, of whom mention was made in the last chapter as being such a great friend to the Virginia Colony, conceived the idea of planting a colony- within the northern part of the Virginia (London) company grant. Sandys had been a schoolmate and boyhood friend of William Brewster, and the fathers of these two had also been good friends, Being of liberal ideas himself, in correspondence with Brewster, he suggested the advisability of emigration to Virginia, provided "the parties (the church and company) could reach a mutual agreement."

    Associated with Brewster there was another friend of Sandys, George Cranmer, brother of William Cranmer, for some time auditor of the Virginia company, and a grand-nephew of Archbishop Cranmer. A correspondence ensued and, the maps and description of New- England as given by Captain Smith having been examined, a decision was made to make an attempt at colonization.

    Sandys secured a grant for them, and they left for Virginiaon the Mayflower, chartered by the Virginia Company, and officered by employes of that company. It is stated that before leaving Holland the pilot was bribed by the Dutch, who had begun making settlements on the Hudson and Manhattan Island, to land the Pilgrims north of their proposed landing. The "Mayflower Compact" was, by necessity, drawn up and signed before the settlement could be attempted. The grant from the Virginia Company was not valid beyond its jurisdiction( the New England Company had just been chartered, as a successor to the defunct Plymouth Company, and held jurisdiction in that territory) and it was necessary that this compact be signed as a mutual guarantee that the settlers abide by and adhere to the Governor and council selected by them, just as they- would have been required to do were they within the territory assigned them. Bradford says that there were mutinous strangers among them. who had let fall-"that when they came ashore they would use their own liberties; for none had power to command them, the patent they- had being for Virginia, and not for New England, which belonged to another government, with which ye Virginia Company had nothing to doe."

    The immigrants were not all Pilgrims. Brown, in his "First Republic in America," states that, "Some were from Essex, London, and other places in England. William Moline, his wife and children, are said to have been Huguenots; Christopher Martin, `the Governors in the Mayflower[1] was a member of the Virginia Company, and owned lands on the James River; Stephen Hopkins was an old Virginia planter." One of the signers of the contract, Edward Listen was killed near Flower lieu Hundred in the massacre of 1622.[2] The captain of the -Mayflower, Thomas Jones, and his mate, John Clarks, were employes of the London Company.[3] One of the owners of the Mayflower, Thomas Weston, owned a plantation in Virginia, on the James River. His ships traded between Jamestown and London.

    In 1622, John 'Mason and Sir Fernando Gorges were granted land between the Merrimac and Sagahadoc by the Grand Council of Plymouth. Their settlement was near the present site of Dover, and was the beginning of the present state of New Hampshire. In 1628 a charter was granted the Massachusetts Bay Company, and Salem was settled the following year. Boston was founded (1630) by Winthrop and 1,000 colonists.

    The first settlement in Maine was from the Plymouth Colony at York, in 1630. Connecticut settlements were made, from - Massachusetts, at the present sites of Winsdor, Hartford and Weathersfield, but New Haven was founded in 1638 by immigrants direct from England, and was a separate colony until 1665. Here is located the Charter Oak, in which the charter, of the colony was hidden when demanded by Sir Edmund Andros in 1687.

    The following data is given in brief that the reader may have it convenient for parallel reference.

    New York was first called New Amsterdam, and was a part of Virginia -until settled by the Dutch in 1614. It was conquered in 1634 and granted to the Duke of York by his brother, Charles II.

    New Jersey was settled by Dutch and Danes, in 1624 and shortly afterwards 1>v colonists front Sweeden and Finland. It was attached to New- York in 1676, transferred to William Penn in 1682, and became a crown province in 1738. The last royal Governor was William Temple Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin.

    Pennsylvania was granted to Win. Penn in 1681. He settled at Philadelphia with 2,000 followers, in 1682, but, remained only for a short time, and died in England in 1718, aged 74.

    Delaware was settled by Swedes and Finns, under patronage of Gustavus Adolphus, in 1627. They landed at Paradise Point (Cape Henlopen) and gave the country the name of New Sweden. It was seized by the Dutch in 1655 and united to New Amsterdam under the name of New Netherlands. It became a part of the grant of the Duke of York, when the Dutch were driven out, and was conveyed again to William Penn in 1682.

    Maryland a part of the original Virginia grant, was regranted to Lord Baltimore and settled by his son, Leonard Calvert, in 1632. In 1669 the seat of government was fixed at Annapolis. It was wrested from the proprietor in 1688, tendered to William and Mary, the English sovereigns, and remained a royal province until 1716, when it was restored to the Calvert family- and remained a proprietary- colony until the Revolution established its independence.

    Rhode Island—Settled by Roger Williams in 1636, who had been banished from Massachusetts. United with the Newport settlement (1638) in 1644. First Assembly held in 1647. New charter granted by Charles II, 1663. Adopted U. S. Constitution in 1790, but still proceeds under provisions of its colonial charter.


    1. Brown—"The Republic" p. 408.
    2. Id. p. 468.
    3. Id. p. 424.


    In the last chapter we gave, in outline, data concerning the Colonial history- of the original colonies north of Virginia. We will now consider those to the south.

    North Carolina embraces within its territory the land upon which the first English colonization was attempted, namely, that on Roanoke Island, in 1585. This was the expedition mentioned in a previous chapter to which you may refer for particulars. North Carolina originally formed part of Florida, under the claim made by Spain, as by right of discovery. All of that region had been so named since 1512. Later, it is true, it was claimed by France, as was all the Atlantic Coast, under the name of New France (Nova Francia). Two or three attempts were made by the English to plant settlements in this territory- after the loss of the first colony, but they proved abortive.

    It was not until 1650 that emmigrants from Virginia planted the first permanent English settlement, and in 1661 a second English colony, from 'Massachusetts, settled itself near the mouth of the Cape Fear River. In 1667 the infant colony secured a representative government. Two years after this, the colony was thrown into confusion by the Utopian dream of Locke's scheme of government. Locke's idea was to plant on the Western Hemisphere a colony modeled' on that of England, with its lords, castles and great estates controlling the destinies of the settlers and ruling them in a feudal manner. Space does not permit a full account of this wild project. It was soon abandoned, for the liberty-loving Virginia settlers paid no attention whatever to such attempts, and refused absolutely to accept any such system. They had tasted of the pleasures and benefits of the freedom they enjoyed in the New World and did not propose to surrender it.

    The growth of Carolina was slow, and this period of its history- is rendered memorable by the destructive savage war with the Indians in 1712. In 1717 the proprietary government was forfeited to the crown, and it continued a crown colony until the Revolution, which separated it, with other American colonies, from Great Britain. In 1720 the Southern section of Carolina was cud off, and two distinct governments formed, under the names of North and South Carolina. In 1775 the inhabitants of the Western counties, styling themselves "Regulators,' organized themselves into a body of 1,500 men, and attempted to establish an independent government, but they were defeated by Governor Tyron, 300 being killed.

    During the war of the Revolution, North Carolina was, for a considerable time, the seat of hostilities, and some of the most brilliant achievements of the great war for independence were performed upon her soil. The battle of 'Moore's Creek Bridge, Ding's 'Mountain and Guilford Courthouse will ever remain imperishable memorials .of the bravery and patriotism of its inhabitants. So closely have relations ever keen maintained between North Carolina and Virginia the people of the two sections, notwithstanding division in government, have shod as one on all the great questions involving the welfare and future of these two neighbors. Its soil resembles that of Virginia, its interest are the same, its people are as one.

    South Carolina was not settled permanently for nearly a century after the settlement at Roanoke. The first settlement was planted at, or near, Port Royal in 1670, under the direction of William Sayle, the first Governor of the Province. The next year this little band of Englishmen removed to the western bank of the Ashley River, but, owing to the impossibility of large vessels approaching, the site `vas abandoned and again they removed to the confluence of the Ashley and (Cooper Rivers, where the foundation of Charleston was laid.

    In 1662 Charles II. granted both of the Carolinas to Lord Clarendon and others, which fact greatly impeded the growth of South Carolina until 1720, when it was separated into a colony of its own. This was made possible by the introduction of the cultivation of rice (1695), which turned the tide of immigration in its direction. Indigo and cotton being later introduced, South Carolina began a steady advance toward wealth and independence. Notwithstanding- the continued savage warfare along her frontier there was continued advancement in population and prosperity until the war of the Revolution. Her inhabitants tools an active part in the battle for liberty-, while the names of Marion, Sumter and Lee, and the battles of Cowpens and Utah Springs, will ever continue to occupy a prominent place in the history of our country.

    Georgia was the last of the thirteen provinces to be settled by the English. Previous to 1733 it was a wilderness, claimed by Spain as well as England. In November of that year General James Oglethorpe, with 160 persons, left England and arrived at Charleston in January, 1733. In the spring they- founded Savannah. The advance of the colony was exceedingly slow, and in 1752 the charter was surrendered to the Crown. A general representative assembly was established in 1755 and was followed by a cession of all the country between the Alatahama and St. Mary's River in 1763. This grant was of greater consequence to Georgia and to the other colonies, as it brought about, or was at least the prime cause, of the cession of Florida by Spain to Great Britain.

    From this time Georgia began rapid increase in population, notwithstanding the retarding influence of Indian warfare. When the American Revolution began, her inhabitants had just begun to enjoy the blessings of peace. She had not suffered, as had the older colonies, the tyranny practiced by the House of Stuart, and knew the operation of the royal government only in contrast with that of the former proprietors. Notwithstanding this fact, her liberty-loving inhabitants did not hesitate to cast their lot with their Northern brethren and join them in defiance of the edicts of the English throne.

    In March, 1775, they sent a delegate to Congress, and in July of the same year delegates from the province gave sanction to the measures adopted by the thirteen colonies for denfense. Georgia was over-run by British troops, and the losses of her citizens were great, but they remained faithful to the end, and the descendants of these hardy pioneers have every reason to be proud of their inheritance. Next to Virginia, Georgia has ceded to the United States more territory than any other colony and State.

    Florida was given its name by its discoverer, Juan Ponce de Leon, who arrived on its coasts on Palm Sunday (Pasque Florida), in 1512. This name was first used in general literature when describing the territory lying along the whole Atlantic Coast of North America. It was the flattering reports made by Ponce de Leon's expedition, heralded throughout Europe, that caused the sovereigns of other nations to look with jealous eyes toward the Western Continent. Conflicting claims soon arose on account of other nations attempting settlement within the bounds claimed by the Spanish King. France attempted colonization in 1562, but the settlers were surprised and massacred by the Spanish in 1565. The French revenged this massacre, but the Spaniard's renamed and founded the city of St. Augustine.

    In 1699 West Florida was settled and the city of Pensacola founded. The territory was often invaded by both the French and English, but remained part of New Spain until 1763, when it was ceded to Great Britain, and shortly afterward divided into two parts, called East and West Florida, with the River Appalachicola as the boundary line. 1,500 Greeks, Italians and Minorcans settled about sixty miles south of St. Augustine and began the cultivation of indigo and sugar cane, finding the soil fertile and their efforts profitable. In 1781 Don Galvez Spanish Governor of Louisiana, conquered West Florida, and two years afterward, Great Britain ceded both provinces to Spain. The United States acquired the territory by treaty in 1820, and since that time it has remained an integral part of the American republic.

    This completes the list of the various settlements along the Atlantic Coast, and we again return to Virginia and resume the discussion of its history as a colony.



    The end of the administration of the Virginia Company and the taking over of affairs by the King, James L, dates from his proclamation of July 13, 1624, seventeen years after the settlement at Jamestown. For some years there had been a constant dispute between the King and the Company. The liberal charters obtained by Edwin Sandys and his associates, combined with the independence shown by the Company, and the liberty loving settlers, had been the source of a great deal of opposition on the part of the King, who implicitly believes); in the royal prerogative to dictate his twill to all subjects wherever they might dwell. This was aggravated to a great extent by the secret machinations of Gondomar and the Spanish King.

    Edwin Sandys,[1] the Treasurer and head of the Company, after the overthrow of Sir Thomas Slnith,-though a member of the Church of England, and son of Edwin Sandys, the Bishop of York, was one of the most liberal-minded men of his age. In company with George Cranmer, a grandnephew of Archbishop Cranmer, he had traveled in Europe for six years( 1583-1589) spending most of that time at Geneva, where he had studied the Calvinistic doctrines, and become seasoned with Genevan principle, which were antagonistic to all monarchial principles of government. It is said of hint that "lie was ardently in favor of the emancipation of the SANDY'S S CONVICTIONS

    human mind in matters of religion and religious liberty, and was at heart opposed to the government of a monarchy, and favored civil liberty." Sandys is also quoted as declaring that "He thought that if God from heaven did constitute and direct a frame of government on earth, it was that of Geneva."

    It can be readily seen why a man with his convictions should attempt to establish a free government in Virginia, and how he gathered around him, men of the same opinions, such as Southampton, Farrar, Cavendish and others, who were among the most advanced thinkers of that clay.

    The administration of Sir Thomas Smith had not only proved a failure, but a large amount of the money subscribed by stockholders in the company had been lost without proper accounting on the part of Smith and his assistants, and it was to save the company- from bankruptcy and failure. in colonization that Edwin Sandys, patriotically agreed to accept the administration of affairs. Had it not been for the intrigues of Gondomar. Warwick, Argall and other members of the company, under the influence of the last two mentioned, it is doubtful if even the King could have succeeded in his determination to annul the charter; for he seized upon these charges as just cause for sending a commission to Virginia to investigate the affairs of the company. These men, being in his employ, naturally returned a report to his liking.

    John Farrar, the deputy treasurer, writes that "The King was at the bottom of this whole proceeding which from beginning to end was a despotic violation of honor and of justice; which proved him to be a roan void of every laudable principle of action. a man in all his exertions made himself the scorn of those who were not in his power and the detestation of those who were; a man whose head was indeed encircled with the regal diadem, but never, surely, was head more unworthy or unfit to wear it." To which Peckard has added in a note: "He became the public jest and object of ridicule to all the States of Europe."[2]

    When sides were taken in controversy in the company, prior to the dissolution, the Warwick faction could only summon twenty-six adherents; whereas, the Sandys faction had over 1,000 supporters within the membership alone. The company did not surrender its rights without protest. The best legal minds of England were employed to fight before the courts and an appeal was even made to Parliament, which, unfortunately, was nearly ready to adjourn, though favorable to the claim of the Sandys faction. Many of the Parliament members were associated with Sandys and Southampton in the protest.

    The massacre of 1622, charges of mismanagement and the determination of Warwick and Argall to use every- endeavor to prevent the company's investigation of their connection with the piratical cruises of the Treasurer, all proved of great assistance to the King in justifying his course. Warwick and Argall probably saved their necks from the headman's axe when the company was dissolved, as proceedings against them were never taken by the King. It is very- fortunate that Nicholas Farrar, anticipating the dissolution of the company, had' a copy of all of the court books and records of the company carefully transcribed. These were afterwards at tested, upon oath, as true copies, and presented to the Karl of Southampton.[3]

    The members of the company had expended over £100,000 out of their own private fortunes. The King's jealously of their freedom of discussion, their liberal administration, their refusal to elect officers nominated by him, the determination of the Virginia settlers to sell their tobacco where they willed, regardless of his express command as to its disposition, had proved their undoing. The colony henceforth was to be administered according to his royal will, regardless of any- protest the colonists might make.

    It was during the administration of Governor Wyatt that the first suit for breach of promise was instituted and the first duel fought.

    Captain Samuel Jordan, of Jordan's journey, died in 1623, and it is recorded that only three or four days after his death, Rev. Grivell Pooley began making overtures, looking towards consummating marriage with the widow, Mrs. "Sysley Jordan." He persuaded Captain Isaac Madison to accompany him to the home of the widow to assist him in broaching the subject. Rejected, he paid a second visit and reported to Madison that she had contracted herself. Madison was induced to accompany him the second time to witness the widow's pledge.

    Madison, in reporting what took place, states that, on being received at the house, the Rev. Pooley asked for a dram and the widow ordered a servant to fetch it, but Pooley declared he would not accept it unless it be prepared and "fetched" by her fair hand. When she agreed to this, Madison and Pooley followed her into the room. It is to be presumed that both gallant gentlemen failed not to drink the fair Sysley's health, and it was then, it is reported, Pooley took hold of the widow's hand and repeated these words: "I, Grivell Pooley, take thee, Sysley, to my wedded wife, to have and to hold till death us do part, and, thereto, I plight thee my troth." Still holding her hand, he continued the form of words as if she were speaking: "I Sysley, take thee, Grivell, to my wedded husband, to have and to hold till death us do part."

    Madison says that she did not repeat the words, but that they drank to each other and Pooley kissed her, exclaiming-: "I am throe and thou art mine, until death us separate." It seems that the young- widow then insisted that Pooley and Madison keep secret what had transpired, else gossip would snake light of her accepting such attention so soon after her husband's death, and Pooley asserted that "Before God he would not reveal it till she thought the time fitting-." The secret was too much for the infatuated swain and he informed his friends of his good fortune, whereupon the incensed Sysley contracted herself to William Ferrar ( Farrer), a brother of the John and Nicholas Farrer, previously mentioned as prominently- connected with the Virginia Company.

    On June 14, 1623, Pooley instituted against the widow the first breach of promise suit in English America.[4] The case was argued before a court consisting of Governor Wyatt, Sir George Yeardley, George Sandy-s, Ralph Hamor, John Pounds and Roger Smith, sitting as a "Council of State." The trial was continued over to the November term. At this hearing, "The Council in Virginia (not knowing how to decide so nice a difference, our devines not taking upon them pressily to determine whether it be a formal and legal contract), referred the case to the Company in England, "desiring the resolution of the Civil Lawyers thereon and a speedy return thereof.

    As a precaution against future occurrences, the court decreed that it was contrary to the ecclesiastical laws of the realm of England for a, woman to contract herself to (two) several men at the same time, "whereby much trouble loth grow between parties, and the Governor and Council of State much disquieted. To prevent the like offense to others, it is by the Governor and Council, ordered in Court that every- minister give notice in his church, to his parishioners, that what man or woman soever shall use any words or speech, tending to the contract of marriage, though not right or legal, yet may so entangle and breed struggle in their consciences, shall for the third offense undergo either corporal punishment, or the punishment by fine, or otherwise, according- to the guilt of the persons so offending."

    The reader will note that punishment was placed for the "third offence," not first and second, therefore, it is to be presumed, the fair Sysley, not having been charged with more than "two offenses," was permitted to marry the man of her choice and lived happily ever afterwards.

    The duel mentioned in the first paragraph was fought in the early spring of 1624. The principals were George Harrison, of Martin's Brandon, and Richard Stephens, a merchant, of Jamestown. 'Mr. Harrison had taken offense at Stephens' handling of an invoice of goods shipped from England by his brother, John Harrison. Words and blows passed, followed by Harrison's challenge. The latter had been in ill health and left a sickbed to meet his antagonist on the field of honor. Harrison was wounded in the leg and died two weeks later. Stephens was exonerated from being the cause of his death as "The Doctor and Chirurgeons did open his bodie upon the juries request. * * * * * They did affirm that he could not have lived long and that he died not of the hurt which he received. For it was but a small cut between the garter and his knee."

    One hundred and seven children are known to have been born in the colony between 1609 and 1625. and the following settlers were still living in Virginia:

    Of those sent under the royal charter in 1606-1608: Nathaniel Causey, John Dods, Davis Ellis, Captain Thomas Graves, Anne Laydon, John Laydon, Captain John 'Martin (the only member of the original council then living in Virginia), Thomas Savage, Richard Taylor, Captain Francis Vest and probably a few others. Raleigh Crashaw was living in 1624, and he was probably still living, but absent; Ensign William Silence is recorded as "lost" in 1623, but he may have been living in captivity.

    Of those sent under the company charters in 1609-1615: William Askew, Robert Aston, Henry and Thomas Bagwell, William Bailer, Hugh Baldwin, Michael Batt, Lieutenant Edward Berkley, Theophilus Beriston, Richard Briggs, Walter Blake, John Blow (Blower, etc.), Richard Bolton, Reynold Booth, Thomas Bouldin, Thomas Cage, William Capps, Thomasine Causey, John Carter, Joan Chandler, Isaac Chaplin, Francis and Thomas Chapman, Josiah Chard, John Clay, Phetiplace Close, Joseph Cobb, Susan Collins, Henry Coltman, Joan Croker, John Bowneman, Elizabeth Dunthorne, John Ellison, Robert Fisher, Joan and Pharao Flinton, John Flood, Thomas Garnet, Thomas Godby, George Grave, Robert Greenleafe, Edward Grindon, John Gundrie, John Hall, Ralph Hamor, Thomas Harris, John Hatton, Hugh Haward (Harwood or Howard), Gabriel and Rebecca Holland, Oliver Jenkins, John Johnson, Elizabeth Jones, Cicely Jordan, Win. Julian, Richard Kingsmill, Thomas Lane, John Lightfoot, Robert Lince (Lynch?), Albiano Lupo, Francis Mason, William Morgan, Alexander Mountney, Robert Paramour, Robert Partin, William Perry, Joan and William Pierce, Robert Poole, Jr., John Powell, John and William Price, Miles Prickett, John Proctor, James Robeson, Christopher and Robert Salford, Walter Scott, Samuel and William Sharpe, James Sleigh, Joan and John Smith, William Spencer, Thomas Stepney, John Stone, Thomas Sully, John Taylor, Captain Willian Tucker, Henry Turner, John and Susan Vigo, William Vincent, Edward Waters, Thomas Watts, Amyte Wayne, Michael Wilcocks, Henry Williams, Thomas Willoughby, Sir George and Lady Temperance Yeardley and others. All of the above were entitled to land under the great charter of November 28, 1618. The reader can note how familiar most of these names are in Virginia of today.

    Governor Sir Francis Wyatt did not remain in Virginia but a short time after James I. assumed control and reappointed him as Governor. He had come to Virginia from Ireland, where his family were owners of large estates. Receiving a message from his old home that his father, Sir George Wyatt, had died, he found it necessary to return to Ireland to settle the estate, and left for home, via England, on May 17, 1626. James I. had died March 27, 1625, and Charles I, his oldest surviving son, had succeeded him.

    Readers of these papers will recall that Henry, Prince of Wales, an enthusiastic patron of the young colony, died shortly after the founding of the town of Henricopolis. Charles, therefore, was next in line of succession. The colonist named one of the points at the entrance of the Chesapeake in his honor (Cape Charles); a fort near Point Comfort and a great stretch of territory had also received his name. Unfortunately, Charles was not interested in Virginia, other than a possible source of revenue for his royal purse. He confirmed all of the promulgations of his father and added other restictions even more binding and galling to a people who had tasted of the blessings of self-government.

    Charles appointed Sir George Yeardley in Wyatt's stead, but did not change the order of James abolishing the General Assembly. This was the second time Yeardley had been placed at the head of the government, his first service having been from 1619 to 1621.

    Yeardley, apparently, was a friend of the colony, and would have proven a foil to many of the evils suffered under the administration of the notorious Harvey, who succeeded him in 1630, had he lived. He died November 13, 1627, and was buried at Jamestown. A marble slab, within the walls of the church is supposed to cover his last resting place. The inscription on the stone was engraved upon metal. The metal has been stolen.

    During the interval between Yeardley's death and the arrival of Harvey, the council appointed, first, Captain Francis West, as deputy-Governor; second, Dr. John Pott, as Nest sailed for England March 5, 1629.


    1. Pronounced Sands, the y being silent. It was sometimes spelled Sandes.
    2. Brown's First Republic in America, pp. 602-603.
    3. It is said that Farrar spent £50 from his private purse for the purpose above mentioned. Two of these books, with some pages missing, are now in print and available for inspection by our historians. The two volumes contain about 43,000 words, and it is very much hoped that the pages missing may be found, thus giving a complete record of the proceedings of one of the moat remarkable undertakings of the seventeenth century.
    4. It is to be noted that the first suit was a man against a woman.


    "So passed the darkest hour . . . .Stern Governors Laid on the land their will."

    Sir John Harvey, with commission as Governor and captain general, arrived at Jamestown March 24, 1630.

    He brought with him a Proclamation Charles had issued defining his policy towards the colony-, in which he declared that"After mature deliberation, he had adopted his father's opinion, that the misfortunes of the colony had arisen entirely from the popular shape of its late administration, and the incapacity of a mercantile company to conduct even the most insignificant affairs of state; that he held himself in honor engaged to accomplish the work that James had begun; that he considered the American colonies to be a part of the royal empire devolved to him with the other dominions of the crown; that he was fully resolved to establish a uniform course of government, through the whole British monarch-; and that henseforward the government of the colony of Virginia should immediately depend upon himself."

    Charles considered the colony of Virginia to stand in a very different relation to him from that enjoyed by Great Britain, as the colony had been (he asserted) inherited, as a personal estate, independent of the crown or political capacity.

    He declared that the whole administration of the Virginia government should be vested in a council nominated and directed by his royal self, and responsible to himself alone.

    While holding the Virginia Company up to scorn as a mercantile corporation, he prohibited the colonists "under the most absurd and frivolous pretenses," from selling their tobacco to other than his accredited personal agents. Professing a disgust at the use of the weed, he established a monopoly for his personal gain. The colonists found themselves subjected to vices of both previous administrations. They were to suffer from the "unlimited prerogative of an arbitrary prince," added to "the narrowest maxims of a mercantile corporation, and mast see their Legislature superceded, their laws abolished, all profits of their industry engrossed and their only valuable commodity monopolized by the sovereign who pretended to have resumed the government of the colony only in order to blend it more perfectly with the rest of the British empire."

    The Great Charter, secured by- Sandys and Southampton and the granting of suffrage to the people, permitting them to have a voice in the affairs of the colony-, through the General Assembly, had sown the seed of liberty that might have become dormant and unproductive had they found peace and prosperity under the sunshine of royal good-will and favor. It required the storm and rain of adversity- to properly nourish and germinate that which had been planted. Thus, the tyrrannical proceedings of James and Charles did much toward inculcating an adhorrence of monarchial government and contributing toward weaning the colonists away from an inherent desire to remain subject to the royal will.

    Charles could not have selected a better minion than Sir John Harvey. The colony could not have had a better teacher.

    Sir John Harvey was a fit instrument in the hands of Charles I. to enforce the arbitrary will of a despotic King. He was cruel, haughty and rapacious. With offensive insolence he conducted his administration with a rigor and severity that was so entirely unnecessary it instilled into the hearts of the colonists, not only repugnance for his own person, but, to many, an intense abhorrence of Charles Stuart, his master.

    Unfortunately, there was no Assembly elected by the people to wield its restraining influence, as had been the case under company- administration after the great charter had been granted; no Edwin Sandys, no Southampton to whom the people could appeal.

    Harvey carried his arbitrary exactions and forfeitures to such an extreme, the Royal Council for the colonies, in England, even thought it prudent to send a note of warning. In July, 1634, he received a letter from the King, stating that "for the encouragement of the planters, he desired that the interest which had been acquired under the corporation should he exempted from forfeitures, and that the colonists, for the present, might enjoy their estates with the same freedom and privileges as they did before the recalling of the patent." Graham, in his history of North America, asserts, "We might suppose this to he the mandate of an Eastern Sultan to one of his bashaws; and indeed, the rapacious tyrrany of the Governor seems hardly more odious that the cruel mercy of the prince who interposed to mitigate oppression only when it had reached an extreme, which is proverbially liable to inflame the wise with madness and drive the patient to despair."

    The reader will note the significant phrase, "for the present," and that there was no word of censure for Harvey, nor threat of his removal for the excesses of which he had been guilty.

    If this letter was designed to stifle the growing unrest of the colonists, the desired effect was completely nullified, or counterbalanced, by patents, issued to his favorite courtiers Arlington and Culpeper-granting them, for thirty-one years, Virginia and "Accomack" in fee simple. No opportunity was granted the colonists to register humble protest. It gave rise to encroachments in great number "upon; established possessions, excited universal distrust of the validity of titles and the stability of property."

    Under the charter, the Virginia colony had held jurisdiction along the Atlantic Coast north of Cape Fear, in common with the Northern Virginia Company, later designated as the New England Company yet, Charles, by virtue of his royal prerogative, hesitated not to make a gift of great stretches of territory, to whom he willed. He considered Virginia his personal inheritance, notwithstanding the property rights already acquired by his loyal subjects. It was in this manner that the Maryland d Charter was promulgated, dismembering from Virginia a large territory previously- acknowledged as within its borders, and in part of which (Kent Island especially) Virginia planters had seated themselves.

    Not only- did the Maryland grant prove disastrous to Virginians who had settled within its borders, but was to prove a source of discontent and serious injury to the whole Virginia colony, owing to refusal of the Maryland colonists to restrict the exportations of tobacco to grades of superior quality, thereby depriving the Virginians of the opportunity, previously enjoyed, of holding up the exportation of lower grades, which tended to glut the only market (England) legally open to them.

    Lord Baltimore, an estimable English nobleman, with his family-, visited Jamestown during the governorship of Harvey. He was received very coldly by the colonists, but cordially by the Governor, possibly in order to show contempt for the planters under his care. Lord Baltimore desired to secure a grant of land south of the James on which he intended seating a colony of fellow Catholics.

    When Baltimore returned to England, the colonists dispatched Claiborne also, to represent them in opposition to such a grant being made. Lord Baltimore left his family at Jamestown, where they- were treated with courtesy and consideration, for the settlers held no grievance against the individuals represented, but were antagonistic only to the seating of another colony in their midst of a different religious faith. Argall had protested, on behalf of the colony, against the Pilgrims being brought to Virginia; Quakers and dissenters were not welcomed.[1] The Puritans of New England were even more antagonistic of other sects than the Jamestown colony. Taking a leaf from the King's Book of Discipline, they were compelled to obey in England, they added several other leaves for the guidance of those who would dwell among them and not accept their interpretation of religious freedom.

    Either Harvey, King Charles, or both of them, seem to have had a sense of grim humor. The protest of Claiborne against the settlement south of the James was acceded to, and the grant made so as to include Kent Island, previously patented by that worthy individual. Did Harvey suggest it to the King knowing of Claiborne's grant? The Virginia planters thought he did, and it served as a torch applied to tinder. Meetings of protest were held. Harvey raved, cried "Treason!" and threatened arrest to the principal men of the colony, but, in a transport of general rage and impatient at further suffering, the Virginians turned the tables on the royal Governor and, to his consternation and amazement, arrested and shipped him off to His Majesty in England. A taste of liberty had been given by the great charter; an appetite created, that now, for the first time, asserted itself.

    Not only was Harvey deposed and sent to England as a prisoner, but two deputies charged with the duties of representing the grievances of the colony and the misconduct of the Governor went with him.

    The planters of Virginia had never disputed with the King, like their fellow-subjects in England, the validity of his edicts, nor had they entered into the controversies nor claimed privileges which could awaken his jealousy. They had borne his oppressions with patience.

    "Defenseless and oppressed, they appealed to him as their protector, and the appeal was enforced by every circumstance that could impress a just, or more generous mind."

    Yet, Charles, instead of commiserating their sufferings, "regarded their conduct as an act of presumptions audacity little short of rebellion; and all the acts of their deputies were rejected with calm injustice and inflexible disdain." He refused to admit the deputies to his presence; would not read a single article of their charges, reinstated Harvey, and "semi him back to Virginia, with an ample renewal of the pourer which he had so grossly abused."

    Graham states that, "Elated with his triumph and inflamed with rage, Harvey resumed and aggravated a tyrannical sway that has entailed infamy on himself, disgrace on his sovereign and provoked complaints so loud and vehement that they began to penetrate into England, and produce an impression on the minds of the people, which could not be safely disregarded. Enjoying absolute power over Virginia, Charles has inscribed his character more legibly on the history of that province than of any other portion of his dominions."

    Thus blinded, the despotic King added fuel to a flame that was to spring into conflagration, sweep him from the throne he had desecrated and compel him to bow in submission to the headsman's axe.

    Claiborne was to be avenged. The germinated seed of liberty had begun to sprout.

    Harvey did not retain the governorship long after his return to Jamestown. Had he been permitted to continue the tyrannical course he was pursuing, the colony would have been plunged into open rebellion and probable ruin. Every- ship clearing for England carried letters and messages of protest that caused much bitter feeling on the part of relatives and friends of the settlers in Virginia.

    At last the Icing, already harassed by the growing sentiment at home against his arbitrary edicts and exercise of his royal prerogative, found it necessary to accede to the demands of his distressed Colonial subjects and give them relief There was trouble enough at home.

    Harvey was recalled and Sir Francis Wyatt appointed Governor ad interim. His administration (1639-42) was uneventful, but, furnishing a relaxation from the bitterness engendered by Harvey, paved the way for Sir William Berkeley-, who succeeded him.

    Berkeley, who was a brother of Lord Berkeley, a proprietor in the New Jersey grants, was only 32 years of age when he arrived at Jamestown. He was a graduate of Oxford University, handsome, polished in manner and possessed an exquisite taste in dress that befitted one of the most gifted cavaliers of his day. He was possessed of every popular virtue in which Harvey was deficient, and being mild of temper and honorable in character, he soon became the beau ideal of his fellow colonists.

    He brought with him, among other suggestions for reform, instructions for restoration of the General Assembly, with permission "for it to enact a body of laws for the province, and improve the administration of justice by introduction of the forms of English judicial procedure." "Thus, all at once, and when they least expected it, was restored to the colonists the system of freedom which they had originally derived from the Virginia Company, which had been involved in the same ruin with that corporation and the recollection of which had been additionally endeared to them by the oppression which had succeeded its overthrow."[2] Joy was unconfined. A grateful people responded gladly to the liberal sentiments expressed. Meetings were held, addresses made, resolutions passed and forwarded to the Governor and King.

    The germ of democracy, apparently was crushed and dead. In truth, the little plant drooped its leaves and ceased to grow, but, deep-rooted in its native soil, it bided its time, until the now popular Berkeley, yielding to the promptings of self-love, intolerance, bigotry and greed, would fallow it again.

    Never has American history presented a similar character : the liberal-minded youth, loved and revered by all, was to become the hated and despised despot of later years. Berkeley, as Governor before the Commonwealth, was beloved and respected; after the restoration, a blight and a disgrace to civilization. Some historians assert that, as an old man, he was dominated and swayed by a young and ambitious wife; a modern version, forsooth, of the old, old excuse, "the woman thou gayest me." Virginians who read the story of Bacon, Hansford, Drummond and others can pay little credence to such nonsense.

    But, as this phase of the history of the colony will be discussed' later, let us now consider, in the next chapter, Berkeley's early administration, when yet a friend in deed and in truth.


    1. Argall protested that the colony needed producers not religionists who would have to be fed.
    2. Graham's Hist. of U. S.


    "Once more they struck, and once more driven back, Left to the plow their primal hunting ground's."

    While the King had given permission for a return to the blessings of self-government, he retained for himself the restrictions of the tobacco monopoly and demanded that all cargoes be landed in some part of the King's dominions in Europe. Penalties and confiscation of cargo were meted out to any colonist who disregarded the royal edict. The sheep's skin disguised the hungry wolf.

    Before Berkeley arrived, during the later years of Harvey's administration, Opechancanough, inveterate enemy of the English, rankling over the failure of the massacre of 1622, had again plotted the destruction of the colony. He was fully aware of the dissensions caused by the tyrannical Harvey, and had also learned from Thomas Rolfe, while the young man was on a visit to him (his great uncle), and his Aunt Cleopatra (sister of Pocahontas), that the people of England were on the verge of a civil war. Rolfe had no idea, of course, that this would influence the old chief to plot against people he was thought to hold in reverence and respect. The wily chieftain was old and feeble; not able to walk; too weak to raise his eyelids without assistance, and must be carried from place to place-yet he mapped out his plans and struck without a warning. Five hundred settlers fell victims in the massacre.

    Carried on a litter, at the head of his warriors. Opechancanough began his advance from the outer edge of the colony- in April, 1644. His intention was to annihilate or sweep them into the sea. The settlers along the York and Pamunkey were surprised' and killed, but Berkeley- met' the invaders near the present site of West Point, and defeated them with great slaughter. Opechancanoughwas captured and taken prisoner to Jamestown, where he was mortally- wounded by a soldier who guarded him.

    It is said that the aged, warrior, shortly before expiring, heard the voices of the people, who out of curiosity, gathered around him. Requesting an attendant to raise his eyelids that he might see, he gazed upon them in contempt and indignation.

    Sending for Governor Berkeley, he exclaimed, "Had it been my fortune to have taken Sir William Berkeley prisoner, I would not meanly have exposed him as a show to my people." Having delivered his reproof, he calmly "stretched himself upon the earth and died."

    Upon the death of Opechancanough, Necotowance succeeded him, and notwithstanding the fact that Charles I. had lost his throne at Nasby in June, 164, a treaty was entered into between the "King of the Induns" and Governor Berkeley , October, 1646, by which it was agreed that he would recognize the authority- of the King of England; the General Assembly promising to protect him from his enemies. Necotowance promised as an earnest of his friendship, to deliver the Governor "a yearly tribute of twenty beaver skins at the departure of the wild geese." "Cohonk," the wild goose call, was the Indian term for winter. To this day, this promise has been faithfully kept by the Pamunkey Indians, descendants of the Powhatans and each year their tribute is presented to the Governor of Virginia.

    The treaty contained other stipulations; one of which was that the Indians were to occupy- territory an the north side of the York River, and to cede all land extending between the York and James, from the falls (Richmond) to Kicquotan (Hampton). The method of transferring title was to pass over to the English a turn of grass through which an arrow had been shot. Illustrative, the writer ventures to suggest, than the title right was surrendered, as it had been killed, so far as the Indian was concerned.

    No Indian was to venture into the ceded territory without official permission, which was to be indicated by a badge of striped cloth to he secured at the time the permit was given. No settler was to he permitted to venture inside of the Indian huntingground, which extended from the head of the Blackwater to old Manakin town on the James. Violation of this constituted a felony and was to be punished as such. Special permits could only be secured at the four forts, viz. : Royal (on the Pamunkey), Charles (Richmond), Henry (Petersburg), and James (on the Chickahominy,). Thomas Rolfe, son of Pocahontas, was commander of the last named fort.

    Sir William Berkeley- held office as Governor of Virginia longer than any other executive, appointed or elected in colony or State. Succeeding Wyatt in February, 1642, he held the position with the exception of the interregnum-until recalled by Charles II, in April, 1677. James I. had keen fearful that the marriage of Rolfe to Pocahontas would establish a claim on the part of their son to the throne in Virginia, yet Charles II. virtually, made of Berkeley- a king, saving only the title, and the lack of a few minor prerogatives.

    Berkeley visited England in 1644 and returned to Jamestown in June, 1645, without being aware of the defeat of the Royalist cause. In the absence of the Governor, Richard Kemp acted in his stead. Kemp is said to have erected the first brick residence in the colony, though brick had been used in the construction of houses at Henricopolis in 1619, several having at least one story constructed of this material.[1]

    One may well imagine the feelings of this loyal supporter of Charles I when he learned from the next incoming ship that he had been defeated and the ancestral home of the Berkeleys (Gloucester, Eng.), where the governor had been born and reared, was in the possession of the Round Heads. Brave as he was loyal, he found a large majority of the Virginias also determined to be true to the King, and ready under his leadership to defy the "Protector of the Rights of the People," even to the extent of armed resistance. So far as Virginia was concerned, Charles was still the King. Thus is explained the wording of the treaty with Necotowance the following year.

    Taking advantage of the unsettled conditions in England and the absence of Berkeley from the colony, Claiborne had organized a band of insurgents, made a descent upon the Maryland government at Kent Island, defeated Culvert, driven him from the colony, and seized the reins of government. The reader will remember that Kent Island had been settled by Claiborne under the provisions of the London Charter, it being part of the Virginia grant, and that he had been dispossessed by Calvert (Lord Baltimore) under rights claimed through the later charter granted him by the crown. Now Calvert fled to Virginia where he remained until August, 1646, when he succeeded in driving Claiborne out again, and the sturdy Virginian never forgave the King for evicting him from what he declared to be a rightful possession. Claiborne became a professed Puritan, and openly espoused the Cromwellian cause. He succeeded in organizing a Puritan party and invited several ministers from New England to visit the colony. These men came to Virginia and were permitted to preach to the Puritan element, gaining many converts, until Berkeley, becoming aroused against them and their growing influence, ordered them banished.

    It is to be presumed that practicing lawyers, living in Virginia at this time, also sought other fields of labor, for it was decreed, by Berkeley, that professional attorneys were to be prohibited from receiving any compensation for their services, nor should they be allowed to appear in civil cases before the bar. Parties litigant must plead their own causes, without outside assistance, unless it appear to the court that one of the contestants was suffering from inability to make proper defense. In that case the court was instructed to select some one from the people, presumably not a lawyer, to assist.

    Lawyers may fail to understand, without explanation, how the colonists can be reported to have been contented and at peace. Happily, they were little influenced by the civil war then convulsing the mother country. There was a growing trade between the colony and its Northern neighbor, New England. In exchange for fish and other commodities, Virginians shipped tobacco, corn and cattle. In 1647 over 8,000 people lived in the colony, thousands of acres had been cleared and crops planted, 150 plows being in use. When Christmas arrived it found the people worshipping in twenty churches, each with its own minister, who received a salary equivalent to $500 per year, payable in corn and tobacco. There were anchored in James River ten vessels from London, two from Bristol, twelve from Holland, and seven from New England. The several crews totaled 800 men. Captain Brocas, of the Council, had planted a vineyard and made excellent wine; Mr. Richard Bennet had twenty butts of cider pressed from his own orchard; Sir William Berkeley had, from his orchard, apricots, peaches, mellicotons, quinces, wardens and the like, dried, pickled, preserved or otherwise disposed of; and there were wild turkeys, game, oysters, fish, poultry, pork, beef and many other delicacies of Old England.

    In 161 the English squadron of Cromwell, having forced the colony at Barbadoes to submission, entered the Chesapeake with orders to compel Berkeley and the Loyalists of Virginia to acknowledge allegiance to the Commonwealth.

    Cromwell was greatly incensed when he learned that the Virginia colony had refused to swear fealty to the new government in England. Parliament, by his suggesstion, passed an ordinance declaring the Virginians rebels and traitors, and issued a decree forbidding them commercial intercourse with England or any other colony. 'Massachusetts, notwithstanding the debt of gratitude, owing its Southern neighbor for food supplies when the colony was on the border of starvation, with many other favors voluntarily extended, immediately passed an ordinance similar to that of Parliament, and demanded of its citizens that they discontinue all communication with Virginia.

    Notwithstanding the isolated condition of the little band of Royalists and the impossibility of making successful defense, yet, under the leadership of Berkeley, they did not hesitate to take up arms in defense against the invading fleet. Several Dutch ships (trading in Virginia in defiance of the navigation act) were requisitioned and the sturdy-hearted Virginians met the enemy. Though defeated, they made such a gallant defense, the commander, in admiration of their effort, granted terms of submission favorable to the colony.

    In lieu of the severe epithets and restrictions of Parliament, the new terms stipulated that, "The people of Virginia shall have a free trade, as the people of England, to all places and with all nations," and that the General Assembly should continue to transact the affairs of the settlement, and enjoy exclusive rights of taxation.

    Disdaining any suggestion of personal exemption, from men he considered as regicides and usurpers, Berkeley retired to his country estate, Green Springs, where he resided as a private citizen beloved and respected by his fellow colonists.

    Had he never again accepted public office his memory would ever be revered in Virginia history. Yet, Berkeley was logically the man of the hour when the exasperated Virginians could no longer be restrained from erecting the royal standard and proclaiming Charles II. their rightful sovereign.

    The terms granted to Virginia by the articles of surrender to the fleet of the Commonwealth, were almost immediately violated by Cromwell and Parliament.

    Commercial intercourse between the colonies was forbidden. No production of Europe. Asia, Africa, nor America could be imported unless it be in vessels owned by English subjects, navigated by an English captain with a crew, the majority of which should be Englishmen. This navigation act supplied the tinder; later the stamp act was to supply the torch; starting a conflagration impossible for England to stop. It would sweep forward, until every vestige of English sovereignty was obliterated from the thirteen colonies then (1776) established.

    Hundreds of the best families of England fled to Virginia, knowing its loyalty to the crown, to escape the vengence of the Round Heads, as the Cromwellian army was called. Thus were introduced into the colony the Cavalier families whose descendants have shed such lustre upon the history of the commonwealth. The Washington, Madison, Monroe, Marshall, Randolph, Tyler, and other Cavalier families came to Virginia at this time.

    Oliver Cromwell died Sept. 3, 1658 and was succeeded by Richard his third son, the two elder having proceeded their father to the grave.

    He was unable to restrain the forces of Anarchy and soon resigned. Charles II ascended the throne.

    As the tide of emigration, first following the rivers, drifted ever westward, the great distance from Jamestown, Williamsburg, and the older settlements, where attendance upon court made long journeys ofttimes imperative, caused the colonists to continue mapping out new divisions of the original shires.

    Be it remembered that there were few roads, even in the vicinity of Williamsburg, only Indian trails and water courses furnishing line of communication. Journeys were ever filled with dangers of many varieties and seldom could be attempted other than on foot. Later, George Rogers Clark is reported to have walked seven hundred miles to attend a session of the House of Burgesses only to find the session closed before he arrived.

    One petition for a new division asserted that the petitioners thought it a hardship that they must "swim eight rivers and cross seven mountains" in order to attend court. This, of course, was after settlements had been made along the Ohio River and in Kentucky, all of which was at that time embraced in Virginia territory.


    1. The general opinion that many of the Colonial houses and churches were constructed of brick brought from England, is incorrect. Very few, if any, brick were imported.


    "NOW fifty years of silence; wet the time Was filled with growth and action. These we bass."

    The semi-finals in the colony's bitter school of experience, which were to terminate in the so-called Bacon's Rebellion, were first staged in the northern neck of Virginia and on the Maryland side of the upper Potomac.

    One Sunday while on the way to church, in the summer of 167, some of the Colonists discovered the bodies of Robert Hen, a herdsman, and his Indian helper, lying across his doorstep.

    The victims had been scalped, and, though both were apparently dead. Hen managed to gasp, "Doegs! Doegs-"

    The Doegs were from the Maryland side of the river and for sometime had been unfriendly to the English, though their depredations had been confined to the running, off of horses, cattle and pillage of the products of the field. They had become notorious for quickly disappearing from the vicincity of their crimes and the skill in which they diverted suspicion upon Indians friendly to the colonists. In the massacre of Hen and companion, leaving loth apparently (lead, theca thought themselves secure from suspicion when they had recrossed the Potomac. Hen's dying disclosure of the identity o f the murderers check-mated their lest laid plans and incited the people of the entire section to a frenzy of uncompromising hate, that would find full fruition only in the annihilation of the intruders.

    The militia of Stafford was called to arms and volunteers from adjoining counties hastened to offer assistance. Col. John Washington great-grand father of Gen. George Washington, assumed command, assisted by Colonels Giles Brunt, assigned commander of the horse, and George Mason in command of the foot soldiers.

    Brent and Mason hastened preparations for pursuit, and crossed into Maryland without awaiting permission from either Berkeley or the Maryland authorities. All Indians encountered were slaughtered ,indiscriminately, many of them being members of friendly tribes. Especially was this true with the Susquehannocks, recently driven h\the mar-like Senecas, from their ancestral seat near the headwaters of the hay-, and the Piscataways,[1] who were dwelling near the upper waters of the Potomac. Ruth of these tribes had always been friendly to the English.

    The Doegs continued their depredations, murder and pillage, oil both sides of the river, before the colonists were prepared to offer armed resistance, but, nom- finding themselves pursued, their Chief shot and his young sun captured, they fled to the protection of the Piscataways and Susquehannocks. I3\- this ruse, the\- evidently, thought to throw the English off the trail and escape their vengeance. but this proved a vain hope and their hosts were to grieviously softer the result of hospitality thus Innocently extended.

    With a force estimated at one thousand hose and loot, Col. Washington layed Beige to the stronghold. The Indians were surrounded and the siege lasted seven weeks, the besiegd to prevent starvation having to eat horses captured from the colonists. In desperation over the situation, six of their "great men" were sent to parley-only to be shot down (for reasons we have no knowledge, therefore, cannot understand) and the Indians received notice of their tragic fate. This cemented the tribes as one, and united former friend and foe, in desire for ample revenge.

    While plotting to escape, the savages made such desperate resistance, fifty of their number were killed. This did not deter them from stealing forth, in the dead hours of a moonless night, and making their escape. So well did they succeed, ten of the besiegers were killed, as the Indians trickled through the lines, and their bodies hidden so that their fate would not be discovered until too late for pursuit of the fleecing tribesmen. The thoroughly enraged Indians entered Virginia, and unmolested, swept southward, murdering and plundering without a warning voice being raised to herald their coming.

    Along the headwaters of the Potomac, Rappahannock and the James, men, women and children fell beneath the tomahawk and scalping knife. No quarter was shown; age and sex was no protection.

    The Indian invaders declared it their intention to require a toll of ten English for each of their "great men" who had been shot by Col. Washington's men, and well they carried out their fell design. On the upper plantations of the Potomac and Rappahannock, thirtysix persons were massacred, and daily were other defenseless victims added to the score as the warriors continued their march toward the Falls of the James. Here, among others, the overseer and servant of Nathaniel Bacon, residing at Bacon's Quarter Plantation, were scalped and murdered. Berkeley, responding to the frantic appeals of the colonists, commissioned Sir Henry Chickeley and placed a competent force at his command. He was given full power to make peace or war. This was the great opportunity, the psycological moment for Berkeley to again win the confidence of the people and place himself upon the high pedestal of esteem occupied during his former administration. Not equal to it, he vacillated, probably urged by fear of his profitable fur trade being damaged beyond repair. The great opportunity was lost.

    What a commentary upon the governor, when contemporary writers find justification in asserting that he was not man enough to respond to the despairing call of humanity. Repenting his former action, he withdrew the commission, disbanded the troops, and left the defenseless settlers to their fate. Every planter found it necessary to defend his own fireside, or desert his humble cabin and flee with wife and children to the protection of more populous sections. In one neighborhood, it is recorded, the number of plantations occupied were reduced from seventy-one to eleven.[2]

    It was the cry of despair of these people, coupled with the intolorence of Berkeley and his refusal to come to the defense of the colony, that awakened Nathaniel Bacon to the responsibility, resting collectively upon him and other patrotic settlers, to take up arms in defiance of the royal governor's arbitrary will. The murder of his overseer and servant gave personal pustifica tion for the course he decided to pursue.

    The semi-finals were shifted to Jamestown and vicinity and neared their close with the death and secret burial of the young patriot. Like unto the grave of Moses, no man knoweth, to this day-, his sepulcher.

    That he answered the call of his fellow colonists, and nobly, is beyond successful gainsaying of the few historians who have endeavored to cast aspersion upon leis patriotism. Had they taken as much trouble to investigate, without prejudice, the true status of Bacon's connection with the spontaneous uprising of the people, as they used in casting aspersion upon his memory their infamous tirades would never have been given to print.

    The details of the story of the Rebellion have been published so often in the Histories of our State and Nation, it is not necessary- to enlarge upon them in this volume. For the most comprehensive and valuable account, it has been the pleasure of the writer to review, the delightfully written "Story of Bacon's Rebellion," by Mary Newton Stanard, is suggested to those who desire the full details of this critical period in the colony's history.

    It has been the endeavor of the author, of the present work, to present the true causes leading up to the First Declaration of Independence of July- 4, 1676, and to prove justification for Bacon's actions during the short period he commanded his little band of Virginia patriots. If this has been done, to the satisfaction of the reader, the writer is amply repaid for the endeavor.

    One can but speculate as to what would have been the destiny of the colony had Bacon survived and continued the work so well begun.

    One hundred years were to intervene, ere the gifted great grandson of Col. John Washington, the Northern Neck Commander, was to banish forever, from our shores, the overlordship of a foreign power. The seed of democracy-, sown in 1633, when Harvey- was deposed, germinated by- Nathaniel Bacon and his men in 1676, yielded an abundant harvest in 1776-81. Today-, the love of liberty and the realization of its benefits, resultant of the sacrifices of the patriot colonists, has found lodgement in the universal heart of man. Democracy stands, triumphant, before the vacant thrones of despotic kings.


    1. A Jesuit mission had been established among them in 1640, but had been abandoned before the above tragic events.
    2. Stanard's—The Story of Bacon's Rebellion.

    JULY 4th, 1676

    "And 'twixt two iron wills Virginia In this year sixteen seventy-six stood poised."

    One hundred years to the day, prior to the signing of the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia, a Declaration of Independence was signed at Jamestown. That of July 4, 1776, was the inditation of a representative body of patriots and voluntarily signed by them; the Declaration of July 4, 1676 was also written by a representative patriot-but it was involuntarily signed, under duress, by a tyrannical royal governor.

    The Jamestown Declaration was divided into three sections. The first was a Commission to Nathaniel Bacon, appointing him Commander in Chief of the forces in Virginia. The second was a commission each, for thirty officers, signed in blank by Sir William Berkeley, to be filled in at the discretion of the newly appointed general. The third section of the Declaration was a letter to King Charles, dictated by Bacon, which exonerated the young patriot from all blame, and making explanation and excuse for the procedure adopted by him in obtaining his demands. We may the more fully understand why Bacon was fully justified in marching his armed followers to Jamestown, there defying the royal governor by force of arms and forcing him to yield to his every demand, if we make review of the happenings in Virginia following the accession of Charles II to the English throne and the reappointment of Berkeley- to supreme command as his colonial representative.

    In his first administration, cut short by the downfall of Charles I, Berkeley had, in justice been proclaimed the most popular governor ever commissioned to administer the affairs of the Colony. His second administration was a complete reversal of the first, begun and continued under an entire change of policy-. He had become an aristocrat of the aristocrats, intolerant of everything, and everybody he deemed running counter to his imperious will. Holding in contempt both printing press and popular education, he hesitated not to pronounce his philippics against them, and the so-called common people. All Virginians who failed to do him homage were classified as such.

    Thus we find the condition of the Colony-, retrograding from bad to worse, and from the date of Berkeley's reception of his newcommission, (July 31, 1660), we may calendar the true beginning of the so-called Bacon's Rebellion.

    Stimulated by the oppressions of the English King and the intolerance of his governor, the seed of Republicanism planted during the administration of Harvey (1629-39), began vigorouslyto grow, hastened to maturity by the rank injustice of the king. Charles not only strengthened the hands of his tyrant governor, but began bestowing upon his profligate favorites "large tracts of land in Virginia." Some of the acreage had already been patented under royal seal and at the time was in proper cultivation. The surprised and indignant owners received notice that they must male application to the new grantees for re-newal of lease, else suffer the loss of the estate through royal escheat. The asininity of the king reached its climax in 1773. He actually bestowed upon two of his favorites, Culpepper and Arlington, "All the dominion of land and water, called Virginia," as a gift for the term of thirty-one years.

    It is said of Lord Culpepper, that he was "a cunning and covetous member of the Commission for Trade anti Plantations"; of the Earl of Arlington, that he was "a heartless spendthrift," wet, Charles did not hesitate to grant them right to all rents and escheats, "with power to convey all vacant lands, nominate sheriffs, escheators, surveyors, etc., present to all churches and endow them with lands, to form counties, parishes, etc. Notwithstanding the fact that their grant was for thirty-one years, they were authorized to make conveyances in fee simple." (Hening, Vol. 2, p. 519).

    Imagine the President of the United States bestowing one of the Virginia counties upon some favorite, with power of escheat and authority to levy taxes. He has as much right so to do as had the English king to trample upon the rights of the people.

    Upon learning of this astonishing presentation, the Colony was in an uproar. Had not "some discreet persons" counciled against it a revolt would have burst forth in 1674. The planters resorted to remonstrances against such action and appointed committees to appear before the king, but these efforts prevailed them nothing. Murmurs of disgust were heard in every quarter, the middle class, especially-, being induced to regard all aristrocrats, so-called, as natural enemies. Under such a condition of affairs "everything of a public character wes neglected. There were neither roads nor bridges in the Colony, the people being compelled to travel by canoe, small boat, or bridal path, and there were no schools."

    The taxes levied by arbitrary will of the King, were collected by Berkeley, and the major part used by him for paying his own salary and expenses and that of the members of his aristocratic "Long Assembly-." What mattered it to him, nor theta, that the people were impoverished, their wretchedly constructed cabins unglazed and unsanitary; that, throughout the colony, towns and villages did not exist? In Jamestown, there were only eighteen dwelling houses, some untenable one church in ill repair, and a socalled state house. The Assembly was forced to meet in an ale house.

    How fared Berkeley and his friends? In luxuriously furnished mansions, generally seated overlooking some noble stream, they entertained each other lavishly, waited upon by indentured servants and negro slaves. The governor dwelt in regal splendor at Green Spring plantation, where assisted by his beautiful young wife, he did the honor of such festive occasions as he construed should be the privilege of a royal governor. To justify the expense, he demanded a substantial increase in salary, notwithstanding, the fact that poverty, stalked through out the Colony, while his broad acres pastured great flocks of sheep, and seventy- blooded horses well stabled, awaited the pleasures of his guests; that barns and granaries stood' filled to overflowingwith the varied products of his fertile fields, and in the cellars, close at hand, were stored. the choicest vintage from foreign climes.

    But Berkeley stayed not his band. With advancing years, becoming- more covetous, he had forbidden the Colonists to enter into trade with any Indian trapper or Indian tribes, while he and bosom companions endeavored to secure secret control of all traffic with the natives.

    To insure the success of this undertaking, he constructed a chain of forts on the western borders of the Colony, giving as explanation that they mere necessary to afford protection from Indian depredations, his secret reason being to use them as trading posts where furs could' be purchased, collected and stored.

    Ample distance between the forts permitted the Indian warriors to steal within the lines and test upon the defenseless Colonists the rifles and ammunition traded at the forts while robbing and murdering them at will.

    To every protest and petition, Berkeley made excuses or turned a deaf ear, for an Indian slain made an Indian less to meet in trade; fewer pound's and shillings to find their way into the exchequer.

    Protest proving of no avail, the indignant Colonists were ready for armed resistance against both Berkeley and the Indians, but there was no leader in whom they could put their trust. The governor reigned supreme, continuing in the course he had mapped out for himself and scorning the warning of some of his friends who predicted their might come a day of reckoning. It was nearer than the wisest of them expected. There is an old saw that proclaims—"The necessity produces the man." In this instance, it proved a true saying, for the man appeared and his name was Nathaniel Bacon.

    Nathnaiel Bacon was born at Friston Hall, Suffork, England, January 2nd, 1647. He entered Cambridge University in 1661, and graduated with the M. A.[1] degree in 1668, then being only 21 years of age. He had specialized in the study of law the last four years of his college course, and showed promise of becoming one of the most brilliant graduates of his class. Possessing a pleasing voice of unusual quality, a clear mind and the intuitive power to impress his audience with the logic of his argument, he was a young man who, stirred by patriotic ardor, would not hesitate to risk his all for the benefit of a cause, he thought was right. Like many young Englishmen of his day, especially younger sons, he decided to cast his lot among the freedom loving people of the new World, of whom he had heard and read so much. I doubt not he had met and talked with Cambridge men, who were native Virginians, sons of Colonists, sent to England to secure an education.

    Before leaving for Virginia, Bacon married Elizabeth Duke, daughter of Sir Edward Duke, and his bride accompanied him to his new home, (1674).

    After the happy couple had spent a short time visiting his cousin Nathaniel Bacon, the counselor, Bacon purchased a plantation at Curles Neck and there took his bride. Another plantation was purchased, (Bacon's Quarter) located near the Falls of the James, and here he erected a house and placed an overseer in charge. It was on this plantation the massacre of the overseer and a servant took place, which persuaded Bacon to take up arms and lead the little band of patriots who were willing to defy the royal governor rather than suffer longer from the incursions of Indian war parties.

    The farm house of Bacon's Quarter is said to have been located on land now occupied by the Richmond Locomotive Works. Bacon's Quarter Branch still flows by the site and empties a short distance below, into Shockoe Creek, thence flowing toward the James it passes through a valley near where was fought the sanguinary battle between the English and Indians, known as Bloody-Run.

    The bounds of Bacon's Quarter Plantation are not now known, though most of it was located within what is now the city limits of Richmond, especially those sections called Barton Heights, Highland Park and Ginter Park.

    This detailed account of the condition of the Colony prior to the arrival of Nathaniel Bacon, has been thought necessary as a number of historians have not hesitated to express grave doubt as to his true patriotism, some going so far as to accuse him of endeavoring to advance, by means of a persuasive tongue and magnetic personality, his own interests and ambitions.

    These writers are evidently ignorant of the state of ferment which permeated the whole Colony, before the arrival of the young lawyer, else a Virginian could not excuse their aspersion upon the memory of a man who gave his all, his life, to save others.

    `'Virginians, (aye. Americans), have a right to be proud of the glorious history of the past; of the sons and daughters of the colony mho hesitated not to make the supreme sacrifice for the lasting benefits of peace and liberty.

    Time has winged its flight, from Jamestown to the. might-, nation of today, and, till it he no more, may Virginia's children ever emulate the virtues of her past. Birthplace of Liberty; Mother of States; Defender of the Constitution, she speaks to you, in loving admonition

    All that I have given Cries to the future for still richer gifts, The light and leadership that have been mine Lie like a solemn burden on my soul. A vow I must redeem, a pledge of splendor I may not let the future disavow. And this high charge I give unto my children; Forget not; fail not; shape the years to come That those who gave us our great heritage Shall not be shamed. Lift up your hearts, and live Greatly, that the strong spirits of our mighty dead May seem to live again in you, and sway, Far in the future, equal destinies." —Pageant of Virginia.


    1. In England the degree was given as M. A. not A. M. as we have it.


    "That solemn ground, of all America Is richest, first . . . ."

    In this chapter, attention is given to the genesis of the counties of Virginia, tracing their origin from original hundreds, plantations and shires, to the counties of the present day.

    For much of the information herein contained, the writer is greatly indebted to Morgan P. Robinson, State Archivist, whose contributions to Virginiana, especially the State Library Bulletin, (volume 9, Nos. 1, 2 and 3) contain valuable information, resulting from his careful research and faithful compilation.

    Although Jamestown was settled in May, 1607, there was no attempt to establish any outpost until the second charter was granted in 1609. The second charter granted greater scope to the work of the London Company, and enlarged its powers of government. This year, Lieut. Percy and twenty men were sent to establish a fort at Point Comfort in order to guard' against expected attack by the Spaniards. The Fort was called Algernoune, in honor of an! ancestor of Percy (William Algernoune de Percy) who had come to England with William the Conqueror. The word "Algernoune" means whiskers," and was descriptive of William de Percy, distinguishing him from other Knights of similar name. This `vas the first outpost established by the Jamestown Colony.

    In 1610, Lord Delaware established two forts (Charles and Henry) at Kicquotan (Hampton) and developed a plantation for use in acclimating colonists, arriving from England, before permitting them to settle at Jamestown or other fresh water points.

    In 1611, Henricopolis and Coxendale were founded by Sir Thomas Dale, and the following year Bermuda Hundred, Charles City Hundred, Curls, Shirley Hundred and Rocksdale Hundred, here located.

    Not until 1617, was there further attempt to locate other outlying plantations. The population now consisted of four hundred settlers at Jamestown and locations made at Argall's Gift, Martin's Brandon, Smith's Hundred and Weyanoke and the Parishes of "James Citty, Charles Citty, Citty of Henricus and Kicquotan" were formed from the Hundreds previously mentioned.

    Flower dieu Hundred, Martin's Hundred and Maycock's Hundred were added in 1618 and the following year "Kicquotan" became Elizabeth City, by act of the first Legislative Assembly.

    It may be recalled that Sir George Yeardley, in the "Orders of Government" had brought instructions to issue writs permitting the election, by the settlers, of two Burgesses from each Plantation. There were eleven Plantations or Parishes, and therefore twenty-two Burgesses were eligible for election, though two sent as representatives were declared ineligible by the "Credentials Committee." (See names of members in journal of H. of B. 1619-58.)

    Such stimulation was given by the meeting of the Assembly, elected by the people, that nine additional plantations were located that year, viz.: Archer's Hope, Berkeley, Chaplin's Choice, Jordan's Journey, Warde's Plantation, Savage's Neck, Eastern Shore, and Westover, and Lawne's Plantation.

    The locations were as follows:—

    1. Argall's Gift (1617)—A portion of three thousand acres selected as the Governor's Land (Argall). Extended from above Jamestown Island on the north side of the river, between Chickahominy River and Powhatan Creek.
    2. Charles City (1613)—Extended from the pale (fortified fence) running between James River and the Appomattox. (See chapter referring to Henrocopolis, p. 4-I), including Jones Neck, thence eastward on both sides of the James, to the mouth of the Chickahominy.
    3. Flower dieu Hundred (1618)-Southside of James, opposite Weyanoke. One thousand acres.

    4. Henricus (1611)—Farrar's Island (Henricopolis site) and on both sides of the James extending westward from the above-mentioned pale. No limit established for western boundary.
    5. James City (1617)—Extended down the river on both sides. On the north side it extended to Kicquotan, though Martin's Hundred the next year (1618) cut off all but present counties of James City and Warwick. On the south side it probably extended to Elizabeth River, including the territory now embraced in Surry, Isle of Wight and probably Nansemond.
    6. Kicquotan (1610)—Extended from James City Corporation,now- Elizabeth City (1619). Its eastern boundary bordered on the Chesapeake Bay.
    7. Martin's Brandon (1617)—South side of the James, west of upper Chippokes Creek. Between James City and Warde's Plantation.
    8. Martin's Hundred (1618)—North of James, east of James City and west side of Skiffes (Keith's) Creek. Contained eighty thousand acres.
    9. Smith's Hundred (Southampton) (1617)—Eighty thousand acres on the north side of the James. West of Argall's Gift. Extended from "Tanks (Tanx-little) Weyanoke to the Chickahominy.
    10. Warde's Plantation (1619)—Contained twelve hundred acres on the south side of the James, between James City and Flower dieu Hundred.
    11. Lawne's Plantation (1619)—South side of James and east of Lawrie's Creek. Taken from James City (Isle of Wight). Bounds as noted in No. 5.

    In 1622 Inferior Courts were granted the several shires, and sheriffs appointed, but the growth into counties was given a great set back by the Indian Massacre of March 22nd, though the year following, (1623), the Assembly provided there should he monthly courts held at "Charles Citty and Elizabeth Citty for the decyding of suits and controversies, not exceeding the value of one hundred pounds of tobacco and for punishing petty offences." At this time there were sixteen political units represented in the Assembly, one being on the Eastern Shore,(three plantations were located on Eastern Shore)-and when the colony- was turned over to the Crown, in 1625, the population had increased to 1,227 whites; `23 negroes and ten converted Indians. At the time of the massacre, (1622) the plantations and settlements extending eastward from the falls (Richmond) were as follows: (Note—N—North side; S—South side). Beginning at Falls:—Falling Creek—S—(1621); Proctor's Plantation—S—(1620); Coxendale—S—(1611); Henricopolis—S—(1611); Rochdale Hundred—S—(1613); Curles Neck—N—(1613); Bermuda Hundred—S—(1613); Shirley Hundred—N—(1613); Piersey's Plantation—S—(1619); Charles City—S—(1613), Berkeley Hundred—N—(1619); Jordan's Journey—S—(1619); Westover—N—(1619); Woodlief's Plantation&mdashS&mdash(1619); Chaplin's Choice—S—(1619); Merchant's Hope—S—(1619); Maycock's Plantation—S—(1618); Swinyard's Plantation—N—(1619); Weyanoke—N—(1619); Flower lieu Hundred—S—(1619); Warde's Plantation—S—(1619); Smith's Hundred—N—(1617); Pace's Pains—S—(1619); Argall's Gift—N—(1617); Neck of Land—N—(1622); Archer's Hope—N—(1619) Jamestown—N—(1607); "Plantations Across the Water"—S—(1619); Lawrie's Plantation—S—(1619); Bennett's Plantation, (Warrosquyoake—S—(1621); Martin's Hundred—N—(1618); Pierce's (Rolfe's) Plantation—N—(1617); Basse's Choice—S—(1621); Water's Plantation—N—(1620); Kicoughtan—N—(1610); Buckroe—N—(1620); Point Comfort—N—(1609); Newport News (New Porte Neuse)—N—(1621); On Eastern Shore . . . . . .Yeardley's Plantation, (1621); Savage's Neck—(1619); Wilcoxe's Plantation—(1621); Dale's Gift, (on Smith's Island) (1614).

    A wall-map showing these locations can be seen at the State Library, a copy being published in the Bulletin.

    The political units were called hundreds or plantatations until 1634. In this year the twenty-one, then existing, were realligned, and formed into eight shires, to be governed as those in England. These shires were James City, Henrico, Charles City, Elizabeth City, Warwick River, Warrosquyoake, Charles River and Accommack. Accowmack (Indian Tribe) Present Accomac and Northampton) had a population of 396.

    Charles City (named in honor of Prince Charles), had a population of 511. It extended, on both sides of the James River from Upper Chip pokes Creek to the Appomattox (on S) and from Sandy Point to Turkey Island Creek (on N).

    Charles River (Later named York). Had a population of 510. It extended along York River.

    Elizabeth City (named in honor of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I, first extended on both sides of Hampton Roads, along the south side of Chuchatuck[1] Creek, and north side of Newport News. Its population was 1,670. (Warwick River County included.)

    Henrico (named in honor of Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I) was bounded on the east by Charles City, and extended westward without boundary. Its population was 419. James City (named in honor of King James I) was located on both sides of the James River. On the south side it extended from Lawne's Creek to Upper Chippokes where it joined Charles City, and on the north side from Skiff's (Keith's) Creek to above Sandy Point. Its population was 886.

    Warrosquyoake (Indian Tribe) (later Isle of Wight)—From Chuckatuck Creek, bordering Elizabeth City, to Lawne's Creek, joining James City. Population recorded as 522.

    Warwick River (In honor of Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick) first included Elizabeth City County. It was bounded on the north by Elizabeth City, extending to Keith's Creek (Skiffe's) joining James City. Population 1,670.

    One other original shire completes the list. This was Northumberland, formed in 1648 after settlements were made on the York, Piankitank, Rappahannock and Potomac. (See next Chapter.)

    Many of the counties have been absorbed by other States, and in several instances where counties mere taken from Virginia in the formation of Kentucky, the same names were later Given to Western Virginia counties, and the count- name was lost to Virginia, the second time, by the formation of West Virginia into a State.


    1. Chuckituck is a compound word. Chuck-hituck. Hituck is of same derivation (as in Curituck-Curhituck) and as hatah (probably first called hituck) in Powhatah (Powhatan). The word means, as elsewhere noted, in this volume,—Fast flowing.


    "Now sterner days press on. The Colony Grown strong, and ever hungry for new soil Strikes deeper in the trackless continent."

    The original shires were subdivided as follows:

    ACCAWMACK (1634-1642-3)—First had name changed to Northampton (1642-3) and from the latter was taken a section in 1663 that was given the name of Accomac.

    NORTHAMPTON (1642-3)—From Northamptonshire, England. In compliment of Colonel Obedience Robins, a Burgess from that section, who was a native of Northamptonshire. (Green, 56).

    CHARLES CITY (1634)—From it came Prince George (1703), and from this county were taken Brunswick (1732), Ameba (1736), Dinwiddie (1752). From Brunswick came Lunenburg (1746) and Greenville (1781). From Ameba came Prince Edward (1754) and Nottoway (1789). From Lunenburg came Halifax (1752), Bedford (1754), Charlotte (1765) and Mecklenburg (1765). Halifax gave Pittsylvania (1767). Bedford gave Campbell (1782) and Franklin (1786). (Part of Franklin was taken from Henry and Patrick). Pittsylvania gave Henry (1777). Henry gave Patrick (1791).

    Origin of names.—Charles City, Prince Charles (Charles I). Prince George, Prince George of Denmark, husband of Queen Anne (then on the throne). Amelia, in honor of Princess Amelia Sophia, youngest daughter of George II. Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Governor Robert Dinwiddie. Brunswick, Duchy of Brunwick, Germany. Lunenburg, one of the titles of George I, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg. Greenville, in honor of General Green, after he won the battle of Guilford C. H. Prince Edward after Edward Augustus, son of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Nottoway, an Indian tribe. Word means snake. Halifax,—from second Earl family. Bedford,—John Russell, Fourth Duke of Bedford. Charlotte,—Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg, Queen of George III. Mecklenburg,—Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of George III. Pittsylvania, Sir William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. Campbell,—General William Campbell, the hero of the battle of Kings Mountain. Franklin,—Benjamin Franklin. Henry,—Patrick Henry. Patrick,—Patrick Henry, having been part of Henry County.

    CHARLES RIVER (1634-1642-3).—Name changed to York (16423). From York came Gloucester (1651) and New Kent (1654). From Gloucester came Mathews (1791). From New Kent came King and Queen (1691 and Hanover (1721). From King and Queen came King William (1702). From Hanover came Louisa (1742).

    Origin of names.—Charles River, named after the River (now York) and in honor of Charles L, then Duke of York. He became Prince of Wales on death of his brother Henry, and afterward was crowned Charles I. Gloucester, Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Third son of Charles I. New Kent, said to be named by Colonel William Claiborne after Kent Island, from which he was driven by the Maryland charter. Mathew s, Major Thomas Mathews, who was in command at Cricket Hill when Dunmore attempted to hold Guinn's Island, and Milford Haven. King and Queen, after William and Mary, joint sovereigns. Hanover, Duke of Hanover, afterward George I. King William, King William, after Mary's death. Louisa, Princess Louisa, daughter of George II. She married Frederick V., of Denmark.

    ELIZABETH CITY (1634).—From Elizabeth City was formed New Norfolk (1636). New Norfolk ryas divided into Upper and Lower Norfolk (1637). From Upper Norfolk was taken Nansemond (1642). Lower Norfolk was divided into Norfolk and Princess Anne (1691).

    Origin of names—Elizabeth City, first known as Kicquotan. It was named in honor of Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I. She married Frederick, Elector Palatine, on St. Valentine's Day, February 14, 1612-13 (O. S.). New Norfolk, (Upper Norfolk, Norfolk). In honor of Norfolk, a port in England. Jefferson (1792) states as opinion that it received its name from the Duke of Norfolk. Nansemond (Nansemunds), an Indian word meaning "fishing point." A village of this name was located in that section. Princess Anne, in honor of Princess Anne, who became Queen in 1702.

    Counties From Henrico.

    HENRICO (1634).—From Henrico came Goochland (1728) and Chesterfield (1749). From Goochland came Albemarle (1744) and Cumberland (1749.) From Albemarle came Amherst (1761), Buckingham (1761) and Fluvanna (1777). From Cumberland came Powhatan (1777). From Amherst came Nelson (1808). From Buckingham came Appomattox (1845 Appomattox was also formed from sections of Prince Edward, Charlotte and Campbell.

    Origin of names.—Henrico, in honor of Prince Henry, Prince of Wales, who was a patron of the colony, but died before ascending the throne. Goochland, in honor of LieutenantGovernor William Gooch. In office from 1727 to 1744. Chesterfield, in honor of the Fourth Earl of Chesterfield (Philip Dormer Stanhope). Albemarle, in honor of the Second Earl of Albemarle (William Anne Kepp) Governor-General of the colony. Cumberland, in honor of the victor of Culloden, William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. Amherst, in honor of Sir Jeffrey Amherst, the hero of Ticondaroga. He was a Colonial Governor (1763-68). Buckingham, in honor of the Duke of Buckingham. Fluvanna, is a word that means "River Ann." Perpetuates name of Queen Ann, as does following names: North and South Anna, Rivanna, Rapidan, etc. Some writers claim Germana, as belonging to this list. Powhatan, was named after the great Indian chief Nelson, in honor of General Thomas Nelson, Jr. He was the third Governor of the State. Appomattox, an Indian tribe of the Algonquin nation. Name means "A sinuous tidal estuary." Refers to the rivers James and Appomattox. Original spelling was "Apamatiku."

    James City (1634.)

    1. From James City was taken Surry in 1652.

    2. From Surry teas taken Sussex in 1754.

    Origin of names (1634)—James City named in honor of King James I. 1652—Surry, in honor of the English county of that name. 1754—Sussex, in honor of an English county.

    Warrosquyoake (1634-37).

    2. Name changed to Isle of Wight in 1637.

    3. From Isle of Wight was taken Southampton in 1739.

    Origin of Name (1634)—Warrosquyoake was named from an Indian tribe living south of the James. They were of the Powhatan Confederacy, and the name signified, "Swamp in a depression of land." 1637—Isle of Wight, from Isle of Wight, England. One of the patentees, Sir Richard Worsley, came, from Isle of Wight, England. His plantation was so named. 1739—Southampton was named in honor of Henry Wriothesley, Second Earl of Southampton. He was one of the best friends of the Colonists and a member of the Virginia Company. Associated with Edwin Sandys, he did everything possible to make the undertaking a success. He was a man of education and ability and was a great friend and patron of William Shakespeare. A number of Shakespeare's works were dedicated to him.

    Warwick River ( 1634-42).

    2. Name changed to Warwick in 1642. Named in honor of Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick. He was an active member of the Virginia Company.

    Northumberland. (1648.)

    This county was of great extent and its boundaries extended westward, without a limit being given, therefore the States of West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois Ohio and Wisconsin (Ouisconsin), came within its borders.

    1.[1] From Northumberland came Rappahannock (1651), Lancaster (1651), Westmoreland (1653), and Middlesex (1673).

    2. From Rappahannock came Essex (1692), and Richmond (1692). From Westmoreland came Stafford (1664).

    3. From Essex came Spotsylvania (1721). (NotePart of it being taken from King William and King and Queen). Caroline (1728) was also formed from Essex and parts of the two above named countiesKing William and King and Queen. From Stafford came Prince William (1731).

    4. From Spotsylvania came Orange in (1734). From Richmond came King George (1721). From Prince William came Fairfax (1742), and Fauquier (1759).

    5. From Orange came Frederick (1743), Augusta (1745), Culpeper (1749), and Greene (1838). From Fairfax came Loudoun (1757) and Alexandria (1847).

    6. From Frederick came Berkeley (1772), Dunmore (1772-78), and Clarke (1836). From Culpeper came Madison (1783) and Rappahannock (1835).

    7. From Berkeley- carne Jefferson (1801) and Morgan (1836). Dunmore was renamed Shenandoah (1778).

    8. From Shenandoah came Warren in 1836. Returning to the fifth generation from Nothumberland we find that Augusta (1745) was divided as follows :

    6. From Augusta came Hampshire (1754), Botetourt (1770), Monongalia (1776), Ohio (1776), Yohogania (1776), Rockbridge (1778), Rockingham (1778), Illinois (1776), Pendleton (1788), Bath (1791), and several counties now in West Virginia, viz.: Hardy (1789), Pendleton (1789), Brooke (1797), Tyler (1814), Pocahontas (1812). From Augusta was also formed, Allegheny (1822), Page (1831), Wetzel (W. Va., 1846), Highland (1847) and Hancock (1848).

    7. From Hampshire came Hardy (1786). From Botetourt came Fincastle (1772-77), Greenbrier (1778), Roanoke (1838), Craig (1851).

    8. From Fincastle came Kentucky (1777-80), Montgomery (1777), Washington (1777).From Greenbrier came Kanawha (1789), _Monroe (1799), Nicholas (1818).

    9. From Kentucky- came Favette (1780), Jefferson (1780, Lincoln (1780). From Montgomery came Wythe (1790), Floyd (1831), Pulaski (1839). From Washington came Russell (1786). From Kanawha came Mason (1804), Gills (1809), Cabell (1809), Boone (1847), Putnam (1848), Roane (1856). From Nicholas came Webster (1860).

    10. From Wythe came Grayson (1793) and Tazewell (1800). From Giles came Logan (1824), Mercer (1837), Bland' (1861). From Russell came Lee (1793) and Dickenson (1880)). From Mason came Jackson (1831). From Cabell came Wayne (1842). From Fayette came Bourbon (1786), Woodford (1789). From Lincoln came Madison (1786) and :Mercer (1786). From Jefferson came Nelson (1785).

    11. From Grayson came Carroll (1842). From Tazewell came Buchanan (1858) and -McDowell (18581. From Logan came Fayette (1831) and Wyoming (1850). From Lee came Scott (1814) and Wise (1836). From Bourbon came Mason (1789).

    12. From Fayette came Raleigh (1850). From Scott came Smyth (1832).

    Returning to -Monongalia (see sixth generation) we find it divided as follows:

    7. From Monongalia came Harrison (1784), Preston (1818), Marion (1842).

    8. From Harrison came Randolph (1787), Wood (1798), Lewis (1816), Barbour (1843), Ritchie (1843). Taylor (1844), Doddridge (1845).

    9. From Randolph carne Upshur (1851 ), and Tucker (1856). From Wood came Wirt (18481, and Pleasants (1851). From Lewis came Braxton (1836), and Gilmer (1845).

    10. From Gilmer came Calhoun (1856), and Clay (1858).

    1. Caroline—Taken from Essex, King William and King and Queen (1728). See 3, p. 158. Named in honor of Caroline of Auspach, Queen of George II.

    A number of the counties above named were granted sections of counties adjoining them, but it is not thought necessary to give other than the parent county.

    Key to Tracing County Origin.

    Let us presume that the tracing is wanted for Gilmer County.

    Gilmer (10) came from Randolph (9). Randolph from Harrison (8). Harrison from Monongalia (7). Monongalia from Augusta (6). Augusta from Orange (5). Orange from Spotsylvania (4). Spotsylvania from Essex (3). Essex from Rappahannock (2). Rappahannock from Northumberland (1). Northumberland is the original county and Gilmer is of the tenth generation, having at different periods been a part of the counties from one to nine. Calhoun and Clay would have the same tracing.


    1. The numbers from 1 to 12 refer to generations or sub-divisions.


    Now in the march of the slow-treading years Men build a nation; and its many states.

    The origin of the names of the Northumberland group of counties is as follows:

    1. NORTHUMBERLAND 1648). In honor [of] a county, in England of same name.
    2. Lancaster (1651). From a north of England County of same name.
    3. Westmoreland (1653). In honor of an English county.
    4. Rappahannock (1656). In honor of an Indian tribe of the Powhatan confederacy. Meaning, "People of the alternative stream." (Referring to the ebb and flow of the tide in the river of that name). See No. 24.
    5. Stafford (1664). From Parish of Stafford in England.
    6. Middlesex (1673-4). In honor of an English county. The name meaning "Middle Saxons.—*Essex refers to "East Saxons," Sussex to "South Saxons," as located when they settled in England.
    7. Essex (1692). From an English county. (Derivation above*).
    8. Richmond (1692). Thought to he named on account of its terrain being similar to that around Richmond, in Surry County. England. Long states that it may have been in honor of the Duke of Richmond. ( Long, pp. 63-67 ).
    9. Spotsylvania (1721). In honor of Governor Spotswood. leader of the Knights of the Horseshoe.
    10. King George (1721). In honor of George I of England. who reigned from 1714 to 1727.
    11. Prince William (1731). In honor of the Duke of Cumberland, Prince William Augustus.
    12. Fairfax (1742). In honor of Thomas Lord Fairfax. "The most faithful of the Tories." (Long 69).
    13. Frederick (1743). In honor of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Ile was son of George IL, and father of George III.
    14. Augusta (1743). Ili honor of Princess Augusta, wife of Frederick. ( Mentioned above ).
    15. Culpepper (1749). 1n honor of Lord Culpepper. Governor of Virginia in 1680-83, Lord Fairfax inherited froth him the "Northern Neck Grant."
    16. Londoun (1757). Ili honor of John Campbell, Karl of Loudoun. He was Governor-General of the American colonies in 1756-63. Commanded the British forces in latter part of Drench and Indian War.
    17. Fauquier (1739). In honor of Francis Fauquier, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. 1738-68.
    18. Berkeley (1772). Not named in honor of Governor William Berkeley, hut of Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt. He was Governor from 1768 to 1770 and was called "The good Governor of Virginia." His statue is on the campus at William and 'Mary College, Williamsburg, Va.
    19. Dunmore (1772-78). In honor of Lord Dunmore Governor of Virginia from 1771 to 1776. Dunmore was in office at outbreak of the Revolution, and his name became so odious that the name of the county was changed to Shenandoah in 1778.
    20. Shenandoah (1778). (*See above.) An Indian word meaning "Spruce Stream." Peyton in his history of Augusta says that the ward -was Sherrondo, and signified "Beautiful Daughter of the Stars." Lewis in the "First Biennial report of the Department of archives and History of the State of West Virginia," writes that Spotswood gave the river Shenandoah the name of "Euphrates" (possibly deeming that it flowed through the Garden of Eden I, but it was not to last. "The red man looking down from the mountain barrier in the reflection in its transparent water, saw the twinkling stars overhead. Thus the appellation."
    21. Madison (1793). In honor of Lames Madison. President Madison is too well-known f-or farther data to he given in this compilation.
    22. Jefferson (1780). In honor of Thomas Jefferson. (Ditto above comment.)
    23. Morgan (1820). In honor of General Daniel Morgan.
    24. Rappahannock (1833). Same derivation as No. 4. This county name having been changed b)- division into Essex and Richmond in 1692, was again bestowed to a section cut from Culpeper, formerly part of the original county in 1833.
    25. Warren (1836). In honor of General Joseph Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill.
    26. Clarke (1836). In honor of George Rogers Clark. Though an "e" has been added'.
    27. Greene (1838). In honor of General Nathaniel Greene. of Revolutionary fame.
    28. Alexandria (1837). In honor of the city of Alexandria. The cites was originally known as the town of Belle Haven, but was renamed when organized in 1748. John Alexander, owned a patent purchased from Captain Robert Howsen in 1669. The grant consisted of six thousand acres. The city, therefore, takes name from him.
    29. Hampshire (1754). Taken from Augusta. Named in honor of an English county.
    30. Botetourt (1770). (See No. 18.) From Baron de Botetourt. (See next chapter.)
    31. Monongalia (1776). From the river Monongahela. Indian word meaning, "River of crumbling banks."
    32. Ohio (1776). From the river of that name. Indian (Ohiople) meaning, "River of white caps." (See Robinson's "Virginia Counties," page 187, for fuller derivation.) The "Ohio Company" was a Virginia organization. That this section, with Illinois County, was once part of Virginia, is not generally known by Virginians of today.
    33. Yohogania (1770-1786), Indian origin. Meaning "Stream flowing in opposite direction," owing to the watershed causing the river to flow toward the west. It became extinct in 1786. Absorbed by readjustment of Pennsylvania boundary and Ohio County.
    34. Rockbridge (1778). From the celebrated Natural Bridge within its borders.
    35. Rockingham (1778). In honor of the 'Marquis of Rockingham, Prime -Minister of England in 1765-66. During his administration, the stamp act was repealed, and it was then thought that to him belonged the credit. (See Waddell's "Annals of Augusta County").
    36. Illinois (1778-84). From Illini Indians. The name is said to signify "men." It -,vas formed by act of the Virginia Assembly "for the better protection and defense of the county and its inhabitants." It was first proposed that the act be temporary. In 1781, the Virginia Assembly passed resolutions setting forth her offer to Congress of "A cession of the land's, on the northwest of Ohio, to the United States," and giving the conditions of the transfer (Hen. V. X. P. 564). The Virginia delegates to Congress, by authority of the Assembly, conveyed the right above mentioned on March 1, 1784. (Journals of Congress, 1823-24). In continuation of the origin of the names of counties formed from Augusta (itself formed from Northumberland in 1745) we find that: (No. 14, p. 162).

    1789—Hardy, now in West Virginia was named in honor of Samuel Hardy one of the signers of the Deed of Cession of the Northwest Territory to the government. He -,vas long a resident of Isle of Wight County.

    1789—Pendleton (now in West Virginia)-In honor of Edmund Pendleton, of Caroline, President of the Virginia Convention of 1775.

    1791—Bath-In honor its medicinal springs.

    1797—Brooke (in West Virginia)—In honor of Robert Brooke (Governor of Virginia 1794-1796) Grandson of Robert Brooke, who came to Virginia with Governor Spottswood in 1710.

    1814—Tyler (West Virginia)—In honor of Governor John Tyler, father of the President of the salve name. Governor Tyler -,vas in office from 1808 to 1811.

    1821—Pocahontas (West Virginia)—In honor of Matoaka,[1] better known by her pet name Pocahontas. which means "Little Romp" or "Little Vixen." ``hen converted to Christianity she Avas given the name of Rebecca. Pocahontas was born about 1595, and was twelve years of age when she is recorded as saving the life of Captain John Smith.[2] Pocahontas married John Rolfe, April 1613, at the age of 18. Her son, Thomas Rolfe, named in honor of Sir Thomas Dale, his godfather, was born between 1614 and 1616, prior to the visit of his parents to England where they- arrived in June 1616. Pocahontas died in 1617 (age 22) after embarking for Virginia but before the ship left England. Her son, who also came near to death's door, when the ship arrived at Plymouth en route to Virginia, was left in England and educated by his Uncle. John Rolfe, his father, married again in Virginia, and was killed in the massacre of 1622, before young Rolfe finished his education and returned to the home of his birth.

    1822—Alleghany—In honor of Alleghany Mountains. The name Alleghany is derived from the pre-historic race, the Alleghi, who lived in that region prior to the coming of the Indians. They were mound builders and understood something of astronomy and geometry. Their knowledge of the making of pottery and metal implements shows them more advanced in civilization than their conquerors.

    1831—Page—In honor of John Page, Governor of Virginia (1802-05).

    1846—Wetzel (West Virginia)—In honor of Louis Wetzel, the famous Indian scout of Northwestern Virginia.

    1847—Highland—Descriptive of the high altitude of the county.

    1848—Hancock—In honor of John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress. His signature to the Declaration of Independence, stands out with such prominence it is familiar to all who have seen copies of that famous document.


    1. Matoaka—She plays with something.
    2. Smith, in his history of Virginia states she was only ten years old when she interceeded for him. She was twelve, but, evidently, small for her age. Thus, as the Indians gave names appropriate to the person whom it was applied, we find her nicknamed, Pocahontas—Little Romp.

    FROM 1770 TO 1880

    Look forward. Westward turn your eyes. Now forty years are sped. Men seek new lands, Fit for a nation's overflowing tide. And here, on the Blue Ridge's crest, we pause, And here the laughter of the hunting- horns At sight of strange new- valleys filled with peace.

    From Botetourt, (1770) we have:—

    1772-77—Fincastle—In honor of George, Lord Fincastle, son of Lord Dunmore, then governor.

    1777-80—Kentucky, Indian name meaning "Bloody Battle Ground." Thus the Kentucky River (Indian Kain-tuc-kee) was the "River of Blood." This county was sub-divided and in its limits (now the state) are the former Virginia counties of Bourbon, Fayette, Jefferson, Lincoln, Madison, Mason, Mercer, Nelson and Woodford. Some of the present Virginia counties are given names in duplicate of counties lost to Kentucky, Virginia having lost some of the duplicate names when West Virginia was given statehood. Thus we find, Fayette County, Kentucky; Fayette County, West Virginia; Mason (Kentucky) and Mason (West Virginia), Madison (Kentucky) and Madison (Virginia). Others might be mentioned, but for lack of space.

    1777—Washington—In honor of George Washington. "It is a fact that this is the first locality in the United States that was honored with the name of the `Father of Our Country.' " (Summers "History of Southwest Virginia," Long P. 156, and M. P. Robinson's "Virginia Counties" P. 192.)

    1778—Greenbrier—In honor of the beautiful river of that name. The town of Ronceverte's name is a French compound word with the same meaning: "Ronce" a brier, and "Verte" green. The Indian words of same meaning "We-o-to-we" (Miami) and "O-ne-pa-ke" (Delaware) were bestowed upon the same river by the Red Men.

    1786—Russell—In honor of the Revolutionary General, William Russell. Distinguished at the battle of King's Mountain.

    1789—Kanawha (West Virginia)—In honor of a river of that section which received its name from an Indian tribe that lived upon its banks.

    1790—Wythe—In honor of George Wythe, a signer of the Declaration of Independence (Robinson).

    1793—Grayson—In honor of General William Grayson, who was a senator from' Virginia from 1789 to his death the following year (March 12th, 1790).

    1793—Lee—In honor of General Henry Lee, who was Governor of Virginia 1791-94.

    1799—Monroe (West Virginia)—In honor of President Monroe.

    1800—Tazewell—In honor of Henry Tazewell United States Senator, (1794-99).

    1804—Mason (West Virginia)—In honor of George Mason. (As was also Mason County, 1789, now- in Kentucky). Although Virginia has twice honored Mason by naming a county after him, there is no county now in the state bearing his name.)

    1809—Giles—In honor of William Branch Giles. He was Governor of Virginia 1827-30.

    1809—Cabell (West Virginia)—In honor of William H. Cabell, Governor of Virginia 1805-08, and judge of General Court (1808-11).

    1814—Scott—In honor of General Wingfield Scott.

    1818—Nicholas (West Virginia)—In honor of Wilson Cary Nicholas, Governor of Virginia 1814-16.

    1824—Logan (West Virginia)—From the celebrated Indian Chief, Logan.

    1831—Fayette (West Virginia)—In honor of General Lafayette. (See also County of same name in Kentucky given its name in 1789). No county an Virginia by this name now.

    1831—Floyd—In honor of Governor John Floyd (who was in office 1830-34).

    1831—Jackson (West Virginia)—In honor of General Andrew Jackson. He was President 1829-31.

    1832—Smyth—In honor of General Alexander Smyth. He was Inspector General of Army 1812. Congressman 1817-25 and 1827-30.

    1837—Mercer (West Virginia)—In honor of General Hugh Mercer, who was killed at Battle of Princeton. He lived at Fredericksburg. (See also Mercer County, Kentucky, formed in 1786.) No county of this name now in Virginia.

    1838—Roanoke—Indian shell money. Used by Indians as medium of exchange. In old records mention is often made of sales made in exchange for so many arms length of Roanoke. It was carried strung on strips of deer skin.

    1839—Pulaski—In honor of Count Casimir Pulaski, of Revolutionary fame. A Polish patriot who volunteered his services to America's cause.

    1842—Carroll—In memory of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton.

    1842—Wayne (West Virginia)—In memory of General Anthony Wayne of the Revolutionary army. Lovingly dubbed "Mad Anthony" by his soldiers.

    1847—Boone—Named in memorial of Daniel Boone, the pioneer. Boonesboro, Ky., also named in his honor. The county is now in West Virginia.

    1848—Putnam—In honor of General Israel Putnam, a distinguished Revolutionary officer. County now in West Virginia.

    1850—Raleigh—In honor of Sir Walter Raleigh; who sent out the first Virginia colonists in 1585-87. Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina is also named in his honor.

    1850—Wyoming—A county now in West Virginia. Named in memorial of the Wyoming Massacre of July 4th, 1778, many of the settlers having come from that section of Pennsylvania.

    1851—Craig—In honor of Robert Craig; a Virginia representative in Congress, 1829-41. (Robinson.)

    1856—Wise—In honor of Governor Henry A. Wise, whose term of office was 1856-60.

    1856—Roane—Now in West Virginia. Named in honor of judge Spencer Roane, who was on the Supreme Bench of Virginia from 1792 to 1822. The counts- seat is called Spencer (see "Va. Counties"-Robinson).

    1858—Buchanan—In honor of James Buchanan, President of the United States, 1857-61. 1858-McDowell-Now in West Virginia. In honor of Governor James McDowell, of Virginia. He served in 1843-46 (See Lewis' History of West Virginia, Page 728) .

    1860—Webster—In honor of the great Statesman, Daniel Webster (For. history- of county see history quoted above.) Now in West Virginia.

    1861—Bland—In honor of Richard Bland of the Revolutionary period. (See Long "Va. County Names" Page 101.)

    1880—Dickenson—In honor of the Readjuster leader, William J. Dickenson. (Robinson Page 178.)

    From Monongalia, previously mentioned as having been formed in 1776 from Augusta, the following counties were taken:

    1784—Harrison—In honor of Benjamin Harrison, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He was born in Charles City Count)-, and was Govenor of Virginia 1781-84. (Virginia Counties-Robinson.) Now in Nest Virginia

    1787—Randolph—Now in West Virginia. In honor of Edmund Randolph, first Attorney-General of Virginia. He was a member of the Continental Congress.

    1798—Wood—In honor of James Wood, Governor of Virginia 1796-99. He was a son of Colonel James Wood, founder of Winchester. Now in West Virginia. (See History of West Virginia Lewis.)

    1816—Lewis—In honor of Col. Charles Lewis, killed at the battle of Point Pleasant. He lived near Salem, Va. A monument at Point Pleasant is also in memorial of Cornstalk, the Indian Chief killed in the same battle. County now in West Virginia.

    1818—Preston—In honor of James Patton Preston, then Governor of Virginia. (See Virginia Counties Robinson.) Now in West Virginia.

    1836—Braaton—In honor of Carter Braxton , a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Now a county in West Virginia.

    1842—Marion—In honor of Gen. Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fogy" of the Revolution. Now a West Virginia County

    1843—Barbour—In memory of Phillip Y. Barbour of Virginia. Now in West Virginia.

    1843—Ritchie—In honor of the famous Virginia Journalist, Thomas Ritchie. Now a West Virginia County.

    1844—Taylor—In honor of General Zachary Taylor, twelfth President of the United States. He was born in Orange County, Va., September 24, 1785. Son of a Colonel in the Revolutionary War. Family removed to Kentucky when he was an infant. He was a lieutenant at age 23. Captain at 25 (1810) Major at 27. Served with distinction in the Black Hawk War, Florida War, and Mexican War. Died July 9th, 1850. The county now in West Virginia.

    1845—Gilmer—In honor of Thomas W. Gilmer, a Governor of Virginia in 1840 and later a Congressman. County now in West Virginia.

    1845—Doddridge—In memory of Philip Doddridge, who was Congressman from Virginia in 1829-32. He died while in office. Now a West Virginia County.

    1848—Wirt—In memory of William Wirt, a celebrated jurist, born in Bladensburg, Maryland, Nov. 8th, 1772. Admitted to the bar in 1792. Settled in Richmond in 1806. Distinguished himself at trial of Aaron Burr in 1807. He held successively the following offices-Clerk of House of Delegates, Chancellor of Eastern Shore, Member of House of Delegates, U. S. District-Attorney (1816), Attorney-General 1817-29. Nominated for President by Anti-1lasonic party in 1832. Died February 18th, 1834. County now in West Virginia.

    1851—Upshur—In memory of Abel Parker Upshur, Judge of the General Court (1826-41) member of the Constitutional Convention of 1829-30. He was appointed Secretary- of the Navy by President Tyler in 1841 and upon the resignation of Daniel Webster in 1843, was made Secretary of State. Was mortally woun ded on the "Princeton" when a bursting cannon fired in experiment, proved fatal to several other prominent people (one being the Presidents wife). He died February 28th, 1844. County now in West Virginia.

    1856—Tucker—In honor of St. George Tucker, born in Bermuda in 1775. Graduated at William and Mary 1797. Member of Congress 181925. Professor at University of Virginia 1825-45. Died at Sherwood, Albemarle County, April 10th, 1861, age 86. The county seat is said to have received name from St. George Tucker, Clerk of House of Delegates in 1856. (See Lewis Page 727.) County now in West Virginia.

    1856—Calhoun—In honor of John Caldwell Calhoun, an eminent American Statesman of South Carolina. Born at Abbeville, S. C., March 18th, 1782. Elected to Congress in 1811, remaining until appointed Secretary of War by Monroe in 1817, an office he held for seven years, when he became Vice-President in the John Quincy Adams' administration, and again in 1828 held same office under General Jackson, until he framed his famous "Nullification Doctrine," asserting State Rights. For 17 nears he was the storm center of the great debates preceding the Civil War, but died in 1850. He was Secretary of State tinder Tyler for a short time. The County is now in West Virginia.

    1858—Clay—In honor of Henry Clay, son of a Baptist Minister of Hanover County, where he was born April 12th, 1777. He emigrated to Kentucky where he began practice of law in 1798. Became a United States Senator in 1806, to fill unexpired term of Senator Adair. Elected Speaker of House of Representatives—1811-14, when he went to Europe to negotiate peace with Eng land, becoming one of the signers of the Treaty of Ghent. On his return from Europe he again entered Congress and was re-elected speaker. Vas candidate for President in 1824, and in the dead lock of the Electoral College threw his vote and influence to John Quincy Adams in order to defeat Andrew Jackson, when the contest carne before Congress, thus securing Adam's election. Adams appointed him his Secretary- of State. Returning to the Senate in 1831, he became the leader in opposition to the Jackson administration and the "Nullification Act" and succeeded in passing the "Compromise Bill" which was designed to nullify the "Nullification Act."

    Clay was candidate for the Presidency in 1832, and again in 1844, the last time being defeated by only a small margin. He opposed' the annexation of Texas. Clay returned to the Senate in 1849—having refused reelection since 1842—in order to take part in the great struggle then pending between the supporters and opponents of Calhoun. His strenuous activity in the debate so impaired his already feebled constitution that he died in Washington June 29th, 1852. Age 75. The County is now in West Virginia.

    From Kentucky County, previously mentioned as formed from Botetourt in 1777-80 came:—

    1780—Fayette—In honor of General Lafayette. County now in Kentucky, Fayette County, West Virginia having been formed in 1831, after Kentucky was cut off from Virginia.

    1780—Jefferson—In honor of Thomas Jefferson, Governor of Virginia in 1799-81. This great Virginian is too well remembered for extended mention in this compilation. When this county was given to the State of Kentucky, another County of same name was formed, but West Virginia now has absorbed this second one of the name. Today, our State has no county- bearing this honored name.

    1780—Lincoln—Now In Kentucky. Named in honor of the Revolutionary officer, General Benjamin Amin Lincoln. Born in Massachusetts 1733. He commanded the center of the American Army at Yorktown, and was selected by Washington to receive Cornwallis' surrender and sword. Died 1810.

    1785—Nelson—In honor of General Thomas Nelson, Governor of Virginia in 1781 He was born at Yorktown, December 26th, 1738. Biography of this distinguished Virginian can be found in any standard encyclopedia. He is said to have fired on his own house at Yorktown when he learned it was Cornwallis' headquarters. General Nelson died January 4th, 1789. The original county is in Kentucky, but Virginia proudly honored the memory of her illustrious son by bestowing his name to a new county in 1808.

    1786—Bourbon—A county now in Kentucky. Said to be named from the Bourbons of France. The King of France (Louis XVI) rendered valuable aid in men and money to the colonies in their struggle for freedom.

    1786—Mercer—Now in Kentucky. In honor of General Hugh Mercer. See previous chapter's mention of Mercer County, West Virginia, founded in 1837. p. 169.

    1786—Madison—Now in Kentucky. In honor of President James Madison. See previous mention of Madison County. Virginia, formed in 1793. P 163.

    1789—Mason—Now in Kentucky. In honor of George Mason. See previous installment account of Mason County. West Virginia. formed in 1804. p. 168.

    1789—Woodford—A county now in Kentucky. In honor of General William Woodford, born in Caroline County, Virginia. He was a distinguished Revolutionary officer, and also fought in the French and Indian War.

    Montgomery (1777)—In honor of Gen. Richard Montgomery. Killed in assault on Quebec, Dec., 1775.

    Pleasants (1851)—In honor of Governor Pleasants.

    In the valuable compilation made by State Archivist Robinson, we find by re-capitulation, that the counties may be listed as follows:—

    1634 Accawmack gave 3 counties
    Charles City gave 18 counties
    Charles River gave 9 counties
    Elizabeth City gave 7 counties
    Henrico gave 11 counties
    James City gave 3 counties
    Warrosquyoak gave 3 counties
    Warwick River gave 2 counties
    Sub-Total 56 counties
    1648 Northumberland gave 30 counties
    1745 Augusta gave 20 counties
    1776 Monongalia gave 18 counties
    1770 Botetourt gave 39 counties
    1777 Kentucky gave 9 counties
    Sub-Total 116 counties
    Total Counties 172
    Counties in Virginia today 100
    Counties lost to other states 72

    Year Population Comments
    1526 600 Spaniards settle at St. Michael (Jamestown site?). Men, women, and children, with 150 horses and provisions for one year. The intention being to raise sufficient food for the future use of the colony. They suffered from Indian foray, sickness and starvation. Only 150 succeeded in returning to Santo Domingo in 1527.
    1570   Spaniards settle on northern shore of the Rappahannock Number of colonists not given. All massacred by Indians.
    1607 105 English settle at Jamestown. First permanent English colony in America. There were thirty native tribes, under the leadership of the Powhatans, then living in Virgina. They numbered about 8.000 of whom there were about 2,400 warriors.
    1608 158 125 new arrivals. 67 had died.
    1609 490 About 325 survivors of the Gates-Somers expedition arrived in August. Gates and Somers, with 150 others had been wrecked in the Bermudas.
    1610 60 This number found by Gates on arrival in the Patience and Deliverance. He brought between 75 and 100 emigrants from Bermuda, men, women and children. As the colonists were sailing- for Newfoundland, Deleware arrived. When he arrived there were about 135 to 150 living. The expedition of three vessels brought about 260 new colonists, for it is estimated that 900 had been sent over in all. Tyler (Cradle of the Republic) estimates 80, found by Gates.
    1611 210 Living at Jamestown. Other estimates state 350. Possibly these were living on newly seated plantations. The mortality was so alarming, Deleware established a quarantine near Kicquotan (Buckroe?).
    1617 400 At Jamestown. Probably 100 on outlying plantations. Tyler (id) estimates that 1,000 had emigrated to the colony between 1611-1618. With his estimate of 800 arriving between 1607-1611, this would total 1800 arrivals (1900 according to the estimate above). Of these from 1,200 to 1,300 had died or returned to England.
    1618 600 According to Stith (History of Va. p. 281.) the population was 700, men, momen and children; 300 cattle and numerous hogs.
    1620 2400 1,300 emigrated during the year, coming on 21 ships.
    1622 1240 Living before the massacre. 17 ships had arrived by the last of March, bringing 1,580 persons. This number was augmented by arrival of 93 emigrants in another vessel. The total emigration to date had been 2,423, of whom 1,183 had died. The 1,240 in the colony were further reduced by 347 deaths during the massacre. Only 893 were left. Hawthorne, in his History, of the United States (Collier Edition, Vol. I, p. 137), says that "two thousand settlers came in from the outlying districts, panic stricken, and after living in the vicinity of Jamestown, took ship for England." He further says" The bolder spirits, who remained, organized a war of exterminations etc." The absurdity of this statement is apparant.[1] Tyler estimates (id) the arrivals, between December 1618 and November 1619, at 840, making a total of 1440. 540 had died, leaving 900 survivors. He estimates that 4,749 arrived between 1611-1625. With the 900 this would total 5,649. Of these 4,554 had died or left the colony. 1,095 survived, therefore, in 1625.
    1623 2,250 5,720 had emigrated. 2,250 living.
    1628 3,000 Estimated. Emigrated to date, 7,389. Mortality, 6,294.
    1634 5,000 Estimated.
    1640 7,466 U. S. Census. 1910. Abstract, p. 567n.
    1649 15,000 U. S. Census 1910. Abstract, p. 567n. Including from 300 to 500 blacks.
    1654 21,600 U. S. Census 1910. Abstract, p. 567n.
    1659 30,000 U. S. Census 1910. Abstract, p. 567n.
    1665 40,000 Tyler (id) estimates about 2,000 blacks.
    1671 40,000 Estimate by. U. S. Census. (id). There were still 30 Indian tribes, but only 2,400 survivors, of whom about 725 were warriors. A loss, since 1607, of 5,600 population, and of about 1,675 warriors.
    1675 50,000  
    1681 to 1700 70,000 to 80,000  
    1715 95,000 U. S. Census (id). 72,000 whites; 23,000 blacks.
    1717 100,000 U. S. Census.
    1754 284,000 U. S. Census.
    1755 295,156 UT. S. Census. 175,516 white: 120,156 black.
    1775 550,000 U. S. Census.
    1776 567,614 U. S. Census. 296,852 white: 270,78 black.
    1790 747,610

    U. S. Census—Leading Pennsylvania, next in population, by over 300,000.

    1795 880,200 U. S. Census.
    1800 886,149 U. S. Census.
    1810 974,622 U. S. Census.
    1820 1,065,366 U. S. Census. Included in the estimate were 425,153 slaves and 34,600 free blacks.
    1830 1,211,405  
    1840 1,239,797  
    1850 1,421,661  
    1860 1,596,318  
    1870 1,225,183 Loss by war and formation of the new state of West Virginia.
    1880 1,512,565  
    1890 1,655,980  
    1900 1,854,184  
    1910 2,061,612  
    1920 2,306,361  

    City Year Population Comments
    Richmond 1793 Less than 2,000  
         " 1800 Less than 5.739  
         " 1810 Less than 9,735  
         " 1820 Less than 12,067  
    Norfolk 1820 Less than 8,478  
    Lynchburg 1820 Less than 5,000 In 1793 Lynchburg contained only 5 houses.
    Petersburg 1820 Less than 6,690  
    Fredericksburg 1820 Less than 4,000  
    Williamsburg 1820 Less than 1,402  


    1. Very few of the 893 Colonists returned to England.