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January 21, 2014

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Goodspeeds' History of Tennessee


  • Carter County - 1887

    CARTER COUNTY is one of the extreme eastern counties of the State. It is bounded on the north by Sullivan County, on the northeast and east by Johnson County, on the soiitll by Unicol County and the line of North Carolna, and on the west by Washington County. Its area is about 360 square miles. The surface is mountainous, the proportion of arable land being comparatively small. The principal stream in the county is Watauga, which reccives Buffalo Creek and Doe River from the south, and Stony Creek from the north. The mineral resources are varied and extensive. The iron ores are especially valuable and prior to tho war fornace and forges were operated with profit.

    The vicinity of Watauga River in Carter County is one of the most historic spots in the state since it was along this stream that the first permanent settlement was made. The first white men to visit this region and the first to make a settlement south of the present Virginia line believed to have been Andrew Greer, an Indian trader, and Julius C. Dugger, who came some time about the year 1766. The former lived on the north side of Watauga River about three miles above Elizabethton. The later lived and died at a place known as Dugger's Bridge, on the Watauga, near where Allen T. Carriger now resides. James Robertson came to Watauga in 1770, and the next year settled beyond the bluff opposite the mouth of Doe River. He remained there until 1779, when he removed to the Cumberland. Valentine Sevier, Sr., the father of Gen. Sevier, came at about the same time as Robertson. He located between Sycamore Shoals and Elizabethton, where he died in 1805. Col. John Carter, about 1770 or 1771, made a settlement one half mile north of Elizabethton. He was the progenitor of one of the most illustrious families of the State, and a most striking coincidence occurs in the political career of himself and his descendants. He was a member of two constitutional conventions of North Carolina. His son, Gen. Landon Carter, was prominent in the constitutional Convention of 1796, and his grandson, Gen. William B. Carter, was the chairman of the convention of 1834, while his great-grandson, also, William B. Carter, was an active participant in the constitutional convention of 1870. All of these men represented the same, constituency, and the last named, a Democrat, was chosen in a strong Republican District.

    The first settler on Gap Creek was Simeon Bundy, whose house stood near the Big Spring, the head of that stream. Matthew Talbott also lived on Gap Creek, where he built one first mills in the State. Another was built at about the same time, perhaps a little before, by Baptist McNabb. It was on Buffalo Creek near where Alexander Anderson now lives. Charles Robertson lived on Sinking Creek on the farm now owned by Robert Miller. Michael Ryder settled on Powder Branch, about a mile from Watauga, on property still owned by his descendants. James Edens located near Big Spring, on Gap Creek, above Simeon Bundy. Thomas Gourley, William Boyd and Joseph Ryder also located in that vicinity. Col. John Tipton located in the present Washington County, but owned a large body of land in what is now Carter County, extending from Happy Valley to the farm now owned by Dr. J. M. Cameron. He became involved in debt, and his son, Samuel Tipton,who had not immigrated from Virginia with his father, purchased the greater part of this land, and made his home on Doe River, opposite Elizabethion, a little below the bridge. His brothers, Isaac and Thomas, also obtained a portion of the land Edmund Williams located on Buffalo Creek, where he entered a large body of land. He had five sons: George, Archibald, Samuel, John and Joshua. Near him was located David Pugh, a brother of Jonathan Pugh, one of the sheriffs under the dual government of Franklin and North Carolina.

    The Taylor family also located in the county very early Isaac, Andrew and Abner Taylor were the first, together with their half brother, Nathaniel. The last named lived on the Watauga near the mouth of Buffalo. Isaac located on the Buffalo near where Milligan College now is, and Andrew on the south side of Watauga, at what is now known as Taylortown. Andrew Taylor built a mill on a branch of Buffalo which had fallen into disuse as early as 1800, and a second was built higher up the branch by Nathaniel. The latter was also a pioneer in the manufacture of iron, and owned and operated works on Roane Creek. The first forge in the county, however, was built about 1795 by Landon Carter, at the foot of the mountain at Elizabethton, where he also built a mill. The iron works were afterward greatly enlarged by his son, Alfred M. Carter. Several years later a forge and furnace were built about three miles above Elizabethton, and operated for a time by Joseph O'Brien and William Gott. Later it became the property of John and James O'Brien. who conducted the business for several years. It had a capacity of about one ton of merchants bar iron per day, which at that time was considered a large amount. In addition to the early settlers mentioned above were Peter, John and Henry Nave, John and William McNabb, and Jeremiah Dunjoin.

    One of the first forts built in this section was the Watauga Fort, erected upon land owned by John S. Thomas, about half a mile northeast of the mouth of Gap Creek. In 1776 this fort was attacked by a large body of Cherokees. At that time it contained 150 settlers, including the entire garrison from Gillespie Station on the Nolachucky below Jonesboro. The attack was made on the 21st of July at daybreak. The women had gone outside to milk the cows and were fired upon, but made good their escape to the fort. The Indians were twice repulsed, but remained before the fort for six days, at the end of which time the approach of re enforcements from the Hoiston put them to flight. The fort was defended by Capt. James Robertson and Lieut. Sevier, with about forty men. Near this fort was built a rude courthouse and jail, erected by the Watauga Association.

    A second fort was built higher up Watauga on the north side, on land then owned by Valentine Sevier, Sr., but now the property of Solomon and Abraham Hart. A third fort stood near Hampton's Station in a Cove of Doe River. Carter Womack is also said to have had a fort near the head of Wataugs. Another fort is said to have been near the site of Carter's depot.

    On April 9, 1795, the General Assembly divided Washington County, and erected the eastern part into Carter County, which then included all of Johnson and part of Unicoi. The court of pleas and quarter sessions was organized on the 4th of July, 1796, at the house of Samuel Tipton. The magistrates present were Andrew Greer, Landon Carter, Nathaniel Taylor, David McNabb, Lochonah Campbell, Guttredge Garland, John Vaught, Joseph Lands and Reuben Thornton. They qualified in the following manner: Landon Carter administered the oaths to Andrew Greer, who in turn administered them to Col. Carter, and the remainder of the court, The following officers were then elected: Godfrey Carriger, register; Joseph Lands, ranger; George Williams, clerk; John Macun, trustee Nathaniel Taylor, sheriff, and Charles Colyer, Aaron Cunningham, Samuel Musgrove, Thomas Whilson, Solomon Campbell and John Robertson, constables.

    The next term of the court was also held at Tipton's. At that time Nathaniel Taylor and Nathaniel Folsom were allowed $50 for laying off the town for the seat of justice. The sheriff returned the following venire facias; William Dugger, George Ingle, John Stover, John Fentress, Mathias Wagoner, Levi Loyd, Jeremiah Campbell, William Pugh, William Davis, William Dugger, Jules Dugger, Joseph Ford, John Worley, Stephen Redman, John Poland, James Range, Michael Hyder, John Peoples and Robert Lusk. The last ten were constituted the grand jury.

    At the April term, 1797, the court met at the house of William Matlock in Elizabethton and soon after the minutes of the court recoid meetings held in the courthouse. When this building was completed or of what material it was constructed is not known, but it was probably of logs and stood on the public square. In 1820 Jeremiah Campbell. William Carter, James Keys, Johnson Hampton and Alfred M. Carter were appointed commissioners to sell the old courthouse, and superintend the building of a new one. The next year an octagonal brick building, two stories high, with the courtroom below the offices above, was completed. It stood In the center of the square. It was used the completion of the present large three-story brick building, in 1852. The commissioners appointed to erect the latter building were Godfrey Nave, C. W. Nelson, L. W. Hampton H. C. White, John Wright, Christian Carriger and Albert Tipton. The contract was let to John Lyle and William M. Fleming for $7,100. The jail was a log structure until January, 1857, when it was replaced by the present building erected upon the old site.

    The circuit court for Carter County was organized in 1810, but its early minutes have been destroyed. The chancery business, previous to 1854, was done at Jonesboro. On November 27 of that year Judge Lucky organized a chancery court at Elizabethton, and appointed C. W. Nelson as clerk and master. The first lawyer of any prominence resident in the county, was James P. Taylor, the grandfather of the present governor of Tennessee. He was admitted to practice in 1815, and six years later was elected attorney general for the First Circuit, a position he continued to hold until about 1882, when he died. He is said to have been one of the finest lawyers in East Tennessee at that and as an orator he has never been excelled by one of his descendants. Alfred W. Taylor a brother of James P., began the practice of law in 1825, and continued until his death about 1856. He was a close student and an excellent counsellor, but as an advocate he was inferior to his brother. Thomas D. Love, a brother-in-law of the Taylors was also a lawyer, but died somewhat early in his career. He lived near the mouth of Gap Creek.

    Thomas A. H. Nelson hegan his legal career in Elizabethton, in 1828, death of James P. Taylor was chosen attorney-general. Among the other attorneys prior to the war were James T. Carter, C. W. Nelson, Nathaniel M. Taylor, and R. Love began the practice of his profession about 1850, and continued until his death about nine years later. Mr. Taylor remained at Elizabethton until after the close of the war, when he removed to Bristol. where he still resides. C. W. Nelson was a younger brother of Thomas A. H. Nelson. He served as clerk of the circuit court for about six years, as clerk and master about two years, and finally was appointed clerk of the supreme court at Knoxville. Later he removed to Texas. Robert Love was for many years a resident actitioner. but as he had a competency, and was not dependent upon the profession, he never sought a large practice.

    Among the most prominent members of the profession resident in the county since war. have been H. C. Smith and J. P. Smith, John Simerly. Maj. H.. M. Folsom, C. C. Collins and George Boren. The first named was clerk and master of the chancery court from 1862 to 1869, and in June of the latter year. was elected chancellor of the First Division, which position he filled until his death in January, 1885. Mr. Smith entered the profession a few years before the war, and from the first was regarded as an excellent lawyer. As a chancellor he has had few superiors. His term of office was filled out by Judge C. J. St. John, of Johnson City, and at the succeeding election in August, 1886, Judge J. P. Smith was elected to the office. lie began practice at Elizabethton, in 1869, and continued to reside there until elected assistant United States district attorney, which office he filled until July. 1885. In March, 1886, he returned to Elizabetliton. where he now resides.

    The commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice for Carter County were Landon Carter, Reuben Thornton, Andrew Greer, Sr., Zachariah Campbell and David McNabb. They decided upon the place known as the Watauga Old Fields," which tradition says were once the site of an Indian village. When first discovered the place showed no trace of the village except that the land was cleared of everything except grass and low bushes, and it had doubtless been abandoned for many years. Thatauch a village existed, however, is proven by the existence of an ancient cemetery on the banks of the Watauga River, a short distance above the town. Other evidence exists in implements and remains of fires wlach have been dug up.

    The town was laid off by Samuel Tipton upon his own land, and no part of the proceeds of the sale of lots was donated to the county. Seventy-seven lots were laid off, nine of which were reserved for public buildings. To dispose of the remaining sixty-eight lots Mr. Tipton proposed a lottery, to he drawn on August 6, 1796, under the inspection of Landon Carter, John Carter and Nathaniel Folsom. Lots were sold for $10 each, and the mimbers of the lots were placed in a box, from which purchasers drew a number for each $10 paid, and in that way their lots were located. The lots sold at this time were as follows. John Frances, Nos. 58 and 60; T. Ashe, 73; Robert English, 63; William Crawley, 74; William Matlock, 38; 5. Peters, 65; Charles Reneau, 25; William Western, 52; James Lacey, 26; Leonard Bowers, 4; William McNabb, 19. Among others who purchased lots during the next year were John and Landon Carter, Charles Bailey, Abraham Bailey, Philemore Lacey and Christian Stover. The first house in the town was doubtless erected by William Matlocit, who in April, 1797, applied for a license to keep an ordinary. This building now forms a part of what is known as the Cameron House. Similar houses were opened by John Greer in 1803, and John Humphreys, in 1807. The first merchants now remembered were David Nelson, whose store stood just in front of where the courthouse now is; Samuel Jackson & Son and Benjamin Brewer, who had a store and tavern on the site now occupied by H. H. Snyder. All of these men were in business between 1825 and 1830. During that period Jacob Cameron opened a saddler's shop, while Benjamin Harris ran a hatter's shop, and Thomas Singletary a tailor shop. Among the merchants from this time until 1860 were H. W. & Joseph Powell, Jefferson & John Powell, Folsom & Burrows, Isaac Tipton & William B. Carter, I. K. Snapp, Jesse J. James, Rockliold & Wray and Murphy & Sons.

    In 1837 the Jonesboro Republican was purchased by Mason H. Lyon and in May, following, it was removed to Elizabetliton, and published as the Elizabethton Republican and Manufacturers' Advocate, by Lyon & Gott. It continued until the office was destroyed by fire about 1844. During about the same time, beginning in 1859, William G. Brownlow published his Wing. A small extra is also said to have been issued for a time by Valentine Garland ("Pompey Smash "), a printer in one of the other offices. These were the only papers published at Elizabetliton prior to the war.

    The population of the town has never been large. In 1830 it was 136, and by 1850 it had a little more than doubled. It is now about 500, having increased somewhat since the completion of the East Tennessee & Western North Carolina Railroad. The present business of the town is as follows: C. P. Toncray & Co., H. H. Snyder, W. L. Carriger & Co. and J.J. Edens & Son, general merchandise; W. E. Carter, drugs; A. R. P. Toncray, Johnson & Walters and H. C. Boyd, groceries. The manufactories consist of the Doe River Woolen.mills, operated by W. M. Cameron, David Brummet and E. E. Hunter, the Watauga Woolen-mills, owned and run by J P. Scott; a tannery owned by William Randolph, owned by C. P. Toncray and Edward Carter; a furniture factory operated by N. G. McFarland, and a flouring-mill owned by William B. Carter.

    In March, 1875, a newspaper known as The Mountaineer was established by W. R. Fitzsimmons, who has since continued its publication.

    The date of the organization of the first church in Elizabethton is not known. The Presbyterian Congregation was constituted about 1825, by Rev. L. G. Bell, acting under orders from the presbytery of Abingdon. Seventeen members were enrolled as follows: Alfred M. Carter, William D. Jones and Benjamin Brewer, ruling elders; and A.L. Jones, Mary C. Taylor, Mary Taylor, Elizabeth Smith, Mary A. Tipton, Ruth McLeod, William Mitchell, Elizabeth Blair, Margaret Blair, Evaline B. Carter, Ann L. McLin, Sarah S. Brewer, Isaac Taylor and James Taylor. From this time for several years Rev. James McLin preached to the congregation occupying the courthouse for the most part. He was succeeded by Rev. J. G. Ward, who remained until about 1834. J. W. Cunningham then administered to the congregation until 1841, during which time the present commodious brick building was erected. A house was first begun on the lot now owned by Maj. H. M. Folsom, but the walls when completed were found to be defective, and the contractors were compelled tot ake them down. The location was then changed, and the building completed in 1837. at a cost of $1,500. During this year three additional elders were ordained. They were James C. Simpson, William R. Rhea and William Gott, to whom, in 1840, were added David Nelson, Jacob Cameron and D. W. Carter. From 1841 to 1846 the pulpit was filled by William A. Taylor and James McLin. A. G. Taylor, then preached to the congregation from November, 1846, to January, 1848, Rev. Ira Morey succeeded him continuing a year or longer. From December 1, 1850, Rev. A. A. Doak a member of the old school branch, preached one Sunday a month for one year. From that time for several years the church seems to have been without a regular stated supply, but about 1859 Rev. J. M. Huffmeister was installed as pastor and continued until 1863. From this time until about 1877 the church was again without a stated supply, although, the pulpit was frequently filled by various ministers. Since that time the congregation has been served by Rev. H. C. Atwater, Rev. C. A. Duncan, Rev. J. G. McFerrin and __ Wallace successively.

    In 1887 the church edifice was thoroughly repaired and is now one of the handsomest old buildings of the kind in the State. This work was superintended and largely aided by Dr. J. M. Cameron. Besides those before mentioned the elders of this church have been William S. Thomas, John Miner, William P. Brewer, Samuel M. Stover, James M. Cameron and C. C. Collins.

    The Methodist Church at Elizabethton, was undoubtedly formed prior to the Presbyterian, and like the latter, they at first held services in the courthouse and in the academy. About 1886 a small frame building was erected at the lower end of Main Street, opposite where Mr. Wilcox now lives. It was occupied until about 1859, when the present house was begun and completed a year or two later. Among the first members of the church were John Singletary, Mrs. John Wilcox and family, Joseph Taylor, John Stephens and David Adams, a local preacher.

    At the close of the war the church property was sold to satisfy creditors, and was bought by a representation of that part of the membership, adhering to the Methodist Episcopal Church. The members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South then organized a congregation which has since worshiped in the Presbyterian Church. In 1842 a Baptist Church was constituted by Rev. William Cate. Among its first members were Elijah Hardin, Mason H. Lyon, Abraham Tipton, Thomas Johnson, James Renfro and J. Crouch. A house which bad been occupied by a ComInon school, and by a female academy, was purchased and fitted up as a house of worship. It stood on a lot now occupied by the new store house of H. H. Snyder. After the war the church did not flourish, and for several years no regular services have been held.

    The first church of this denomination in the county was constituted on Sinking Creek in 1798 It was represented in the association the next year by William Wall, William Randolph, Owen Owens and James Davidson. A second church was organized on Gap Creek in 1800, and a third on Stoney Creek in 1822.

    The academy incorporated for Carter County under the act of 1806 was denominated Duffield Academy and George Duffield, Nathaniel Taylor, George Williams, Alexander Doran, John Greer, Andrew Taylor, Abraham Henry and Reuben Thornton were appointed trustees of the institution. At what time a building was erected and the school put into operation is not known, but is was some time about 1820. In 1888 the old building was torn down, and a contract for the erection of a new one upon the same foundation was let to P. Q. Satterfield, and Solomon Q. Sherfy. It was not, however, until 1841 that the building, which is still standing was completed. Meanwhile a school had been taught in the Methodist Church. In October, 1841, James McLin was elected teacher. He continued in that position about two years, during which time the institution experienced its greatest prosperity. Since then schools of varying degrees of excellence, and of varying duration have been maintained. From the close of the war until 1881, the institution was under the management of Capt. J. I. H. Boyd, an experienced teacher and an excellent disciplinarian. At present the building is in a very dilapidated condition, and but little can be said in praise of the school facilities of Elizabethton.

    The only school of high grade in the county is Milligan College, which was incorporated in 1869 as Buffalo Institute, and received its present charter in 1881. For a time previous to 1875 the institution was not prosperous. In that year Josephus Hopwood, A. M., assumed the presidency, and, assisted by an able corps of teachers, has placed the college in the forefront of the educational institutions of East Tennessee. The large college building is located on an eminence on Buffalo Creek, about one miles from the railroad. The school receives pupils of both sexes, and is under the auspices of the Christian Church.

    The following persons have held official positions in Carter County since its organization:

    Clerks of the county court-George Williams, 1796-1836; M. N. Folson; 1836-40; J. L. Bradley, 1840-78; George T. Williams, 1878-86: J. G. Emmert, 1886.

    Clerks of the circuit court-A. M. Carter; 1810-36; George C.Williams 1836-40; Carrick W. Nelson, 1840-46; Isaac P. Tipton, 1846-54; John Singletary; 1854-61; James A. Burrow, 1861-62; C. P. Toncray, 1862-66; R. C. White, 1866-70; G. W. Emmert, 1870-82; J. F. Griudstaff, 1882.

    Registers-Godfrey Carriger, 1796-1827; Benjamin Brewer, 1827-36; Solomon Hendrix, 1836-40; M. N. Folson, 1840-44; Isaac H. Brown, 1844-50; W. Williams 1850-51; J. G. Fellers, 1851-60; Joseph Taylor 1860-70; A. L. Hilton, 1870-71; G. O. Collins, 1871-72; Joseph Taylor, 1872-79; W. B. C. Smith, 1879-80; E. D. Oliver, 1880-82; W. L. Carriger, 1882.

    . Sheriffs-Nathaniel Taylor. 1796-99; Abraham Byler, 1799-1805, Archibald Williams, 1805-18; Andrew Taylor, 1813-21; William B. Carter 1821-23; William Carter, 1823-29; William Gott, 1829-16; Abraham Tipton; 1836-40; Elijah D. Harden 1840-42; Edmond Williams. 1842-48; Albert Tipton, 1848-54; Elijah Simerly, 1854-60; John K. Miller, 1860-63; Jacob Vandeventer, 1864-65; P. A. J. Crockett, 1865-66; J. W. Orr, 1866-72; E. W. Heaton, 1872-74; J. D. Pierce, 1874-77 John M. Simerly, 1877-80; James Nave, 1880-86; Isaac Griudstaff, 1886.

    Trustees-John Maclin, 1796-; William Peoples, Jr., 1811-18; David McNabb, 1813-17; Willie W. Williams, 1817-19; David McNabb, 1819-25; Ezekiel Smith, 1825-36; Joseph O'Brien, 1886-40; Samuel Drake, 1836-44; George Emmert, 1844-46; J. W. Ryder, 1846-52; Isaac H. Brown, 1852- 56; John Carriger, 1856-62; William Cass, 1862-65; William. J. Folsom, 1865-66; J. P. Vanhuss, 1866-72; Archibald Williams, 1872-74; J. D. Carriger, 1874-78; T. C. White, 1878-81; J. J. McCorckle, 1881-86; James L. Lewis, 1886.

    Clerks and masters--Carrick W. Nelson, 1854-56; H. M. Folsom, 1856-62; H. C. Smith 1862-69; John P. Smith, 1869-70; John C. Smith, 1870-86.

    Biographical Appendix

    J. H. Alexander, M. D., was born in Blount (now Loudon) County, October 16, 1845, the son of Francis and Margaret A. (Vickers) Alexander, the former born near Leesburg, Tenn., in 1809, the son of Francis Alexander, a native of Buncombe County, N.C., and who married Jane O'Dair, and became a pioneer of Washington County. He was a farmer, and, with his wife, belonged to the Presbyterian Church. The father, a farmer and blacksmith, moved to Blount County when twenty-one. and died in 1870. The mother, horn in the latter county in 1830, was the daughter of James Vickers. Both parents were Presbyterians, and had ten children. Our subject, the fifth attended the Quaker school at Friendsville, and then entered Maryville College for three years, when he began medicine with Dr. Blankenship at the latter place. During 1870, 1871, and 1872 he attended the medical department of the University of Louisville, graduating in 1872 He practiced in Blount County until September l872, and then in Elizabethton until the fall of 1879. He entered Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia and graduated in 1880, resuming his practice at Elizabethton where he has succeeded remarkably. In 1868 he married Sallie M., the daughter of William T. Dowell a Methodist minister. She died in 1869, and May 7, l873; Senorita V., a daughter of H. H. Lutz, became his wife. She was born in Virginia November 6, 1851. Their children are an infant son, born January 31, 1874, and deceased February 2, 1874, Henry F., born December 7, 1874; Maggie, born April 3, 1877, Edwin C., born February 3, 1879; Sarah, born September 5, 1881, and deceased September 5, 1883; and Nannie, born October 30, 1888, and deceased June 23, 1886. He and his wife are Methodists.

    G. A. Anderson, a farmer, was born in Carter County, August 17, 1849, the son of John A. and Elizabeth (Swingle) Anderson, the former born in Carter County, December 17, 1823, and is a farmer. Isaac and Elizabeth (Melnturil) Anderson, the parents, were natives of Tennessee, the former, of Irish origin. and the latter of German. J. A., the eldest child, has always been a farmer and stock raiser, and in 1845 married, but the mother died in 1856. In 1858 he married Mary A., a daughter of Solamon Jones, and has three sons and one daughter. He owns 250 acres. Our subject was educated at Milligan College and has always followed farming, trading and stock raising. July 12, 1876, he married Molly Crockett. Their only child is Elizabeth. The mother died in August, 1877, and February 8, 1882, he married Ida L., a daughter of George T. Anderson, and born February 2, 1856, in Georgia. Johnnie B. and Addie M. are their children. Our subject and wife are Methodists, and he is a man who prefers private life.

    Capt. James I. H. Boyd, was born near Gap Creek, Carter County, May 29, 1821, the son of John and Mary (Tipton) Boyd, the former born in North Carolina in 1783, the son of William Boyd, a native of North Carolina, and a captain of light horse soldiers in the Revolution. William Boyd married Rebecca Porter, and removed between 1785 and 1790, settling at Gap Creek, as a pioneer. The flrst deed on record after Tennessee became a State and in Carter County, was made to him by William Sharp. In 1823 a powder-mill explosion killed him. John, the father, was a farmer and died August 19, 1873, and the mother was born in 1785, the daughter of Samuel Tipton, of Virginia, and a pioneer of Carter County. He was the son of John Tipton of the John Sevier difficulty fame; she died in Springfield, Ill., in 1856. Our subject grew up on the farm, and even when twenty years old could not read a verse in the Bible correctly after having attended a few schools in log cabin school houses. In 1843 he attended school four months at Holston College and then began teaching, alternating farming and teaching, until he adopted the latter. In 1851 he went to Springfield, Ill., and for two years was deputy sheriff. In 1857 he returned and began teaching at Buffalo (now Milligan) College, and in 1860 took charge of Duffield Academy at Elizabethton until August 11, 1861. He then joined the Federal Army and became a messenger between East Tennessee people and those intendinr to burn the railway bridges; he then became colonel and organized a company of 1,000 men in Carter County, hut they were disbanded and soon went to Kentucky. May 11, 1868, be was made captain of Company B, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, at Louisville, Ky., and resigned June 7, 1864, on account of ill health. He then went to Knoxville and in 1865 to Elizabethton. He had charge of Washington Hotel at Jonesboro, for a time, and in 1867 taught school at Elizabethton until he became a representative in 1869. He then returned and taught school until 1881, when he became assistant door-keeper of the National House of Representatives, under Hon. W. P. Brownlow who was principal door-keeper of the XLVII Congress. Since 1882 he has been at home. During the above time he has practiced law more or less. Martha J. a daughter of Isaac Tipton, became his wife October 7, 1847, and was born in 1824 in this county. Two of their five children are living, Henry C., a lawyer, at Elizabethton, is one. The wife and three children died in Springfleld, Ill., in 1856 and 1857, and February 28, 1860, he married Rhoda Williams, born November 7, 1824, in this county. They have two children. Sie is a member of the Christian Church. Rhoda is a daughter of Edmund Williams, several times sheriff of Carter County. He is a son of Archibald Williams, and Archibald isa son of Edmund Williams, a pioneer, both of whom had served as sheriff, etc.

    C. N. Brown, a farmer in the Ninth District, was born February 28, 1887, in Carter County. He received a good common-school education, was reared on a farm, and has since followed farming. He was thrown upon his own resonrces when of age. He was married in 1882 to Miss Nancy Worley, a daughter of James B. and Emaline (Shell) Worley natives of Washington County, Va., and Sullivan County, Tenn., respectively. Mr. Worley's mother was of German descent. Mr. and Mrs. Worley were active workers in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was a very successful and enterprising farmer, and accumulated property quite easily. To Mr. and Mrs. Brown seven children have been born, viz.: Lilly, Laura (now Mrs. Williams), Charles, Eugene, Lola (decessed), Lela and Mamie. Mr. and Mrs. Brown are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, in which Mr. Brown has been treasurer and deacon for several years. Mr. Brown is a Democrat in politics. He is a Master Mason. He was the eldest of six children of L H. Brown, an old resident of Carter County, Tenn. Mrs. Emaline Worley was a daughter of Aaron and Catherine (Glover) Shell. natives of Sullivan County, Tenn. Mr. Shell was of English descent. He was a prominent minister of the gospel in the Methodist Episcopal Church. I. H. Brown, the father of our subject, was born March 4,1810, in Washington County, Tenn., and when fifteen years old came to Carter County, Tenn., and excepting six years be lived at Blonntville, has since resided in Carter County. He is a carpenter and cabinet-maker by trade. He was married April 14, 1856, to Miss Ruth Nave, a daughter of John and Lizzie (Carriger) Nave, natives of Pennsylvania, and among the earliest settlers of Carter County, Tenn. They were of Dutch descent. Six children blessed this union. Mr. Brown served Carter County two years as register, and two terms as trustee, being elected on a Democratic ticket in a county which usually went Whig by about 1,700. He was the youngest of six children of Jacob and Christina (Ramey) Brown, natives of Germany and Hockham County, Va., respectively. Mr. Brown was brought to the United States by his parents when quite small. He served as a soilder in the Revolutionary war. Mrs. I. H. Brown died October 6, 1858. Mr. Brown was married December 2, 1855, to Mrs. Margaret M. Williams. Three children blesseded the union. Mr.Brown began life a poor man, and what he is now worth is the fruit of his own practical business ability.

    William Blount Carter was born where he now resides, in Elizabethton, September 11,1820, the son of Alford M. and Evaline (Perry) Carter, the former born near Elizabethton in 1785, the son of Gen. Landon Carter, of Virginia, the son of Col. John Carter, a pioneer of Tennessee of 1769, and chairman of the Watauga Association, from that date to 1777. Gen. Carter was in the Revolutlon, and a member of the Legislature, and of the Constitutional Convention of 1796; he died in 1800. The father was educated at Washington College under Dr. Doak. and was devoted to farming and iron interestes. He was a magistrate and the first circuit clerk of his county, and died in 1850. The mother was born at Staunton, Va., in 1797, the daughter of David Perry, a native of Virginia, and of the family to which Commodore Perry belonged. He settled in Greene County, and the mother died in 1877. They were married in 1818, and our subject, the second of three sons, was reared in Elizabethton, attended Washington College, and graduated from Prince ton (N. J.) Theological Seminary. He was pastor of Rogersville Presbyterian Church until 1846 when his health compelled him to be a farmer at Elizabethton. In 1843 he married Mary H., a daughter of Dr. Charles Fowler, of New York; she died in 1846, and in 1850 he married Elizabeth J., a daughter of Col. William J. Brown fo Pennsylvania. Their children are William E., born June 19, 1856, now a druggist; Mary B. born in 1860, and Caroline E., born in 1867. The family are Presbyterians. The Watauga Association was represented by John Carter in two constitutional conventions in North Carolina before 1789, and one in Tennessee in 1796, was represented by Gen. Landon Carter, and the next constitutional convention by Gen. William B. Carter, who was president of the same, and was a Congressman several terms. In 1870 our subject represented Carter County in tbe constitutional convention. Samuel P., an elder brother of William B., was educated at Washington and Princeton Colleges, and became a middy in the United States Navy in 1840, and was a lieutenant-commander at the opening of war, and then in the army became brigadier-general, and afterward major-general, then became captain of the navy, and was retired at the age of sixty-two, with the rank of rear-admiral, now residing at Washington. James P. T., a youngger brother, was born July 29, 1822, and educated at Washington College, and became a colonel of the Second Federal Tennessee Mounted Infautry, President Johnson appointed him secreretary of Arizona Territory, but he was removed by Gen. Grant, and died in Mexico. It is a singular coincidence that in each constitutional convention held between the years 1770 and 1870 the people of Wautauga were represented by a member of the same family; first by Col. John Carter; in 1796 by his son, Gen. Landon Carter; in 1834 by his grandson, Gen. William B. Carter, and in 1870 by his great-grandson, William B. Carter, Jr.

    J. D. Carriger, farmer, was born March 8, 1821, in Carter County, where he has since resided, and when seventeen years old began for himself. He now owns about 2,206 acres, and was married June 17, 1866, to Edna G., a daughter of Samuel and Hannah (Potter) Dugger, natives of Carter County. Their children are Godfrey Samuel (deceased), Elizabeth, Ida H., Eliza and Lulan. She is a Baptist, and he is, in politics, a Republican. He has served ten years as justice, two years as trustee and two years as United States storekeeper and guager, and he is a Master Mason. He is the eighth of ten children of Godfrey and Elliabeth (Lovelace) Carriger, natives of Carter County and North Carolina, respectively; the former a register, justice and mayor, and died about 1826, The mother died the year before. The grandfather, Godfrey, Sr, was a native of Germany, married there, and was among tlie first settlers on the Wautauga River as a farmer, and operated tite first mill in that section. The father was a soldier in the Revolution, in which his brother was killed.

    W. L. Carriger, the subject of this sketch, is one of the leading citizens of Carter County, Tenn., and was born in the Ninth Civil District of said county, October 3, 1853, and is the son of John T. and Rebecca (Nave) Carriger. The father was a native of Carter County, Tenn., and was the son of Christley Carriger, an early settler of Carter County. The father was a farmer, and one of the most enterprising and prominent citizens of the county. The mother was also a native of Carter County, Tenn., and was the daughter of Abe Nave. She was the mother of six sons and five daughters. Our subject is the youngest but three, and was raised on the farm, and received a practical education at Morristown, Tenn. His father died when William was quite young, and left a small estate to the heirs, but our subject, by energy and industry, secured an education at his own expense; and, when lie reached his niajority, he had no capital to begin the battle of life, and the pursuit for wealth. His early labor was that of farming at home with his witlowed mother, and with her he lived, until a short period after his marriage which occurred when he was twenty two years of age, and on the tenth day of May, 1876 he married Mollie L. Morrel, daughter of Caleb Morrel. Five sons, two of which are living, have tilessed the marriage. The two living are George Allison and Charles. After our subject's marriage, he farmed for four years, in the Ninth Civil District of his county, since which he has been trading and merchandising; and is now selling goods and liverying at Elizabethton. He is one of the popular citizens of this county, and this fact was exemplified by his being elected in August, 1882, as county register for Carter County, and by his re-election in August, 1886. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and is a man of enterprise and public spirit, and is one who encourages all laudable enterprises. He is a self-made man, having no capital to begin life with, and has educated himself, and established a high character.

    Nicholas Carriger, farmer and carpenter, was born in Carter County, January 12, 1842, the son of Daniel 8. and Margaret (Patterson) Carriger, the former born in Carter County in about 1815, the son of Christley, a farmer who removed to Missouri in 1846, and from there to California, serving as a soldier under Gen. Fremont, and tiled soon after his discharge. The mother, a daughter of Robert Patterson, was born in Carter County, and died in 1847 in Missouri. She was a member of the Baptist Church. Our subject, the third of four children, after his mother's death, came to Carter County, and lived with his uncle. working on the farm and at the carpenter's trade until January 14, 1868, when be enlisted in Company B, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, as a private. In August, 1868, he was captured at McMinnville, and was paroled, joining his company at Lexington, Ky. He was mustered out September, 1865, at Nashville, and returned to Carter County. After spending the year 1871 in Missouri, he returned to Carter County, his present home. lie has never desired office, and is an esteemed man. He was married January 1, 1873, to Catharine, a daughter of Elijah Simmerly, and has four children. Both are Presbyterians.

    J. N. Carriger, a retired woolen manufacturer, was born June 25, 1841 in Carter County. He is self educated, and ilt 1862 organized Company A, of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, and afterward hecame second lieutenant and first lieutenant, and refused the offer of captaincy. He was mustered Out at Knoxville in 1865. He then clerked for Butler & Co. two years, and then went to Morristown, and clerked for M. Carriger & Co. a year, and then became partner, continuing under various firm names for twelve years. He was United States mail agent on the C. C. G. & C. Railway, February 16, 1871, and afterwards mail messenger between Morristown and Warm Springs, N.C. After four years he purchased a part of Mineral Hill Springs, assuming control of them, the firm being Brown, Carriger & Smith. A few months later he farmed in Carter County, and became successively a partner in the firm Doe River Woolen Manufacturing Company, and the Watauga Woolen Mills, with entire control of the business. In 1882 these were consolidated under the first firm name, and he became secretary and treasurer, and in 1883 was given entire control. He retired in 1885 on account of failing health, and was so successful that with a capital of $30,000, his company declared a seven and one-half percent dividend. In 1861 he married Mary C. Ferguson. Both are Baptists, in which church he has been a deacon for eight years. He is a Republican, and a member of the G.A.R. His parents John T. and Rebecca (Nave) Carriger, were natives of Carter County, and died in 1862, aged fifty-five, and 1886, aged about seventy-six, respectively, the former a trustee for twelve years, and a justice. He was a Whig and an active Baptist. Our subject was city recorder of Morristown two years. The grandparents, Christian and Lavicy (Ward) Carriger, were pioneers of this county, the former a representative several terms, and both were natives of Philadelphia. The latter's grandmother was a cousin of Abraham Lincoln.

    Albert Hughes is a farmer and stock raiser in the Fifth Civil District of Carter County, Tenn., and was born in Carter County April 3, 1833, and is the son of James and Susanor (Hines) Hughes. (See sketch of John Hughes for parents). He was reared on the farm and was educated in the county schools and Washington College, receiving a practical education. He has, for the greater part of his life, been merchandizing, but for the last fifteen years he has devoted his time to agriculitural pursuits. He has been successful in his undertakings. On February 4,1869, he was united in marriage with Martha L., daughter of Thomas Hodges. She died, January 2, 1874, leaving no children. On June 10,1877, he married for a second wife Laura C. C. Moody, a daughter of George W. Moody. She was born in Carter County, Tenn., April 7, 1859. Two children have blessed this marriage, viz.: David W., born November 12, 1877 and James F. T. born May 17, 1887.

    John Hughes is one of the most prosperous farmers of Carter County, and was born and reared in said courty. He was born February 14, 1820, and is the son of James and Susanor (Hines) Hughes. The father was a native of Sullivan County, Tenn., and was born May 15, 1790. He was the son of David Hughes. The latter was born in Ireland, immigrated to America, was among the early settlers of East Tennessee, and was one of the Revolutionary soldiers. He was a farmer by occupation. The father of our subject was a wagon-maker by trade, and followed farming and trading. He was a successful farmer and trader, and amassed considerable wealth. He had gone on a trading expedition South, and while in Alabama, a man by the name of Carter from the same county as himself, who had started out with him on the expedition, murdered him, it is supposed on April 15. 1834. The mother was born near Blountville, Sullivan County, Tenn. October 29, 1792; she was the daughter of George Hines, a native of Pennsylvania, and of German extraction. She died at our subject's home February 10, 1868. She was the mother of five sons, viz.: David, George, John, James and Albert. It may be noticed that our subject is the eldest, but two; at the present (1887) only three of the sons are living. viz.: John, James and Albert. Our subject was reared on the farm, and educated in -the country schools, receiving a practical training. He has devoted his life principally to agricultural pursuits, but in the meantime he has conducted tanning and distilling. He operated a very large tannery for several years prior to the war, and has done considerable distilling. He is practical in business, and has been successful in amassing considerable wealth, having a very limited capital to begin with. He has had much misfortune in his time. but has been successful against many embarrassments, and at present is one of the most successful and prosperous farmers in Carter County, Tenn. In 1879 he married Nancy Ellen Carral, daughter of William Carral. Two children, Albert and Mary Anna, blessed this marriage. The mother died in 1880, and in 1885 he married Martha J. Duncan. One daughter, Della Cleveland, has come to this marriage.

    Dr. E. E. Hunter, of Elizabethton, was born in Washington County, Tenn., October 10, 1845, the son of Joseph and Maranda (Harris) Hunter. His father was a farmer by profession, and was born in 1808, and died in August, 1885. His mother was horn in 1812, the daughter of Dr. John Harris, a most celebrated physician, and minister of the Methodist Church. The mother died in 1863. Our subject is the youngest son of eight children, four sons and four daughters. When seventeen he attended school at Jonesboro for three years and afterward at Eastman's Business College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. After spending some time in Illinois he returned to Jonesboro, and in 1869 began the study of medicine under the celebrated Dr. Sevier. In 1870-71 he attended the medical department of the University of Tennessee. In March, 1871, he began the practice of medicine in Washington County, Tenn. He was married September 19, 1871, to Miss Mollie Jobe, a daughter of Dr. Jobe, of Elizabethton, Tenn., and their union has been blessed with seven children. He and his wife belong to the Methodist Church South. He removed to Elizabethton in March, 1877, and there resumed the practice of his profession, and in the same year purchased an interest in the Doe River Woolen Mills, the first establishment of the kind in East Tennessee. In 1885 he attended and graduated at the Kentucky School of Medicine. In August, 1885, he was appointed United States medical examiner, and was placed on the Johnson City board, of which he is president.

    Rev. J. H. Hyder
    Rev. J. H. Hyder

    Dr. L. F. Hyder, was born in Carter County, February 11,1844, the son of Rev, J. H. and Elizabeth Fletcher Hyder. The father was born October 20, 1812, on Powder Branch, Carter County, the son of Jonathan. who was born in the same house as the son of MichaelT. a native of Virginia, and an early pioneer of Carter County, one of the first two settlers. The father was a self-made scholar, and when twenty-two entered school at Jonesboro, and then at Emory and Henry College, and finally at Maryville (Tenn.) Baptist Theological Seminary. It is said that he converted about 10,000 persons, and was moderator of the Watauga Association, in 1869, holding it until his death. When seventy four years old he started to visit all the churches of this association, but exposure caused his death March 15, 1886. For thirty years he was a surveyor of Carter County, was a major of militia, and as a minister and man none stand higher. The mother was born in February, 1824, the daughter of John Fletcher, born in Carter County, the son of Mollie Kyle, a native of Ireland. The mother is living near Elizabethton on the old homestead, and has reared fourteen children. Our subject was educated at Duffield Academy, and when seventeen went to Kentucky, and in March, 1862, enlisted in Company B, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, and became sergeant. He was captured five different times but escaped, and in August, 1865, was mustered out and began medicine under Dr. Cameron, and since 1869 has practiced, up to, within a few years. He owns a farm of 100 acres in the Seventh District, and one of 196 acres in the Tenth District. In 1873 the Republicans elected him to the Legislature. Maggie, a daughter of Reuben Brooks, became his wife in 1871, and was born April 23, 1847, on Stony Creek. They have four children. She died April 22, 1885, and January 28, 1886, he married Elizabeth Price a native of Washington County. Our subject's brothers and sisters are A. J. F., a minister on Powder Branch, in the old original Hyder House; Cordella A., now Mrs. J. T. Banner; W. B.C., with the mother on the homestead; Daniel L., a graduate of Washington College, in 1885, also on the homestead, and Josie E., now Mrs. R. T. Johnson, of Elizabethton. Daniel is the administrator.

    Nathaniel E. Hyder, a physician, was born in Carter County, in the Hyder settlement. the son of W. F. M. and Margaret (Edens) Hyder, the former a son of Jonathan H., Sr., a son of Michael E., who in turn was a son of Michael, one of the Watauga Association. The latter was of German stock and a farmer, and came to the Rappahannock River, in Virginia, where his son was born. They came to East Tennessee about 1761. Jonathan was a relative of Jonathan Hampton, of South Carolina, for whom he was named. He was a prominent farmer. The father was born in 1824, in Carter County, and married, in 1848, a daughter of N. T. and L. Hyder Edens. She was born in 1829, in this county, and our subject is the only child. The father, always a successful farmer, is an active member of the Christian Church, and was second lieutenant in the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry. The mother is a member of the same church, and an esteemed lady. Our subject was educated at Franklin Academy, Washington County, and when twenty-five began medicine by self study, and has practiced for the last twelve years. He also farms 267 acres of land, and is county surveyor. April 20, 1871, he married Amanda J. Hyder, to whom Laura S. was born, and the mother died in 1878. In 1880 Eliza J. Treadway, became his wife. Their children are L. W. Bate and Romulus B.

    S. W. Hyder is one of the leading citizens of Carter County, and is a very prosperous farmer, was born on Powder Branch. Carter Co., Tenn., August 21, 1817; and is the son of Michael Hyder and Sarah Simmernon. The father was born in Virginia, and was of English descent. He was a farmer, and a practical and successful man, and was in most of the Indian wars of the early history of Tennessee. The mother of our subject was born in Virginia and was of Dutch lineage. She wasihe mother of four sons and one daughter. Our subject was raised on the farm and received a practical education in the country schools. He has followed agricultural pursuits all through life, together with which he has milled. He has been a succeas in his calling, and is a very well respected citizen. In early time he was captain of a company of State militia. In 1840 he married Louisa Edens, daughter of Nathaniel T. Edens. Eleven children blessed the marriage, and the wife died, her death occurring in 1866. In 1873 he married Sarah E. Fair for a second wife. Our subject is a member of the Lutheran Church citizen, always encouraging public and domestic enterprises.

    Dr. A. Jobe was b'orn near Elizabethton, Carter Co., Tenn., October 9, 1817, the son of Joshua and Ruth (Tipton) Jobe. The former was born in Washington County (before the State of Tennessee was formed) September 15,1785. He was the son of David Jobe who immigrated to this new country, about the year 1777, from Shenandoah County, Va. He owned and resided on the farm where Johnson City now stands, and died there, about the year 1799. Our subject's father was a farmer, and was once sheriff of Carter County. In the war of 1812, he volunteered and marched with Gen. Jackson's Army to the Horse Shoe, Talledega, and other battle fields, and then on to Mobile, Ala. About 1821 he moved from Carter to Blount County, and after living there about ten years (The Governor permitting settlers to move into the Cherokee Nation), he moved in about ten miles of where Dalton now stands. While residing here our subject, fifteen years old, attended the councils of the Indians for two or three years, and was present at the concluding of the treaty between the General Government, and the head men of the Nation. The father died at Ringgold, Ga, May 8, 1868. The mother was the daughter of Thomas Tipton (son of Col. John Tipton, who helped achieve American Independence, at the battle of King's Mountain, and Indian battles He also fought the memorable Franklin battle, against Gov. Sevier), was born in Carter County, August 27, 1791, and died at Ringgold, Ga., May 22, 1864. In June, 1836, there being trouble with the Indians, especially the Creeks, the Government called out troops, and our subject being then nearly nineteen, volunteered in the United States Army, to protect white settlers, and gather up and remove the destitute bands of Indians, west of the Mississippi. On completing his term of service and receiving an honorable discharge, he came to Jonesboro, and entered school, where he remained until February, 1839, when he commenced the mercantile business, with his brother, under the firm name of A. & D. Jobe, at Ringgold, Ga. In 1841 he commenced reading medicine with Dr. Samuel B. Cunningham, of Jonesboro, Tenn. In 1848 he commenced practice, at Burusyille, N. C. In 1844 he married Sophronia, only daughter of James H. Poteet, born in Yancey County, N.C., May 8, 1826, and in 1845 moved to Elizabethton, Tenn., where he practiced medicine and surgery up to and during the war. In 1848-49 he attended Transylvania University, at Lexington, Ky., and graduated from the medical department. In February, 1866, he received the appointment of special agent of the postoffice department, with headquarters at Raleigh, N. C., and served in that capacity three years and a half. While in this office, the Secretary of the Interior, learning that the Doctor had a knowledge of Indian character, procured a leave of absence from the postoffice department, an appointed him special agent of Indian affairs, and sent him to the Chippewa Nation, in the northern part of Minnesota. This was a dangerous mission. The Indians had recently murdered their principal Chief, and were ready to go on "the war path." By traveling about 800 miles in the Nation, and holding councils with them at their towns, he was enabled to appease their wrath, and settle their misunderstandings. Our subject and his wife are Methodists. Five of their eleven children are deceased. E. D., the only living son, married Eva Taylor, sister to Gov. Taylor; Emma is Mrs. J. B. Miller; Mollie is Mrs. Dr. Hunter; Hattie is the wife of Nat. W. Taylor, brother of Gov. Taylor; the single daughters are Ruth and Sallie.

    Robert T. Johnson. The paternal grandfather of our subject, was Jacob Johnson, who immigrated to Tennessee from Millerstown, Md., soon after the close of the Revolutionary war, and settled near Eden Ridge,within five miles of Kingsport,Sullivan County. He was a farmer by vocation, and alsb kept a tavern. He lived there until his death, which occurred in about 1854. He was married to Elizabeth Church, who was a native of Maryland, being born near Hagerstown. She died in 1848. To the grandparents six children were horn, of which our subject's father was the fourth child. Thomas C.,. the father, was born in Sullivan County on June 5, 1806 and was reared on the farm and acquired a practical education in the schools of the neighborhood. He removed to Carter County in 1834 with Dr. Joseph Powel, Sr., with whom he made his home and studied medicine, but never practiced. He was a farmer by vocation, and was quite a prominent man in the county, and served a number of Years as deputy sheriff and coroner, and was lieutenant colonel of militia, and also major and adjutant under Col. Daniel Stover. He was a member of Deshield Lodge No. 238, F. & A. M., but was initiated in Kennedy Lodge of that order. He was an industrious and enterprising citizen, and always took an active part in public affairs. He was industrious and successful, and accumulated a good competency. He died January 5, 1879. The maternal great-grandfather of our subject was Samuel Tipton, who was the eldest son of Col. John Tipton, who fought in the battle of Franklin with Gen. John Sevier. Col. John Tipton immigrated to Tennessee from the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, and settled in what is now Carter County during the Revolutionary war. He was the grandfather of Gen. Jacob Tipton, for whom Tipton County, Tenn., was named. Abraham Tipton, the grandfather of our subject, was the son of Samuel Tipton, and was named for Col. Abraham Tipton, who was killed in Bear Grass, Ky., during the Revolutionary war by Indians. He was born in Carter County August 27, 1794, and married Martha Lacy of Carter County. He served as sheriff and justice of the peace of Carter County for a number of years, being elected sheriff in 1836, the first one after the adoption of the new constitution, He was elected to the State Senate in 1849. He was also adjutant and major of militia. He died July 3, 1868. To this union two children were born, of which our subject's mother was the second. Nancy J., the mother, was born in Elizabethton on November 7, 1818. The parents of our subject were married January 8, 1887, and to them have been born nine children, six of whom are living. The children are as follows: Martha B., born May 28, 1838, now Mrs. Huff, of Doyle Station, White County, Tenn.; Saraphenla, born December 30, 1840, married John T. King, of King's Springs, in Carter County, and died November 2, 1884; Anna M., born December 13, 1843, now Mrs. D. N. Reece, and living at Carter Depot, Carter County; Mary C., born September 6, 1847, now Mrs. W.T. Rucher, of Doyle Station; Ada L., born January 3.1850, married Hiram Bowman, of Johnson County, and died December 8, 1877; A. T., born May 28, 1853; Eugene, born November 7, 1859, died same day; Robert T.,born December 20,1860; William, born February 25, 1858, A. T., is a resident of Elizabethton. William is United States mail agent on the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railway, between Bristol and Chattanooga. He was married on April 6, 1887, to Miss Ella Bridewell, of Knoxville, and is also a resident of Elizabethton. Robert T., the subject, is depot and express agent and telegraph operator at Elizabethton, and is also engaged in merchandising at that point, being senior member of the firm of Johnson & Waters. He was married September 6, 1868, to Josie B. Hyder, youngest daughter of Elder J. H. Hyder. To this union three children have been born. The mother of Mrs. R. T. Johnson is a sister to Andrew Fletcher, who was Secretary of State under Gov. Brownlow's administration.

    J. J. McCorkle, farmer, was born in Sullivan County, January 4, 1846, the son of Samuel and Lucinda (Colbaugh) McCorkle, the former a native of Tennessee, and born in 1818, the son of Joseph, a native of Pennsylvania, and of Irish origin. The father was a highly successful farmer, and died in 1885. The mother, born in 1812, in Sullivan County, was the daughter of John Colbaugh, a soldier in the war of 1812, and a farmer. Their children were William M., John 3., Eliza, Mary, Martha, Susan and Harriet. Our subject educated himself by the light of a pine knot, and has been very succesiful as a farmer. When seventeen years old he joined Company H, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, and was mustered out April 6, 1866, as captain, in the First United States Artillery. He has since been farming, and for five years was a trustee, and for four years a sheriff. September 20 1866, he married Ruthey E., a daughter of John and Louise (Amess) Hentrix, and born in Carter County January 15,1849. They have eight sons and four daughters. He and his wife are members of the Christian Church, of which he Is an elder. He is an able and esteemed man.

    D. S. Nave, merchant, was born September 2, 1836, in Carter County, and when fifteen years old his father's death compelled him to support the family. He is now owner of 104 acres of land, besides a stock of goods at Hampton, where he been a merchant for two years. In 1866 he became revenue collector, and served until 1870. September 23, 1863, he joined Company A, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, and was mustered out September 5, 1865, at Knoxville, as first lieutenant, while he had first been orderly sergeant. In March, 1860, he married Elizabeth Bowers, a native of Carter County. Their children are Daniel S., Jr., Mary J., John T. and Sarah L. He and his wife are Baptists, of which church he has been a deacon two years. He is a Republican. He is the ninth of ten children of T. and J. (Stover) Nave, natives of Carter County, and died at the ages of fifty-four and seventy-eight, respectively. They were Baptists; he a prominent deacon. The Stover family were of Dutch deacent. The grandparents, Abraham and Mary (Williams) Nave, were among the first settlers of Carter County and were Baptists. Abraham was the second son of Teter Nave, who, with three sons, was among the first pioneers on the Watauga River.

    Andrew J. Peebles, a minister and farmer, was born in Carter County, January 16, 1829, the son of William and Elizabeth (Sheets) Peebles, the former a native of Carter County, and died in 1875, at the age of eighty-nine. The mother was born in Virginia, and died in 1886, aged ninety-two. They had six sons and four daughters. Our subject was educated at Paperville, Pleasant Grove and Fall Branch, and In 1854 began the practice of medicine, partly in North Carolina, Mississippi and Tennessee. In the war he was a quartermaster, and since then has been a farmer, now owning 325 acres in the Fifth District. February 11, 1858, he married Clarissa H., a daughter of Henry Ray, and born February 7, 1841, in North Carolina. They have four sons and two daughters. He is a Methodist, and his wife a Missionary Baptist. Our subject is a Mason, and postmaster at Okolona. Their eldest son, Rev. H. M. Peebles, was educated at Milligan College, and is now an itinerant Methodist Protestant minister.

    J. P. Scott, proprietor of the Watauga Woolen Mills, and one of the prominent citizens of Carter County, was born in that county August 19, 1834, and is the son of John and Jane (Humphreys) Scott. The father was born in Washington County in 1797, and was a soldier of the war of 1812, participating in the battle of Horse Shoe. He was a carpenter by trade, and also followed farming. He was quite prominent during his life, and served as a captain in the militia. He died in 1857. His father was Absalom Scott, anative of Scotland, who immigrated to Maryland, where he was married, and then came to Tennessee and settled in Washington County, of which he was one of the pioneers. The mother was born in Carter County, on Doe River, three miles above Elizabethton in 1808, and was the daughter of Elisha Humphreys, a farmer of Carter County. She died in 1868. She was a member of the Baptist Church. To the parents were born nine children, of which our subject is the fifth. He was reared partly on the farm, and also worked at different trades. In 1869 he associated himself with Messrs. Isaac Slinker and C. H. Lewis, and established the Doe River Woolen Mills both of whom were Northern men, and were attracted to the location, and its rare advantages by the report of the State geologists just after the war, and by the lectures delivered in the North by N. G. Taylor, the father of the present governor. Remaining with that establishment for about six years, he then sold out his interest in that mill and established the Watauga Mills, of which he is the present proprietor. He was married, in 1870, to Emma Josephine Fleteher, who was born at Newport, Cocke County, in 1844, and is the daughter of A. J. Fletcher. To this union seven children have been born, two of whom are dead.

    The Watauga Woolen Mills, J. P. Scott, proprietor, of Elizabethton, Tenn., were established in 1876 by the present proprietor. The mills have a daily capacity of about 300 yards, while during the year 1886 upward of 45,000 yards of goods were manufactured. It has water and steam power and 815 spindles, and uses 150 pounds per day. About $15,000 capital is invested. The large two story building is on the Watauga River, one mile from Elizabethton.

    Judge J. P. Smith, chancellor of the first chancery division of Tennessee, was born in Johnson County, March 30, 1846, the son of A. D. and Mary (Powell) Smith, the former born in Wilkes County, N. C., in 1808, the son of Caleb Smith, a native of North Carolina. Eleven brothers, including the father of the latter, were with Gen Gates in the Revolution, and two were killed. Caleb married Elizabeth Doren, a daughter of Robert Doren, of Ireland, and afterward, in 1810, a pioneer of Tennessee. The marriage occurred in North Carolina. He was an iron bar manufacturer and farmer, and died before our subject was born. The father was a sheriff of Carter County about 1830, and in 1835 became sheriff of Johnson County, after which he became circuit clerk, until 1856. He was a lawyer, and engaged in active practice until 1863. when Gen. Burnaide authorized him and John K. Miller, as lieutenant-colonel and colonel, to organize the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, but he died in November, 1863, before the organization was completed. The mother was born near Washington City, Va., February 27, 1816, the daughter of John Powell, a sea captain, who died while his daughter was a child. She came to her relatives in East Tennessee, and in 1832 was married. Our subject, the sixth of eight children, grew up in Johnson County until his seventeenth year, attending James Keys' private school at Tayloraville. He then joined Company B, Fourth Union Tennessee Infantry, at Nashville, scouting through the Confederate lines to Kentucky. In October 1864, he became second lieutenant; and was mustered out August 2, 1865, at Nashville. He then entered a claim office in Knoxville, and continued until November, 1867, when he began law, and assisted in the clerk's and master's office at Elizabethton. He was admitted to the bar in October, 1869, and in 1870 began practice in Johnson County, where he resided until December, 1880, and then became assistant United States attorney for the eastern district of Tennessee. On July 8, 1885, he resigned and moved to Carter County, and in 1886 became chancellor of the first chancery division. He was marrled in February, 1867, to Mary A., a daughter of William Craig, born July 2, 1846. Two of their nine children are deceased. He and his wife are Presbyterians.

    John C. Smith, clerk and master of the chancery court, was born near Eiizabethton, August 26, 1844, the son of James O. and Rosana (Ellis) Smith, the former born in 1818 in North Carolina, the son of Caleb Smith, of Pennsylvania, who is mentioned in the sketch of J. P. Smith. The mother was born in Carter County, the daughter of John Ellis. Our subject was educated at Elizabethton, and when seventeen went through the lines, and July 2, 1862, joined Company F, Second Federal Tennessee Infantry, and on November 6, 1863, was captured at Rogersville and imprisoned at Belle Isle, Richmond, then in Andersonville, and finally exchanged December 15, 1864, He then went to Annapolis, and returned to Knoxville; but on March 19, 1865, rejoined his command at Cumberland Gap. He was mustered out at Knoxville June 19, 1865. He then entered the claim business at Elizahethton until 1868, when he began merchandising. In 1873 he entered his present office. On December 22, 1868, he married Eva V. a daughter of Isaac P. Tipton, deceased. She was born in April, 1845, and has borne five children to our subject. Both parents are Methodists.

    C. C. Taylor, farmer, was born in Carter County, September 12, 1846, the son of C. C. and Nancy (Duncan) Taylor, the former born in this county, May 15, 1795, the son of Dr. Isaac Taylor; of Virginia, who was born in 1756, and came to what is now Carter County about 1776. He was in the Revolution. The father was a physician and farmer and married, January 28, 1833. the daughter of Jeremiah Duncan, who was born July 4, 1809. Two sons and one daughter are now living. Our subject was educated at Boone's Creek Seminary, and has always been a successful farmer. He was United States Internal revenue guager for five years, and in 1870 deputy marshall and census taker. In 1867 he married Frances T., a daughter of George D. Williams. Their children are Lucy N., Margaret E. A., George C. and Frank A. H. Our subject is a Republican, a Mason, and a member of the Christian Church.

    J. P. Van Huss, farmer, was born in March, 1833, in Carter County, on his present farm. He was educated in the common schools, and when twenty years old began life, and now owns 157 acres of fine land. In 1860 Rebecca, a daughter of Daniel and Barbara (Roadcap) Nead, of Hagerstown, Md., and Rockbridge County, Va., respectively, became his wife, About 1837 they came to Washington County, where the father died. The children born to our subject and wife are as follows: Minnie F., James M., Daniel F., Barbara E., Flora J., William L. and John D. He and his wife are Baptists, the latter of the German Church. He is a Republican and Prohibitionist. He was a justice in 1860 and has been since 1882. From January, 1888 to 1887, he was a trustee in 1866, and served four terms. He was deputy sheriff three years, and is a Master Mason. He was twice elected moderator of the Watauga Assocaiton of Baptists, and was also clerk of the same body from its organization in 1868 for six consecutive years. He is the ninth of eleven children (five of whom yet survive) of Mathias and Lovina (Duggar) Van Buss, natives of Carter (now Johnson) County and the present Carter County respectively. The former was a soldier in 1812, a Whig, a farmer, and a blacksmith. He was a son of Valentine Van Huss, of North Carolina, and of Carter County, the latter born about 1778. He was of Dutch desent, while the mother was of Scotch-English origin. The mother was a daughter of was a daughter of William Duggar, a native of North Carolina, and a pioneer of Dugger's Ferry. He was a soldier of the Revolution and married three times. The Duggar family are long lived.

  • Johnson County - 1887

    JOHNSON COUNTY is the extreme eastern county of the State. It is bounded on the north by Virginia and on the east and southeast by North Carolina. The area in acres Is 249,600, or in square miles about 890. It is well watered by springs and streams. The Watauga River forms the dividing line between this county and Carter for a short distance. and receives the principal stream of the former, Roane Creek. The remaining streams of the county are Little Doe River, a tributary of Roane Creek, and Laurel Fork and Beaverdam Creek, which waters enter the Hoiston River. The surface of the county is usually broken. The Iron Mountain traverses it from northeast to southwest, and Stone Mountain marks the boundary of North Carolina. Doe Mountain lies wholly within the county, and extends a distance of about twelve miles. The most fertile lands lie along Little Doe, Roane Creek and the district known as Shady. The mineral resources are exceedingly valuable. This is especially true of iron ore, which exists in extensive beds, and for nearly a hundred years has been worked in a small way.

    The first settlement in Johnson County is said to have been made about 1770, on Roane Creek, near its confluence with the Watauga, by a man named Honeycut. Other settlements were made soon after farther up Roane Creek, and on Little Doe and the Laurel. Shady was also settled at a comparatively early day, Among the pioneers who had found homes in the territory now embraced in Johnson County prior to 1778, were Joseph Hoskins, George and Samuel Heatherby, Thomas, John and Charles Asher, Richard and Benjamin Wilson, John and Henry Grimes, Joseph Gentry, John, Jesse and Josiah Hoskins and John Higgins. At that time the entire population of this section did not exceed 150. Among those who came during the next twenty years and located in Little Doe were Jacob Perkins, George Brown, George Crosswhite, Ed. Polly, Joseph Timpkins; and David Stout. Jacob Perkins died about 1820, leaving five sons: Joseph, Joshua, Amos, Jacob and John. The others all have a number of descendants in the county. Of the settlers on Roane Creek, duriug the period from 1778 to 1798 may be mentioned, Leonard Shown, John Barry, John Vaught, David Wagner, Jacob and Michael Slimp. Vaught bad a mill and "still-house" which he left to his son, Joseph Vaught. Shown located at the cross roads, which has long borne his name. David Wagner lived east of Shown's Cross Roads. He was the father of Mathew, David H., Jacob and John Wagner, At a very early day Nathaniel Taylor erected iron works on Roane Creek, He afterward transferred them to his son, James P. Taylor, who sold them to David Wagner.

    Among the settlers on the Laurel were James Keys, Charles Anderson and the Wills. Of the remaining settlers of the county prior to 1800 many have been forgotten, while the names of others' are'perpetuated by their descendauts. A few only can be enumerated here. These were Peter and John Cain, Benjamin and Daniel Cuthbert, Peter Snyder, Abraham Dorson and Joseph Sewell, Joseph, John and Garland Wilson, Robert and John Walters, William Woodby (now Widby), William Netherly and Anthony and William Fisher.

    The first church organized in the county was known as Roane Creek Baptist Church, constituted on April 20, 1794. Benjamin Brown was chosen moderator, William Jackson clerk and George Brown elder. At the next meeting in May George Brown, Stephen Wheeler, Benjamin Brown, Joseph Gentry, John Grimes, John Asher and William Jackson were also appointed to sit, as the church, at Mr. Loyd's, to receive members, on the second Saturday in June. Among the first members mentioned were Benjamin Cuthbert, Reuben and John Asher, Jacob Perkins, John and William Brown, Stephen Gentry, Joseph Tompkins, William Clark, William Pembleton, James Parsons, John Mullins, John Smith, Benjamin Sewell, Hezekiah Boone, Samuel Cole, Thomas Thornton and Joseph and John Jackson. To them should be added about thirty-five names of female members belonging to the families of the above men, making an aggregate membership of about sixty-five. This church then included all the Baptists in Johnson County, and some from the contiguous territory. In 1797 it was decided to build three houses of worship-one on Lower Roane Creek, another on Upper Roane Creek, and the third on Little Doe. Whether these buildings were erected could not be ascertained, but it is probable that they were not built, but services were held at private residences in the three settlements in turn. The first pastor was James Tompkins, installed in 1797. In 1801 the members on Cobb Creek were constittited a new church, and at the same time a new society was formed and given the name of Meadow Church. It was first represented in the association in 1803 by George and William Brown. In 1844 Little Doe Church was admitted to the association, and the next year Pleasant Grove. The delegates from the former were D. M. Stout and John Shefilleld, and from the latter W. A. Gamble, D. Wagner and N. Stout.

    The Methodist Church began its work in the county during its earliest settlement, but it was not until many years after that any house of worship was built. One of the first was at what is known as Deep Spring, built some time prior to 1833.

    The Presbyterians have had but very few members in the county, and no organization has been successfully maintained. The Christian Church has formed several societies, and has a considerable membership, but it is not well supplied with ministerial services.

    The organization of Johnson County took place in 1836. The first sessions of the county court was begun and held at Pleasant Grove Schoolhouse on May 2, 1836. The magistrates present were John Ward, Thomas Johnson, Andrew L. Wilson, Jared Arrendiell, James W. Warren, Joseph Robinson, James W. Wright, Andrew Wilson, James Brown, Jesse Cole, Levi Heath, M. M. Wagner, John Dugger, Sr., and Phillip Shull. M. M. Wagner was elected trustee, David H. Wagner, register; Benjamin Wilson, entry taker; S. E. McQueen. surveyor; William Keys, coroner, and Levi Heath, ranger. This court continued to meet at Pleasant Grove Schoolhouse, which was situated on Vaught Creek, near Roane Creek. for nearly a year. One or more sessions were then held at the house of Col. Greet Moore, in Taylorsville. In October, 1836, the county commissioners were given authority to contract for the building of a court house, to be not more than forty feet square, and two stories high. This structure was completed about one year later. Two years later the jail was completed at a coat of about $1,000.

    The first circuit court of Johnson County was held on March 28, 1856, "at the house formerly occupied by Thomas Johnson, deceased." [NOTE: The preceding is from the Court Records. It is also contented by some persons who should know that the first court was held in a school house just southeast of town*] Samuel Powell presided, and Alfred D. Smith qualified as clerk. The grand jury impaneled at the next term was composed of the following men.. Andrew Potter. Thomas Barry, William Tompkins, Michael Smithpeter, John H. Vaught, Robert L. Doran, John Wagner, Casper Cobb, William Adkins, Hughes Warden, Peter Wills, Stephen Jackson and Jacob Rose.

    Among the lawyers who resided in the county prior to the war were H. C. Smith, his brother, A. D. Smith. William Smithpeter, H.P. Murphy and Roderick B. Butler. The first named removed to Carter County at about the beginning of the war. A. D. Smith served as clerk of the circuit court, and clerk and master during nearly his entire professional career. He died during the war. William Smithpeter began the practice of law a few years before the war, but did not attain much prominence. The last two named above are still residents of the town. Mr. Murphy has, however, retired from practice. The honorable career of Mr.Butler needs little mention here. He came to the county when a youth as a tailor's apprentice. and by his own unaided exertions he succeeded in securing a practical education and a good knowledge of the law. Upon the reorganization of the courts after the war he was made judge of the First Judicial Circuit; he resigned in 1867 to enter Congress, where he remained eight years. Since that time he has devoted his attention to his profession, but is now congressman-elect from the First District.

    The present bar of the county is made up as follows: R. R. Butler, A. T. Donnelly, B. W. Jenkins, Thomas S. Smythe, Joseph A. Wilson, Joseph S. Jenkins, W. P. Sharp and James H. Church.

    The commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice were Green Moore, John Ward, James Brown, James B. Mosely and Ezekiel Smith, who, after viewing several places, purchased twenty-five and one-half acres of land from William P. Waugh, and laid off a town, to which was given the name of Taylorsville, in honor of the Taylors of Carter County. The site formerly constituted a part of a large tract of land owned by John Wagner, who lived near where the residence of Noah Wagner now is. The sale of lots took place on September 6, 1886, at which time thirty-three lots were disposed of at comparatively high prices. One of the first residents of the town was Col. Green Moore, who built the house now occupied by Mr. Giles Gregory, where he kept a hotel and store. Andrew L. Wilson also sold goods in a log house standing on the site of the upper end of the Central Hotel. At about the same time M. M. Wagner opened a store in a portion of the same house where he now lives; afterward he built the large brick building, where since the war, his sons, Joseph H. and N. J., have been engaged in business. Archibald Broufute was another early merchant; his store stood in the south part of the town. George Alderson, Hughes & Davis, and Samuel Kilby were merchants of the town at little later date.

    About 1845 or 1846 a county academy was built on the hill north of town. It was two-story frame building, and about ten years after its completion was destroyed by fire. The first teacher in this school is said to have been William Smithpeter, who was succeeded by Prof. Austin. About 1870 a three-story brick building was begun by Tayorsville Lodge, No.248, F. & A. M., but was not completed until three or four years later. A school known as the Masonic Institute was then opened under the direction of Rev. James Keys and Rev. Thomas W. Hughes. The institution has since been successfully maintained. The present principal is William Keys, assisted by Henry F. Ketron.

    After the establishment of the town the society of Baptists known as Roane Creek Church, who had worshiped at or near Shown's Cross Roads, removed to Taylorsville and about 1858 completed the present brick house. This work was largely effected through the efforts of M. M. Wagner and Rufus Moore, the latter of whom has been clerk of the church for more than half a century.

    Soon after the completion of the courthouse the Methodists began holding services there, and continued until about 1858, when a small brick church was erected. A few years after the war this building was sold for debt, and was purchased by members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Mr. A. Murphy furnishing the greater part of the funds.

    The town now has a population of about 400. In 1885 its name was changed from Taylorsville to Mountain City, which from its location as one of the highest valleys of Tennessee is very appropriate. The business of the town is now conducted by the following persons: A. A. Murphy's son, James S. Mitchell, C. C. Yarbrough, general merchandise, and H. S. McDade druggist. The first named is also the proprietor of a tannery.

    The leading newspaper of the county is the Tennessee Tomahawk edited and published by W. H. Keys. It was established as the Taylorsville Reporter and received present name after the change in the name of the town. The Mountain City News is a small two-column folio which was recently established by C. C. Yarbrough.

    From the organization of the county to the present time the officers have been as follows: County Clerks - R. C. White, 1836-40; A. Bradfute, 1840-44; A. T. Wilson l844-48; A. Bradfute; 1848-52; H. L. Wilson, 1852-60; Calloway Elrod, 1860-62; Frederick Slimp. 1862-64; John K. Hughes, 1864-65; H. E. Berry, 1865-70; Richard H. Butler, 1870-78; John A. Eggers, 1878-82; H. E Berry, 1882.

    Clerks of the Circuit Court-A. D. Smith, l836-56; James W. Wright, 1856-60; Frederick Slimp, 1865-70; R. E. Berry. 1870-78; W. P. Sharp,1878-82; E. F. Johnson, 1882.

    Clerks and Masters-A. D. Smith, 1856-80; Green Moore, 1860-; Thomas S. Smythe, 1866-68; J. H. Smith, 1868-73; H. A. Donnelly, 1873.

    Registers-David H. Wagner, 1836-40; Alfred T.Wilson, 1840-44; Joseph Slimp, 1844-46; A. Bradfute, l846-50 M. S. Dickson, 1850-54; William Smithpeter, 1855-56; Daniel Slimp, 1858-64; A. C. McEwen, 1864-85; David Slimp, 1865-70; Francis M. Chappell, 1870.

    Sheriffs-Reuben White, 1886-40; Calvin J. Moore, 184244; Isaac W. McQueen, 1844-50; James W. Wright, 1850-56; Samuel E. McQueen, 1856-60; R. L. Wilson, 1860-64; - Wilson, 1864-65; H. A. Donnelly, 1865-66; 1. F. Shown, 1866-72; Joseph A. Sutherland, 1872-74; I. F. Shown, 1874-76; E. F. Johnson, 1876-82; M. L. Moreland, l882-86; M. L.Moreland, 1886.

    Trustees-M. M. Wagner, 1836-52; E. L. Dugger, 1852-54; James D. Donnelly, 1854-58; Benjamin W. Jenkins, 1858-62; R. A. Donnelly, 1862-64; S. E. McQueen, 1864-65; John M. Roberts. 1865- 66; Samuel Howard, 1866-68; H. H. Donnelly, 1868-70; Joseph A.Sutherland, 1870-72; C. A. Shown, 1872-74; N. T. Wagner, 1874-76; J. C. Donnelly, 1876-78; H. L. Wilson, 1878-82; James S. Laws, 1882-84; W. L. Johnson, 1884.

    Biographical Appendix.

    Robert E. Berry, county court clerk of Johnson County, Tenn., was born near Abingdon, Washington Co., Va., February 1, 1831, the son of Moses and Dorcas (Edmondson) Berry. The father was horn in Washington County, Va., the son of Thomas, a native of Virginia. Moses and family moved to Clay County, Ill., in 1831 where he died in 1836. The mother was a native of the same county, the daughter Robert and Mary (Glenn) Edmondson. Our subject, the eldest of three sons, was educated, and taught school about five years. He became a citizen of Johnson Co Tenn., July, 1856. In July, 1865, lie was elected county court clerk of Johnson Co. Tenn., and served as such up to October, 1869, meanwhile acting as deputy clerk and master in chancery; was clerk of circuit court for said county from November, until November, 1878; was appointed storekeeper and gauger in the second collection district, Tennessee (internal revenue Service) in 1878, and served as such up to 1881, and was graded as first-class; was again elected county court clerk of Johnson County, Tenn., in July, 1881, and has continued in said office up to the present time, September, 1887. His present term of office expires September 1, 1890. He married Mrs. Rachel A. McQuown, of Carter (now Johnson) County, the daughter of Lewis and Catherine (Vincell) Wills, on September 27,1857. Mrs. Berry was born in July, 1826. only child, Alexander T.; was born October 21, 1858.

    James Brown, farmer and stock dealer, was born October 21, 1811, in Ashe County, N.C., the youngest of eight children of Joseph and Anna (Hayler) Brown, natives of Wilkes and Anson Counties, N. C., respectively. The father was an expert deer hunter. The grandfather, James Brown, was a native of England, and his wife was of German descent. He was a farmer. When of age, our subject began independently as a farmer and now owns a fine place of 800 acres, besides a farm in Hawkins County. September 14, 1837, he married Harriet N., a daughter of William and Polly (Halliburton) Farthing natives of North Carolina, the former a Missionary Baptist minister. Their children were Joseph H., Nancy E., Barton H., Stephen J., Mary E. (deceased), Sallie L. (deceased), Eva A., Martha C., Julian M. and Dudley F. He and his wife are Baptists, and also several of their children. He had two sons in the late war, one, Barton R., having organized the only Confederate company in this county, of which company Stephen J. was first lieutenant. Our subject is a Democrat.

    S. J. Brown, farmer and stock dealer, was born in 1843, in Watauga County, N. C., the fourth of ten children of James and Harriet (Farthing) Brown, natives of North Carolina, who came to this county in 1846, the former of English and the latter of Scotch-English stock. They were engaged in farming and stock dealing. Our subject was three years old when they came to this county, and when seventeen began for himself. In 1861he enlisted in Company D, First North Carolina Confederate Cavalry, serving at Chickamauga, where he was wounded, and then transferred to the Sixth North Carolina Regiment, and surrendered with Johnston's army. After returning, he studied law, and attended school, and was admitted to the bar January 18,1868, by the supreme court of North Carolina. Circumstances compelled him to become a hardware clerk at Salisbury, N. C., and six years later at another place. where for two years he engaged independently, and since then has been at his present location, as a farmer. In February, 1874, he married Addle, a daughter of Jacob and Celia (Perkins) Wagner, natives of this and Ashe County, N. C., respectively. The former is a son of Mathias, who settled in this county on our subject's present farm, about 1789. Our subject's children are Tallulah W., Charles W. W., Thomas J. and Addielee. Both are Methodists, and he a Democrat, and a Master Mason. Our subject received about $3,000 of property through his wife, but now owns a fine farm of 400 acres, and is an enterprising farmer.

    James Henry Church, a prominent lawyer, was born near Elk Cross Roads, Ashe County, N. C., May 5, 1852, the son of Wiley and Margaret (Ray) Church, the former born in said county, March 15,1812, the son of a native of that State. The father is a farmer, living at our subject's birth-place, a prominent man, and was postmaster under President Lincoln's first administration. He is a Baptist. The mother, horn in that county in 1817, is the daughter of William Ray, and a Baptist. Our subject, the youngest, except one, of nine children, received a good common-school education, and left the farm when of age to engage in teaching, which he followed in North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee. He finished his education at the Masonic Institute, Moutain City, (Taylorsville), Tenn., and began law in May, 1874, under Hon R. R. Butler, gaining admittance to the bar in July, 1875, and began practice. He became a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, serving on the Jonesboro Circuit in Washington County, Tenn., one year, and went West. He returned from Kansas to Mountain City, and since January, 1881, has been exclusively engaged in his profession of law, and is an able and successful lawyer. May 5, 1874, he married Virginia L., the daughter of the the said Hon. R. R. Butler, born December 19, 1850. Their children are Richard Connolly and a twin sister Hattie Elixabeth, born August 25, 1875 (the sister deceased the 9th of the following November), and William Rollin, born December 26, 1877. The mother is a Methodist.

    Dr. James D. Donnelly, the oldest physician of Mountain City, was born near there December 5, 1823, the son of Richard and Rebecca (Doran) Donnelly, the former bron in Albemarle County, Va., August 17, 1790, the son of Robert, a native of Ireland, boren in 1760, and who came to Virginia, and at an early date to Carter (now Johnson) County, where he died in 1882. The father was a farmer and served several years as magistrate. His death occurred August 26, 1870. The mother, horn in Washington County, Va., September 9, 1796, was the daughter of Alexander Doran, and died December 28, 1876, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Our the fourth of thirteen children was educated at Taylorsville, and began reading medicine at Elizabethton in 1846, with Dr. Joseph Powell. He began practice in 1848 at his present residence, and for sixteen years served as United States pension examine, acting as president of the board. He was trustee for four years and for twelve years acted as school commissioner. January 27, 1860 he married Frances L., a daughter of Archibald Orr, and born in Washington County, Va. They have eight children, while two are deceased. She is a Methodist.

    Capt. Alfred T. Donnelly, a prominent lawyer and farmer, was born at the old Donnelly homestead near Mduntain City, March 9, 1888, the son of Richard and Rebecca (Doran) Donnelly, the former born in Albemarle County, Va., August 17, 1790, she of Robert, a native of Dublin, Ireland, who came to the above county, thence. to Rockingham County, Wilkes County, N. C., and finally to Carter (now Johnson) County, Tenn., where he was a farmer. The father, also a farmer, was a prominent magistrate and constable, whose death occurred on August 26, 1870. The mother was born September 9, 1796, in Washington County, Va., the daughter of Alexander Doran, who came to this county in its early settlement and settled at Head of Laurel, where he was a prominet farmer, and major in the militia. Richard Donnelly enlisted in the war of 1812 and served one month, when peace was declared, and assisted in removing the Indians; was also in the Legislature at Knoxville. She died December 28, 1876. Our subject, the twelfth of thirteen children, was educated at Taylorsville (now Mountain City) Academy and at Boone's Creek, in Washington County. In September, 1863, he left teaching the study of law, to join Company D, Thirteenth Tennessee Federal Cavalry, became a sergeant-major, and afterward lieutenant, and, while in camp near Knoxville became captain. He was mustered out September 5, 1865, and resumed his law studies this county, where he was admitted to the bar the same year. He first entered into partnership with the late Col. H. Love and N. M. Taylor, now of Bristol, Tenn. At the end of one year he formed a partnership with Judge H. R. Butler (his brother-in-law), which partnership has continued twenty years and still exists. (Judge R. R. Butler was in Congress for eight or ten years after the late war, and is the present member from the First District of Tennessee). Mr. Donnelly has been successful in practice, and became county school superintendent in January, 1878, serving six years. He also has a farm of 175 acres near Mountain City, which he cultivates. He is a Mason. He was also deputy assessor and collector of internal revenue for several years.

    H. C. Donnelly, merchant and farmer, was born in this county in 1840, the youngest of thirteen children of Richard and Rebecca (Doren) Donnelly, the former born August 17, 1790, in Virginia, and the latter a daughter of Alexander Doren, an old resident of this county. The grandfather went to Rockingbam County, Va. and then to Wilkes County, N.C., when Richard was a young man, and the latter went to Washington County, Va, when of age, and afterward to Johnson County, locating near Taylorsville now Mountain City. He was a justice for many years, a Whig, and afterward a Republican. The first camp meeting ever held in this region was on his farm. His father Robert, was horn in Dublin, and was engaged in teaching and farming. Richard enlisted in the war of 1812, and served one month. Our subject was fairly educated, and now owns a fine farm of about 675 acres, besides some in other parts of the county. He is one of the firm of Donnelly & Smith, merchants at Shoun's Cross Roads. June 13, 1866, he married M. A., a daughter of Henderson and Sarah (Baker) Shoun, natives of Johnson County, the former a son of Leonard, one of the earliest settlers of Carter County. Their children are Marietta, Joseph S., Sarah V. and Richard H. Both are Methodists. He is a Republican, and a Master Mason. His farm includes the old Leonard homestead, on which father-in-law is buried. He has been postmaster ever since 1869.

    H. T. Grant, farmer, was born in 1848 in Washington County, Va., the third of ten children of Archibald S. and Margaret (Orr) Grant, natives of that county, and of English origin. He was a farmer and stock dealer, and both were active Methodists. The grandparents Archibald and Jennie (McGinnis) Grant, natives of England and Washington County, respectively. The former was brought to this country when a child; first to Kingston, NC., then to Maryland, and finally to Washington County, Va., where he died, as a farmer. His wife was the daughter of Archibald afid Polly (Hope) Orr, natives of the same county, the former, a son of James, a native of Ireland, and a weaver by trade, one of whose instruments is owned by H. T. Our subject was thirteen years old when they came this county, and after his education, when twenty years old, he began for himself, with a little inherited property. In 1862 he enlisted in Company A, Fifth North Carolina Confederate Cavalry, and served at Chickamauga, and until the surrender of Johnston's army. August 28, 1877, he married Frances, a daughter of Peter and Sophia (McCowan) Wills, natives of this county and Virginia, respectively, and of German and Irish origin. He and his wife are Methodists, and he is a Democrat.

    James S. Mitchell, merchant, was horn in this county, December 7, 1849, the son of Ryder M. and Sarah (Slimp) Mitchell, the former born in Stokes County, N. C., in 1819, was the son of John Mitchell. The father became a pioneer farmer of this county, and now lives near Mountain City. The mother was horn in this county, in 1815, the daughter of Michael Slimp. Both were members of the Baptist Church. Our subject, the fifth of ten children, was reared with rural advantages, and in 1870 began, alternately, teaching and attending school, for about four years. In 1879 he became a merchant's clerk, and January 1, 1884, began his present business, in which he carries a stock of about $4,000, and does an annual business of ahottt $15,000. September 6, 1578, he married Alice, the daughter of Jones and Mary (Smithpeter) Smith, the former born in 1819, a son of Daniel Smith. She was horn in Carter County, July 18, 1855. Their only daughter, Mary B., was horn May 18, 1877.

    Emanuel Hoser Mock, farmer, was born in Washington County, Va., January 19,1838, the son of Henry and Nancy (Gibbs) Mock, the former horn in Surry (now Davy) County, N.C., September 8, 1794, the son of Henry Sr. and Katy (Black) Mock, of German origin. In 1820 the father married Nancy Gibbs, and in 1840 married Mary Katron; Mary K. Wright became his wife in 1857. He is the father of thirty children, and now lives in Virginia. Our subject grew up on the farm, working with his father, until eighteen years of age, when he became a millwright. He continued this thirteen years, and since 1869 has been successfully farming, at his present home, where he now owns 400 acres, although be began life with little capital. In 1869 he married Levenia F. Wills, a daughter of H. B. and Rebecca (Duff) Wills, and born in this county August 26, 1851. Their children are Edwin M. L., horn October 31,1870; William H., born October 8,1872; Lewis E., born Apr11 6, 1875; Sophia A., born November 9, 1877; Nancy E., born September 17, 1880; Bessie J., born July 24, 1883, and Charles II., born July 2, 1886. He and his wife are Methodists.

    Kemp Murphey, the most extensive merchant of this county, was born here July 21, 1841, and is the son of Abraham and Mary Murphy. The former was born in Orange County, N. C., May 18, 1796, and the latter in Caswall County, N.C. Abraham Murphey was the son of John Murphy, a native of Orange County, N. C., who immigrated to Claiborne County, Teno., in the year 1798, and died in his eighty-second year. He was married three times; first to Sarah Purvine in the year 1813, who bore him two sons and one daughter; secondly to Mary Walker, who bore him three sons; and thirdly to Catherine Wills, September 13,1857. He removed from Claiborne County, Tenn., to New Market, Jefferson Co., Teon., about the year 1833. Thence he removed to Eiizabethton, Carter Co., Teon., and engaged in the mercantile business; thence to Dugger's Ferry In the laet named county; thence into this (Johnson County), where he engaged in the manufacture of iron; and in merchandising, which two callings he pursued until the beginning of the war in 1861. After the war he settled at Mountain City, then called Taylorsville, and engaged in the mercantile business in partnership with two of his sons, Kemp and Elbert, under the firm name of Murphey & Sons. He retired from thefirm in the year 1875, after which the two brothers continued the business uritil July 27, 1884, when Elbert one of the brothers died, and since then Kemp, the surviving partner, has continued the business in his own name, and has carried a stock of $8,000, doing an annual business of $20,000. He also owns and operates a large tannery at Mountain City. He was educated at Holston College, New Market, Jefferson Co., Teun. In the late war he espoused the Union cause, and enlisted in Company B, Fourth Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, and was captured at McMinnville, Tenn., in October, 1862, but was paroled and joined his command at Lexington, Ky. Re was mustered out at Knoxvilla, Tenn., in 1865. In 1869 he married Susan C. Wills, a daughter of James H. Wills, horn in April, 1853, in this county. They have seven children living. Ha and his wife are Methodists. His father was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, from about the year 1822, continuously, up to his death, which occurred February 6, 1882.

    Thomas S. Smythe, lawyer, was born in Washingion County, Va., June 29, 1827, and is the son of Dr. James C. and Ann H. (Orr) Smythe, the former born in the above county July 7, 1790, the son of John A., a native of Ireland, who came to America as a clerk Lord Cornwallis' army, and at the close of the Revolution settled in Pennsylvania, and married Caroline Hays. He then went to Virginia, engaging in boot and shoe making and afterward in farming and trading. He died, while on a trading expedition, at Natchez, Miss., in 1795. Dr. J. C. was reared where Emory and Henry College now stands, and studied law at Jonesboro with E. F. Sevier and J. A. Aiken as classmates. He then exchanged his law library for medical works, and began practice in Virginia, and in 1837 in this county, and finally, in 1854, in Henry County, where he died two years later. He was the first resident physician of this county, and was highly esteemed as a man and physician. The mother was born June 2, 1802, in Virginia, the daughter of John Orr, a native of Pennsylvania. She died in 1863. Our subject, the eldest son of nine children learned the tanner's trsde, at which he worked until after his thirtieth year. In 1858 he became magistrate of this county, and in 1861 chairman of the county court. He was appointed magistrate by Gov. Brownlow, and in 1865 became clerk and master. He soon afterward began the practice of law, continuing until 1882, when he became a clerk in the pension department at Washington, where he remained until February, 1883, when he became special examiner to travel through Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Missouri. On June 15, 1886, he resumed practice in Mountain City, and has succeeded finely as a lawyer. In March, 1881, he was commissioned special judge by Gov. Hawkins. On February 22, 1849, he married Margaret, a daughter of Richard Donnelly, and born near Mountain City December 2, 1828. Five sons and two daughters, of nine children, are living.

    J. A. Sutherland, farmer and stock raiser, was born in this county, August 7, 1841, the son of Joseph and Sarah (King) Sutherland, the former born in Grayson County, VA., July 9, 1788, the son of Alexander, a native of Scotland, who came as a British soldier in the Revolution, and first fought at Bunker Hill. After the war he left the army and settled in Virginia, where be married Margaret Bryant, of Irish descent. She was mother of two sons and seven daughters. Our subject's father first married Susan Robinson, by whom he has six children. She died in North Carolina, and November 16, 1824, he married Sarah, a daughter of John and Nancy (Collet) King. She was born in North Carolina November 10, 1803, and was the mother of three sons and seven daughers. She died August 1, 1874, and the father January 10, 1867. Our subject was reared in the country, and, although beginning life as a poor man, he is now a prosperous farmer. He went to Indiana in 1863 and enlisted in the Federal Army, serving with Sherman on famous march. October 14, 1874, he married Sarah D. Wills. The mother died in in 1886, and their only son in 1887. Our subject is a Mason and a Methodist, and has served sheriff and treasurer of the county.

    D. W. Wills, clerk and master in chancery, was born in this county March 11, 1835, the son of John D. and Mary D. (Neel) Wills, the former born in this county December 28, 1808, the son of Peter, a native of Virginia, who came to this county about 1799. He was a large land owner and farmer. The father, a successful farmer also, died December 17, 1856. The mother was born near Abingdon, Va., about 1811, the daughter of Bartholomew Neel, and was a Methodist, as was her father. Our subject grew up with rural advantages, and farmed up to the war. In 1865 he became deputy sheriff for eight years and in August, 1882, became magistrate, and in September, 1885, was appointed to his present position by Chancellor St. John. In October, 1853, he married Mary, a daughter of Samuel Cress, who died in January, 1873, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. They had six children. Nancy, a daughter of Moore Robinson, became his wife October 17, 17, 1875. One of their three children is deceased. His wife is a Baptist.

    Norman H. Wills, farmer, was born in this county October 18; 1847, the son of Peter D. and Sophia J. (McQuonn) Wills, the former born January 16, 1816, in this county the son of Lewis, who in turn was son of Lewis, Sr., a native of Strasburg, Germany, and a pioneer of this state. The father was an extensive farmer, and accumulated property. His death occurred July 14, 1878. The mother was born in Washington County, Va., August 20, 1821, the daughter of Thomas and Mary (Wilson) McQuonn, the former of Scotch-Irish descent, born in Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas, Sr., also a farmer. The mother died March 2, 1877, and had the following children: Macon H., Norman H., Virginia C., James N., Francis C. and Sarah H. Our subject was educated at LibertyHall, Virginia, and was reared on the farm. Martha A. Hawthorn, of Washington County, Va., became his wife October 13, 1870, and died January 17, 1874. He next married Martha C., a daughter of Maj. James and Harriet M. (Farthing) Brown, December 11, 1877. She was born in this county July 19, 1852, and their children are Lura J. and Lewis Karl; the former born October 4, 1878, and the latter July 22, 1885.

    James N. Wills was born in Johnson County, November 3, 1858, the son of Peter D. and Sophia J. (McQuonn) Wills. The father was born in this county, January 16, 1816, the son of Lewis, who was of German descent. The mother was born in Washington County, Va., August 20, 1821, the daughter of Thomas McQuonn, who was of Scotch origin. Our subject was reared on the farm and attended the common schools of this county, and since early manhood has been a most successful farmer. He has served as trustee. elected by the county court in 1881, to fill an unexpired term. He is a Republican and a member of the I. O.O. F. lodge.

    H. B. Wills, farmer, was born in Johnson County, April 4, 1857, the son of Russell B. and Elizabeth R. (Duff) Wills, the former born in this county July 7, 1820, the son of Lewis and Catherine (Winsell) Wills, pioneers of East Tennessee. The mother was born in 1828, in Washington County, Va., the daughter of David B. and Sarah Duff. Our subject is one of six sons and three daughters, and was reared on the farm be now owns and cultivates-a fine farm of 158 acres on the headwaters of the Laurel, in the First District. In 1882 he married Sarah E., daughter of James D. and Frances C. Donnelly. They now have three children-Girtie, Robert H. and Francis H. He and his wife are Methodists, and he a respected member of the I. O.O. F. lodge.

  • Unicoi County 1897

    UNICOI COUNTY lies almost wholly in the Unaka Mountain belt, on the border North Carolina, immediately south of Washington County. It has an area of about 480 square miles, of which only a comparatively small proportion is adapted to cultivation. Greasy Cove and Lime Stone Cove, however, are among the most beautiful and fertile spots in the State.

    Its mineral and timber resources are exceedingly abundant. The iron ores embrace both the red and brown hematites and the speculum. Manganese is also found in large quantities. These resources when developed will render Unicoi one of the wealthiest counties of East Tennessee. The principal streams in the county are the Nolachucky River which traverses it in a northerly direction, and the two tributaries of this stream the North Indian and South Indian Creeks.

    The first settlers of this county located in Greasy Cove not long after the first settlement was made on the Nolachucky. The first to enter the cove were James Acton, Jonathan Webb, Robert Hampton, George Martin, Richard Deakins and -- Judd, and a little later came Baxter Davis, Enoch Job, Jesse Brown, Peleg and William Tilson. William Lewis located on the upper part of Indian Creek, where in a short time his wife and seven children were killed by the Indians. One of his sons escaped, and a daughter taken prisoner was afterward ransomed for a gun. Among the earliest settlers in Lime Stone Cove were Richard C. Garland, whose six sons, David, Gertredge, Elisha, William, Stephen and Ezekiel, all located in the vicinity. Edward Banks, Richard Colyer, John Chambers a Henry Grindstaff also settled in this cove. About 1785 a Baptist Church was organized, and at the formation of the Holston Association it was represented by Richard Deakins and James Anton who, with Robert Hampton and their families constituted the church. After 1791 the name of the church disappears from the minutes of the association, and it was doubtless disbanded.

    The next Baptist Church established was the Indian Creek, by Jonathan Mulkey, Uriah Hunt and Rees Bayless, June 29, 1822, near the present site of Erwin. The original members were John Edwards,William S. Erwin, John Rose, Thomas Edwards, Joseph Longmire, Nancy McGinsey, Polly Rose, Elizabeth Brown, Hannah Longmire, Jemima and Diana Job, Elizabeth, Mary and Lucy Edwards, Rachel and Ella Tilson, Hannah Black. B. Odom, Elizabeth Webb, Ginsey Brown, Jesse Brown, Abel Edwards, William Odom, James and Elizabeth Williams, Peley Tilson, Margaret Carroll, Rachel Ambrose, Barbara Wright, Hugh Harris, Jesse Bayless, Rebecca Deakin,William McGinsey, John Peterson. Abraham and Mary Adle, Stephen and Nancy McLaughlin, Enoch Job and Jacob McLaughlin. The pastors of this church have been as follows: Rees Bayless, 1822-53; J. B. Stone, 1853-54 also 1859-60, and 1865; William A. Keen, 1856; J. W. Hooper, 1857-59; J. H. Hyder, 1867-72; H. W. Gilbert, 1874; J. H. Moon, 1874430, and since 1883; A. J. F. Hyder, 1880- 83. In 1842 a church was constituted at Flag Pond, with John, James, Elizabeth and Riley Keith, Washington, Ellis, James, Ruth and Barbara Higgins, John and Jennette Tilson, John Stroud, Jacob C. Sanes, Henry Hensly, Alfred Murray, Leodica Carter, Nancy O. Murray, Biddy Stroud and Eleanor Justice. Later Shallow Ford Church was constituted with Nancy Parks, James Brown, Elizabeth Brown, William and Rebecca Ferguson, Samuel May, William S. Erwin, Katharine Erwin, Nancy Lawrence, Emeline Gulls and James and Nancy Tinker.

    The other Baptist Churches in the county at the present time are Coffee Ridge and Paul's Gap. There is also a General Baptist, and a Christian congregation in the county.

    The first Methodist Church was organized near the center of Limestone Cove, where a small log house was erected, some seventy-five years ago. As a result of this church, a large part of the inhabitants of the northern part of the country are adherents of the Methodist Church. The churches in the county at the present time are Ervin, Jones Chapel Limestone Cove, Patton's Chapel and Anderson's Schoolhouse, at nearly all of which places services are held by both branches of the church. The act establishing Unicoi County. was approved March 23, 1875. The commissioners appointed to organize it were Thomas J. Wright, David Bell, R. N. Norris, J. V. Johnson, C. R. Blair, William Mclnturff. J. B. Sams, W. E. Tilson and F.E. Hannum. An election to vote upon the organization of the new county, was fixed for July 22, 1875, but a bill of injunction filed by William Phillips and others delayed it until October 21, 1875. The election was then held with the following result: Carter, fraction 119 votes for and twenty-three against, and the Washington fraction 228 for and forty against. John Wolf, Jesse B. Erwin, Joseph Tucker, E. Burchfield and David Bell, were then appointed to lay off the county into ten civil districts, and in November the election for county officers was held with the following results: L. A. White, circuit clerk; J. B. Erwin. county clerk; John Melnturif, sheriff; Nelson McLaughlin, trustee, and Samuel Wright, register.

    On January 3,1876, the county court was organized at the Old Baptist Church, on North Indian Creek. The magistrates who were present and qualified were Henry McKinneys, D. T. O'Brien, M. C. Burchfield, Alexander McInturff, James M. Norris, R. L. Rowe, J. M. Anderson, G Garland, William Mclnturff, Baptist McNabb, J. S. Yader, William Parks, Alexander Masters, B. B. Hensley, G. F. Tompkins, Isaac W. Gilbert, B. W. Woodward and A. E. Briggs. The court continued to meet at the church until after the erection of the present brick courthouse, in the summer of 1876. This building has since been occupied, but is not fully completed at the present time. In April, 1878, a contract for building a frame jail was let to John K. Miller, but he failed to complete it. It has since been finished. however, sufficiently to make it a safe place for the keeping of prisoners.

    The commissioners who organized the county seat, located at the place long known as Longmire Postoffice. The land in the vicinity was entered byJoseph Longmire, who divided his estate between his sons, John and Charles; the latter was a merchant and postmaster for many years. The town was laid off in 1876 upon thirty acres of belonging to D. I. N. Ervin, who donated one-half of the lots to the county, and reserved the remainder for his own use. A donation of five acres by William Love, and two acres by G. Garland, was also made to the county. The name of the town was at first Vanderbilt, but the Legislature of 1879 changed it to Ervin, in honor of D. J. N. Ervin. The postoffice department, however, made a mistake in changing the name, and it has tince been called Erwin. The first merchants of the town were J. P. S. and William Ryburn, who were selling goods when the town was laid off; C. T. Bowers & B. K. Campbell, C. H. Baker, John K. Miller and J. P. McNabb. The business interests are now represented by J. F. Toney, & Co., W. C. Emmert, L. W. White, W. F. Brown, C. L. Phillips, general stores, and L. D. Scott, grocery; the physicians are H. C. Banner and J. P.S. Ryburn, and the attorneys, W. C. Emmert and R.W. H. Gilbert. In April, 1887. The Erwin Unakean was established by R. R. Emmert and W. B. Clark. It is a very small three-column folio, but is an enterprising and readable newspaper.

    The only other village in the county is Flag Pond, situated in the southern part of the county. It has a flourishing school known as Flag Pond Academy, and three stores owned by J. B. Sams & Co., W. F. Guinn and L. Gentry respectively.

    The officers of the county since its organization have been as follows:

    Clerks of the county court-J. B. Erwin, 1875438; H. C. Banner, 1886.

    Clerks of the circuit court-L. A. White, 1875-78; J. F. Tony, 1872-82; L. A. White, 1882-86; R.,R. Emmert, 1886.

    Clerks and masters-G. C. Bowman, 1878-82; John K. Miller, 1882-85; W. B. Tilson, 1885.

    Sheriffs-John McInturff, 1875-78; J. P. McNabb, 1878-80; William Mclnturff, 1880-86; L. R. Love, 1886.

    Trustees- N. McLaughlin, l875-76; W. W. Baley, 1876-50; M. F. Booth, 1880-86; S. J. Watts, 1886.

    Biographical Sketches

    J. F. Toney, merchant, was born in Carter County, March 13, 1857, the son of Willlam and Evaline (Price) Toney, the former born in Tennessee about 1884, and died in 1864, while in custody of the Confederates. He was a farmer, and of English ancestry. The mother was born in this State, about 1840, the daughter of Christopher Price. Their children are James F., W. C., Rhoda and David. Our subject grew up, with rural advantages, and was left fatherless when seven years of age. He is a self-made man, and has been a merchant since seventeen years of age, now of the firm J. F. Toney & Co., extensive merchants, at Erwin and Flag Pond, Tenn. In 1879 he married Fannie B., a daughter of Clifton Miller. Their children are Mamie, Clifton, John G. and Jessie. For four years our subject was circuit clerk of Unicol County. He is a Mason.

    R. R. Emmert was born in Carter County April 15,1862. His parents were William C. and Amanda (Renshaw) Emmert, the former born December 10.1888, in the same county, the son of George and Mary (Hendrix) Emmert, the former a Tennessean, the son of George, ,who came from Germany, and was a soldier under the command of Gen. George Washington in the Revolutionary war, and said to be related to Robert Emmert, whose family went to Germany after his execution. The father is a lawyer of Erwin, and received a limited education in the comnion schools of Carter County. afterward farming and practicing his profession. He was State senator from 1875 to 1877. In 1851 he married, and their children are Nannie J., Peter W., Mary E., Delcena C., Robert R. and Ella. Our subject was educated in the country schools, and in 1886 became circuit clerk, and is a popular official, and is now associated with W. B. Clarke in publishing the Erwin Unakean.

    James M. Anderson, farmer, was born in Carter County, Feb. 16, 1846, and is the son of John A. and Elizabeth (Swingle) Anderson, the former born in 1823. In that county, the son of Isaac, who was of Irish lineage. The father is a prosperous farmer and a self-made man. The mother was born in Washington County about 1817, and died about 1856, the daughter of George Swingle, and of German lineage. She was the mother of four sons and one daughter, and highly esteemed. Our subject was educated at Milligan College and after teaching school became a farmer. He spent a year in the Federal service during the war, and is a Conservative Republican, and a Mason. October 17, 1872 he married Eva, a daughter of M. L. Taylor, and born August 10, 1850. Their children are Malla E., born August 18, 1873; Landon T.J, September 17, 1875; Elizabeth M., September 30, 1873; Tommie E. August 22,1881, and Jennie A., September 6, 1886.

    Peter L. Barry was born in Johnson County January 11,188, the son of Charles and Abigail (Razor) Barry, the former a native of Davie County, N.C., the son of John, a native of Dublin, Ireland, aud a teacher by profession. He died during the war of 1812 at Mobile, Ala. The father was horn in 1799, a pioneer farmer and Iron-worker of East Tennessee. His death occurred in 1863. The mother was born in 1799 in Johnson County, the daughter of John Razor, of German descent. She was a devoted Chdstlan, and the mother of five sons end five daughters. She died in 1876. Our subject is a self- educated man, and grew up on the farm, working in his father's iron-works until he was conscripted into the Confederate service. While at Knoxville under Col. Blake he was on a furlough home, and afterward joined the Federal Army as second lieutenant In Company E, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, serving two years. He now cultivates his farm, which embraces over 200 acres, and contains quantities of iron. He is a minister of the Christian Church, and in 1861 married Mary. a daughter of David M. Stout. Their children are Robert F., Amanda A., Dave M., Catharine and Alexander.

    G.E. Swadley, farmer, was born in Washington County, February 27, 1838, the son of Henry and Mary Swadley, the former born in Pendleton County, W. Va., January 2, 1812, the son of George Swadley; Mary, consort of Henry Swadley, the daughter of Christian and Christinia Roadcap, was born in Rockbridge County, Va., in 1808. They are both of German origin. Their living children are G.E., Virginia W., John W., David C., Susan A. and Barbara A., while two sons and one daughter are deceased. Our subject was educated at Boon's Creek Seminary. After he was of age he taught a few years, and is at present county superintendent of Unicoi County, and is largeiy self-educated, and is a warm triend to education; as exemplified by his official acts, and is in favor of Federal aid and the prohibition amendment. He studied vocal music in 1861 at Singer's Glen, Rockingham County, Va., at which place he made great progress, and came out with distinguished honors, and was an efficient teacher in the divine art, for which he always expressed an enthusiastic love; but before our subject finished his education, he learned the boot and shoe trade, and was recognized as a good and honest workman, and worked at it when not engaged in teaching, up to April 1, 1869, when he married Susan C., a daughter of Perry and Elizabeth Hunter of Washington County, and of German and English origin. She was born December 10, 1844, in the latter county. Their children are Mary E., born July 26, 1872; Laura E. born November 23, 1874; Henry H., born May 24, 1877, and Robert A., born April 26, 1880. Our subject has been a farmer chiefly since his marriage, at which time he located on his present farm of 232 acres in Buffalo Valley, containing some indications of iron ore and manganese.

    Madison T. Peebles, farmer, was born in Carter County, January 2, 1825, the son of William and Elizabeth (Sheetz) Peebles, the former born October 15, 1787, the son of William, who came frorn Ireland to Virginia in 1770, a soldier of the Revolution, and a pioneer of East Tennessee The father was a successful farmer, and became an extensive land owner, having at one time several thousand acres of farming and mineral lands, most of which he conveyed to his children while yet in the vigor of manhood and prime of life. He was an earnest and active Christian of the Methodist Episcopal Church-one of the 1828-30 reformers of that ecclesiasticism which culminated in the organization of the Methodist Protestant Church, on a basis of mutual rights of the ministry and laity, and lived a useful life, and died an honored member of that church on June 30, 1875, The mother was born on the left bank of the James River, at what is now known as Eagle Rock, Botetourt Co., Va., September 7, 1794, the daughter of Jacob and Catharine Sheetz, who were of German stock. She was an esteemed Christian lady, of the most active benevolence, and died December 4, 1886. Our subject, one of ten children, was born and reared on his present farm, and has chiefly educated, himself since attaining to mature age.He read a full course of medicine from the year 1845 to 1848, and, thus equipped, practiced the "healing art" in the Mississippi Valley for eight years, passing unscathed through the Asiatic cholera that decimated the population of that section in 1849. Tiring of the daily scenes of sickness, sorrow and death, often beyond the reach of human remedies to relieve, he returned to ths paternal roof in 1856, and during the last thirty years has done quite a considerable practice both in medicine and surgery from motives of charity alone, without the hope of fee or reward. The joint owner ner with his brother, William J., of a large landed estate, he has united the activities of an agricultural life with the more congenial pursuit of literature, and the two brothers, thus dwelling together in "single blessedness," as co-tenants of the same estate for a quarter of a century past, have each exercised all the rights of an absolute sovereign. He has been a member of the Methodist Protestant Church for thirty-seven years, is a friend to all public and private enterprises for the promotion of education among the masses, and the moral and religious Improvement of society. He is a Royal Arch Mason; a Past Master and Past High Priest of that ancient and honorable brotherhood. and one among the oldest Masons of East Tennessee.

    W. R. Fagan, farmer, was born in Caswell County, N. C., November 16, 1830, the son of J. G. and Elizabeth (Martin) Fagan, the former born in 1793, in North Carolina, of English-German origin, and the latter about 1798, in the same State, the daughter of Robert Martin, a soldier of the Revolution. The father, a highly esteemed man, and a blacksmith, died in 1869. The mother was a Methodist, and died about 1875. Our subject, one of a family of seven brothers and five sisters, learned the blacksmith trade, and has devoted himself to farming, now owning 425 acres in Buffalo Valley. November 28, 1858, he married Eliza, a daughter of Samuel McCorkle. She was born February 16, 1836, and is of Irish-German parentage. Their only child Is James M., born August 19, 1854, and educated at Milligan College. He is a farmer, and a merchant, and November 21, 1877, married Margaret A., a daughter of G. S. Ellis, and born November 12, 1858. Their children are Robert S., William R., Maggie N., Grover C. and Eliza L.

    F. H. Hannum, farmer, was born in Blount County, July 8, 1837, the son of Henry and Ann E. (White) Hannum, the former a native of Pennsylvania, born In 1809, the son of Richard M.. of English origin, and he the son of Col. John, of the Revolution. The maternal great-grandfather was a surgeon in the Revolution. The father was reared in Kentucky; married in Virginia, and, after a short residence. In Florida, came to Blount County, where he was a physician and died in 1845. The mother, born in 1810, in Abingdon, Va., was a daughter of Col. James White, and died In 1888, a member of the Presbyterian Church, Our subject, one of a family of three brothers and three sisters, was reared in Blount County, and educated in the institute at Lexington, Va., but has since been a farmer, and with his brother now owns 5,000 acres, in this county, on which are found large quantities of iron, and from which the first steel was manufactured in Tennessee, and perhaps in the South.

    W. E. Tilson, farmer, was born in Washington (now Unicoi) County, April 29, 1827, the son of Peleg and Nancy (Allen) Tilson (once spelled Tillotson), the former born in 1795 in Virginia. the son of William. who became a pioneer of East Tennessee, and a farmer, and was the son of William, Sr., who came from Ireland, and was one of Gen. Washington's aides in the Revolution, The father was a farmer, and died in 1841 in Carter County, having become insolvent through intemperate habits and surety debts. The mother, born in Virginia, in 1800, of German lineage, was the daughter of George Allen, and a devoted Baptist. Her death occurred in 1859, leaving the following children: George, Ruth, John A., William E. and James W. Our subject is largely self- educated, and for several years before the war was a teacher, and now is a surveyor and successful farmer, He owns over 4,000 acres, largely timbered and mineral land. March 14, 1852 he married Minerva K.,. a daughter of James Sams. of Irish-German Origin. She was born September 5, 1831. Their children are Eliza E., born March 4, 1853; Leroy S., born August 13, 1854; James F., born December 21, 1856; Jacob C., born March 14, 1860; Mary J., born October 18, 1862; John Q., born April 5, 1866; Lula, born August 20, 1868; and William J. Born August 13, 1871. Our subejct is the present clerk and master in chancery, and has two sons who are practicing physicians, on a prominent educator in North Carolina, and the other two now in school, the eldest of whom graduates in the class of 1888.

  • Sullivan County

    SULLIVAN COUNTY lies on the Virginia border immediately west of Johnson County from which it is separated by the Holston Mountain. The surface of the county is undulating, and the soil generally good. The principal valleys are Denton. Holston, Cook and Beaver Creek. The largest stream is the Holston River, which traverses the eastern portion of the county, flowing in a southwesterly course until it reaches the Washington County line where it is joined by the Watauga. It then runs in a westerly direction to its confluence with the North Fork at Kingsport. Its chief taries are Sinking Creek, Beaver Creek, Fall Creek, Kendrick Creek, Muddy Creek and Reedy Creek. The date at which the first permanent settlements were made in Sullivan County is placed by Haywood and Ramsey at 1769. Some local antiquarians, however, assert that a much earlier date is the correct one, but they offer little satisfactory evidence to support their assertions. The fort on the Holston River opposite the upper end of Long Island, an account of which is given in another chapter, was built by a regiment of British troops under Col. Bird, in the autumn of 1758, and was occupied by them during the following winter. At this time a few settlers located in the vicinity, but they were soon compelled to retire to east of the Kanawha. During the next ten years many hunting and exploring expedition parties traversed the Holston Valley, but no permanent settlements were made as lowdown as the present Tennessee line until late in 1768 or early in 1769. On November 5, 1768, a treaty of cession was made at Fort Stanwix, N.Y., with the Six Nations, by the terms of which, they and their descendants relinquished all rights and title to the lands north and east of the Tennessee and Holston Rivers. On October 14, of the same year, a treaty was made at Hard Labour, in South Carolina, with the Cherokees, who also claimed the territory. By this treaty the boundary lines of the Cherokee hunting grounds were fixed.

    These two treaties afforded opportunity for the expansion of the settlements which had been made on the Holston in Virginia. The colonists who had been waiting upon the frontiers longing to plunge into the wilderness to locate claims. or to take possession of grants already surveyed, lost no time in doing so. Haywood relates that early in 1869, Gilbert Christian, William Anderson, John Sawyers and four others entered upon an exploring expedition down the Holston. They penetrated as low down as Big Creek in Hawkins County, where they met a large party of Indians and were forced to retreat. They turned about and went back up the river ten or fifteen miles, and concluded to return home. About twenty miles above the North Fork they found upon their return a cabin on every spot where the range was good, and where only six weeks before nothing was to be seen but a howling wilderness. When they passed by before on their outward destination they found no settlers on the Roiston, save three families on the head springs of that river, [Haywood]

    Prior to 1779 the portion of what is now Sullivan County north of the Holston was believed to be in Virginia, and the first grants were issued by that State. The earliest one of which there is any record was issued to Edmund Pendleton in 1756, for 8,000 acres of land on Reedy Creek. Of the early settlers only a few of the most prominent can be here mentioned. One of the largest and most highly respected families were the Rheas. Joseph Rhea, a Presbyterian minister, came to the Holston settlements from Maryland, and was upon one of the expeditions against the Indians. He returned to Maryland but in 1776 he came again to the settlement, this time accompanied by his son, John Rhea. He bought land on Beaver Creek, and while in Maryland the next year, preparing to move his family, he died. In 1778 Mrs. Rhea came with the family. Of the sons. John became the most prominent. He was the first clerk of the county court, and early became a leading attorney. In 1796 he was chosen a member of the constitutional convention, and also represented the county in the first and second General Assemblies. In 1808 he was elected to Congress, and continued a member of that body until 1823 with the exception of two years, 1815-17. He never married, and died about 1837, leaving a large estate. He had six brothers: Matthew, Joseph, William, James, Samuel and Robert. Joseph lived where his grandson, Joseph Rhea, now lives; William, in the same neighborhood, and Matthew, just above Bluff City.

    Gen. George Rutledge came to the county about 1777, and located on the small stream known as White Top. About three years later, he removed to the farm now occupied by his grandson, William G. Rutledge, where he died in 1818. He commanded a company in Col. Shelby's regiment at the battle of King's Mountain, was a member of the constituent convention of 1796 and of the Territorial Assembly, and after the organization of the State, was a member of the Senate until his death.

    Gen. Evan Shelby located on Beaver Creek, at what was known as the Beaver Dam Bottoms, in 1771, where he erected a fort on an eminence overlooking the site of Bristol. He was born in Wales in 1720, and before coming to Tennessee had taken an active part in the French and Indian war on the borders of Maryland and Pennsylvania. He commanded a company of militia from Sullivan County at the battle of Point Pleasant, and was the leader of the famous Chickamauga expedition. Afterward he was appointed by Virginia a general of her militia. He died in 1794, and was buried in the old family burial ground at Bristol, which was removed a few years ago. His son, Isaac, was made a lieutenant of militia in 1774, and as such participated in the battle of Point Pleasant. In 1776 he was appointed commissary, which position he held at the battle of Long Island Flats. Prior to the extension of the boundary line between North Carolina and Virginia, he served a term in the Legislature of the latter State. His last public service in Tennessee was as commander of the regiments at King's Mountain, Evan Shelby, Jr., was a in his brother's regiment at King's Mountain. In 1790 he went to Kentucky; where he was killed by the Indians about three years later.

    George Maxwell, one of the captains under Isaac Shelby at King's Mountain. came to Sullivan County about 1771. He rose to the rank of major of militia, and in 1781 was one of the representatives of the county in the Legislature of North Carolina.

    The Looneys, who were among the first settlers of the county, came from Wales, and lived for a time in Virginia. Col. David Looney lived on Muddy Creek, two miles above the Holston where he erected a blockhouse. Samuel Looney located on the Holston, one mile below the mouth of Beaver Creek.

    Of other early settlers there were in the fork the McKinleys, McCorkies, Scotts, Hodges, Greggs, Torbetts, Diusmores, Hughes, Kings. Hogans, Sharps and Grosses. Col. William Christie lived near where Kingsport now is, on the south side of Reedy Creek, The same neighborhood was the birthplace of Gen. Edmund Pendleton Gaines. Long Island and much other land in the vicinity became the property of Richard Netherland, the father of Hon. John Netiserland. Fort Womack, which stood two miles east of Bluff City, was built by Jacob Womack. It afforded protection for the people who lived in the territory now covered by the Fourth, Sixteenth, Ninth and Twentieth Civil Districts. It is said that when on one occasion lbs people were forted here a marriage took place between Hal Massengill and Penelope Cobb. From this union have sprung a large number of descendants. many of whom still reside in the county.

    The Bledsoes and Beelers located on land adjoining the Shelbys. The Beelers owned the tract of land on Cedar Creek known as Sapling Grove.

    At the foot of Eden Ridge (originally Heaton Ridge) on the east side was built a fort known as Heaton's Fort. It was erected by the settlers of Reedy Creek and Cook's Valley, and was one of the first structures of the kind in the county. The Yancey Tavern, a famous house of entertainment, was built near this fort. Russell's fort stood on the Snapp's Ferry road, about six miles from Blountville.

    The first or one of the first mills in the county is said to have been built by John Sharp, an Indian trader. It was a small tub-mill, and stood on the spot occupied by the mill built a few years later by John Spurgeon at the mouth of Muddy Creek.

    As the majority of the first settlers of the county was Scotch-Irish the first religious organizations were Presbyterian, and it is said that as early as 1778 two churches had been constituted. These were Concord and Hopewell. Very little is known of them, except that Samuel Doak preached to them for two years preceding 1780. One of them is thought to have been the old "Weaver Church," between Bristol and Union, which, tradition says, was founded by Rev. Joseph Rhea, while on one of his trips to Tennessee. The oldest church of which there is any definite knowledge is New Bethel, which was organized in 1782 by Rev. Samuel Doak. James Gregg, Sr., John Allison and Francis Hodge, Sr., are supposed to have been the first ruling elders.

    The first Methodist family in the county was that of Edward Cox, who lived near Bristol from 1775 to 1777. He then removed to a tract of land which he entered, about one mile northeast of Union Depot. It was at his house that the first conference in Tennessee was held, by Bishop Asbury. The first Methodist society in the county, and, it is believed, in the State, was organized some time between 1785 and 1790, about two miles from Blountville, where a house of worship known as Acuff's Chapel was erected. It was a log structure 20x30 feet. Among the first members were the Acuffs, Vincents, Crofts and Hamiltons.

    Blountville Circuit was established in 1824, and J. G. H. Speer and Creed Fulton were assigned to it. Among others who bad charge of the circuit during its early history were George Home and D. Fleming, 1825; William Patton, 1826; W. Keener, O. F. Johnson and George Eakin, 1828; James Y. Crawford, 1829-30; J. B. Doughtry, 1831; R. Gannaway, 1832; W. C. Cumming, 1833; Thomas Rice, 1834-35; H. M. Stevens, 1836-37; H. Johnson, 183839; George Eakin, 184041; 0. F. Cunningham, 1842; R. Gannaway, 1843; W. H. Rogers, 1844; J. D. Gibson, 1845; George Eakin, 1846.

    The first Baptist society in the county was Kendrick Creek Church, organized by Jonathan Mulkey some time prior to 1786. Among the first members were Peter Jackson, Anthony Epperson, William Nash, David Parry and Nicholas Hale. A second church was organized on the Hoiston in 1788, and in 1795 a congregation was formed at the Ferry Meeting-house, at Long Island, by Richard Murrell and Abel Morgan. Double Spring Church was also organized by Richard Murrell in 1805. Muddy Creek Church first appears on the minutes of the association in 1826, when it was represented by Amos James and John Spurgeon. In 1846 two new churches were organized, Union and Eden's Ridge. The former was first represented in the association by James White and John Longmire, and the latter by Samuel Bachinan and N. Roller.

    The first Lutheran immigrants to the Hoiston Valley located in Sullivan County, Tenn., and Washington County, Va., near the close of the last century. They settled in the neighborhood of Line Church, on or near the headwaters of Reedy Creek; of Buehler's Church, near the headwaters of Cedar Creek; of the Dutch Meeting-house, between the south fork of the Hoiston River and the Watauga, and of Roller's Church on Falling Creek.

    The first ministers who are known to have visited East Tennessee were Revs. Paul Henkel and John G. Butler, and it is thought the first churches were organized by them. The first regular pastors in Sullivan County were Revs. Jacob Zink and Adam Miller. Until 1811 the Lutheran Church in East Tennessee had no regular synodical connection, but in that year they united with the Lutheran Synod of North Carolina, with which they were connected until 1820. The Tennessee Synod was then formed, and the churches of East Tennessee remained with this body until January 2, 1861, when the Evangelical Lutheran Holston Synod was organized at Zion's Church in Sullivan County. It embraced ten ministers of whom only three are now living. They were William Rancher, A. J. Brown, J. M. Schaeffer, J. K. Hancher, J. B. Emmert, J. Fleenor, A. Fleenor, J. A. Seneker, J. Cloninger and J. C. Barb. [Condensed from sketch by Dr. A. J. Brown]

    Sullivan County was the second county formed in what is now Tennessee, and included all that part of Washington County lying north of a line formed by the ridge dividing the waters of the Watauga from those of the Holston, and extending from the termination of this ridge to the highest point of the Chimney Top Mountain. The act was passed in October, 1779, and in February, 1780, the county court was organized at the house of Moses Looney, at which time a commission was presented appointing as justices of the peace Isaac Shelby, David Looney, William Christie, John Dunham, William Wallace and Samuel Smith. Isaac Shelby exhibited his commission dated November 19, 1779, appointing him colonel commandant of the county and D. Looney of the same date appointing him major. Ephraim Dunlap was appointed State's attorney, and John Adair, entry-taker. The court adjourned to meet at the house of James Hollis. As the records of this court were almost destroyed during the civil war, but little is known concerning it. For a few years the courts were held somewhere in what is now the western part of the county, at the Lancey Tavern, near Eaton's Station, or at the house of Mrs. Sharp, near the mouth of Muddy Creek, and possibly at both places. In 1786, Hawkins County having been erected, the Legislature of North Carolina passed an act to remove the seat of justice to a more central location, and appointed Joseph Martin, James McNeil, John Duncan, Evan Shelby, Samuel Smith, William King and John Scott as commissioners to select a site for the county buildings. Meanwhile the courts were held at the house of Joseph Cole. For some cause the seat of justice was not permanently located until 1792, when James Brigham conveyed thirty acres of land to John Anderson, George Maxwell and Richard Gammon, commissioners appointed by the county court to erect a courthouse and jail. These commissioners seem also to have failed to do the duty assigned to them, for in the act of the territorial assembly establishing the town, passed in 1795, James Gaines, John Shelby, Jr., John Anderson, Jr., David Perry, Joseph Wallace, and George Rutledge were appointed to complete the courthouse. This was a hewed log structure which stood on a lot nearly opposite the present courthouse. The jail was built in the rear of this lot. Some time between 1825 and 1828 a brick courthouse was erected on the lot occupied by the present one, which was bulit about 1850. During the war the latter with its contents was burned, but the walls sustained but little damage, and it was rebuilt at a comparatively small cost. The second jail was built in the rear of the courthouse. It was superseded by the present building about 1870. The first building on the site of the town is said to have been a dwelling erected by James Brigham on the north side of the street near the bridge. The first storehouse was built by Walter James, a prominent trader, who located in the vicinity about 1785. This structure now forms a part of the Easley House, and was not entirely completed when Mr. James White, on a trip to Baltimore, met in that city William Deery, an Irish peddler, who had traveled among the settlements of Tennessee. He proposed to sell his house and lot in Blountville to Mr. Deery and a trade was finally made. Mr. Deery bought a stock of goods, which were loaded into Mr. James' wagon, and together they returned to Blountville, when the former began a long and successful career as a merchant. At his death he was the wealthiest man in the county. Late in life he married a Miss Allison, and became the father of three sons and two daughters. His sons, James A. and William B., were the owners of the famous boat "Allisonia Mills," in Middle Tennessee, and also the steamer "Cassandra," the only steamboat that ever entered Sullivan County. James Rhea, John Fain, Sr., and Jesse J. James were also early and successful merchants. At a little later date, and from that time until the war, the most prominent business men were Samuel Rhea, Shaver & Gammon, J. R. Anderson & Co., W. W. James, John Powell and William Dulaney. Nearly all of the above named men accumulated large fortunes, and Blountville became the center of an elegant and cultured society. Among other citizens of the town during its palmy days was Lawrence Snapp, who for many years kept the leading tavern, and James D. Rhea, a lawyer of fine ability, who, however, abandoned the profession for the more peaceful pursuit of farming. Dr. Elkanah Dulaney was one of the first physicians of Blountville, and several times represented the county in the Legislature. He was the ancestor of a large number of physicians, one of whom still lives at Blountville. Col. John Tipton, the hero of the Tipton-Sevier battle, is said to have lived for a few years before his death at or near Blountville. John K. Snapp, a prominent stockraiser, and Jacob Sturm, the first mayor of the town, are also remembered among the early settlers.

    The academy provided for Sullivan County by the act of 1806 was named Jefferson Academy, and William Snodgrass, John Punch, E. H. Dulaney, Abraham Looney and William Baird were appointed a board of trustees of the institution, In 1817 Matthew Rhea, Jr., Audley Anderson and Samuel Rhea, Jr., were appointed additional trustees, and it is probable that at about that date a building was erected and the school opened. The building was a log structure, which was used until about 1836. It was then removed and replaced by a brick building, which, in a comparatively few years, was found to be unsafe. It was torn down. and the present building erected. Among some of the earlier teachers in this institution were Mr. Wilhelm, Rev. Andrew S. Morrison, John Tyler, William Roberts, Archimedes and Jonathan Davis, and George K. Snapp. During the three or four years prior to the war Dr. A. J. Brown was the principal. About 1830 a female department was opened in a small building standing upon the Masonic Institute lot. This was succeeded by the latter institution afew years before the war. The Masonic Female Institute was established jointly by Whiteside Lodge, No.13, F. & A. M., and the trustees of Jefferson Academy, which institution furnished $3,000.

    The first church in Blountville was the Methodist Church, which was organized early in the century. At about the same time a two-story brick building, 40x30 feet was erected for a house of worship, the two principal movers in the work being Col. William Snodgraas and Thomas Rockhold. The building became a place of worship for all denominations that chose to use it, and later was used for school entertainments and political meeting. Afterward it was repaired, and was again kept sacred to religious purposes until about 1855, when it was removed and the present church erected, on the north side of Main Street nearly opposite the Easley House. The Presbyterian Church was established in 1820. The next year fifteen persons were received into the church, and in December, 1821, Rev. A. Campbell became pastor. The first ruling elders were James King, Samuel Evans and Samuel Rhea. Mr. Campbell remained as pastor for about two years, when he was succeeded by Rev. Andrew S. Morrison during whose pastorate a house of worship was erected. He continued until 1830. Among his successors have been T. G. Potts, Daniel Rogan, James McLin, John B. Logan 1855-61; P. Briscoe 1862-73, John R. King, A. S. Doak, H. F. King and James B. Converse, who has served the church very acceptably since 1881. The Baptist Church of Blountville, was organized in 1842 by Rev. William Cate, and the next year was represented in the association by James Poindexter, Noah Cate, Stephen Fisk and E. Rader.

    The second oldest town in the county is Kingsport, which for several years was also the largest and most important. It was at first known as "Boat Yard," and prior to the advent of railroads it was the shipping point for the greater part of the salt from King's salt works in Virginia, besides a large amount of iron, castings and produce. The salt works were established about 1800, and in 1833 4,000 barrels of salt were shipped annually by flatboats. At this time Kingsport had a population of 317, while Blountville had only 209, and Bristol had not been thought of. Among the merchants of the town at that time and subsequently were John Lynn, Lynn, Wall & Co., Daniel Rogan, and Zadock Simpson. The water power at this point is exceptionally fine, and three or four factories, of considerable extent for this time, were established. Lynn, Wall & Co. had a cotton spinning factory; Frederick A. Ross a cotton factory, which made a sheeting of a coarse grade, and Jacob Meyers a hemp factory. A Presbyterian and a Methodist Church was organized in the early history of the town, and a house of worship was also erected by each. Since the advent of railroads the town has steadily declined, and now [1887] is represented by only a few straggling houses.

    Paperville, a small village about twelve miles east of Blountville, was founded by a man named Burkhart, who at a very early day established a paper-mill there. He continued as proprietor for a number of years, after which the business was conducted under the style of Marsh & Burkhart. Prior to the organization of a Presbyterian Church, at Bristol, a strong society had been maintained at Paperville for thirty or forty years. A Methodist Church was also founded there some time previous to 1840. Among the trustees were Thomas S. Henderson, Daniel W. and Samuel J. Crumley, Phillip Bushong and William B. McCroskey.

    Bluff City is a thriving little town on the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad, at its crossing of the Holston River. It has, undoubtedly, changed its name as a post office and village oftener than any other place in the State. It was originally known as Choate's Ford. Upon the establishment of a stage line from Abingdon to Knoxville, it became known as Middletown, but when it was laid off as a town, after the completion of the railroad, it was named Union. During the war it became Zollicoffer, but in 1865 the former name was restored. and it continued to he known as Union until July 1, 1887, when it received its present name. The site of the town was originally owned by Elisha Cole, but subsequently became the property of David McClellan, who was the owner when the railroad was built. The town now has a population of about 500.

    A Presbyterian Church known as Pleasant Grove, was organized near this place on November 16, 1850, with forty-five members. The ruling elders were David Woods, Alfred Carmack, Joseph Rhea and Adam Thomas, Jr. A house 40x30 feet had already been completed, and services had been held by Daniel Hogan, who gave this congregation one-fourth of his time. January 29,1882, Hoiston Church, which may be deemed the successor of Pleasant Grove, was organized in Union by Revs. John R. Key, J. B. Converse and H. H. Dulaney. The members at that time numbered twenty-four. James D. Rhea and Adam Thomas were chosen ruling elders, and E. A. McClellan and Charles C. Chamberlain, deacons. A Methodist Church was organized in Union about 1855, and a house of worship was erected soon after. Within the past few years a Baptist Church has also been established.

    The largest and one of the most enterprising towns in upper East Tennessee lies on the border between Tennessee and Virginia, and is known as Bristol. Tenn. As regards municipal government, however, this name applies to one-half the town only, the portion on the Virginia side being known as Goodson. In all other respects it is one town, and is so regarded in this Sketch. [Written mainly from notes furnished by Mr. J. R. Anderson]*

    The site of Bristol was purchased from Rev. James King by J. R Anderson, of Blountville, on July 10, 1852. It consisted of 100 acres, forty-eight in Virginia and fifty-two in Virginia. He soon after had this tract laid off into streets and lots, for the building of a dwelling-house and store at the corner of Main street which he occupied in September, 1853. It then stood in the midst of a large meadow without a road leading to it, and during tile first year a crop of corn and grass was raised upon the ground. The town was surveyed by Henry Anderson, county surveyor in _____. Main Street was laid off wholly in Tennessee, because the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad Company would not permit their grounds to be crossed. Nearly opposite Mr. Anderson's dwelling and distant from his front door about seventy feet was a large cherry tree, which had been adopted by Henderson & Walker as a state line tree, and from it as a starting point, Main Street was located. However, in laying off this street, instead of beginning at the center of the tree, the line was run from the south side of it, thence, the street runs south of west one-half a degree, and all running from it on the Tennessee side, extend in a course one-half a degree east of south. The first plat of Bristol was changed somewhat upon the survey of the Tennessee & Virginia depot grounds by C. H. Lynch. He located Shelby Street, and the reserve made by Mr. King of the old burial ground, wherein reposed the remains of Gen. Evan Shelby, and several of the near relatives of Mr. King until 1872, when they were removed by order of the mayor and aldermen. The Virginia & Tennessee depot grounds were laid out prior to the purchase of the site of the town by Mr. Anderson. Mr. King gave six acres and Col. Goodson nine acres for the purpose. The depot building was erected in the summer of 1854 by James Fields. It was destroyed in 1868 by the Federal troops. The Tennessee & Virginia depot was built in 1858, and burned during Stoneman's raid in 1864.

    The second house in the town was built by Dr. Zimmerman, and is now owned by his heirs. The first boarding-house was opened in the old dwelling-house of Rev. James King on Solar Hill. by Dr. W. A. M. Willoughby and John P. Hammer in 1855-56. The first hotel was built in connection with a store house by Nelson & Loyd, and was known as the Columbia House. It stood on the lot now owned by J. R. Dickey, and was burned in 1860. Another hotel which was twice burned and twice rebuilt was erected in 1857 by Peck, Langham & Snyder. It was known as the Magnolia House. It was rebuilt the last time by T. C. Lancaster, and is now known as the Virginia House. The Thomas House was built as a dwelling in 1858 by William F. Butler, and after the war was converted into a hotel by J. W. Thomas. The Exchange Hotel, now the Nickel's House, was built by J. R. Anderson as a grain commission house in 1858. The next year he remodeled it, and in 1880 it was opened as a hotel by Thomas W. Farley. During the war it was used as a Confederate hospital, and was then sold to W. H. Nickels.

    The first house of worship in Bristol was a small schoolhouse which stood on the lot where William Brown now lives. It was also occupied by a, and the first division. of the Sons of Temperance was organized:there. Mr. King soon sold this building, and erected a large one on the lot now occupied by the Presbyterian Female Institute. It was used for the same purposes as the other. The teacher of the day school being James B. Crabtree, and the preacher Rev. James King. On September 5, 1858, the first Presbyterian Church was dedicated by Rev. James MeChain, Rev. James King and Rev. I. N. Naff, appointed by the New River Presbytery. After the dedication an organization of a congregation was formed by the election of Alexander Susong, George L. Worley, Alfred Carmack, E. H. Seneker and Joseph R. Anderson, ruling elders; Joseph H. Anderson, clerk of the session, and Rev. James King as stated supply. The members numbered about thirty, the most of whom had formerly belonged to the church at Paperville. The second stated supply was Rev. Andrew Blackburn, who continued to March 30,1859. He was followed by Rev. James King, who was ordained pastor in May, 1859. In December of that year Rev. Daniel H. Hogan was elected assistant pastor. This union continued until March, 1861, when the latter went north. In May, 1862, Mr. King was succeeded by Rev. J. M. Hoffmelster, who continued until his death, January 31,1864. Mr. King supplied the pulpit until May, 1865, when Rev. George A. Converse was chosen as stated supply, and on February 27, 1869, was installed as pastor, which position he has since continued to fill. In April, 1882, the old Presbyterian Church was torn down, and the present large and imposing brick edifice was erected upon the site, meanwhile the congregation worshiped in what is known as the Z. L. Burson's Church. The building is 90x55 feet and cost $11,500. The membership at the present time is 350.

    In 1874, owing to some dissensions which had arisen in the congregation, concerning the enlargement of the church building, twenty-four members withdrew, and on January 26, of that year, with five members from other churches organized, the second Presbyterian Church, with John H. Winston, Victor Doriot, E. B. McClanahan and V. Kubler as ruling elders. The latter, however, resigned. Rev. J. D. Tadlock supplied the pulpit, and services were held in the Episcopal Church, which was occupied by the congregation until the spring of 1878, when a neat frame house was completed at the corner of Moore and CumberlandStreets in Goodson. The preachers who have supplied the pulpit since Mr. Tadlock, have been Revs. J. W. Hogan, B. W. Mebane and J. Albert Wallace. The members of this church now number ninety-one.

    The Goodson Baptist Church was constituted in 1858, by Rev. William Cate of Jonesboro. one of the most indefatigable and best beloved ministers in Tennessee. The original members were W. P. Hamilton, Arthur Edwards, W. J. Betterton and wife, J. W. Morgan, Arthur Stewart and Mrs. M. B. Coleman. The organization took place in the old Temperence Hall, where services were held for several years. In 1869 a frame building was erected upon a lot donated hy J. H. Anderson, and was dedicated by E. W. Roach. It was occupied until the fall of 1886, when an elegant and commodious frame edifice was begun; it was completed at a cost of $5,000, and on the first Sunday in June, 1887,was dedicated. The pastors who have had charge of this church have been Revs. Willlam Cate, J. D. Chambers, M. B. Wharton, J. T. Kincannon, H. B. Boatright, B. G. Maynard, J. L. Loyd, - Worley and H. D. Haymore. Rev. Mr. Kincannon served the church at two different periods, and during the latter, in 1871, a part of the members to the number of twenty-three, taking offense at the doctrines preached by him, withdrew. These, on November 5 of the same year, met in the Episcopal Church, organized themselves into a new congregation and installed Rev. J. G. Talbott as pastor. Owing to the informal manner of the organization the forty-five members then belonging- were re-constituted as the Bristol Baptist Church, by Revs. James Luster, George C.Thrasher and N. C. Baldwin. The last named then became pastor. In 1873 he was succeeded by Rev. L. L. Burson, who, in 1880, was succeeded by A. M. Stewart. Services were held in the Episcopal Church until, when Mr. Burson individually completed a brick church edifice 74x40 feet, at a cost of $7,000. The organization was maintained as a member of the Southern Baptist Association, until September 7, 1885. when an honorable adjustment of the difficulties with the parent church, was effected, and the two organizations were merged together, under the name of the Bristol Baptist Church.

    The Christian Church of Goodson owes its origin largely to the efforts of Rev. Samuel H. Millard, who as early as 1854, began preaching in the depot.

    The next year a brick church on Virginia Hill was completed and a society organized. Among the early members were Alfred, Hugh and Thomas Millard, Nathan Worley, Peter Jones, John McCrowell, William and John Rutherford, Andrew Meyers, J. L. C. Smith, Isaac Sharrett and their families. Mr. Millard continued as pastor of the church for about fifteen years. His successors have been John Haymaker, James Masters, AnthonyFerguson and David Buck.

    Emanuel Episcopal Church of Goodson was constituted by Rev. Mr. Mowhray on January 24, 1862. The vestry was composed of the following men: M. W. Hutcheson, W. B. Williams, L. M. Hall, George W. Yates, A. K. Moore, H. W. Broadanx and W. J. Martin. Previous to this time the present house had been erected, and soon after was furnished. The rectors of the parish have been Rev. Charles P. Rotiefer, Rev. B. H. Engle, Rev. (now Bishop) Penick, Rev. Pendleton Brooks, Rev. J. B. Funsten and Rev. J. S. Sykes. The membership of this church has never been very large, and much of the time the pulpit has been vacant.

    The Methodist Episcopal Church of Goodson dates its origin from 1856, when Rev. George W. Miles, then in charge of the Blountville Circuit, made the house of Jease Aydelette, of Bristol, a preaching place, where a society consisting of nineteen members was soon organized. Col. S. E. Goodson then donated a lot on Scott Street upon which about 1858 a church edifice was erected. The trustees at this time were William F. Butler, John Fleming, John Moore, D. W. Crumley and W. W. James. In 1860 it was made a station, and William Robeson was assigned as pastor. Since that time the church has steadily grown in membership, which now numbers 400, under the pastorate of J. T. Frazier. The present large brick building, with a seating capacity of from 600 to 800, was completed at a cost of about $8,000. In - a church was erected on Mary Street byMr. A. D. Reynolds, and a mission station established with Tobias F. Smith as the first pastor.

    Prior to 1867 the schools of Bristol had been only those of a private character, conducted somewhat after the manner of the oldfield schools. In the fall of that year what was known as the Bristol High School was opened by Dr. J. D. Tadlock, in a building which had been built in 1857 by D. D. Tyler as a residence. It was occupied by him until 1862, when it was sold, and subsequently came into the possession of Rev. James King, by whom it was donated with twenty-five acres of land to Holston Presbytery, Synod of Nashville, for a college for the education of young men for the ministry. In 1868 the institution was chartered as King's College. Dr. Tadlock continued as president until 1885, when he was succeeded by Dr. J. Albert Wallace, who had filled the chair of mental and moral philosophy since 1885. The institution justly ranks high among the colleges of the South, and while the attendance is not large the standard of education is high.

    The education of young men having been provided for by the founding of King's College, the Methodist Episcopal Church South decided to undertake the education of young ladies. In September, 1868, a school was opened in the Episcopal Church by Mrs. Chanceaulme, who had taught a school the previous summer in the Keller Block. The next year Rev. Dr. D. Sullins assumed charge of the school, which was then removed to the old King residence on Solar Hill, where a boarding-house was opened in connection with It. Mr. W. W. James, through whose efforts the work had thus far been carried forward, then succeeded in purchasing eight and one-fourth acres of land lying in front of the King residence, and upon thls tractwas laid off the present site of the college building, which was soon after erected at a cost of about $10,000. Dr. Sullins continued as president of the institute until 1881, when he resigned, and was succeeded by Dr. D. S. Hearon, who remained five years. He then resigned to accept the presidency of Martha Washington College, and L. L. Carlock was chosen his successor. During the summer of 1887 an addition to the present building will be made at a cost of about $8,000, to supply a pressing need for more space. Recently Mr. James, to whom is due the establishment of the college, donated $2,000, to he known as the "James Aid Fund," and to he used in assisting indigent young ladles to secure an education.

    The first newspaper established in Bristol was the Bristol News published by J. A. Sperry, whose office was in a small building on Fourth Street. He began in May, 1857, and continued until the office was burned during Stoneman's raid. He also published the Presbyterian Witness, edited by Revs. A. Blackburn, James King and J. McChain.

    In 1865 John Sack established the newspaper since known as the Bristol News which he edited and published until 1869, when he sold out to I. C. Fowler. A few years sgo Mr. Fowler was appointed clerk of the United States District Court at Abingdon, and the paper has since been published by A. C. Smith. In 1871 John Slack established the Bristol Courier which he continued to edit and publish until appointed postmaster in 1885. Since that time it has been edited and managed by his son, C. H. Slack, an energetic and enterprising journalist, who issues over 1,400 copies of the Courier, weekly. The Bristol Reporter was established in December, 1879, by T. J. & J. H. Burrow, the present proprietor. Among the other periodicals published in Bristol have been the Goodson Gazette, established about 1867 by Coleman & Rice; the Daily Argus published for a few months about 1880, by John Barnes and Z. T. Hammer; the Souvenier a monthly literary magazine published by W. M. Burrow, and the Holston Methodist which was issued from The Courier office for about three and a half years.

    The Bristol National Bank was incorporated in 1874, as the successor of the Bank of Bristol, organized as a State bank with a capital of $25,000. The capital was $50,000 until 1887, when it was increased to $100,000. The first officers were Henry Cain, president, and J. R. Anderson, vice-president. The present officers are J. H. Anderson, president, and John H. Caldwell, cashier. A. Fulkerson, George W. St. John, J. B. Anderson, J. H. Caldwell and John L. Ray constitute the hoard of directors.

    The growth of Bristol in population and wealth has been Constant, and during the past few years remarkably rapid. Its site is advantageous both for manufactorles and commercial enterprises. Those of the former already established are as follows: The Bristol Cotton Mills, established about 1875 by Fulton & Sparger; the Bristol Woolen Mills, operated by C. H. Lewis; a machine shop and sash, door and blind factory, conducted by McCrary Bros.; a veneering factory, by Aldridge & Co.; a machine shop, by Buffam & Co.; a carriage manufactory, by Brown Bros.; a flouring - mill by T. F. Wood; a tobacco manufactory, by A. D. Reynolds, and a furniture factory, by T. H. Mattox. The leading mercantile firms are Anderson & Carr, Seneker & Taylor, T. C. Pile & Co., Kendrick & Co., Z. L. Burson & Son, Pitzer & Co., W. W. James, Jr., and J. M. Barker, drygoods; T. J. Betterton, Leonard & Bondurant, J. T. Powell, H. H. Waskey & Bro., W.P. Dick Bros., H. H. Overatreet and T. D. Moore, groceries; Dickey & Anderson. Rives Walker, and Bunting & Son, drugs; Ferguson & Thomas and C. L. Sevier, hardware; Brewer & Sweet. tinware and stoves; S. J. James & Hedrick, A. S. Gump and S. A. Gump, clothing; J. H. Thomas, W. F. Cooper and H. J. & F. Carter, jewelry; J. L. King, books and stationery; A. S. McNeil and T. H. Mattox, furniture; H. B. Overman and W. B. Gale, musical instruments; T. H. & C. L. Headrick, queensware and glassware; Norvell & McDowell, boots and shues; W. W. Davis and T. Hicks & Co. produce; Campbell & Trammell, lumber.

    Of the three railroads centering in Bristol. the Norfolk & Western is the oldest, having been completed as the Virginia & Tennessee in 1856. Two years later the East Tennessee & Virginia was completed. In 1877 the Bristol Coal & Iron Narrow-gauge Railroad was chartered to run from Bristol to Big Stone. Of this road Maj. H. C. Wood became president and W. W. James vice-president and general manager. Work was begun in 1879, and after grading about eleven miles the company transferred its charter and franchise to the South Atlantic & Ohio Railroad Company, who have the road in operation as far as Estillville, Va., and will soon reach the coal fields of that section.

    Bristol was incorporated in February, 1856. The first board of mayor and aldermen was constituted as follows: J. H. Anderson, mayor, and L. F. Johnson, E. P. Cawood, Dr. S. H. Anderson, J. W. Morgan, William Carmack, F. L. Hartman and T. W. Farley.

    Goodson was incorporated in 1857 with John Appling, mayor and F. W. Moor, H. T. Wilber, John Moore, Jesse Aydeletts. J. C. Ayres and W. L. Rice.

    In 1879, by an act of the Legislature, a law court and a chancery court were established having exclusive jurisdiction overall cases arising in the Seventeenth Civil District of Blount County. Permission is also given parties living in the First, Second and Nineteenth Districts to bring suits in this court when the matter in concontroversy is in those districts. The clerks and masters of the chancery court have been B. A. Warren and George T. Hammer, the present incumbent. The clerk of the law court is the deputy of the clerk of the circuit Court of Sullivan County. The attorneys of Bristol are N. M. Taylor, W. D. Haynes, Charles H. Vance, B. G. McDowell, W. D. McCroskey, M. L. Blackley, James P. Rader and Hal. H. Haynes; those of Goodson are J. H. Wood, Col. A. Fuikerson, D. F. Bailey, W. F. Rhea, A. H. Blanchard, A. F. Miles, W. S. Hamilton, Samuel V. Fulkerson and W. T. Hudgens.

    The officers of Sullivan County so far as could be determined have been as follows:

    County Clerks-John Rhea, 1780-87; Matthew Rhea, 1787-1820; Richard Netherland, 1820-32: G. W. Netherland, 1882-36; John C. Rutledge, 1836-44; Jacob T. Messick.1844-48; Thomas P. Ford, 1848-52: John C. Rutledge, 1852-65; William C. Snapp, 1865-66; George L. Yates, 1866-67; N. B. Simpson, 1867-68; David Pence, 1868-70; J. P. Roder, 1870-74; A. J. Cox, 1874-82; Page Bullock; l882-86; N. D. Bachman, 1888.

    Sheriffs-Nathan Clark. 1780-85; Archibald Taylor, 1785-87; George Rutledge, 1787-92 William McCormick, 1792-94; John Scott, 1794-96; Isaac Shelby, 1796-98; John Anderson, 1798-1800; Francis H. Gaines, 1800-02; Thornas Shelby, 1802-04; Thomas Rockhold, 1804-06; James Phagan, 1806-29; Thomas White, 1829-30; Jacob K. Snapp, 1830-36; Amos James, 1836-40; John B. Hamilton, 1840-44; M Massengul, 1844-46; John W. Cox, 1846-50; N. M. Hicks, 1850-54; H. L. Delaney, 1854-58; A. Odell, 1858-60; A. G. Lowry, 1860-65; Henry Olinger, 1865-66; G. W.Selis, 1866-68; Thomas H. Easlley, 1868-70; Nathan Gregg, 1870-76; 5. L. Miller, 1876-80; B. S. Worley, 1880-84; J. S. Gunning, 1884-86; G. W. Sells, 1886.

    Registers-William Wallace, 1780; Stephen Major, 1789; W. C. Anderson, 1790; * * * F. Storm, 1850-65; N. J. Phillips, 1865-66; F. Sturm, 1866-70; 0. M. White, 1870-78; John W. Farmer, 1878-86; E. D. Baumgardner, 1886.

    Clerks of the circuit court-Thomas Shelby, 1810-20(l); WilliamAnderson, 1820(?)-86; John Irvin, 1836- [Died in office]*; Samuel Evans, from death of Mr. Irvin to 1848; John Cox, 1848-52; John W. Cox, 1852-60; William James. 1860-64; Abraham Cox, 1864-65; 3.0. B. Cloud, 1865-70; A. H. Bullock, 1870-78; G. L. Clay, 1878-82; W. S. Anderson, 1882.

    Clerks and masters-George F. Gammon, William Mullenix, 1865-70; N. J. Philips, 1870-82; William H. Fain, 1882-86; A. F. Martin, 1888.

  • Washington County

    WASHINGTON COUNTY lies between Greene and Carter Counties, and is bounded on the north by Sullivan and on the south by Union. Its area is about 350 square miles. The surface is generally more or less broken, and in the southern part it becomes mountainous. The valleys are fertile, as is also much of the upland. The principal stream in the county is the Nolachucky River, which traverses the southern part. Its chief tributaries are the Big Limestone and Buffalo.

    The most valuable mineral of the county is iron, which is found in great abundance.

    The first permanent settlement in Tennessee was made in 1769 on Boone Creek by Capt. William Bean, who came in that year from Pittsylvania County, Va. His son, Russell Bean, is said to have been the first white child born in the State. Soon after Bean made his settlement, in 1770 and 1771, James Robertson. Landon Carter and others, laid the foundation of the Watauga settlements, which at first were mainly in what is now Carter County. The steady stream of emigrants from the older States, however, soon forced these to overflow into the territory now embraced in Washington and Greene Counties. In 1772 Jacob Brown, with one or two families from North Carolina, located upon the north bank of the Nolachucky River, which up to this time had remained undisturbed by the white man. Mr. Brown had been a small merchant, and brought with him a packhorse loaded with goods with which he soon purchased from the Indians a lease of a large body of land lying on both sides of the Nolachucky. In 1775 he obtained one deed signed by the chief men of the Cherokee Nation, embracing the greater part of the present Washington County west of the Big Limestone, and another deed for the land lying between the Big Limestone and a line drawn from a point on the Nolachucky Mountains north 32 degrees west to the mouth of Camp Creek; thence across the river; thence northwest to the dividing ridge between Lick Creek and Watauga or Holston; thence up the dividing ridge to the rest of the said Brown's land." This land Mr. Brown sold to settlers at a small price. The government of North Carolina, however, refused to recognize the validity of this deed, and continued to make grants in the territory covered by that instrument.

    Among the most prominent of the pioneers who located within the present limits of Washington County were John Sevier, who lived on the Nolachucky, on the farm now owned by William Tyler. His sons, John and James, located on farms near by. John Tipton, the political enemy of the Seviers, lived on Turkey Creek, eight or ten miles east of Jonesboro. The first settlers on Little Limestone were Robert and James Allison, whose descendants still own a portion of the land entered by them. In 1775 Michael Bawn and James Pearn were each granted permission by the county to build a grist-mill on Little Limestone. In the same year an enumeration of the male inhabitants of Washington County, which included all the settlements in East Tennessee, showed that the aggregate number subject to poll tax was 450. Computing from this, upon the usual ratio, the population at that time was not far from 2,500.

    The first Baptist Church organized in the county was the Cherokee Creek Church, constituted in 1753 by Tidence Lane. Among its first members were James Keels, John Broyles, John Layman, William Murphy, Owen Owens, William Calvert, Reuben, John and Thomas Bayless, Thomas and Francis Baxter. Four years later Buffalo Ridge Church was constituted. Some of the prominent members were Anthony Epperson, Isaac Denton, Joseph Crouch, Peter Jackson, William Nash, David Parry and Nicholas Hale.

    At Cherokee Creek Meeting-house, on the fourth Saturday in Octoher, 1786, [Minutes of the Holston Association. Other authorities put it as early as 1779] was organized the Holston Baptist Associations, at which time six churches were represented as follows: Cherokee Creek-James Keel, John Broyles, John Layman and William Murphy; Bent Creek-Tidence Lane, Isaac Barton and Francis Hamilton; Greasy Cave-Richard Deakins and James Acton; North York of Holston-John Frost; Lower French Broad-James Randolph and Charles Gentry. Tidence Lane was chosen moderator, and William Murphy, clerk. During the next fifteen years the association grew very rapidly, thirty-five churches, new churches, having been constituted up to the close of 1802, when the membership was 2,474. In that year the association was divided, all west of a line running from Lee Courthouse, in Virginia, to Little War Gap, in Clinch Mountain, thence to Bull's Gap, thence to Fine Ferry (afterward Newport, Cocke County), thence in a direct line to Iron Mountain, was constituted the Tennessee Association. In 1811 the number of churches in the association had reached twenty, and the membership a little over 1,000, when seven churches were set off to form Washington Association. The northern line of Holston then became one running through Blountville, to where the Watauga River enters Tennessee. In 1828 the boundaries of the association were once more reduced. It then had thirty churches, with a member-ship of 1,086, when Lick Creek, Concord, Bent Creek, Bethel South, County Line, Robertson Creek, Gap Creek, Long Creek, Slate Creek, Clay Creek and Prospect were set off to form Nolachucky Association, which body was organized on the second Saturday in November of that year. No further change of territory occurred prior to the war except that.

    The war greatly depleted the ranks of the members. In 1857 the aggregate membership of the association was 3,500, while in 1865 it was only 1,794. New churches, however, were soon formed, and old ones revived, so that in 1865 twelve churches in the counties of Johnson, Carter and Union were set off to form Watauga Association, leaving twenty-five churches in Holston Association. In 1855 three more churches were set off to join the newly organized Holston Valley Association. The Holston Association in 1886 had a membership of 3,430, divided among thirty-five churches. The Baptist Churches in Washington County at the present time are as followl: Cherokee Creek, organized In 1783; Buffalo Ridge, 1787; Fall Branch, 1827; Jonesboro, 1842; Limestone, 1842; New Salem, 1845; Harmony, 1850; Johnson City and ____, 1869; Philadelphia, 1870; Antioch, 1875.

    The work of the Presbyterians began contemporaneously with that of the Baptists. The first preacher was Rev. Samuel Doak, who, in 1778, located near where Washington College now is, and where he established Salem Church. Among other early churches of this denomination were Hebron, afterward Jonesboro, Leesburg and Bethesda. When the separation of the two factions of the church occurred the greater number went with the New School, and about 1858 formed a part of the United Synod. Upon the reorganization of the churches after the close of the war considerable dissension occurred, a portion of the churches uniting with the Holston Presbytery of the Northern General Assembly, and the remainder going into the Hoiston Presbytery of the Southern General Assembly. The churches in the county are as follows: Salem, Jonesboro (Second Church), Chucky Vale and Mount Lebanon, adhering to the Northern Assembly, and Leesburg, Johnson City and Jonesboro (First Church), holding to the Southern Assembly.

    The Methodists began work in the county about 1783, but no records are now in existence from which an account of individual churches may be obtained.

    In the establishment of a school for the higher education of youth Washington County has the honor of being tile pioneer west of the Alleghany Mountains. In 1777 the Legislature of North Carolina granted a charter for Martin Academy in Washington County, and Samuel Doak. who came to the county the following year, established a school under the pnovisions of this act. At what time he began teaching is not definitely known, but it must have neen in 1783 or 1784. He taught at first in a small log building, which stood on his own farm, a short distance west of the present college campus. There he continued his academy until 1795, when the Territorial Assembly passed an act incorporating it as Washington College. The following is the preamble to the act: "Whereas, The Legislature of North Carolina established an academy in Washington County by the name of Martin Academy, which has continued for ten or twelve years past under the presidency of the Rev. Samuel Doak, and has been of considerable utility to 'the public, and affords a prospect of future usefulness if invested with powers and privileges appertaming to a college. Be it enacted, etc." The trustees appointed were Rev. Samuel Doak, Charles Cummings, Edward Crawford, John Cosson, Robert Henderson, Gideon Blackburn, Joseph Anderson, John Sevier, Landon Carter, Daniel Kennedy, Lerey Taylor, John Sevier, Jr., John Tipton, William Cocke, Archibald Roane, Joseph Hamilton, John Rhea, Samuel Mitchell, Jesse Payne, James Aiken, William C. C. Claiborne, Dr. William Holt, Dr. William P. Chester, David Deaderick, John Waddell, Jr., Alexander Mathes, John Nelson and John McAllister. The first meeting of the board was held on July 23, 1795, at which time Landon Carter was authorized to dispose of three tracts of land on Doe River belonging to Martin Academy, the property of that institution having been transferred to the college. It was also moved that John Waddell and John Sevier be appointed to collect sundry subscriptions made to Martin Academy in 1784.

    On September 28, 1795, by order of the trustees, an oratorical contest among the students was held. They were divided into three grades, the best speaker in the first grade to receive $3, in the second $2, and in the third $1. The prizes were awarded to James Anderson. James Trimble and Samuel Sevier respectively. The first graduates were James Witherspoon and John W. Doak, upon whom was conferred the degree of A. B. on August 15, 1796. The other graduates for the first ten years were John Robinson, James Trimble, William Mitchell, Charles McAllister, Jonathan Smith, Daniel Gray. A. M. Nelson, Samuel K. Nelson, William H. Deaderick, Jeremiah Mathes, Nicholas Yeager, Reuben White, Thomas Cooper and William W. Holt.

    In 1806 J. W. Doak was made vice-president, and commissioned to solicit funds in Georgia and South Carolina for the benefit of the college, where he obtained $886.65. The next year he visited the North and East, and secured $1,575. With these funds a new frame building was erected in 1808. It was 40x24 feet, two stories high, and stood very near the site of the present chapel. In 1818 Samuel Doak resigned the presidency of the college, and was succeeded by John W. Doak, who continued until 1820. He then died, and the position was tendered to Dr. Samuel Doak, who refused it. The next year John V. Bovell was installed as president, and after three or four years was succeeded by S. W. Doak. who was not in actual charge of the college, however, Profa. Rice and W. M. Cunningham, acting as president for that time. In 1829 Rev. James McLin assumed control of the institution, and continued to direct it until 1838, S. W. Doak then succeeded him, and continued for two years.

    In 1840 a new college building 86x34 feet and four stories high was built at a cost of $6,000. At the same time a dwelling for the president was erected. These buildings were completed in 1842, and the institution under the presidency of A. A. Doak entered upon an era of greater prosperity than it had known for several years preceding. In 1850 Mr. Doak resigned the presidency, and for a short time was succeeded by Rev. E. T. Baird, but he soon resumed his old relations with the college, and continued until 1857. From this time until the war, however, the institution was financially embarrassed. In 1859 the aggregate indebtedness amounted to $4,793.24. It was then resolved to sell all the land belonging to the college with the exception of ten or twelve acres. The successor of Dr. A. A. Doak in 1857 was Rev. Samuel Hodge who held his position until the beginning of the war. Like most other institutions of the kind in the State, the college suffered much during the war in the destruction of its library and damage to the buildings. In 1866 the buildings were repaired, and a school known as the Washington Female College was opened under the presidency of Rev. W. B. Rankin, who continued the school with more or less success until 1877. Meanwhile it had again become a mixed school, and Rev. J. E. Alexander leased the property, and continued a sort of graded school until 1883. Since that time the institution has been under the management of Rev. J. W. C. Willoughby, and it has regained much of its old time excellence. The present faculty is J. W. C. Willoughby, president and professor of sciences; Rev. M. A. Mathes, ancient languages; John A. Wilson, mathematics and physical sciences; C A. Mathes, principal of the preparatory department.

    Washington County was laid off by an act of the Legislature of North Carolina, passed in November, 1777, and was made to include the whole of the territory afterward erected into the State of Tennessee. The first magistrates appointed were James Robertson, Valentine Sevier, John Carter, John Sevier, Jacob Womack, Robert Lucas, Andrew Greer, John Shelby, Jr., George Russell, William Bean, Zachariah Isbell, John McNabb, Thomas Houghton, William Clark, John McMahan, Benjamin Gist, J. Chisoim, Joseph Wilson, William Cobb, Thomas Stuart, Michael Woods, Richard White, Benjamin Wilson, Charles Robertson, William McNabb, Thomas Price and Jesse Watson. The first session of the court of pleas and quarter sessions was begun and held on February 23, 1778. John Carter was chosen chairman; John Sevier, clerk; Valentine Sevier, sheriff; James Stuart, surveyor; John MeMahan, register; Jacob Womack, straymaster; John Carter, entry taker, and Samuel Lyle, John Gilliland, Richard Wooldridge, Emanuel Carter, William Ward, V. Dillingbam and Samuel and John Smith, constables. At the next term of the court, which was held at Charles Robertson's in May following, the rates of taxation were fixed as follows:

    For every one hundred œ's worth of property 16s 8d
    For building a courthouse, prison and stocks 2s 6d
    For building a courthouse in Salisbury 4d
    For the contingent fund of the county 1s
    Total œ1/6d

    The county was then divided into seven districts, and the following magistrates appointed to make return of the taxable property: Benjamin Wilson, John McNabb, John Chisoim, William Bean, Michael Woods, Zachariah Isbell and Jacob Womack. The first grand jury was empaneled at this term, and was composed of the following men: William Asher, Charles Gentry, James Hollis, Amos Bird, John Nave, Arthur Cobb, John Dunham, Peter McNamee, John Patterson, Nathaniel Clark, James Wilson, Adam Wilson, Drury Goodin, Samuel Tate, Jacob Brown, David Hughes, Joseph Fowler, Robert Shurley, James Grimes, Robert Blackburn, John Clark, Hosea Stout, Andrew Burton, John Hoskins, N. Hoskins. The greater number of the first cases which came before this court were those of loyalists, and deserters from the Continental Army, who had sought safety in these remote settlements. The intense loyalty of these pioneers to the American cause, however, made this section eztremely uncomfortable for tory sympathizers. The first case in the records of the court is that of the "State vs. Zekle Brown." It was "ordered that the defendant he committed to gaol immediately, to be kept in custody until he can be conveniently delivered to a Continental Officer." Another case was that of the State Vs. Moses Crawford, In Tory's'm. "It is the opinion of the court that the defendant be imprisoned during the present war with Great Britain, and the sheriff take the whole of his estate into custody, which must be valued by a jury at the next court-one-half of said estate to be kept by said sheriff for the use of the State, and the other half to be remitted to the family of the defendant." At the same time, on motion of Ephraim Dunlap, who had been appointed State's attorney, it was ordered that Isaac Buller, be sent to the Continental Army, there to serve three years or during the war. He was soon after released upon giving bond that he would apprehend two deserters, Joshua Williams and a court under the certain Dyer who keeps company with said Williams, "by the 20th day of September next, and deliver them to the proper authorities. At the February term, 1780, John Reding was arraigned for speaking words treasonable and inimical to the common cause of liberty." He plead not guilty and the court, after hearing the evidence, bound him over to the superior court, in the sum of œ20,000 continental currency. This was at a time when the continental currency was at its lowest value, and the above apparently enormous sum amounted to less than œ200 in specie. The following tavern rates fixed for 1781 illustrate the great depreciation of the currency: Dinner, $20; breakfast or supper, $15; corn or oats per gallon $12; pasturage, $6; Lodging, $6; West India rum, $120 per quart; peach brandy, $80 per quart; whiskey, $48 per quart; Normandy or Tafia rum, $100 per quart.

    At the November term, 1778, the commissioners appointed to lay off the place for erecting the courthouse, prison and stocks, Jacob Womack, Jesse Walton, George Russell, Joseph Wilson, Zachariah Isbell and Benjamin Gist, reported that they had selected a site, and the following May term the Court convened at that place in the first court-house erected in Tennessee. "This house was built of round logs, fresh from the adjacent forest, and was covered in the fashion of cabins of the pioneers, with clapboards." In December, 1784, the Court recommended that there be a courthouse built in the following manner: "twenty-four feet square, diamond corner, and hewn down after it is built up; nine feet high between the floors, body of the above the upper floor, floors neatly laid with plank, shingles of roof to be hung with pegs, a justice's bench, a lawyer's and clerk's box, also a sheriff's box to Sit in." The Contract was let to John Chisolm, who was to receive for his work an amount to be fixed by two men chosen by himself, and two chosen by the Commissioners appointed to superintend its erection. At the same time Alexander Greer took the contract for repairing and completing the prison upon the same terms. The latter building stood on the creek opposite the present jail.

    During the years 1785 and 1786, but little is known of the transactions of the court, as most of the minutes were lost in the struggle between Tipton and Sevier. It is known, however, that both County and superior Courts were held at Jonesboro, under the authority of the Franklin government for nearly three years, although for the greater part of that time a majority of the people of the County avowed allegiance to North Carolina. It was not, however, until February, 1787, that a Court of pleas and quarter Sessions was established under the authority of the latter State. On the first Monday of that month John McMahon, James Stuart and Robert Allison met at the house of William Davis, on Buffalo Creek, and organized a court. George Mitchell was elected sheriff pro tem; John Tipton, clerk pro tem., and Thomas Gourley, deputy clerk. John Tipton presented his commission as colonel of the County; Robert Love, as second major, and Peter Parkison, David McNabb, John Hendricks and Edward Simms as Captains. The magistrates appointed from the County were John Tipton, Landon Carter, Robert Love, James Montgomery, John Wyer, John Strain, Andrew Chamberlain, Andrew Taylor, Alexander Mofiltt, William Porsley, Edmund Williams and Henry Nelson.

    At the May term following, Jonathan Pugh was elected sheriff, Alexander Moffitt, coroner, and Elijah Cooper, ranger. It was ordered by the Court that the sheriff demand the public records of the county from John Sevier, former clerk of this court; also that he demand from the ranger his records, and that he demand the key of the jail at Jonesboro, from the former sheriff. The series of conflicts between the two parties, which followed these orders are detailed in another Chapter and will not be repeated here.

    In May, 1788, the Franklin government had ceased to exist, and the courts of Davis were held unmolested. At that time John Hammer, William Puraley, Robert Love and William Moore, commissioners appointed by the preceding General Assembly of North Carolina to select a sight for a prison and stocks, reported that they were of the opinion that Jonesboro was the most convenient place. From this it may be inferred that it had been the intention of the General Assembly to remove the seat of justice from Jonesboro, that place having become obnoxious on account of its adherence to Gov. Sevier. The excitement and ill feeling had somewhat subsided at this time, however, and after hearing the above report, the court ordered that John Nolan be paid œ25 in part for completing the public buildings at Jonesboro. In November, 1790, the first session of the County court under the Territorial government was held, at which time Charles Robertson, John Campbell, Edmund Williams and John Chisoim were the magistrates present. On May 16, 1796, the court was again reorganized to conform to the provisions of the State constitution. The magistrates commissioned by Gov. Sevier were James Stuart, John Tipton, John Wise, John Adams, John Strain, Henry Nelson, Joseph Young, Joseph Crouch, William Nelson, Robert Blair, Jesse Payne, Isaac DePew, Charles McCray, Samuel Wood, Jacob Brown, John Alexander, Joseph Britton, John Norwood and John Gammon.

    The General Assembly of North Carolina in 1782 passed an act providing for the holding of a court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery twice a year at Jonesboro for the counties of Washington and Sullivan. Previous to this time it was necessary either to take all cases coming under the jurisdiction of the superior court of Salisbury, or to allow the crime to go unpunished, or the wrongs unredressed, an alternative in which there was but little choice. The first term was begun August 15, 1782, by Hon. Spruce McCoy, who appointed Waighisill Avery attorney for the State, and John Sevier, clerk. John Vance, Isaac Choate and William White were convicted of horse stealing, and sentenced to be executed on the 10th of September following. This court continued to be held until the passage of the first cession act by North Carolina in June, 1784, and after the repeal of that act Washington District was erected from the counties in East Tennessee and a superior court established.

    There is no evidence, however, to show that this court was organized until February 15, 1788, at which time Judge David Campbell held a superior court of law and equity at the courthouse In Washington County for the district of Washington. F. A. Ramsey was appointed clerk, and William Sharp was admitted as an attorney. At the next term Judge Samuel Spencer sat with Judge Campbell, and it was at this time that he issued the warrant for the arrest of John Sevier.

    In accordance with the provision of the ordinance establishing the territory south of the Ohio River three judges of the superior court were appointed. They were David Campbell, Joseph Anderson and John McNairy, all of whom remained upon the bench until the adoption of the State constitution.* Gen. Jackson was upon the bench of the superior court from 1798 to 1804, and it was while sitting at Jonesboro that he made the famous arrest of a criminal who had defied the sheriff and his posse. This occurred at the September term, 1802. Russell Bean, a resident of the town, doubting the paternity of a child born to him, cut off its ears, thereby causing its death. A warrant was issued for him, but Bean refused to be taken, and the sheriff, Joseph Crouch, so reported to the court. Judge Jackson ordered him to summon a posse to aid him. He replied that he had summoned a certain number, but to no avail. Jackson then told him to summon the whole town if necessary, whereupon Mr. Crouch summoned his Honor, Judge Jackson. The latter arose from the bench with the exclamation that, by the eternal, he could take him single handed, and, procuring a pistol, started for Mr. Bean, and demanded his surrender. The culprit, terrified by the determined look and flashing eye of Judge Jackson, succumbed at once without a struggle, and was taken into court. There he was convicted, but being brought to the bar for sentence plead the "benefit of clergy," which was granted. He therefore escaped with a light sentence. He was branded upon the left thumb, and confined in the county jail for eleven months.

    Another case which attracted much attention at the time, was tried in September, 1806. Mary Doherty was arraigned for the murder of her father, and being called upon to plead to the indictment "stood mute," whereupon a jury was empaneled "to inquire whether the defendant stands mute through malice or through the visitation of God." After a thorough examination the jury reported it as their opinion that Mary Doherty, the prisoner at the bar, stands mute through the visitation of God. It was thereupon ordered by the judge, that a plea of not guilty be entered and the trial proceeded, resulting in the acquittal of the girl, who, it is said, walked out of the courtroom with a smile upon her face, and entered into conversation with her friends. The case is remarkable from the fact that she was an ignorant country girl, who had no counsel from any source, and yet she was able to deceive the court, jury, attorneys and jailor.

    In 1809 the superior court was abolished, and in 1810 the circuit court was organized by Judge William Cocke, who appointed James V. Anderson as clerk. The chancery court for Washington, Carter, Johnson and Sullivan Counties was organized at Jonesboro September 5, 1836, by Judge Thomas L. Williams, who appointed Seth J. W. Lucky clerk and master.

    The first attorney admitted to practice in a court in Tennessee was Waightslll Avery, in August, 1775. At the same term, but a day or two later, Ephraim Dunlap, was elected state's attorney, although he had not yet been licensed by the superior court. Both of the above men continued to practice in the courts of the State for several years. Other attorneys admitted to practice were Spruce McCoy, 1779; William Cocke, 1780; William Johnson and Reuben Wood, 1784; Archibald Roane, David Allison, Joseph Hamilton, James NcNairy and James Reese, 1788; Alexander McGinty, 1787; John Rhea and Hopkins Lacy, 1790. Of these early attorneys only one or two were residents of Washington County. The first resident attorneys of prominence were John Kennedy, John A. Arken. Peter Parsons and John Blair. Kennedy came to Jonesboro from Pennsylvania soon after Tennessee was admitted as a State, and continued to live in the town until the Ocoee purchase was made in 1836. He was then appointed one of the deputy surveyors of that district, and moved to Bradley County. Peter Parsons was the brother of Enoch Parsons, who was a candidate for governor in 1819. He was a resident of Jonesboro for several years and afterward removed to Alabama. John Blair came to the bar about 1812, and soon gained a high reputation as a sound lawyer and an honest man. In 1828 he defeated John Rhea for Congress, and for twelve consecutive years thereafter he held a seat in that body. After his retirement from office he engaged in merchandising, and also kept a hotel, which now forms part of the Washington House. Aiken was admitted to the bar about 1810, and practiced at Jonesboro until his death with the exception of a few years when he resided at Maryville. He was aman of rare eloquence, but owing to habits of intemperance he never reached that degree of prominence to which his talents would otherwise have raised him.

    Among the other attorneys resident at Jonesboro in 1888, were James V. Anderson, Mark T. Anderson, Seth J. W. Lucky, Nathaniel Kelsey, William K. Blair and Judge Thomas Emmerson. The first named was clerk of the circuit court, and was not actively engaged in the practice of law. Mark T. Anderson, his son, died soon after coming to the bar. Seth J. W. Lucky was admitted to the bar at Jonesboro about 1830, and soon became one of the leading attorneys. In 1836 he became clerk and master of the chancery court, a position he held until 1841, when he was elected by the Legislature judge of the First Judicial Circuit. He filled that position until 1854, when he was chosen chancellor to succeed Judge Thomas L. Williams. He remained upon the bench until his death, which occurred in April, 1869. He was a man of unquestioned integrity, and of high attainments, and his decisions were rarely reversed.

    Judge Emmerson was a native of Virginia. He removed to Knoxville about 1800, and to Jonesboro about 1818. In 1807 he was appointed a judge of the superior court, but resigned his position during the same year. In 1818 he was made a judge of the supreme court, and so continued until 1822. After his retirement from the bench he devoted but a portion of his time to the law, having turned his attention to farming and journalism. As a lawyer he is said to have lacked the tact, energy and worldly shrewdness so necessary to success in this profession at that time.

    Of the remaining attorneys of Jonesboro prior to the war, were Thomas A. R. Nelson, James W. Deaderick and William H. Maxwell. The first two are mentioned elsewhere. Mr. Maxwell was admitted to practice about 1842, and continued at Jonesboro until about 1870, when he removed to Kansas.

    At the close of the war a large number of attorneys located at Jonesboro, but many of them remained but a short time. Among them were A. J. Brown, Felix A. Reeve, William M. Grisham, J. M. Scudden, Newton Hacker, A. W. Howard, Thomas S. Smyth, N. B. Owens. Mr. Brown soon became one of the best lawyers at the bar. He remained at Jonesboro until 1886, when he was elected judge of the First Judicial Circuit. He then removed to Greene County. Mr. Hacker, the predecessor of Judge Brown, began practice in 1866, and the next year was chosen to the Legislature. He then served one term as attorney-general, and in August, 1886, completed his term upon the bench. He has since resumed his practice. The remaining members of the bar at Jonesboro are S. J. Kirkpatrick, for two years a member of the court of referees at Knoxville, Capt. L E. Reeves, Col. T. H. Reeves, A. S. Deaderick, George N. Grisham, Frank Young and -___ Epps.

    Of the early history of Jonesboro but little is now known. The site of the town, as before mentioned, was selected in 1778, but from whom the land was obtained could not be ascertained. It is asserted by some citizens, that it was donated by one Jones, but there is no proof to support the statement, and it is probable that this idea arose from the name of the town, which, however, was christened Jonesboro in honor of Willie Jones, of Halifax County, N. C. It is the opinion of the writer after investigation that the original owner of the site was James Alison, who, with his brother, Robert, obtained grants to the greater portion of the land near the head of Little Limestone. and extending down that stream for a considerable distance.

    In August, 1779, Robert Sevier obtained license to keep an ordinary "at the court house." His was doubtless the first house erected after the town was laid off. He was killed at King's Mountain the following year, and in 1781 James Allison and Richard Minton were each licensed to keep an ordinary, as was also Robert Middleton in 1782. In fact, for the first four or five years at least, the town, if such it may be called, consisted of little else than the public buildings, and two or three ordinaries, which in addition to affording food and lodging to travelers, also furnished liquor and a few of the staple articles of merchandise. But Jonesboro soon became the center of political influence for the territory west of the mountains. For the first five years it was the seat of justice for all this region, and subsequently for many years was the place at which the superior courts for the district of Washington were held. In August, 1784, the first Franklin convention was held there, and was followed by the second in November. In March, 1785, the first Legislative Assembly in what is now Tennessee met in Jonesboro, but subsequent proceedings were held at Greeneville, which then became the capital of the State of Franklin.

    Besides the persons mentioned other early residents of the town were A. Caldwell, Thomas Rutherford, Francis Baker. George House, James Reed, John Brown, Dr. William P. Chester and David Deaderick, all of whom located prior to 1800. Mr. Deaderick is said to have been the first merchant of Jonesboro, having located there as early as 1788 or 1789. He was the leading business man of the town, from that time until his death, a period of over thirty years. He is yet remembered by the oldest residents as a useful citizen, and an honest. upright, Christian gentleman. He was the father of ex-Chief Justice Deaderick.

    In 1794 a new courthouse was built, and James Stuart, David Deaderick, Samuel May, Sr., John Johnston, John Sevier, Sr., William Lovely and James Carmichael were appointed to superintend its construction. This house was log, built two stories high, with the courtroom above, reached by a double flight of steps on the outside. The lower story was fitted up and used, for a time at least, as a jail. This building stood nearly upon the site of the present courthouse. It was used until 1820, when it was torn down and a brick building erected. The commissioners appointed to superintend this work were John McAllister, David Deaderick, John Chester, John Kennedy and John G. Eason.

    The residents of Jonesboro in 1815, as remembered by Gen. A. E. Jackson, then a small boy, were James V. Anderson, clerk of the circuit court and cashier of the first bank of Tennessee, a branch of which was located in Jonesboro; Matthew Aiken, a hatter; John C. Harris, an early school teacher, and for many years trustee of the county; Dr. James R. Isbell, who subsequently removed to Greeneville; David G. Vance, the leading hotel keeper of the town from about 1800 to 1819; William K. Vance a saddler; Thomas Whitson, a shoemaker; Edward Mackin, a tanner; Montgomery Stuart, a farmer; John Kennedy and John Blair, attorneys; John McMlister, David Deaderick and Adam McKee, merchants; John Chester, a farmer, who lived where the Planters' Hotel now is, and William P. Chester, a physician.

    On the Both of April, was issued the first paper ever established in America for the sole purpose of advocating the abolition of slavery. It was edited and published by Elihu Embree, but printed at the office of the East Tennessee Patriot a paper which had been established a short time before by Jacob Howard, a printer from Baltimore. Mr. Embree was one of two brothers, Elijah and Elihu Embree, who at that time were operating extensive iron works in Sullivan County. He died on December 4, 1820, and the paper was discontinued to be revived about two years later at Greeneville. How long the Patriot was continued is not known, but it is thought to have been for some eight or ten years. In November, 1832, Judge Thomas Emmerson and S. J. W. Lucky established the Washington Republican and Farmer's Journal, a radical anti-Jackson sheet which, during the campaign of 1836, ardently supported Hugh L. White for the presidency. About 1835 Mr. Lucky withdrew from the paper and Judge Emmerson continued its publication until March 1837, when he sold it to Mason R. Lyon, who changed the name to the Was~ington Republican ant Alvertiser. About the time the paper was established Judge Emmerson also began the publication of a monthly agricultural journal, known as the Tennessee Farner, which he continued until his death, in 1837. It was then published for a time by his son and J. F. Deaderick. In 1836 Judge Emmerson published a directory of his patrons in the town, which included nearly all of the professional men, with the exception of the attorney and mechanics. It was as follows: Physicians, S. B. Cunningham and J. B. Cosson; merchants, John G. Eason, Greenway & Sackett, J. and W. Blair, James H. Jones, John Keys & Co. and A. Anderson; cabinet-makers, Jeremiah Boyd and Hosea Henshaw; hatters, L. A. Markwood and Joseph McLin; saddlers, James Brown and John McCorkle; shoemaker, John B. Bates; tanners, S. G. Cheater, Michael Clem and R. J. West; carpenters, Jesse M. Thompson and Henry Stephenson; mason, John Damson; blacksmith, A. G. Mason; silversmith, Wilton Atkinson; tavern keepers, Michael Clem and Thomas Stuart. About 1839 the brick courthouse was burnt and Stuart's tavern, which stood a little to the west of it, was purchased by the county. This was occupied by the courts some seven or eight years, when the present courthonse was completed.

    Returning to the newspaper publication, In May, 1886, the Tensessee Sentienel was established as the organ of the Van Buren party, with Gifford & Sparks as publishers. It was edited successively by Lawson Gifford, Thomas Anderson and Landon O. Raynel. About 1848 Brownlow removed his Tennessee Whig from Elizabethton to Jonesboro, and from that time until he went to Knoxville the two papers waged a bitter polltical and personal warfare, culminating in an altercation between Mr. Haynes and Mr. Brownlow in which the latter was shot. Mr. Brownlow remained in Jonesboro until after the campaign of 1849, when he removed to Knoxville. About 1845 the Sentinel was changed to the Washington County Democrat, of which W. H. Smith became editor. Early in 1859 A. G. Graham, an eccentric attorney from the North, established, as a successor of the Democrat, the Jonesboro Union, which he published as a strong Southern paper until compelled to suspend in 1863. Contemporareous with this publication was the Express published by John Slack, and subsequently by Slack & Grisham. The last number appeared May 12, 1865, and a week later the first number of the Union Flag was issued by Capt. G. E. Grisham, who continued its publication until his death in 1873. It represented the radical element of the Republican party, and during the campaign between Senter and Stokes for governor, the Herald and Tribunewas established by Wheeler and Mahoney as a Senter organ. In October 1876, it was purchased by W. P. Brownlow, who conducted it until 1883, when it was transferred to a joint stock company. It has one of the best equipped newspaper offices in Tennessee, and the editorial library is without an equal. It has a cylinder press, several fine job preses and is equally complete in other respects. Among the other papers published since 1870, were the Echo, established by S. S. Luttrell; the East Tennessee Patriot, edited by Col. T.H. Reeves; the Times, established in 1876 and continued three or four years, and the Journal pubilshed by a stock company for about ten years succeeding 1875.

    In 1852 the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad waa incorporated, and It may be said that to Washington County was due the successful completion of this enterprise. In order that the charter become valid the stock in the road was required to be taken in a certain time. Washington County subscribed $50,000 and $125,000 was raised by individual subscription in the county, but when the day set for the subscription to be made up drew near, about $300,000 remained untaken. To save the charter thirty enterprising citizens, mainly from Washington County, formed a syndicate and took the remaining stock. Among those from Washington County in this syndicate were Dr. Samuel B. Cunningham (the first president of the road), William P. Reeves, Gen. A. E. Jackson, George W. Tilford, Samuel Mitchell, Isaac McPherson, William R. Sevier, William G. Gammon, Jacob Cooper, John F. Deaderick, William Bovell, E. L. Mathes, James F. and Adam Broyles, Robert, John and William K. Blair. The construction of this road was soon begun, and completed as far as Jonesboro in 1856. In 1858 the entire line was put into operation. The whole amount of aid received from the State by this road was $2,202,000. Since the completion of the railroad, Jonesboro has grown in wealth and population, but owing to the establishment of other towns and villages in close proximity her improvement has not been so great as it otherwise would have been. The business interests are now represented as follows: Dosser & Co., R. M. May, J. W. Ross, John D.Cox, Smith, Peoples & Co., February & Archer, and Russell, general merchandise; J. J. Hunt, J. S. Mathes and Gibson & Warlick, drugs; J. J Hunt and A. G. Mason, hardware; W. G. Mathes, Crawford & Murray, J. A. T. Bacon and M. L. Elsea & Son, groceries; A. T. Dosser, clothing; Milton Keen, furniture. The Jonesboro Banking and Trust Company, established in 1886, does a small banking business. J. D. Cox is president, and W. G Mathes, cashier.

    The manufactories of the town consist of a carriage shop by D. C. Aikin & Son, and a machine shop by G. W. Bolinger.

    The first church established in Jonesboro was a Presbyterian Church. About 1790 Rev. Samuel Doak and Rev. Hezekiah Balch organized a church by the name of Hebron, four miles east of town. The members numbered from fifteen to twenty. The first ruling elders were Samuel Mitchell, Sr., Samuel Fain and John B. McMahon to whom in a few years was added Joseph Young. For a time Mr. Doak preached at the houses of Adam Mitchell and Peter Miller, and at the courthouse in town. Soon, however, a meeting-house of logs was built on land then owned by Mr. McMahon, but now owned by______. Mr. Adam Mitchell was the chief mover in the work, but was assisted in meeting the cost by Messrs. McMahon, Fain and Miller. This building had disappeared before 'the memory of the present generation. The next regular place of worship was the old Martin Academy, built in. 1816. It is said to have been the place at which the first church sacramental meeting was held, but the house was so small that on similar occasions there-after the services were conducted in the grove near the residence of Gen. A. E. Jackson. In 1881 the third house of worship was erected. It was built in great haste that it might be ready for the meeting of the synod of Tennessee on the 12th of October, of the same year. It was not entirely completed, however, until 1836. The building is still standing and forms a part of the house used by the public schools. It did not prove to be a very suitable churcli building, and in 1847 the erection of a new house of worship was begun. It was not finished until 1850, and on August 15, of that year, it was dedicated by Rev. R. P. Wells. This church was occupied until the civil war by an undivided congregation, and after the war by two congregations, adhering respectively to the Northern and to the Southern General Assembly. About 1881, however, the former congregation sold out its claim to the latter, and the next year completed the handsome and substantial brick structure in which they have since worshiped.

    For several years after its organization the church seems to have had no regularly installed pastor, but was served occasionally, or for short times regularly, by Samuel Doak, Samuel Lake, John Coason, James Witherspoon, Charles Coffin and John W. Doak.

    In July, 1808, Dr. Charles Coffin renewed his connection with the church, and continued to preach regularly once in three weeks for ten years. He confined his preaching mainly to the town, holding services at the residences of David Deaderick, Jolin Adams and others, and at the courthouse until the completion of the church in 1816. He resigned his pastoral charge in 1815, and after an interval of about eighteen months was succeeded by Rev. Robert Glenn, who remained until the summer of 1825. The church was then without any regular supply until the fall of 1826, when Rev. Lancelot G. Bell came to this church. The next year he was installed regularly as pastor, the first instance of the kind in the history of the church. It was during his ministry, on December 29, 1829, that a Sabbath school on union principles was organized, and began its sessions on the following Sabbath. His pastoral relations were dissolved on October 5, 1832. The next minister was Rev. Henry M. Kerr, who filled the pulpit for twelve months succeeding April, 1833. In October, 1834, Rev. J. W. Cunningham began his labors with the church, and from that time until 1845 preached one-half of his time, the remainder of his time being devoted successively to Elizabethton, Bethesda and Mount Lebanon. In September, 1845, Rev. Rufus P. Wells assumed charge of the congregation, and on August 17,1850, was installed as pastor, a position he continued to hold until October, 1862. During this time 193 persons joined the church on profession of faith, and sixty-six by letter. After the departure of Mr. Wells there was an intermission in the stated preaching until about June, 1863, when J. D. Tadlock began to supply the church, and remained for about two years. For about eighteen months succeeding the pulpit was filled by Calvin Waterbury. On June 9, 1867, Rev. James G. Mason entered upon his labors under a call to the pastorate, and continued with the church until July 28, 1872. On the first of the following December Rev. P. D. Cowan began to supply tiie pulpit, and continued until 1877, when he was succeeded by Rev. C. A. Duncan, the present pastor.

    After the close of the war the United Synod, with which the church had been identified since 1858, having ceased to exist, the question of church relationship divided the congregation. A part of the members, a majority it is claimed, desired to unite with the Southern General Assembly, while the remainder, who then held control, attached themselves to the Northern Assembly. The former, therefore, on the fifth Sunday in March, 1868, organized a separate congregation. Services were held in the basement of the old courthouse by Dr. J. D. Tadlock, until May, 1872. During the following summer the pulpit was supplied by J. P. Gammon. W. W. Morrison then preached to the congregation for two years, during which time a compromise was effected by which the old church was occupied alternately by the two congregations. Meanwhile legal proceedings had been begun by the members of the southern church to obtain possession of the property, but before the case had reached a final determination in the court a second compromise was effected whereby the members of the northern church relinquished their claim to the church property, and erected the handsome brick structure known as the Second Presby- terian Chureh. The ministers to the First Presbyterian Church succeeding Rev. Morrison have been Rev. J. Albert Wallace, 1874-76; Rev. B. O. Byers, 1876-83; Rev. C. W. Johnson, 1883-85; Rev. J. B. Converse, 1885-87. Since January 1, 1887, the congregation has been without any stated supply.

    At what time the Methodists organized a society in Jonesboro is not known, but it must have been early in the century. The first church building stood on the hill beyond where the depot now is. It was a small building built of brick, with a brick floor, while the seats were rough slabs supported on round pins. This building was torn down about 1845, and the present church edifice was erected. At the close of the war the congregation became divided upon the question of church relationship, and for several years the members ot the Methodist Episcopal Church held possession of the property. Through process of law, however, they were compelled to transfer the property to the Methodist Episcopal Church South. They then erected a new house, which a few years since was destroyed by fire, and has not been rebuilt.

    The Baptist Church in Jonesboro was instituted in 1842 by William Cate, with a membership of about forty-four. Among the first members were J. R. Lacey, Wilton Atlainson, Wilson Bayless, J. B. Estes, J. Pritchett, C. Hill, A. Brown and Isaac Murray. A small church building was erected near the railroad, just above town, and was occupied until the completion of the present church about 1856.

    The first school in Jonesboro was taught about 1812, by John C. Harris, in a small house standing on a lot in town.

    In 1816 the trustees, in union with the Presbyterian Church, erected a building, a part of which is now occupied by Dr. Warlick as a residence. The trustees at that time were John Kennedy, David Deaderick. John Nelson, William Mitchell, Andrew Steele, Matthew Aiken, Matthew Stephenson, A. M. Nelson and George and Mien Gillespie, to whom the next year were added James V. Anderson, William B. Carter, John G. Eason, D. G. Vance, John C. Harris and Samuel Greer. This school then became the educational center of the town. In 1843 a lot was purchased on the hill south of the plesent depot, and tite large, brick building, which is still standing, was erected. Meanwhile, a female academy had been established, which was tatight by a Miss Melville and a Miss Mitchell in the house now occupied by William February. In 1853 the Holston Association of Baptists adopted a female school that had been established by Mr. and Mrs. Keeling as the Holston Baptist Female Institute. A large, brick building was soon after begun on an eminence in the east part of town. It was not completed, however, until about the beginning of the war. The trustees were W. Cate, W. C. Newell, M. V. Kitzmlller, J. A. Davis, W. Keen, E. Martin, J. H. Crouch. Z. A. Burson, J. Vaughn, J. White, W. H. Humphreys, J. West, M. C. Hunter, R. P. Murray, J. Bayless, S. H. Smith, C. Hoss, J. D. Gibson, A. Brown and J. Spurgeon. At the close of the war, Col. Dungan purchased the property, and for nine years conducted a male institute. At the end of that time he transferred the building and grounds to Yeardley Warner in the interest of a society of Friends, and since that time an excellent school for the training of colored youth has been maintained. Contemporaneous with the above school in the beginning, was the Odd Fellows' Institute, which was opened about 1853, in a large building in the western part of town. The first president of the institute was Rev. David Sullins, who was associated with Rev. Rufus Wells. It was continued until 1868 when it was taken for a hospital. After the war the property was sold for debt, and schools of various degrees of excellence were taught there until 1885, when the Jonesboro Educational Society was formed fnr the establishment of a first-class school for both sexes. Prof. Charles Mason, with an efficient corps of assistant teachers, was employed, and under this management the standard of the schools has been raised to a position as high as that of any other town in the State. The society controlling the school is composed of many of the most prominent and enterprising citizens of the town, and while the institution is not precisely a public school, it offers all the advantages of such a system at a merely nominal cost.

    The oldest village in Washington County is Leesburg, situated about five miles west of Jonesboro. It was established in 1799 upon lands owned by Michael Fr~er and Abraham and John Campbell. Ninety acres of land were laid off into lots, and Alexander McLin, John Blair, John Co' * an, John Ferguson and Joseph Tucker were appointed commissioners for the new town. Among the first merchants at this place were John and Matthew Stephenson and Ebenezer Barkley, who also had a hotel. The place never attained much importance, and has now well nigh disappeared.

    Limestone is a station on the East Tennessee, Virginia & Georgia Railroad, in the western part of the county. The site was originally owned by Thomas Gillespie. The first store was built in 1859 by Broyles & Strain. Since the war the town has grown considerably in importance. The present business men are Copp Brothers, J. S. Biddle, D. W. Williams, Nelson & Strain, A. B. Slaughter and Dr. J. B. Duncan. An extensive flouring-mill is conducted by T. B. & Jacob Kiepper.

    The first church in the village, known as "Urbana," was erected by members of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. Since that time a Methodist Episcopal Church has been established.

    Tilford is a small station on the railroad between Limestone and Jonesboro. It is the seat of a somewhat extensive agricultural implement manufactory, which, however, is not now in operation.

    The largest and most enterprising town in Washington County is Johnson City. The site upon which it is built was originally entered by Abraham Jobe, and upon the completion to this point of the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad, the greater part of the land was owned and farmed by Tipton Jobe, the nephew of Abraham. Franklin and Montgomery Hoss owned land on the northeast and north sides of the town. The first building erected at this place was a dwelling and store built by Henry Johnson from which circumstance the place was called Johnson's Depot. This house now forms a portion of the brick building west of the railroad at the crossing of what was once the stage road. For a time it was used as a hotel and railroad depot as well as store and dwelling. Soon after, Mr. Johnson, at his own expense, built a large brick depot on the site of the present Ross House, which was used by the company until after the war. The second house was built in 1857, by T. A. Farr, on land lying on the north of the stage road. It was a frame store house. The next year he built a dwelling near Knob Spring, and in1860 erected a large store house, which was not occupied until 1867. From the completion of the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad the town increased rapidly, receiving among its accessions, Elder James Miller, John H. Bowman, James M. Wheeler, Dr. J. H. Mingle, Dr. J. W. Seehorn, S. H. Hale and James Barnes. During the war the town was named Haynesville in honor of L. C. Haynes, but it soon resumed its old name, and when incorporated it was as Johnson City. Since the war the town has steadily advanced, but its growth during the past three or four years has been especially rapid. It now has a population of about 3,000. The principal manufacturing establishments now in operation are the Watauga Tannery, established in 1883 by Horton Locum & Co., who still operate it, It is equipped with all the latest machinery, and appliances, and the establishment can turn out about 150 hides per day. The number of hands employed, varies with the season, reaching at times nearly 300. Johnson City Foundry and Machine Shops were put into operation in 1884, and now employ a large number of hands. The president of the company is Col. T. E. Matson. In 1884, also. Miller Bros., A. P. and N. J. Miller established their machine shops, which have proven highly successful. Another flourishing establishment is the Johnson City Furniture Company, which was begun about three years ago, and the planing mill company of Grant, Stephens & Co.; a tobacco manufactory, a large steam fiouring-mill and a furniture and trunk factory are all expected to be put into operation in a short time.

    The commercial interests of the town are represented by the following firms and Individuals: John C. Campbell, J. F. Crumley, H. P. King, Charles S. Earnest, John W. Hunter & Bro., Christian, Hoss & Hodge, Evans & Hurst, Kirkpatrick & Co. and B. B. Clarke, general merchandise; Gump & Co., clothing; Sutton & Co., Lewis & Son, G. W. Hickey, John Harr and Moore & Martin, groceries; F.M. Critzman and - Beckner, jewelry; McNeal & Wolf, furniture and house furnishing goods; W. A: McFarland and J. B. Hash, drugs; C. K. Lide and D. C. Seaver, hardware; B. D. Strain, confectionery; Mathes & Co., produce; Crandall, Barnes & Co., tobacco warehouse, and the Johnson City Bank.

    The town has had but two newspapers, both of which are now published: the Enterprise, an independent, non-political paper, established in 1882 by W. S. Mitchell and the Comet, one of the ablest Democratic papers in upper East Tennessee. The latter was established in 1883 by R. L. Taylor and Robert Burroughs.

    The town has four white and two colored churches, all of which have been built since 1870. The first erected was the Presbyterian Church, and the second the Methodist Episcopal Church South. These were built early in the seventies. Recently, a Methodist Episcopal Church and a Baptist Church have been erected, although the congregations of these denominations were organized several years before.

    The following have been the officers of Washington County since its organization:

    Clerks of the county court-John Sevier, 1778-85; James Sevier, 1785-88; John Tipton, 1787; Thomas Gourley, 1787-90; James Sevier, 1790-1822; Matthew Stephenson, 1822-24; James Sevier, l824-36; Samuel Greer, l836-44; William H. Smith, l844-56; Henry Hoss, 1856-60; J. A. Conley, 1860-66; John F. Grisham, l866-78; E. A. Shipley, 1878-86; JacobLeab, 1886.

    Clerks of the circuit court-James V. Anderson, 1810-36; John Ryland, 1836-48; Worley Embree, 1848-52; John H. Crawford, 1852-61; E. Armstrong, 1864-66; James E. Deakens, 1866-70; C. Wheeler, 1870-74; S. S. Luttrell, l874-78; W. E. Mathes, 1878-86; Lewis Cooper, 1886.

    Clerks and masters of the superior court of equity-David Allison, 1788-91; Andrew Russell, 1791-92; Archibald Roane, 1792-93; Landon Carter, 1793-94; John Carter, l794-1806; James V. Anderson, 1806-10.

    Clerks and masters of the chancery court-Seth J. W. Lucky, 1836-42; J. F. Deaderick, 1842-45; Henry _____, 1865-70; B. F. Swingle, 1870-82; A. B. Bowman, 1882.

    Sheriffs-Valentine Sevier, 1778-80; C. Barsksdale, 1780-83; Thomas Talbott, 1788-85; Edmund Williams, 1785;* George Mitchell, 1787; Jonathan Pugh, 1787-89; Michael Harrison, 1789-94; George Gillespie, l794-98; Brice Blair, 1798-l800; Joseph Crouch, 1800-06; Joseph Brown, 1806-l4; Samuel Hunt, 1814-1827; John Ryland, 1827-36; William Dosser, 1836-38; John Bricker, 1838-40; G. W. Willett, 1840-46; Joseph Crouch, 1846-52; John Ryland, 1852-58; Mark Bacon, 1858-60; J. T. Shipley, l860-64; Samuel W. Baines, 1864-65; Shelby T. Shipley, 1865- 68; Samuel E. Griffith, 1868-74; R. M. Young, l874-76; Alexander M. Stuart, 1876-82; S. A. Pouder, l882-84; G. W. Willett, 1884.

    Trustees-John Sevier, 1778; Charles McCray, 1796-98; John Strain, 1798-1820; John C. Harris, l820-36; Robert J. West, 1836-42; Joseph McLin, 1842-46; G. W. Willett, 1846-48; James A. Dilworth, 1848-52; G. W. Willett, 1852-56; Shelby T. Shipley, 1856-62; E. Armstrong, 1862-64; Azariah Peoples, 1864-45; Alexander Mathes, 1865-66; George McPherson, 1866-74; John H. Naff,1874-76; John M. Morrow, 1876-78; McC.Wagner,1878-82; A. M. Stuart, 1882-84; John S. Mathes, 1884.

    Registers-John McMahon, 1778; William Stephenson, l789-1800; John Adams, 1800-14; Samuel Greer, 1814-36; William H. Smith, 1836-40; Edward Armstrong, 1840-48; Phillip Parks, 1848-52; Joseph A. Conley, 1852-60; E. Taylor, 1860-66; George W. Douglass, 1866; A. C. Collins, 1866-68; M. S. Mahoney, 1868-70; E. H. Jackson, l870-74; C. R. Jones, 1874-78; S. T. Shipley, 1878-86; D. P. O'Brien. 1886.