In 1727 the County of Goochiand, which included present Albemarle, was founded. On June 16, 1727, George Hoomes obtained a grant of thirty-one hundred acres, and Nicholas Meriwether one of. thirteen thousand seven hundred and sixty-two acres, "at the first ledge of mountains called Chesnut." This was the first appropriation of the soil of Albernarle. These grants lay east of the Rivanna. Two years later, Dr. George Nicholas obtained a grant for 2600 acres situated on the James, and including the present site of the village of Warren.<a href="#1" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 1


These investors in wilderness lands were wealthy men who already had large holdings in the eastern counties. During the next ten years they were followed by others of the same class, many of whom regarded their great patents as speculation, or a provision for younger sons, and did not expect imediately to occupy the land. Secretary John Carter whose name is still attached to his first holding, Carter s Mountain Col. Thomas Carr, John Minor, Peter Jefferson whose name is perpetuated in Peter s Mountain Charles Hudson, Wm. Randolph and the Lewises were among these earliest patentees, and they, or their descendants, were in the region s development. These large followed by many of more moderate size, whose owr ers at once cleared and cultivated their holdings.

Settlers also soon pushed in from the West, and in 1734 Michael Woods and his son-in-law William 'Wallace patented large tracts near Woods Gap, they having been the first to enter across the Blue Ridge from the Valley.

During the first years of the County, its activities, both social and political, were centred in a few plantations, whose owners were men of Statewide or greater prominence. It is only through acquaintance with these typical homes that we can understand the life of that day.

Among the earliest of these was Shadwell, the plantation of Col. Peter Jefferson, and the birthplace of his illustrious son. It consisted of a patent of a thousand acres, and was joined on the east by the estate of his friend William Randolph, from whom he soon obtained, "for the consideration of Henry Weatherbourne s biggest bowl of arrack punch," an additional four hundred acres. This jolly bargain provided the site for the mansion, which was built in 1737, and named Shadwell after the parish in London where Mrs. Jefferson Thomas Jefferson tells us that his father was the third or fourth settler in Albemarle, meaning, of course, among those whose lands were Dr patents. (The adventurers who had squatted" in the wilderness, and who rarely cleared the fifty acres requisite cur ownership, were a shifting population, little mentioned in the early records.

Randall gives the following description of the old house:

"Shadwell was a farm-house of a story and a half in height, and had the four spacious ground rooms and hail, with garret chambers above, common in these structures two hundred years since. It also had the usual huge outside chimneys, planted against each gable like Gothic buttresses, but massive enough, had such been their use, to support the walls of a cathedral, instead of those of a low wooden cottage. In that house was born Thomas Jefferson."

In the spirit of Virginia hospitality, this home was thrown open to constant guests. Being near the public highway, it was also the stopping-place for all passers-by, including the great Indian chiefs on their visits to and from the Colonial Capital.

We are told that:

"Col. Jefferson was a man of gigantic stature and strength. He could simultaneously 'head up (raise from their sides) two hogsheads of tobacco, weighing each nearly a thousand pounds He once directed three able-bodied slaves to pull down a ruined shed by means of a rope. After they had failed in the attempt, he seized the rope and dragged the structure down in an instant. Traditions have come down of his continuing his lines as a surveyor through savage wildernesses, after his assistants had given out through famine and fatigue; subsisting on the raw flesh of game, and even of his own carrying mules; sleeping in a hollow tree amidst howling beasts of prey and thus undauntedly pushing on until his task was accomplished." [Randall's Life of Jefferson]

He was a distinguished surveyor, and was engaged in a number of important expeditions. Politically also he was prominent, having served as sheriff and magistrate in Goochiand, and having represented Albemarle in the House of Burgesses. He was also Lieutenant of the County.

After the death of Col. Jefferson in 1757, the family continued at Shadwell until its destruction by fire in 1770. Thomas Jefferson was unfortunately absent from home at the time, and his father s library and papers were a total loss. Mr. Jefferson used to relate that the slave who was despatched to inform him of this misfortune, haying detailed the general destruction, concluded with genuine thankfulness: "But, Marster, we saved the fiddle."

The present dwelling at Old Shadwell, the home of Mr. Downing Smith, is near the site of the original house, which stood nearer to the road. The old sycamore trees still standing there were planted by Jefferson on his twenty-first birthday.

Another famous house is Viewmont, which is believed to be the oldest building still standing in the County. We do not know the date of its constuction, but its owner, Col. Joshua Fry, was living there prior to Situated near Carter's Bridge, in a group of fine trees, and surrounded by out-buildings of great age, it is a true picture of old-world simplicity. Mr. Wm. Duke of Sunny-side states that the frame house was originally loop-holed, [The present windows are high, but only two square panes in width, suggesting widened slits] and that a depression still to be seen in the lawn, and which leads towards the woods, is supposed to have been a tunnel by which water was obtained, or communication secured, during attack. On the east gable, a great chimney, standing sixteen and a half feet at base and a yard deep, is a beautiful and perfect example of Colonial masonry, the large and mellowed brick being laid in true Flemish bond. And within the house, the carved wainscoting and mantels, and the graceful stair, show it to have been the home of a family of dignity and position. Writing in 1781, Jefferson says of the Virginia architecture of his day:

"The private buildings are very rarely constructed of stone or brick. It is impossible to devise things more ugly, uncomfortable, and happily more perishable. There are two or three plans, on one of which, according to its size, most of the houses in the State are built. The genius of architecture seems to have shed its maledictions over this land."

We do not know if Viewinont, Castle Hill and the Old House at Edgehill were constructed by one of these designs, though they have similarities which suggest a common origin. If they were in Mr. Jefferson s mind at the time of his stricture, we can only wonder that some memory of their roof- lines or gable-ends did not rise to modify the denunciation.

The builder and owner of Viewmont was Col. Joshua Fry, of whom it has been said that no other person in the State of like social position, wealth, capacity and public service has been so neglected by posterity.

Col. Fry was born in England, and had the great advantage of an Oxford education. Coming early to this country, his career was one of extraordinary industry and energy, even at a time when the usual life of a Virginia planter was diversified and full. A professor of mathematics at William and Mary, he was a surveyor of note, and served as Commissioner of the Crown on a number of arduous expeditions. He was also one of the Commissioners for Virginia at the Treaty of Logansport, and served in the House of Burgesses.

Taking a prominent part in the formation of Albemarle County, he was appointed Surveyor for the county, a position which, in an unsettled regio; of virgin forest, entailed severe labor. He was also presiding Justice of the Peace, and County Lieutenant an office which originally was known as Commander of the Plantations, and was one of high authority, the incumbent being virtually Governor of the County, with power to call out the militia and to order courts martial.

It is, however, upon Col. Fry s reputation as a soldier that his fame is based. Upon the outbreak of the French and Indian war of 1754, he was appointed Commander of the Virginia forces, and served as Colonel of the Virginia Regiment in which the youthful Washington<a href="#4" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 4

Stated by his biographer and descendant, Rev. Philip Slaughter, D.D. Washington had pushed on in advance as far as Port Necessity, Pa., but it might have been possible to cover the fifty or so miles between them on such an occasion especially as the command now devolved upon him.">[4] was next in command. Upon this epedition Col. Fry died, after a short illness caused by a faIl from his horse, May 31st, 1754. At this place Wills Creek, near Cumberland, Md he was buried, in what was then a wild and remote region. The funeral was attended by Washington and the army, and on a large oak tree,<a href="#5" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 5

This tree has since fallen, and Col. Fry's body has been removed to Rose Hill Cemetery, Cumberland, where his grave bears a marker.">[5]
which in 1880 was still standing, Washington cut the following inscription:

Under this tree lies the body of THE GOOD, THE JUST AND THE NOBLE FRY.

Col. Fry was the ancestor of the large Fry connection of this county, and of the Greens, Bullitts and Speeds of Kentucky.

In 1786 Viewrnont was sold by John Fry to Gov. Edmund Randolph, who spent much time there for twelve years. It was then sold to Wm. C. Carter, and later became the property of John Harris.

Perhaps the largest owner of Albemarle land was Nicholas Meriwether. In addition to large estates in the lower country, he took out successive grants amounting to nineteen thousand acres in Albemarle. In 1735 he was granted 1020 acres west of the Rivanna, and lying along the stream, from Moore s Creek to Meadow Creek.

For this he paid to George II the sum of "twentyone pounds good and lawful money." (The Colonial pound was not the pound sterling, and amounted only to $3.33 1/3.) He also was required to pay to the Crown, for each fifty acres, a fee rent of one shilling yearly, to be rendered upon the feast of Saint Michael the Arch Angel, it being distinctly stated that he was not required to render Knight s Service.

On this tract Meriwether built the Old House at The Farm, where he lived until his death in 1744. The location of this first building is not known, but it was probably near the spring, and opposite the hill which bears the present dwelling. This was the first plantation west of the river, and its name is believed to have originated from the fact that as the surrounding territory was still virgin forest, the cleared spot was a conspicuous landmark.

At Meriwether s death, The Farm passed to his Nicholas Lewis, uncle of the explorer, and its owners play a prominent part in the records of that day. Nicholas Lewis s wife was Mary, daughter of Dr. Walker of Castle Hill, and the following anecdote suggests that she had inherited something of her father s spirit:

At the time of Tarleton s raid, her husband was absent in the Revolutionary army. Her home was made the British cavalryman s headquarters, an unenviable distinction. Mrs. Lewis is said to have received Col. Tarleton with dignity and spirit, and to have told him that he should meet Virginia's men in the field, rather than war on her defenceless women. Apparently the rebuke was felt, for during the eighteen hours of his stay there was no damage of importance. However, after his departure, she learnt that his soldiers had made way with her fine flock of ducks, leaving only the veteran drake. She promptly ordered a servant to take the drake and ride after Tarleton, presenting it with her compliments and stating that as its comrades were gone, he had better take it too. Appreciating the sting of the message, he accepted it with gracefully ironic thanks and a bow to the saddle-bow, and the little passage at arms noticeably softened Mrs. Lewis s resentment, as was shown by her ever after preserving the chair he had used. (This little episode was immensely popular with the writers of the period it appears and re-appears in accounts of the raid. In affectionate amusement, her family gave her the name of "Captain Moll," by which she is widely referred to.)

The present house at The Farm was built in 1828 by Mr. John A. G. Davis, of the University. In the same year, and by the same plan, Edgehill was built, the design having been made some years before by Jefferson for the use of his son-in-law, Gov. Thomas Mann Randolph.

After a number of changes, The Farm is again in the hands of the original owner.

In 1741 the estate of Castle Hill passed through marriage into the hands of Dr. Thomas Walker of King and Queen County. From this time on he was one of the most prominent men of the region, and as physician, surveyor, planter, importer, explorer, soldier and politician, his life was one of extraordinary activity. He was for years Indian Commissioner, and conducted for the Government many large transactions in the purchase of lands. Copies of these deeds of transfer, with the "marks" of Indian chiefs--rude representations of turtle, deer and wolf--are preserved by a branch of his descendants at the Page home, Keswick. A spot in the garden of Castle Hill is still pointe dout as the scene of his conferences with visiting chieftans. As a planter, he is believed to have introduced into Albemarle from New York the apple since so famous as the Albemarle Pippin.

Dr. Walker was the first white man to enter Kentucky, his expedition having preceded both Gist's and Daniel Boone's. Having been employed by a London company to explore a huge tract which is had purchased in the Wilderness, he got together a band consisting of six men, eight horses and a pack of valuable dogs, and started West in the early spring of 1750. The expedition covered a period of four months, and was one of thrilling adventure. In the concluding entry in his Journal, Dr. Walker states:

"We killed 13 buffaloes, 8 elks, 53 bears, 20 deer, 4 wild geese, about 150 turkeys, besides small game. We might have killed three times as much meat if we had wanted it."

William CabeIl Rives, in his preface to Dr. Walker s Journal, says:

"Castle Hill was built by Dr. Walker in 1765, and stands to-day in excellent preservation. This house is still the home of some of the descendants of its first owner, who do honor to their lineage. For generations it has been the seat of hospitality and culture. The slow-growing box-trees, with archway cut through their evergreen sides, which border the lawn, have climbed to the height of more than thirty feet, and tell the story to the most casual observer of the long years of their gradual ascent. The small panes of glass in the venerable-looking windows, and the large brass door-locks of the house, were brought from London when Virwas a Colony. In the ample hail the youth. music-loving Jefferson has played the fiddle, while the still younger Madison danced. Here the doors have opened to welcome five men who either were to be, or were already, Presidents of the United States, and to many Statesmen, judges, diplomats and soldiers. In this home, in 1794, the old pioneer, near the end of his eightieth year, closed his eyes on earthly scenes."

Dr. Walker was the father of twelve children, most of whom married into Albemarle families, where they and their descendants have played an honorable part in the history of the County.

In 1734 Michael Woods,<a href="#7" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 7

These were Scotch, or Scotch-Irish, emigrants, who had first spent some years in Pennsylvania. Michael Woods came of a family of refinement in Ireland.">[7] with his wife, Sons and sons-in-law,<a href="#8" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 8

These sons-in-law were Andrew and William Wallace, nephews to Michael Woods. Andrew lived near Ivy Depot, on a part of the Hudson tract which was later the home of Charles Harper. Almost all of his children and their descendants emigrated to the West. William Wallace settled at Piedmont, at the base of the mountains near Greenwood, and this place is still the home of his descendants. His great-great grand-daughter, Mrs. W. M. Brent, tells us that the early dwelling was burned, the present one being built after 1816. At Piedmont there still flourish figs, box and attheas which were obtained from Mr. Jefferson upon his return from France, in exchange for a wagon-load of clover seed.">[8]
and their families, entered the County from the west. This little band of twenty-five or thirty persons, young and old, coming from Pennsylvania by way of the Valley, had traveled about 225 miles, and are believed to have been the first whites to cross through Woods Gap now Jarman's by the old Indian trail. Spreading over the adjacent lands, they took up large holdings from Ivy to Greenwood.

At this time their nearest and only neighbors on the west were at the two year-old clearing of John Lewis, near where Staunton now stands; while to the east the forest was unbroken between them and the plantations around Scott s Ferry and Keswick. Under these primitive conditions it is not surprising that it was riot until 1737 that Michael Woods made formal entry of his lands. In that year be obtained a crown grant of 1337 acres, and also purchased from Charles Hudson 2,000 acres on Ivy Creek.

The original name of the Michael Woods home plantation was Mountain Plains, the Mountanr Blair Plains Church having been built on a part of the Park land, and named iii commemoration. Unfortunately, with the passing of the property to Chief Justice John Blair, prior to 1788, the name of the home was changed, and it has since been known as Blair Park. It is now owned by a descendant of the first Michael, and a cane, once the property of the old pioneer. is now cherished there.

Old Michael was the ancestor of the Holkam family of Woodses, of Dr. Edgar Woods, author of The History of Albemarle, and of many other branches, which in Albemarle, Virginia and the West have played a worthy part in the life of their day. It has been calculated that more than 160 of these have been in the ministry of the different denominations.<a href="#9" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 9

Mrs. John R. Sampson, Kith and Kin.">[9]

With the passage of a few decades, the majority of the great early grants were much reduced. In- heritance and sale had cut them into more numerous plantations, which, however, were still of hand- some acreage. Many of the old County places first came under cultivation about this time. Though the distinguished John Carter (Son of 'King Carter" of eastern Virginia, and Secretary of the Colony), was the owner of nearly ten thousand acres in Albemarle, and as much more in what is now Amherst, he never resided in the upper country. Two establishments, however, were maintained by him on his Albemarle property, both being plentifully supplied with slaves. One of these was the Mill tract on the north fork of the Hardware; the other, known as Clear Mount, may have been the site of Blenheim or of Redlands<a href="#10" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 10

History of Atheinarle. Carter s Mill was one the County, and drew its patronage from a wide radius.">[10] . In the Letters of a British Officer we are told that Blenheim was named for the battle of that name.! This property was left by Secretary Carter to his second son, Edward, who lived there for many years and represented the County in the House of Burgesses with Dr. Thomas Walker from 1767 to 1769. He also served in the House of Delegates with George Nicholas<a href="#11" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 11

Grandson of the George Nicholas who in 1729 patented the third entry in the County. This younger George was a Revolutionary Colonel, and practised law in Charlottesville.">[11]
in 1788. During the time of the presence of the Convention prisoners at The Barracks, Cen. Philips, the British commander, was stationed at Blenheim, and we are told that at that time Col. Carter owned 1500 slaves.

Redlands was built in 1789 by Robert, son of Col. Edward Carter, on the southern portion of his father s large estate. Mr. Jefferson is said to have influenced the design of this beautiful mansion. Another plantation which was formed from the Carter estate was Indian Camp, now known as Morven. This property was sold by Wm. Champe Carter in 1796 to William Short of Philadelphia, an ex-Revolutionary officer and Minister to the Hague under Washington. The selling price was 1567 pounds, 9 shillings. In 1813 it was sold by Col. Short to David Higginbotham, who changed the name to Morven and built the present brick house about 1820. The plans are said to have been furnished by Mr. Jefferson, who also ordered for it from Paris the mantel of Carrara marble which still adorns the drawing room. The quaint cottage which stands on the grounds is no doubt the "old house." A part of Indian Camp is now the well-known Ellerslie.

The Nicholas Meriwether grant was soon partitioned. As early as 1739 a large portion east of the

His brother, 'Wilson Cary Nicholas, was U. S. Senator and Governor of Virginia. The Governor's speculations and disastrous failure involved many of his Albemarle friends, including Mr. Jefferson.

Southwest Mountain followed the young widow of Nicholas III, and became, upon her marriage to Dr. Walker, the Castle Hill estate. This in turn was subdivided many times, Cismont, Castalia, Music Hall, Belvoir,<a href="#12" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 12

The first Belvoir was built by Co!. Robert Lewis, grand father Meriwether Lewis, and a great landowner. It was later home of Col. John Walker, Aide to Gen. Washinton and U. S. Senator. He built the new house which Grace Church. By marriage, it passed next to Hugh Nelson, Judge of the Federal Court, member of Congress and Minister to Spain under Monroe. This celebrated home was burned in 1836, and the estate divided. Even the magnificent avenue and grove of causing the Hon. Wm. C. Rives to remark that the perpetrator “should have left one, upon which to hang himself.” Edw. Mead. Hist of the South West Mountains.">[12] Kinloch, Merrie Mill, Keswick,<a href="#13" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 13

The home of the Pages. An estate of 3700 acres originally called Turkey Hill. It is said to have been renamed for the home of the poet Southey, in Cumberland, England, from a resemblance in situtation.">[13]
Edgeworth, Cobham Park, The Creek and Machunk<a href="#14" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 14

The birthplace of Gov. Thomas Walker Gilmer.">[14]
being some of the resulting plantations.

Through David Meriwether, another son of old Nicholas, the plantation of Clover Fields is traced. The first dwelling here was built in 1760 by Col. Clovei Nicholas Meriwether, great grandson of the origi- Fields nal owner. This Nicholas was noted for his courage and decision in times of danger. In 1755 he was one of four soldiers belonging to the Virginia Regiment who bore the wounded General Braddock the field after his defeat near Pittsburg. (Col. Meriwether later received from the General s sister in Ireland a gold-laced, embroidered military dress coat, which had belonged to the General, and which was long preserved as a relic in the Meniwether family.) Wrn. Meriwether, "the bridge builder," was a scion of this home. He constructed the first bridge at Rio, and also the first on the stage line near the present Woolen Mills. It is related that upon occasional protest from the stage companies over his toll-rate, he would composedly take up the flooring of his bridge, and allow the difficulties of Secretary's Ford to present his side of the question an argument which was invariably effective.

The present brick dwelling was built about 1846. Clover Fields is one of the few early plantations which has descended in the original family.

The Randolph grant of 2400 acres, lying between Shadwell and Belmont<a href="#15" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 15

The home of Col. John Harvie, who bought the 2500 acre tract from a Joshua Graves about the time that Peter Jefferson entered the County. Col. Harvie was a successful politician and a man of prominence in the early history of the region, having served as guardian to Thomas Jefferson. In 1811 the estate was sold to the first Dr. Charles Everett. Glenmore contains a part of this grant.">[15] was one of the earliest in the County, having been obtained "a few days earlier" than that of Peter Jefferson, in 1735. The family, however, did not have residence here until 1790, when the old house was built by Col. Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., the grandson of the original owner. Colonel afterwards Governor Randolph, was Jefferson s son-in-law, and though he had large estates on James River he practically lived at Edge-hill, in order to be near Jefferson, whose property he largely directed during his many absences. In 1828 the present mansion was erected by Coy. Randolph, from plans drawn for his daughter by Mr. Jefferson. At this time the old house was moved back to the position it now occupies. For many years it served as the school- house for the famous Edgehill School. Two magnificent leaning tulip trees are said to have been promising saplings at the time of this move, and to have been bent down to permit the building to pass over them. The view at Edgehill is said to be very similar to that at Edgehill, Warwickshire, for which it was named.

In 1771, Dr. George Gilmer of Williamsburg married Lucy, a daughter of Dr. Walker of Castle Hill, and settled in Charlottesville for the practice of his profession. He was a successful and prominent physician, and counted both Jefferson and Madison among his patients. Following the custom of his age, he was also active in politics, having served with distinction in the House of Burgesses in the stormy years preceding the Revolution. He also served as Sheriff in 1787. We are told that during the War Dr. Gilmer attempted to turn his knowledge of chemistry to account in the manufacof gunpowder. He writes to Jefferson that his powder "is full strong," but he cannot grain it.

Mrs. Gilmer, a younger sister of the widely known "Captain Moll" of The Farm, seems to have been endowed with at least an equal share of their distinguished father's spirit. In the early years of the War she is said to have given her jewels to Jefferson, to be used for certain expenses of the cause. At the time of Tarleton's Raid Dr. Gilmer was not at home. When the British troops entered Charlottesville a guest of the Gilmers, doubtless a member of the Legislature, mounted his horse and attempted to escape. He was shot down and carried off by the enemy, and was at first reported to have been killed. Learning a few hours later that he was still alive, Mrs. Gilmer at once determined to go to his aid. Accompanied only by a maiden sister, she made her way perilously through the streets of the village, then filled with drunk and disorderly troopers, and forced her way into the presence of Tarleton himself. The Colonel was so impressed by her courage that he send his own surgeon to dress the bleeding and insensible man, and then restored him to her care. He recovered, to serve gallantly his country.

From Jefferson's letters we learn that in 1786 Dr. Gilmer purchased from John Harvie the plantation of Pen Park<a href="#16" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 16

Both Gilmer Genealogy and Hist. Of Albemarle in error herre. Deed Book No. 9, County Clerk's Office.">[16] Here he spent the remainder of his life, his home being noted throughout the State for the charm of its social intercourse and the elegance of its hospitality.

Among the Sons of Dr. Gilmer was the brilliant young lawyer, Francis Gilmer, whose name will always be associated with the birth of the University. Another son was Dr. John Gilmer of Edgemont, on the Barboursville road. He was a successful and progressive practitioner, and was the first in this region of the State to attempt the treatment of smallpox by inoculation, about 1802. At this time the method was not fully developed, and there was an element of danger which stirred the terrors of the unscientific. Dr. Gilni er established a hospital for the relief of this disease, presumably on his own plantation, and proceeded with his experiments until a death among his patients brought the popular antagonism to a head. There were threats of summary action, and it was thought best to carry the difficulty into the County Court, where the humane physician was put under bond for three months "for his good behavior, especially in not alarming the neighborhood in which his hospital is established, unless he fist obtain the consent of the citizens." Descendants of Dr. Gilmer still occupy this old home.

The great Coles estate in the Green Mountain neighborhood was not an original grant. About 1769<a href="#17" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 17

This date furnished by the Rev. Roberts Coles of Charlottesville.">[17] John Coles II, of Hanover County, purchased from the Eppes grant a tract of 3000 acres corthy which he named Enniscorthy<a href="#18" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 18

It will be recalled that it was to Ennisconky that the Jeffersons refugeed at the time of Tarleton s Raid. This was also the girlhood home of the Sallie Colts who became Mrs. Andrew Stevenson. President and Mrs. Madison were guests at Enniscorthy, the charming Dolly being a cousin of her host.">[18]
in memory of the family seat in Leinster, Ireland. Here he maintained at first a hunting lodge. Converting this into a permanent home, he lived there in great style and comfort for the remainder of his life. Becoming, during the War, a Colonel of militia, he was made Commander of the Convention Troops during their imprisonment at The Barracks. Col. Coles was an enthusiastic turfman and owned one of the finest stables in Virginia. The partitioning of the property among the Coles sons resulted in the erection of three other beautiful mansions. A brick removed from the Woodville yule chimney bears the workman's initials, and the date 1796, suggesting that the oldest son, Walter, was settled here at that time. Estouteville first known as Ccalycanthus Hill, but afterwards renamed in honor of the Baron d Estouteville, a Norman ancestor is said to have been first built about 1800. The present beautiful dwelling was begun about 1815, and shows the Jeffersonian influence. Estouteville was noted for its magnificent conservatories, which during the Civil War furnished the Confederate hospitals in Charlottesville an abundance of fine lemons. The fourt of these estates was Tallwood, the home of Tucker Coles, who also represented the County in the House of Delegates.