"Between the red folk and her Englishmen. A link of peace, that while she lived, held firm."
1612-Newport arrive with supplies and explored the Potomac. Pocahontas, having been sent by her father to the Northern Neck in order to hide her from the English, was lured upon a vessel of Argall's fleet in the Potomac River, through the treachery of Chief Japazaws and his wife. The price for her betrayal was a copper kettle. She was taken captive to Jamestown and never permitted to return to her tribe.
1613-Governor Dale made treaty with the Chickahaminies by which they were adopted as "Tassautessus" (Englishmen). Bermuda Hundred, Charles City Hundred, Curles, Rocksdale Hundred and Shirley Hundred were located and the Virginia lottery was estableshed in London.
1614-Pocahontas married John Rolfe at Jamestown and was baptized as Rebecca. John Rolfe introduced the culture of tobacco by the colonists, thereby, establishing a trade in this commodity greatly to the profit of the colonists. As tobacco was not raised in England, there was quite an increase in English immigration to Virginia when it was found that the growing of the plant could be made profitable. Salt works were located on Smith's Island. There is no record of the number of new colonists that came over between 1611 and 1614.
1613-Since landing at Jamestown, 1607, the colony had been communistic in all of its workings. The planters were supposed to labor jointly in preparing and harvesting their crops, and to 1>e fed out of the common store.
Theoretically, the arrangement was an ideal one, but many had taken advantage of it, and shirked work where ever possible. It is recorded that many concerned themselves only in the sharing of the results of the labor of the more industrious_ caring not, nor thinking not, of the final result of such action.
The King had issued instructions that this system should prevail for five years from the landing, and the time having lapsed, Sir Thomas Dale, the Governor, disgusted with the results obtained, determined to, adopt some method to better fit the requirements. He allotted three acres of cleared land to each colonist on which was to be planted a crop as supplementary to two bushels of corn allotted from the store. It was ordered that each Jamestown colonist should give one month's time to tilling his own soil; the eleven months remaining to public service.
At Bermuda Hundred a more liberal plan was inaugurated. Here the planters were given eleven months for personal work and one month was allotted for public service. On account of this concession each planter was required to pay into the common store a yearly tribute of two and one-half barrels of corn.
1614-Sir Thomas Dale, learning that the French had made settlement within the borders of Northern Virginia, sent Captian Argall to dislodge them. He surprised settlements at Port Royal and St. Croix, (now New England), dispersed them and captured two ships lately arrived from France. These vessels, loaded with supplies, were taken to Jamestown as prizes. The French sailors had escaped, but the colonists found much good apparel, furniture and provisions in the cargo. This successful expedition is an evidence of the Jamestown colonists' determination to protect their charter rights, and did much to prevent the French from planting further colonies along the shore of Northern Virginia, paving the way for the successful landing and peaceful settlement of the Pilgrims at Provincetown and Plymouth, six years afterwards.
This v ear overtures were made to Powhatan, requesting) the hand of his youngest daughter in marriage to an Englishman. In his reply he asserted, "he held it not a brotherly part to bereave him of his two darling children at once." . . . "That there was already a pledge of one of his daughters, which, as long as she lived, would be sufficient, but if she should die he promised to give another."
In 1612 Pocahontas is said to have had living, twenty brothers, eleven sisters and eleven stepmothers. Her father's name was Wauhunsenacawah (Wahunsonacock) sometimes called Ottaniack, or Mannatowick, by his subjects, though we read of him only as Powhatan.
In 1614 Smith made a voyage to Northern Virginia, and charted the coast. He gave it the name of New England and the name was later confirmed. He never returned to Jamestown.
1616-Three hundred and fifty-one persons estimated as living in the colonies. John Rolfe and Pocahontas, his wife, with their little son, Thomas, embarked for England, taking with them a party of Indians of both sexes. They arrived at Plymouth on June 12, 1616. Pocahontas did not have the opportunity of bidding goodby to her father, as he was not in the vicinity of Jamestown at the time of her departure. She never saw him again.
Pocahontas was well received in England. It is said that she used good English and was very civil and ceremonious, after the English fashion.
When Smith visited Pocahontas she expressed surprise at finding him alive, asserting that she had been told that he was dead. She insisted upon calling him father and that he should call her his child. What pathos there was in the meeting again of these two great figures in Virginia colonial history. The 12-year-old child, developed into a comely matron, thus meeting again the man whom she had worshiped as a great hero. Any child, raised far from the marts of civilization would look with wonder and reverence upon a visitor v ho, dressed in wonderful raiment, preformed deeds, that to the child mind appeared supernatural, and yet failed not to bestow gifts and affection. Truly, Pocahontas as a child must have reverenced Smith as a being superior to any man she had ever conceived of meeting, and the mature woman never forgot the impression first made upon her immature mind. Is it at all strange that she should look up to him and say. "Thou art my father-call the thy child?"
The granting of 100 acres, as a premium for each person brought into the colony, was reduced to fifty acres, allowed only to those who came over themselves, or brought others over. (Many records of these old grants are still on file in the Virginia Land Office.) So many colonists had begun the raising of tobacco as a paying crop, and giving little attention to the cultivation of corn, a rule was made that no tobacco should be set until such a proportion of corn ground had been planted as would prove sufficient to maintain the master and each servant whom he employed.
1617-John Rolfe, having been appointed secretary and recorder general of Virginia, embarked with his wife and little son for return to Jamestown. Gravesend was the port of embarkation, but the ship had not cleared when the Princess Pocahontas was fatally stricken. It is recorded that "it pleased God at Gravesend to take Pocahontas to his mercy in about the two and twentieth year of her age. * * * She died agreeably to her life, a most sincere and pious Christian."
The bereaved husband returned to Virginia after placing his little son, Thomas Rolfe, in the care of Sir Lewis Steukley, viceadmiral of the County, of Devon. though within a short time he was taken to London by his uncle, Henry Rolfe, with whom he remained until he received his education. Young Rolfe, not content to remain in England longer than necessary, returned to Virginia as soon as his school days were over. His father lad been killed in the massacre of 1622. He became a person of fortune and distinction in the colony, one child, a daughter, surviving him. She married Colonel Robert Rolling, and their descendants have ever occupied an eminent position in the Old Dominion. Many prominent families are proud of direct descent from this Indian princess. The wife of ex-President Wilson is one of the descendants, as was John Randolph, of Roanoke.
It was in 1617 that Lambert discovered a new method for curing tobacco, adding much to its marketable value. Prior to this time, tobacco was cured in piles or heaps. Lambert discovered that it cured better, and was much improved in flavor when strung on lines in separate bundles. Tobacco thus cured was called "sweet scented," and many old records give evidence of its being demanded in trade in preference to that cured by the original process.
There were fifty-four laborers and eighty-one farmers, plus those of the gentleman class not enumerated, settled in the colony in 1617.
In May, 1618, a great storm visited the settlement. At Jamestown, hailstones "poured down that measured eight or nine inches in circumference."<a href="#1" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 1
Brown—The First Republic. p. 278.">
A decree was issued by the Governor requiring every colonists to attend church, on Sunday and holidays, or "lye neck and heels that night and be a slave to the colony the week." The second offense was punishable by slavery for a month, and for a third offence, "he should serve for a year and a day."
Lord Delaware on his way toy Virginia with 200 new colonists died off the coast near the mouth of the bay which bears his name. Thirty of the emigrants died enroute and the ships, blown out of their course, landed the survivors on the coast of Northern Virginia (New England). Here, while recuperating, they spent the time hunting and fishing with such success they were enabled to bring a good supply with them to Jamestown.
Three new settlements were established, viz.--Flowerdieu Hundred, Martin's Hundred and Maycock's Hundred. The word "Hundred" is a term used by the English to designate a shire or parish. Originally, it was supposed to have one hundred citizens or families in its jurisdiction. Some of the old English terms relating to property are now obsolete. A "Hyde" was sufficient land to support one family; a "Hyde and a Half," about 120 acres. Property transfer was by "Turf and Twig." The purchaser received from the seller a piece of turf and a twig from a tree to indicate that the ownership, both land and woods, was transferred to the new owner.
Powhatan died in 1618 and was succeeded by his brother Opitchapan, a cripple. Opecancanough, a younger brother,<a href="#2" class="toolTip" title="Footnote: 2
Some historians doubt Opecancanough's blood relationship. The claim is advanced that neither chief was of the Algonquin race, Opecancanough, coming from Mexico; Powhatan, from Cuba. I have not found substantuation of this claim."> assumed the title of "King of Chickahominy." but, being of commanding presence and crafty of nature, to which was added a savage hatred of anything English, he was the real leader of the Indians until, upon death of Opitchapan, he became king of the Powhatans.
It was in 1618 that Sir Walter Raleigh, the founder of the Roanoke Colony and guardian angel of the first settlers was beheaded in London. His incarceration and execution will ever be a blot upon the reign of King James I.
Sir Edwin Sandys assumed control of the affairs of the London Company-. He was democratic and liberal in the administration of his office, and had an abiding faith in the future of the Virginia colony. He did more toward furthering its interests than the previous administration, it having been interested only as to what returns could be secured from the investments Of the London stockholders.
Sir Geo. Yeardley came to Virginia with a commission as Governor and an order to arrest Capt. Argall. Governor Argall had been ruling the colony with an eye single to his own interest and gain. To obtain his desire he had faltered at nothing, even condemning to death those who had the termerity to oppose him. Friends of Argall in England succeeded informing him of Yeardley's mission and he fled the colony twelve days prior to the new Governor reaching Jamestown. One of the most important documents ever sent the colony, letters patent, granting permission to elect an Assembly, was brought over by Yeardley. Each of the 11 burroughs were authorized to elect two representatives. Yeardley called the General Assembly, to meet in the church at Jamestown, in June 1619. This was the First Representative Legislative Assembly that ever met in America. The Assembly was called the House of Burgesses, as Burroughs were representated, counties not yet having been formed, and the name was retained ever afterwards. The 11 Burroughs sending representatives to the 1st Assembly were Argall's Gift, Charles City, Flowerdieu Hundred, Henricus, James City, Lawnes Plantation, Martin's Brandon, Martin's Hundred, Capt. Ward's Plantation, Smythes Hundred and Kicquotan.
Emulating the House of Commons, it is stated, they sat in assembly with their hats on. They selected their own speakers, while the Council, (upper house), appointed by the Crown, was presided over by the Governor.
Magistrates and other crown officers were authorized to have jurisdiction in the several burroughs. Nothwithstanding the fact that we have long since foresworn allegiance to a king, we still retain the name "Coroner," a word meaning "officer of the crown." Money was raised in England to establish a college in Virginia and 10,000 acres of land laid off for seating a university at Henricopolis (now- Dutch Gap). Fifty farmers were sent over to tenant the college lands "at halves," with promise of like number the next year. It was anticipated these tenants would produce a college revenue of 500 English pounds per year. George Thorpe, a kinsman of Sir Thomas Dale, was appointed, the following spring, to act as superintendent of the college.