"Men prospered, far from those bleak struggles when England, divided, turned upon the King."
Now that we have considered the importance of the events of 1622, and the bearing they had upon the history of the Virginia Colony, let us in this chapter study-, in parallel, something about the other colonies that were being founded, in order that we may have a true understanding of the position occupied by the other of States, as compared with her younger sisters. Be it remembered, that when the first charter was granted it was stipulated that there should be two companies, the London Company, for Southern Virginia colonization; the Plymouth, for Northern Virginia. The last named company began operations at once, and sent out a vessel in 1606, for the purpose of planting a colony within its charter bounds, but the expedition came to grief, as the ship was captured by the Spaniards, and the English taken prisoners to Spain. The Spanish government, by right of discovery, claimed jurisdiction in American waters, and did not hesitate to use every effort toward preventing English colonization. The second expedition sent our from Plymouth landed at Saga hadoc (Kennebec) in the autumn of 1607, and built a small fort, which they named St. George.
The expedition, consisting of 100 planters under Captain George Popham, was brought to Northern Virginia by Admiral Rawley Gilbert. They built and fortified a storehouse, but when Gilbert returned to England, after a stay of two months, only forty-five planters remained at the settlement.
The Southern Colony had been planted at Jamestown on the 13th of May of that year, therefore antedating the Northern settlement by several months. The settlement at Sagahadoc was a failure.
The suffering of the men was severe, their warehouse was destroyed by fire, and after a terrible winter, and the death of their leader, Henry Pophan, they returned to England on a relief vessel sent them in the spring of 1608. The few survivors declared the country to be "a cold, barren, mountainous desert, where they found nothing but extreme extremities."
So bitter was their account of suffering- and distress upon the bleak coast, where they- had seated themselves, it was not until 1614 that further attempt was made to secure information of the country, other than such as was returned through the medium of fishing fleets who ventured into those waters in search of cod.
Thus had died aborning the only direct effort made by the Plymouth Company to seat a colony- in Virginia.
In 1614 Captain John Smith was employed and sent on a voyage of trade and discover-,-. He drafted a map of the coast which he presented, on his return, to Prince Charles, who, in token of his pleasure at receiving the map and report of Smith, named that section New England.
In order for one to understand the conditions in England at this time, it would be necessary for a more extensive review of the writings that specialize on this subject. In this paper only slight mention will be made of the salient features connecting it with the Plymouth Colony. There were in England at that time several sects of Protestants, or Dissenters from the Church of England, who objected seriously to abiding by the laws, laid down by- the King, requiring them to adhere to the established church.
They objected to any form of worship in which there was any display whatever, and they were bitterly opposed to the Sabbath being observed in any manner other than religious worship. The King permitted what we term, in our modern day, a wide-open Sunday, with all kinds of pleasure being tolerated. The Brownists, Puritans, Presbyterians, etc., uttered emphatic protests; the King countering with orders of arrest or banishment. A party of these Brownists fled to Holland, and there, under their pastor, Robinson, at Leyden, they worshiped and observed their Sundays as the dictates of their conscience required.
But, these people found, after remaining for some time in Holland, that the younger generation was being subjected to the temptations of the freedom permitted the native children by the burghers. Not being scrupulous in religious affairs, the burghers were willing for the Brownists to worship as they desired, reserving the same right for themselves.
It `vas at this time that Edwin Sandys, of whom mention was made in the last chapter as being such a great friend to the Virginia Colony, conceived the idea of planting a colony- within the northern part of the Virginia (London) company grant. Sandys had been a schoolmate and boyhood friend of William Brewster, and the fathers of these two had also been good friends, Being of liberal ideas himself, in correspondence with Brewster, he suggested the advisability of emigration to Virginia, provided "the parties (the church and company) could reach a mutual agreement."
Associated with Brewster there was another friend of Sandys, George Cranmer, brother of William Cranmer, for some time auditor of the Virginia company, and a grand-nephew of Archbishop Cranmer. A correspondence ensued and, the maps and description of New- England as given by Captain Smith having been examined, a decision was made to make an attempt at colonization.
Sandys secured a grant for them, and they left for Virginiaon the Mayflower, chartered by the Virginia Company, and officered by employes of that company. It is stated that before leaving Holland the pilot was bribed by the Dutch, who had begun making settlements on the Hudson and Manhattan Island, to land the Pilgrims north of their proposed landing. The "Mayflower Compact" was, by necessity, drawn up and signed before the settlement could be attempted. The grant from the Virginia Company was not valid beyond its jurisdiction( the New England Company had just been chartered, as a successor to the defunct Plymouth Company, and held jurisdiction in that territory) and it was necessary that this compact be signed as a mutual guarantee that the settlers abide by and adhere to the Governor and council selected by them, just as they- would have been required to do were they within the territory assigned them. Bradford says that there were mutinous strangers among them. who had let fall-"that when they came ashore they would use their own liberties; for none had power to command them, the patent they- had being for Virginia, and not for New England, which belonged to another government, with which ye Virginia Company had nothing to doe."
The immigrants were not all Pilgrims. Brown, in his "First Republic in America," states that, "Some were from Essex, London, and other places in England. William Moline, his wife and children, are said to have been Huguenots; Christopher Martin, `the Governors in the Mayflower was a member of the Virginia Company, and owned lands on the James River; Stephen Hopkins was an old Virginia planter." One of the signers of the contract, Edward Listen was killed near Flower lieu Hundred in the massacre of 1622. The captain of the -Mayflower, Thomas Jones, and his mate, John Clarks, were employes of the London Company. One of the owners of the Mayflower, Thomas Weston, owned a plantation in Virginia, on the James River. His ships traded between Jamestown and London.
In 1622, John 'Mason and Sir Fernando Gorges were granted land between the Merrimac and Sagahadoc by the Grand Council of Plymouth. Their settlement was near the present site of Dover, and was the beginning of the present state of New Hampshire. In 1628 a charter was granted the Massachusetts Bay Company, and Salem was settled the following year. Boston was founded (1630) by Winthrop and 1,000 colonists.
The first settlement in Maine was from the Plymouth Colony at York, in 1630. Connecticut settlements were made, from - Massachusetts, at the present sites of Winsdor, Hartford and Weathersfield, but New Haven was founded in 1638 by immigrants direct from England, and was a separate colony until 1665. Here is located the Charter Oak, in which the charter, of the colony was hidden when demanded by Sir Edmund Andros in 1687.
The following data is given in brief that the reader may have it convenient for parallel reference.
New York was first called New Amsterdam, and was a part of Virginia -until settled by the Dutch in 1614. It was conquered in 1634 and granted to the Duke of York by his brother, Charles II.
New Jersey was settled by Dutch and Danes, in 1624 and shortly afterwards 1>v colonists front Sweeden and Finland. It was attached to New- York in 1676, transferred to William Penn in 1682, and became a crown province in 1738. The last royal Governor was William Temple Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin.
Pennsylvania was granted to Win. Penn in 1681. He settled at Philadelphia with 2,000 followers, in 1682, but, remained only for a short time, and died in England in 1718, aged 74.
Delaware was settled by Swedes and Finns, under patronage of Gustavus Adolphus, in 1627. They landed at Paradise Point (Cape Henlopen) and gave the country the name of New Sweden. It was seized by the Dutch in 1655 and united to New Amsterdam under the name of New Netherlands. It became a part of the grant of the Duke of York, when the Dutch were driven out, and was conveyed again to William Penn in 1682.
Maryland a part of the original Virginia grant, was regranted to Lord Baltimore and settled by his son, Leonard Calvert, in 1632. In 1669 the seat of government was fixed at Annapolis. It was wrested from the proprietor in 1688, tendered to William and Mary, the English sovereigns, and remained a royal province until 1716, when it was restored to the Calvert family- and remained a proprietary- colony until the Revolution established its independence.
Rhode Island—Settled by Roger Williams in 1636, who had been banished from Massachusetts. United with the Newport settlement (1638) in 1644. First Assembly held in 1647. New charter granted by Charles II, 1663. Adopted U. S. Constitution in 1790, but still proceeds under provisions of its colonial charter.