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Orderly Book of Major William Heth of the Third Virginia Regiment, May 15 – July 1, 1777

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Paens to the virtue, valor and worth of the impressive “Scotch-Irish race” increase in volume as the years pass and orators and books multiply. The generic designation is made more and more comprehensive in its representation.

William Heth, to whose providence posterity is indebted for the accompanying memorial of the Revolution,[1] was truly an example of the admired component strain.

His father, John Heth, is said to have emigrated from the North of Ireland some time during the earlier half of the eighteenth centrury. He settled first in Pennsylvania, and married there Mary Mackey,[2] of Scotch parentage. Here,[3] it is presumed, William, the eldest of a somewhat noted family of twelve children-six sons and six daughters-was born July 19, 1750. Of his brothers, Henry[4] and Andrew, served with the rank of captain in the Revolution; John, who entered the army in 1777 at the age of seventeen as a cadet, attained the rank of lieutenant. He was appointed March 5, 1792, captain Second United States infantry, and served under Wayne in his campaign against the Northwestern Indians. He was a member of the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati, and died November 15, 1810. Andrew Heth also served subsequent to the Revolution as a commissioner for apportioning and surveying the lands granted by Virginia to the Illinois regiment.

Of the sisters of William Heth, Mary became the wife of one of his army comrades, Captain Robert Porterfield, subsequently general of the State militia, and Anne or Nancy, the wife of another, Lieutenant Josiah Tannehill, subsequently colonel of militia.

Of the boyhood and educational advantages of William Heth his descendants can furnish no definite account. His diaries, however, recorded in a flowing hand, exhibit refined tastes, acute discernment, and ease of diction. He appears to have been a lover of music and the drama, and a judicious critic of both. He had the faculty of versification, and was skilled in the use of the pencil, and notes the copying thus of engravings and the makng of portraits of his wife and of several of his female friends. His first military service is believed to have been as a lieutenant in the company of Daniel Morgan in Lord Dunmore’s[5] expedition against the Indians in 1774. The following year, as one of the captains of the three companies under Daniel Morgan, he participated in the expedition of Arnold against Quebec, which began its arduous march through the wilderness of Maine, September 16th. In the unsuccessful assault of Quebec, December 31, 1775, he was wounded and taken prisoner, and kept in captivity more than six months. His diary of prison life, covering the period February 3-July 1, 1776, has been preserved. In the orderly book, the last entry of which is July 1, 1777, there is no record of his promotion, but his appointment as lieutenant-colonel must have been announced soon thereafter, and it dated from April I, 1777.[6] He was subsequently promoted colonel, and is stated served under Lincoln in the siege of Charleston, and to have commanded the regiment to the close of the war.[7] The latter statement is evidently erroneous, as be appears on the list of supernumerary officers October, 1781.[8] The writer is in possession of no further details of the service of Colonel Heth in the Revolution.

In 1787 he was appointed a member of the Council of State of Virginia, a position then entailing frequent and exacting service, as the body decided upon the claims for service in the Revolution; examined the accounts of various officers of the State, and was consulted by the Governor in the appointment of State officers. In the act of the Virginia Assembly, passed March 1, 1784, ceding to the United States all the territory held by the State “North-Westward of the river Ohio,” it was stipulated “that the necessary and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing British posts, maintaining garrisons, etc.,” were to be reimbursed by the United States government. In January, 1788, Colonel Heth and David Henley were appointed commissioners on the part of Virginia to settle with John Pierce, commissioner of army accounts of the United States, the claim of Virginia. His diary of daily events and experiences in the execution of his commission presents a curious and interesting mirror of the period.

On Friday, February 15, 1788, he “left Richmond in the Stage without company 1/2 after seven o’C; drove at the rate of 8 miles an hour; breakfasted at Norvell’s. Dined at Linch’s & reached Bolling Green [Caroline] county 1/2 after 4 o’C.”

Saturday 16th. “Reached Fredericksburg about 11 o’C. No company going on to Alex’a, & from Acct’s of the badness of the road & high waters I concluded to stay until Tuesday’s Stage when I expect Cob. Henley.-Making my quarters good at Gen’l Weedon’s where I dined with a British officer, Capt. Engs, from Canada, making a tour through the Continent & who in the course of conversation I found was one of those who commanded a guard over us when I was a Prisoner in Quebec in 1776. He has a nose of such a size, shape & complexion as excited my curiosity as much to touch it as that what possessed the bandy legged drummer’s wife when the promontory of noses was passing through Strasburg.”

Sunday, 17th. “Dined at Gen’l Weedon’s in Compan’y with Colo. Ball, ‘Doct. Mortimer and Domine Rian. Spent an hour with Cob. Wallace in the forenoon.

18th. Gen’l Weedon, Colo. Ball & Self dined with Doct. Mortimer & Spent the Evening at Colo. Ball’s.”

Tuesday, i9th. “Took leave of Gen’l Weedon & went off in Stage alone. Dined at Stafford C. H.; reached Dumfries about 7 o’ C in the evening. Spent it very agreeably at McDonald’s tavern in Comp’y with my old friend, Mr. A. Henderson.”

20th. “Left Dumfries alone before 6 o’C-reached Colchester between 8 and 9. Understanding that the Patowmack was impassible I sent on my trunk to Alexandria and hiring a horse rode down to Cob. Geo. Mason’s, where I din’d & spent the day. Very politely received & treated.”

21st. “Took my leave after breakfast of Cob. Mason, who sent a servant & pair of horses with me to Mount Vernon, where I was fortunate enough to find the General without any other company than Cob. Hum phreys who has been here some months. Dined & Spent an agreeable day; find that the General is very anxious to see the proposed Federal Constitution adopted by all the States. He received letters this Evening from Boston and New York informing him that the Convention of Massachusetts, then sitting, would unquestionably accept of it.”

Friday, 22d February. “Took my leave of the Gen’l (and family after breakfast) who sent with me a servant & pr. Horses. Maj’r Geo. Washington was polite enough to accompany me two or three miles; reached Alexandria between 11 & 12 o’C. expecting to go with the Stage which did not get in from the Southward to-day. Dined with Mr. Arthur Lee at our lodgings, Mr. Leigh’s. Spent the afternoon with Mr. W. Hunter, and an hour or two in the evening with my old friend Doct’r [James] Craik.” 24th. “Left Bladensburg about 6 o’C. Reached Baltimore between 4 and 5 o’C. Spent an hour or two with my intimate friend Gen’l [Otho H.] Williams. Wrote Eliza [his wife] the 4th letter [since leaving her].”

25th. Left Baltimore 12 after 7 o’C in company with Mrs. Jackson (her husband riding on horseback) of Philadelphia, a sensible, gentle Lady, Mr. Richard Cursons, Jr., Merch’t, Baltimore, Benedict Hale, of this State, a gentleman with whom I was acquainted at Bath [Va.] in the year 1768, Mr. Scott, a lawyer, and two young fellows going to Philadelphia. Reached the Susquehannah a little after sun set. We concluded not to venture to cross ’til morning.”

26th. “Arose all hands at 5 o’C and as it had froze pretty hard we set out as soon as we could fairly see across. The ferry-man piloting us & dragging our baggage and Mr. Jackson on a small steed a little better than a mule, got all over without any boat or danger & set off in the stage 1/2 after 6 o’C. Breakfasted at head of Elk & refreshed in Wilmington while horses were changing; halted for the same purpose at Chester & got to Phil’a about 10 o’C at night. Stopped at the Indian Queen, 4th Street.

27th. “Spent the day in delivering letters & doing private business for Gen’l Weedon & others. Dined at Mr. Sam’l Pleasants ; waited on Mrs. Jackson in the evening; received many thanks from her husband for my attention to her. Met with Miss Rittenhouse & a Miss Dale, both of whom played a few pieces on the Piano forte, as did Mrs. Leath, sister of Mrs. Jackson. Took my leave between 7 & 8 o’C.”

28th. “Set Out [with stage] for New York at 6 o’C; reached the Gen’l Washington 1/4 after 7 o’C-10 miles, Breakfasted and changed Horses; drove to Burlington 10 miles in 1 hour and 15 minutes; changed horses and drove to the upper ferry at Trenton in 1 Hour and 20 minutes; found the river hard frozen on each side so far as to throw the whole water within the compass of 100 yards, which ran with great rapidity; walked to the edge of the Ice & then got into a small skiff with two other passengers and the ferryman, who, notwithstanding the strength of the current, managed the boat with great ease, but striking the boat against a piece of ice, which had broken of he had nearly overset us. Dined at Trenton & drove to Princetown, 12 miles in one hour & a half; halted a few minutes and put on with the same horses to Jones’, 8 miles, drove in less than one hour & a quarter. As it was then between 7 & 8 o’C & we had the river to cross on the Ice, which they drove over with waggons, we concluded to go no further & the Stage returned to Jones’s.”

29th. “Curson & Self put on in a Sleigh. Set out 1/2 after 6 o’C; drove over the Rariton river in full trot & reach’d Woodbridge, 10 miles in one hour and 12 minutes, where we breakfasted changing sleigh horses & got to Elizabeth Town Point, 12 1/2 miles in one hour and 13 minutes; crossed over in a skiff to Staten Island & then put on in a sleigh about 3 miles to Ivesons’, where we fell in with a number of market people going to New York; embarked in a large boat with two sails, a cabbin with stove & crossing over to Bergen Point, landed two men with their horses & then put round for New York, which we reached in 58 minutes, 12 miles. Put up at the City Tavern & dined & then went to Ellsworth’s to wait on Mr. [James] Madison and Mr. Beacon. The first not within. Left the papers and letters with the latter, delivered sundry Private letters; waited on my old friend and fellow Prisoner in Quebeck, Gen’l [John] Lamb; affectionately received and invited to dine with him to-morrow. Lodged at the City Tavern.”

Saturday, March 1st. Waited on Mr. Maddison after Break-fast; find him prepared to leave Town to-morrow for Virg’a. Waited on Mr. Cyrus Griffin, another delegate from Virg’a & President of Congress, where I am to meet the delegation in the evening & to dine to-morrow. Mr. Maddison consented to stay ’til Monday to introduce the business & do everything in his power to promote the Object of Virg’a. Dined with Gen’l. Lamb; most cordially treated & rec’d with a general invitation.

3d. “Mr. Madison laid the business before Congress this forenoon when it was referred to a Committee of five, viz: Gen’l. Wadsworth of Connec.; Mr. Dare, of Mass.; Mr. Clarke, of Jersey; Gen’l. Irvine, of Penn.; and Mr. Kearney, of Delaware. Went to the play in company with the President [Mr. Griffin] and three other members of Congress. Agreeably enough entertained with the “Duenna”; some good musick and admirable singing by Mrs. Henry, who is the third sister and third wife to Henry, the comedian.”

4th. Dined with Mr. Pierce, who in politeness to me had invited Gen’l Knox, Sec’y at War; Gen’l Wadsworth, Cap’t Dayton, Mr. Gilman and Mr. Wingate, Members of Congress. Went home with Gen’l Knox and spent the evening with him, ’til near 12 o’C. Engaged to dine with him on Saturday. Took leave of Mr. Madison at the ferry boat between 1 & 2 o’C.”

The adjustment of the claim of Virginia progressed but slowly, the “award” not being signed by the Commissioners until May 15th. In the meantime, whilst he unremittingly left undone nothing likely in his information and apprehension to promote the interest of Virginia, Colonel Heth continued to be constantly and variedly “most agreeably” entertained and diverted. He breakfasted, dined or supped, among many others, with Baron Steuben, Governor Clinton, John Wickham and wife, Generals Irvine, Butler, Williams, Webb and St. Clair, Arthur Lee, Samuel Osgood, Andrew J. Pickens, Colonels Alexander Hamilton, Rice, Henry and Burr-” A fellow adventurer on Arnold’s march,” James Wilson, “the Signer of the Declaration of Independence,” “Mr. Paradise of English parents, but who was born in Turkey, whose Lady was a Ludwell born in Virg’a and is first cousin to R. H. Lee,” and ” Mr. McComb, an Irishman who has made his plumb as a trader at Detroit and contractor to the British.” Many of his evenings were devoted to the” Play-house” and other “diversions.” He mentions the “wonderful performances in balancing, &C under the direction of Signor Carli-the performers, a negro man and a small white boy,” the playing of Miss Eccles on the harpsichord and among many other plays that of “The School for Soldiers, or the Deserter,” “a most affecting performance & admirably executed; a very crowded house & many weeping Eyes.”

April 15th. He notes the quelling by the military of a mob which sought vengeance on some medical students-detected body-snatchers. In the riot, four citizens lost their lives and many others received injuries, among them Baron Steuben, “a wound between his eyes” and Mr. Jay who “got his scull almost cracked.”

Colonel Heth left New York to return home in the afternoon of May 16th, and reached Richmond on the 26th. He “lodged at Harry’s,” his brother’s house, that night and got home, [“Curles,” in Henrico county,] the following morning to breakfast. “Happy once more in meeting my Eliza & boy well.”

His successful accomplishment of his commission met the commendation of the Governor and Council, and later he was voted additional compensation for his services by the Assembly. His time, as now recorded, was divided in attention to his farm, attendance on the State Convention then in session, at the Council Chamber, and in social claims.

He appears almost daily to have been entertained by his friends or to have extended bounteous hospitality at “Curles.” His guests, sometimes more than twelve in number, would reach his home in the forenoon and spend the day, some remaining until the following morning and others several days. They included members of the Convention from various sections of the State, old armv comrades, the Governor (then Edmund Randolph), Captain Marshall (the future Chief Justice), prominent citizens of Richmond, and neighboring planters and their wives and daughters.

And so the welcome extended and prevailed. Sometimes the guests yielded to the solicitations of other friends and accompanied them home, and thus an intended visit of one day was prolonged into an absence from home of often more than a week. It was a charming social system, as free from pomp and factitious restraint as it was spontaneous and refined.

It was an existence, in its purity and reality, never to be revived, fostered by circumstances which have been ruthlessly destroyed and over-shadowed.

Among the early appointments of President Washington was that of Colonel Heth as Collector of the Ports of Richmond, Petersburg, and Bermuda Hundred, a position which was conscientiously and efficiently filled. Colonel Heth was a man of decided convictions. He was devoted to Washington, and was as constant in his political faith as he was consistent in his code of social ethics.

The election of Jefferson to the Presidency betrayed the impulsive veteran into some asperities of speech and the perpetration of a rhyming pasquinade, in which he dealt very freely with some alleged frailties of the President.

His transgression received summary attention. His office was first divided and diminished, the collectorship of Richmond being bestowed on Major James Gibbon, and a little later he was entirely superseded by the appointment of John Page in July, 1802, to the collectorship of Petersburg and Bermuda Hundred. The action of Colonel Heth was prompt. He turned over at once the books of his office to his deputy, Charles Tumbull, and requested the adjustment of his accounts. The health of Mr. Page not allowing him to qualify, Colonel Heth was constrained to remain at his post until November following, when Dr. John Shore entered upon the duties of the office.[9]

Colonel Heth was one of the delegates from Virginia to the convention which met in Philadelphia May 4, 1784, and organized the General Society of the Cincinnati ; and he was also one of those who met at Fredericksburg, Virginia, October 6, 1783, and organized the Virginia branch of the Society. He was unanimously elected treasurer of the State Society at the meeting held in Richmond, November i6, 1786, and continued to hold the office until his death.

Colonel Heth was stout in person and of medium stature. He had lost an eye from a wound received during the war. A bust portrait of him in crayon is in the possession of his great-grand- son, Mr. Richard Heth Munford Harrison, Richmond, Virginia.

The death of Colonel Heth, by apoplexy, was sudden. The exact date has not been preserved, but it was in April, 1807, some time prior to the 8th, as on that day his will was admitted to probate.

He was twice married, and mentions in his will slaves received by his first wife, whose name is not given. He married secondly Eliza, daughter of Gray and Dorothea (Pleasants) Briggs.[10]

He appears to have possessed a comfortable estate, which included slaves, stocks and three farms-” Curles,” “Bremo” and “Shilela.” His executors were John Marshall, Edward Carrington, Harry Heth, his brother, and Henry G. Heth,[11] his son. He mentions his son, Henry G., and daughters, Mary Andrewetta, Ann Eliza Agnes Pleasants and Margaret Thomas Jaquelin Heth. These respectively married Richard Lorton, Bowler Cocke and Samuel Pleasants, M. D. lie provides also with lands in Kentucky for his adopted or acknowledged son, William H. Heth, “commanding the ship John Marshall, owned by Archibald Gracie, of New York.”[12] The widow of Colonel Heth married secondly Lightfoot Janney, hut they had no issue.

Of the issue of Richard and Mary Andrewetta (Heth) Lorton, Margaret A. E. became the wife of John Nicholas Harrison,[13] the son of Benjamin and Dolly Pleasants Gray Briggs (Nicholas) Harrison, and grandson of Benjamin Harrison, of ” Wakefield,” and grandson of Colonel John and Dolly (Briggs) Nicholas.

Orderly Book of Major William Heth – 1777

BOUND BROOK, May 15th, 1777.

The General having Observ’d that many of the Men make a practice of lying or sitting on the Ground, Often on such as is wet and Cold, desires that the Officers would pay particular attention to correct a Custom so injurious.

The Field Officer of the day will in future take the names of the Commanders of Guards and their strength on parade & transmit the same to the Commissary that he may be enabled to issue their Rum without any further trouble to the Officer of the day.

One Capt. 2 subs. 3 Serg’ts, 3 Corps, 2 Drum’s and Fifes & 40 Privates are to relieve Picquet now furnished by Cob. Arnold from QuibbleTown on the road leading thither to-morrow morning, this to be done daily till further orders.

A Drum and fife will for the future [attend] every Capt’s Guard, as also that of the Genl’s Field Officer of the day to. morrow Lt. Col. Nelson.[14] All the Drttms & fifes in this division will attend on the Guard parade at Guard Mounting. BOUND BROOK, 16th May, 1777.
D. ORDERS. Parole. C’Sign.
The General is sorry that he is again Obliged to direct that no Officer commanding a Picquet or any out post presume to be reliev’d till he has first informed the Officer relieving him the Ground.

B. BROOK, May 17th, 1777.
The 7th and 11th Reg’ts will be on parade to-morrow at 4 o’clock in the Afternoon and go through the Exercise & Evolutions.

The General desires the Officers will he particularly attentive to have their Men clean and their Arms in the best order.

D. O. Parole. C. Sign.
Field Officer of the day to-morrow, Col. Bowrnan.[15]

CAMP B. BROOK, May 17th, 1777.
The Officers of Reg’ ts are to attend the parade at Reveille. Beating at ten o’clock & four in the afternoon.
Mr. Tauny Hill[16] to rank as First Lieutenant in consequence of a Vacancy that bappened the 15th of Nov’r.


NEAR B. BROOK, May 19th, 1777.

The Drum & Fife Majors must take particular care that the Drummers & Fifers are particularly drest, their Drums & Fifes in good Order and that they practice together one hour every day.

No Drummer or Fifer to play or Beat after Tattos & Reveille Beating except by order of the Commanding Officer.

It gives me pleasure to see the officers of the Regt’s appear clean & genteel on the parade, And hope and Expect that they will take care that their Men in like Manner for the future appear decent & clean on the parade as nothing attends so much to the health of Soldiers as Cleanliness.

A Fatigue to parade to-morrow at Troop Beating under Direction of the Quarter Masters.

That the Adjutant attend every Morning at Reveille and Retreat Beating to Enquire where the Absent Men are & the reason why they are absent.

COL. MORGAN,[17] Com’g.

BOUND BROOK, May 19th, 1777.

The Commanding Officer of each Corps will immediately draw Ammunition to complete their Men & see that their Arms are well Clean’d and kept in constant good order.

For the future the Officers of each Company will carefully examine at Retreat Beating what are loaded, it is necessary to have discharged & those of each Company in a Battalion Assemble together under the Command of a Captain who is to march them to some Convenient place & see that they & only they discharge their Arms, & March them back to their Regimental parade & Dismiss them. Any soldier that is discovered firing his piece at any time will be severely punish’d. Every Officer who observes such firing out of time is deser’d to Confine the Offinder immediately.

D. ORDERS. Parole. C. Sign.
A General Court Martial to sit to-morrow at 10 O’clock for the Trial of the Prisoners in the Main Guard.
COL. SPOTSWOOD,[18] President

The Court to Sit in the Red House opposite the Grand Parade. Field officer of the day, to-morrow, Major Davis.

CAMP NEAR B. BROOK, May 20th, 1777.
R. O.
The Commanding Officers of the different Companies are desir’d to make an immediate Return of what Arms are wanting to Complete their Companies and such as are unfit for service, also the Number of Flints wanting to furnish two to each Man, and Cartridges to fill up their Boxes.

The Quibble Town Piquet Guard, the Brunswick & lower Rariton are to be re-inforced with two Subalterns, 1 Serg’t, 1 Corp’l & 10 privates each–A Subaltern to go at all times with the Scouts by day & Night & no attack to he made on the Sentries [except] by leave obtained from the Commanding Officer of the Guard who shall send out such Scouts or Patrols. Care will be taken by the Scouts fully to Examine all houses, places where an Enemy may be conceal’d before they pass, & while observing the State of the Enemy, particular Care will be taken by having Sentries on Commanding Ground in the front to watch their Motions & prevent the Scouts being out-flank’d and enclos’d. The General is sorry to have so much firing at Retreat Beating as has been some days past & is surprix’d that the orders of May 20th which mention’d the discharging such Guns only as had been long Charg’d, or was wet, or such as shou’d urg’d in Justification thereof.

No Guns in future will be discharg’d at Retreat Beating saving such as shall be permitted by the Commanding Officers of the several Divisions. The 11th Virg’a Reg’t to be muster’d to-morrow therefore Exempted from any other Duty.

Field Officer of the day to-morrow Lt. Col. Butler. Adjutant-Mr. Gibbs.


The Officers Commanding Companies will read the orders of the preceding Day every Morning on their respective parades to their Men. As likewise the Officers Commanding Piquets, that whole Divisions may be acquainted with them & have no plea for their Non-performance.

1 Capt., 3 Subalterns, 3 Serg’ts, 3 Corporals & 50 Rank & file to parade at 4 o’Clock this Afternoon. The Captain is to wait on General Woodford for his orders. The Officers are desired to pay particular attention to the Orders respecting their Men firing at Retreat Beating. The whole Brigade are to be upon their Arms in their Tents & quarters & not undress themselves that they may be ready to parade at the shortest Warning.

CAMP BOUND BROOK, May 21st, 1777.
One Captain, two subaterns, 4 Serg’ts, 4 Corporals & 60 rank & file to parade immediately for a Detachment. Lieut. Col. Parker[19] will command the party. As the weather is now fair, there will be no necessity for firing any of the arms as usual. The Officers will therefore take Notice that there be no discharging of Arms till further orders. All the Tents to be struck every fine Day at ten O’Clock & pitched again at 4 O’Clock. The Officers are desir’ d to be Careful for the future to have all orders respecting the Men regularly read to them agreeable to Yesterday’s Orders.

22d May, 1777
R. ORDERS. I find little regard has been paid to my Orders of the 18th. I once more Desire that the Officers of the different Companies may attend the Alarm post or parade at Reveille Beating and to keep their Men at the Manual Exercise & firing one hour.

May 22d, 1777. B. BROOK.
DIVISION ORDERS. Parole. Countersign.
The Officers Commanding Battallions or Detachments who have not drawn Tents will immediately make return to the Quarter Master who will furnish them with what are necessary.

A Court of Inquiry to sit immediately & to report to Brigadier General Woodford[20] the nature of a Complaint Exhibited against Adjutatn Vowles[21] of the 7th Virg’a Reg’t by Capt. Livinsworth of Colonel Butler’s Reg’t. The Court to sit tomorrow at Major Day’s Marke at 4 o’clock.
Captain Lipscombe[22], President
Two Sub’s from the 7th Reg’t.
Two Do. From the 11th Reg’t.

The Camp Colourmen[23] of each Reg’t to sweep their Encampments & bury all the Dead Carcases and other filth in and about the Camp. Six Subalterns, five Sergeants and 54 Rank and file to be warned from the 7th & 11th Virg’a Reg’ts who are to join Capt. Church’s[24] Company of Colonel Johnson’s Reg’t, consisting of one Captain, two Subaterns & 4 Serg’ts, 36 Rank and file, who are to do the Duty of Patrols to the Brunswick, Lower Rariton and Quibble Town Piquets till further Orders & to be Excused from all other Duty.

General Weedon’s[25] Brigade is to furnish the Same Number of Officers & Men for this Duty, which is to be done in the following manner, Two Commissioned Officers, two Sergeants, and twenty Rank and file to each of the above Piquets, to be relieved every twenty four hours.

General Weedon furnishes the Quibble Town Piquet this Evening, & the other two to be furnished from this Brigade. The Brigade Major will Consult with the Commanding Officers of the 7th & 11th Reg’ts to pitch upon the properest officers for this duty & he is to make the several Regiments allowance in the General Detail.

The Commander-in-Chief positively directs that all officers Stationed at out posts do not come to Morris Town, but when their Business absolutely requires it & in that Case that they return to their Posts with all expedition. Thomas Mullin, Esq’r, is appointed Brigade Major to Brig’r General De Borre,[26] and is to be respected & obeyed as such. A Number of horses having been drawn from the Quarter Master General for particular Services & not return’d when the business was perform’d-All Officers of Regiments and others in possession of horses belonging to or hir’d by the States are immediately to return them to the Quarter Master General, his Deputy, or Assistants in the Districts they may be at. The General Officers are to order returns to be made of any publick horses employed in their Families that the State of the horses belonging to the Army may be known.

Valentine Peers, Esq’r,[27] is appointed Brigade Major to Brigadier General Weedon & is to be respected & obeyed as such.

Lewis Woodruf[28] Esq’r., appointed a Deputy Muster Master.

Colonels and Commanding Officers of Battallions & Corps must cause their Regimental Paymasters to make up their pay Abstracts to the 30th of April inclusive, & order them to attend at the Pay-Master General’s. They must be Examined and Signed by their respective Commanding Officers and Brigadiers, who will diligently Compare them with the daily and weekly Regimental Returns & certify them. The Company Abstracts must be delivered into the Paymaster General with the Regimental Abstracts.

That the great & necessary purpose of adjusting the rank of all the Officers in [the] American Army may be effected with all Expedition, His Excellency, The Commander-in-Chief, is pleased to order that the Officers of each Continental Battallion do immediately Examine into the present rank & and hear the pretensions thereto of all the Captains & Subalterns;-settle them, when they can, to the Satisfaction of all the Gentlemen concern’d; and make a full and fair report of all their proceedings to the Brigadier Commanding their Brigade-And that the Brigadiers with the assistance of the Field Officers in their Brigade, do, upon the receipt of such reports, proceed to adjust the rank of all the officers in their separate Brigades and make a full & fair report of their proceedings to the Major General Commanding their Divisions, that should there be any instance of any dissatisfaction in their Officers with the determination of their Field Officers, they be candidly insinuated by each Field Officer, and parties Comparing with all their attendant Circumstances & reported to their respective Brigadiers, who call before them all the parties Interested & inquire into their Claims, and if they cannot be settled to general Satisfaction make a special & particular report to their Major General, upon receipt of which several reports at Board of Officers will take a dispassionate and comparative view of the whole & determine the Rank in the Army. Untill which time it is Expected the Service will not be Injured by disputes about Rank, but that every Officer will by an Emubus discharge of his duty recommend himself to his Country, and to the promotion he thinks himself Instilled to.

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, May 24th, 1777.
The Brigadier Generals are requested to get a Return of the actual Strength of each Reg’t in their respective Brigades & also the Number of Tents drawn for the use of the Regiments, their returns to he made immediately.

The Quarter-Master General is to.proportion the Tents to the strength of the Reg’ts, one tent to each five privates, two tents to the Officers of each Company, one to each Field Officer, one to the Serg’t Major and Quarter Master Serg’t and one to Each of the Staff Any reg’t having drawn more than this proportion to deliver them to Colonel Biddle[29] Quarter-Master General upon his application for the Same-not more than one Horseman’s Tent to be allowed to Each Reg’t.

CAMP AT MIDDLE BROOKE, May 26th, 1777.
The Commanding Officers of the several Reg’ts to pay particular attention to the orders of yesterday respecting the Returns of their Men and Number of Tents. Each Regimental Quarter Master is to have a sufficient Number of houses for camp use made immediately and they are required to be used. 1 Serg’t, 1 Corp’l & 12 privates to mount immediately as a Guard at General Woodford’s Quarters. The Brigade Major will not receive any Soldiers for this Guard, or any other, but what is Clean & dress’d in a Soldier-like manner. He will likewise fix on a parade for the Brigade & order a Fatigue to Clean it. One Subaltern for the future to take Charge of the Quarter Guard of the Brigade and make his report regularly to the General.

Major Ryan[30] is appointed to act as Deputy Adjutant General and is to be obeyed & respected as such until his Excellency, the Adjutant-General, or his Deputy arrives in Camp & gives Counter orders. Each Brigadier, or the Commanding officer of Brigades are requested, Eleven o’clock in the Morning to send a Brigade Major for orders at Major Ryan’s quarters near the Gap of the Mountain. The Deputy Adjutant General will deliver out the Details for the Guards which are to be sent at the time & place according by the Returns ordered Yesterday to be delivered in to the Adjutant General’s Office as soon as possible.

The Brigade Majors are to deliver to-morrow to the Adj’t General at Eleven o’clock the names of the Brigadier Generals, the Field [officers] & Adjutants in the Brigades to which they respectively belong.

If any of the Brigadiers General are without Brigade Majors they must appoint some person to do their duty. Such Brigades [as] the Brigadiers are absent from, the Eldest Officer in the Brigade is to give the necessary orders to the Brigade. The Brigadier Commanding Officer of Brigades are to appoint Brigade Parades. The Troops for Guards are to assembled on the Brigade Parades by the Adjutants and, by the Brigade Majors march’d from thence at half past Eight o’clock. The General expects all orders to be punctually executed, the good of the Service and the safety of the Camp depending thereon. All Officers, of whatsoever Rank, are requested to govern them accordingly. A General Officer,. two Field Officers & one Brigade Major of the day to Mount every morning at Guard Mounting at the Guard parade after the Guards are sent off. The Brigade Major of the day to attend at Head quarters to deliver such orders as the occurances of the day may render necessary. Each Brigade Major of the day to appoint an Adjutant of the day for the parade. Every Brigade to furnish two orderly Sergeants, one to attend at Headquarters, and one at the Adjutant General’s.

[May 26th, 1777.]
The Brigadier General of the day, to-morrow, Muhlenburg. Field Officer of the day, to~morrow, Col. Hobly.[31] Brigade Major of the day, to-morrow, Major Hay.[32]

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, 27th May, 1777.
R. O.
The Officers of the Regiment are desir’d to attend to-morrow at 10 o’clock at Colonel Febiger’s Bush Arbour to settle their Ranks. They are likewise to take Notice that His Excellency General Washington threaten’d to arrest the Command’r of a Regiment Yesterday for suffering fish & Bones and other Nastiness to lie about his Camp. I therefore desire that the Officers of this Regiment may exert themselves in having their Streets & their Men’s Tents kept Clean & neat and to see that the Sergeants does their duty in having the Soldiers kept clean, neat & in good order, and their Arms likewise.

The Adjutant to see that the Men are Clean & their Arms in good order before he receives them from the Sergeants. That no fires be made in Camp except in the places appointed for fires, which is in rear of the Suttler’s.

CAMP MILDLE BROOK, May 27th, 1777.
Major General Lincoln[33] is requested in Company at the General officer of the day to examine the late & present position of the piquet Guard, fix upon the proper Ground to post them & Establish such others as may be necessary for the future Security of the Camp & fix their positions by day & night. The Officer of every guard must send a Serg’t upon the Grand parade from his Guard to pilot the new Guard.[34]

CAMP M. BROOK, June 7th, 1777
A Brigade Court Martial to sit this Morning for the Tryval of all the Prisoners in the Quarter Guard, As we expect to have a field day for the whole Division soon. He desires that the Officers of each Company in the Brigade will emply their time in having their Men’s Arms clean’d in the best manner.[35]

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, June 7, 1777.
As the Army is now on a permanent and honourable Footing, and as the General has the credit of it very much at heart; he expects that every Officer on whom the Importance of the Contest, and a regard to his own honour or duty are sufficiently impress’d; will lend their Aid to support the Character of it. To this end nothing can be more effectual than a close attention to Discipline and Subordination, and particularly in an exact obedience to General orders in which is the life of an Army; Officers shou’d consider that a Repetition of orders is the highest reflection on those, who are the Causes of it. An orderly Book is a Record in the hands of thousands, of the Transactions of an Army, and consequently of the disgrace of those whose Insensibility to the Obligations they are under, and whose want of a manly emulation of temper obliges the Commander-in-Chief to publish their misconduct by repeating his calls upon them to discharge their duty.[36]

The General appeals to the understanding of every officer, and earnestly recommends a serious Consideration of these matters, their Engagement with the publick. their own honour, and the Salvation of their Country demands it. The General wishes it on these Accounts & for his own ease and satisfaction ; for as nothing is more easy than to conduct an Army when a cheerful & ready obedience is paid to every order, so nothing is more difficult & embarrassing, where a careless, licentious & disorderly spirit prevails.[37]

* * * * * * * * * * * *

The above Prisoners & those mentioned in former orders to be sent for to their respective Regiments and punish’d on their Brigade parades.

HEAD QUARTERS, 7th June, 1777.
The Men from each of the following Brigades, viz’t, Maxwell’s, Muhlenburg’s,[38] Weedon’s, Woodford’s, Scott’s,[39] Conway’s,[40] to parade to-morrow Morning at Guard Mounting at the Quarter Master-General’s Quarters as a Guard for some Cattle. The party to be commanded by a subaltern officer and relieved daily till further orders-the officer to be furnish’d from the diff’t Brigades beginning with Maxwell’s.

11th Reg’t officers for Guard to-morrow Lieut’s Harrison[41] & Ransadale[42] Major General for to-morrow Green[e].[43] Field Officers, Col. Ogden[44] & Lt. Col. Sears[45]. Brigade Major, Peers.

HEADQUARTERS M. BROOK, June 8th, 1777.
A Detachment of 3 Captains, 6 Sub’s, 9 Serg’ts & 150 privates to parade to morrow Morning at 6 o’clock at General Weedon’s parade’ with 4 days provisions * * * * * is to command this party and receive his orders from Major General Greene.

By Intelligence from different quarters there is much reason to believe the Enemy are on the Eve of some irnportant Operation; this makes it absolutely necessary that the whole Army should hold themselves in readiness to move at a moment’s warning & that purpose they are always to be furnish’d with three days provision ready Cook’d. Officers to take care that their Men carry their own packs arid to suffer none but Invalids to put their packs or Arms into Waggons.

The Quarter Master General to Settle with the Brigadiers the proper allowance of Waggons for their respective Brigades and to furnish them, or make any deficiency immediately.

All Arms deliver’d, out of the Publick Stores, or purchased by Officers for the use of the Continent, to be branded, without loss of time, agreeable to former Orders. For the future none but printed Furloughs to be given to Soldiers. Any Soldier absent from his Corps, with only a written Furlough, will be be taken up, and his Furlough deemed a Forgery. This to be advertised in the publick papers of each State.

A Return to be made to-morrow of the Chaplains of each Brigade, Specifying where they are.

AFTER ORDERS. 6 o’clock.
Those Riflemen returned to the Adjutant General agreeable to the General Order of the 21st Inst. are to parade to-morrow morning at 6 o’clock on the Grand Parade. The Brigadiers of the different Brigades to which these Men respectively belong, to see that they have good rifles to be supplied (if their own shou’d not be good) from those who remain and don’t answer the Description of the General Order above referred to.

MORGAN CONNER, Adj’t Gen’l.[46]

MIDDLE BROOK, June 9th, 1777.
The Commander- in-Chief is pleased to approve the following Sentences of a General Court Martial, held the 6th Inst., and orders them to be put in Execution forthwith-the Delinquents the to be immediately taken out of the Guard house and punished at the Brigade Parades to which they respectively belong, viz’t: William Nicholson of the 15th Virg’a Reg’t, Charged with desertion, to receive 25 Lashes. Markham Hill of 15th Virg’a Reg’t, Charged with Desertion, to receive 25 Lashes. John King of the first New Jersey Reg’t, charged with desertion, to receive 50 Lashes. Thomas Banks of the 15th Virg’a Reg’t, Charged with Desertion, to receive 20 Lashes. Anthony Payne of the 15th Virg’a Reg’t, Charged with desertion, to receive 20 Lashes. John Lowry of the 9th Virg’a Reg’t, Charged with damning the General & his orders, to receive 39 Lashes. James Dougherty of the 3d New Jersey Reg’t, Charged with deserting, to receive 100 Lashes. Daniel Henly of the 3d Virginia Regim’t, Charg’d with deserting from his own Reg’t & Enlisting into another, to receive 25 Lashes. Samuel Mason of the said Regiment, Charg’d with the same, to receive 20 Lashes. John Bybecker of the German Battallion,[47] Charg’d with Deserting & Enlisting into Another Reg’ t, the Sentence postponed for further Evidence.

The Duty of the Major General of the day to begin with the mounting of the Guard one day and to End at the same time the next. The Commanding Officer of each Corps to keep the their own Ammunition Account with their Men & make them pay for all answer that is wantonly wasted.

Captains of Companys to keep a List of their Men’s Cloths and have them critically examined every Saturday. A Soldier shall not presume to sell any part of his Cloaths on any pretence whatsoever-the prisoners under Sentence of Death to prepare for Execution.[48] * * * *

The movements of this army either for offensive or Defensive he follow measures will be sudden, whenever they do happen, consequently Inst, and no time can be allowed to draw or cook provisions. It may not linquents be amiss, therefore, to remind the officers of the necessity of having their Men provided agreeable to an order of the 8th inst. and the Commissary is desir’d, if possible, to furnish Bak’d and Salt Provisions for this purpose which the Men may keep by them, and continue to draw their usual allowance. It has been so often and so pressingly recommended to officers to have no unnecessary baggage with them, it is hoped the Army is entirely unencumbered with it, but if the case should be otherwise the General desires that the Brigadiers will have it immediately removed.

The Adjutant General will direct to what place. After this Notice Officers are not to be Surpriz’d if heavy Boxes, Great Chests, Bedsteads, &c. are left behind in the Field. A very small Escort from the whole Line will be necessary to Guard the Baggage sent off pursuant to this order, and to be composed of the most indifferent Men, put under the command of a Careful Officer.

The General is informed that great Complaints are made by the Inhabitants nearest the Enemies’ Lines of Soldiers taking away their horses and other property, and that in many Instances they are Countenanced by the Officers under the Idea of the Inhabitants being Tories. The General expressly orders a stop to be put to such practices, or those who are Convicted of them will be brought to exemplary punishment.

Such Inhabitants as are proper Objects of punishment will be dealt with in a legal way. But no Officer or Soldier is to judge for himself & approt)riate their property to their own use or to seize it without proper orders.

The Commander-in-Chief approves the following sentences of a Court Martial held the 7th Inst. of which Colonel Thomas Marshall of the 3rd Virg’a reg’t was President. Lieut. Kirtley of the 8th V. R. Charg’ d with disobedience of orders & absenting himself three Months beyond the time allotted him to join his Reg’t, found not guilty of being absent from his Reg’t beyond the time allotted him but guilty of disobedience of orders, sentenced to be discharged from the Service. Lieutenant Tully Robinson,49[8] of the 4th Virg’a Reg’t Charg’d with absenting himself from his Reg’t without leave, found guilty of the Charge, Sentenced to be discharged from the Service and to forfeit his pay from the 3oth December last till he join’d them again. Lieut. Ford of the 4th Virg’a Reg’t Charg’d with obedience of orders in the instance of firing a Gun without proper permission in Camp, Sentenced to receive a Reprimand by the Commanding Officer of the said reg’t in the presence of the Officers of the same. John Smith of the 7th Pennsylv’a Reg’t, formerly in the 6th, Charg’d with inlisting into the 9th Pens’a Reg’t without a discharge from the 7th, sentenced to receive 25 Lashes on his bare back, and the Bounty of twenty Dollars which he rec’d from the 9th to be stopped out of his pay. Peter Burney of the 13th new Jersey reg’t, Charg’d with desertion, Sentenced to be discharged. William Shaddock of the 9th Penn’a reg’t try’d by the same Court Martial the 2nd of June for desertion omitted in former orders, sentenced to receive 25 Lashes on his bare Back. The Picquet Guards are to assemble in the Rear of the Artillery Park at Guard Mounting, this place to be considered as the Grand parade till further orders.


A fatigue of one hundred Men with a proportion of ______ to parade to-morrow 6 o’clock at the Quarter-Master-Generals to Take their Orders from Major G’l Green. Major Gen’l Green’s Division to practice this afternoon with actual firing 3 o’clock in ye afternoon.

CAMP M. BROOK, June 4th, 1777.
The Commanding Officers of the different Companies are desir’d to examine the State of the Arms, Ammunition & Accoutrements of their respective Companies and make an immediate return to the Quarter-Master of what are wanting to complete & what are wanting repair.

Many of the Officers having paid proper attention to General Orders respecting the lessening of the Baggage, it is expected they will now make an Examination into their Companies on that head & have all that is unnecessary Collected that it may be transported when the Adj’t General may direct agreeable to the General Orders of yesterday.

This the Commanding Officer once more & for the last time requests an immediate compliance as he wou’d be sorry to see any of the property of the Soldiery left in the Field upon a sudden encampment which must be the case, if these Orders are not attended to.

In future when provision returns are made out it will be expected the officers will Examine them before they are deliver’d in the Sick under the immediate care of the Doctor to be particularized. After this the Commanding Officer hopes not to find the provision Returns & the other Returns disagree.

June 11th, 1777.


The Commissary General to deliver no rum for Guards or Fatigue Service but in following manner: a Jill [per] Man to all out Guards and Picquets the order for it to come from Brigadier of the day-the same allowance for all Fatigue parties, Either from the Line, Division or Brigade, the orders for it in the first instance to come from the Major General of the Day, in the Second from the Major General of the Division, in the 3d from the Brigadier of the Bngade. All Detachments & Scouting parties to have a Jill [per] Man for Every night they are out. The Major General of the Day to give the Orders for it. A Jill to all fatigue parties, in the Commissary or Qr. Master General’s departments; the order to come from the principal officer present of the departments.

No other Guards or fatigue to have any allowance of rum, the Rum for Guards not to be Issued till the Duty is done. All Stragling or Suspected persons taken up to be brought before the Major General of the day.

All Guards or Detachments going towards the Enemy or coming from them to march in the same order, as if they expected an immediate attack-for this purpose the Officers to be at their proper post, and the men to move with regularity; advanced rear & flank guards to be sent out in proportion to the strength of the Party, and at a greater or lesser distance according to the nature of the Ground.

As in advancing towards an Enemy, or coming from them is danger of surprize and attack. Precautions should be always taken to he prepared for them and were not this the Case, good Habits will be introduced by acting in this manner when there is little or no occasion which will be Serviceable when there is, and both Officers & Men will he taught their Duty.

All Stragling Sutlers immediately to quit the Camp or their Liquors, &c. will be taken from them & distributed among the Soldiers without any Compensation. Each Brigadier to notify those about his Camp with this Order. General Lincoln has permission to clean loaded Pieces of his Division by discharging them this Evening at Retreat.

All Regimental Paymasters are to attend the paymaster General at his Quarters on Friday at 10 o’clock. Colonel De la Laviere[50] is appointed to the Command of the Corps, heretofore under Major Ottendorf.[51] The Commanding Officer of each Corps is to report every Deserter from it immediately to his Brigadier who is to pursue without loss of time the most vigorous measures to have the Offenders apprehended and to give an Account of the matter to the Major General of the Day, who is to draw the whole into one view in his report of occurences to the Commander-in-Chief, Strict attention is expected will be paid to this order.

The order some time ago given at Morris Town forbidding Waggoners to gallop; and strain horses is little attended to. The Qr. Master Gen’l therefore will inform those people of the Consequences of disobedience.

The Brigadier Majors are to meet the Adjutant General precisely at six o’clock this afternoon at his Tent. The Guard for the Commissary’s Cattle is to be furnish’d by rotation by the different Brigades and to reliev’d every three days. General Muhlenburg’s Brigade will furnish it to-day, the Men to carry three days Provision with them.

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, June 12th, 1777.
Notwithstanding orders have been many days issued desiring an Orderly Sergeant to be appointed to each Company, The officers commanding Companies have not paid the smallest regard to them The orders are again repeated, with a positive declaration that any Officer disobeying this, or any General, Division, Brigade, or Regimental order, shall be immediately arrested, and Sergeants not doing their duty will be Confin’d. The Orderly Sergeant is to wait upon the Officers of his Comany immediately after he receives them & to read the Regimental orders to their Company every Evening before they march them to the Regimental parade, other orders wifl be read to the Reg’t when drawn up.

If the Officers had attentively perused the General Orders Issued since His Excellency arriv’d in Camp, The Commanding Officer wou’d not now be under the disagreeable necessity of speaking in a Style he wou’d most sincerely wish to avoid.

An Orderly Serg’t from each Company will ‘attend immediately on the Quarter Master & receive a proportion of Screw Drivers & Worms, also Canteens, if any Shou’d be wanting.

G. O.
HEAD QUARTERS, June 12th, 1777.

The General thinks it proper to Establish the following Regulations for Guards, and hopes that Officers will consider as the Rule of Practice, and make themselves well acquainted with them. When any Guards arrive at-the Posts assign’d them the Officer’s first Care is to plant his Centinels properly according to Circumstances. The Guards shon’d remain under Arms while this [is] doing, and if it be at an out post near the Enemy, temporary Sentries shou’ d be placed at a small distance near the Guard to prevent Surprize, while the Commanding Officer reconnoiters the Ground, to know where the Centries are to be posted for a continuance, this to be done in Case the ground has not beforehand been examined and particular Instructions given or in case he does not relieve some other Guards, but if he does relieve another, he is to receive all the orders given to the Officers of the Old Guard in Waiting; which together with those he receives from the Brigadier & Field Officer of the Day, he is punctually to observe, if any difference arise between them, he is to obey the latter in preference & immediately to send a Party under a Trusty Officer, conducted by an Officer of the Old Guard, to relieve tbe Sentries thereof, who is to return to the Old Guard. If the Guard be of such a nature as that other matters other than the Security of the Post are intrusted to it they must be contain’d in a written report, and an Officer of the New, to be accompanied by one of the Old must be sent to take them in Charge, compairing the things themselves with the report and see that all is right.

The Sentries of the Old Guard having joined it, they are to march it back from whence it came with the greatest Order & decorum and then send off the Detachments Composing it under proper Officers to Each to join their Corps, preserving regularity on the way. After placing his Sentries the Officer of the new Guard is to make his Men lodge their Arms in such a manner that Each Man may have recourse to his in a moment without battle & confusion. In most cases it is best the Arms shou’d be grounded on the Guard parade during the day, no Man to put off his accoutrements on any pretence whatever. This done, the Comd’g Officer accompanied by a Couple of Men is to visit all the Sentries to see that they are posted right & instruct them in the Line of their Duty. His next care is to take such precautions for the security of his post by forming abetties & raising parapets as Circumstances require to guard against any surprize or repel any sudden attempt. He should make himself acquainted not only with all the great Roads leading to the Enemy, or the Army he belongs to, but shou’d search out Every by path and advance by which he may more securely send his parties to reconnoiter the Enemy or make his retreat good on any Emergency. He shou’d have scouting parties all day and Parole going all night towards the Enemy in his rear & upon his flanks to gain intelligence of their motions and give timely notice of any attempt that may be making. If this notice can be done without firing the Scouts or patrols to retreat by way of the Sentries to alarm them. Visiting Rounds shou’d be going all night to see that the Sentries are all the Posts, alert & acquainted with every particular of their duty. The break of day are the most favorable time for an attack or surprize. A good Officer will be careful to turn out his Guard under Arms till an hour after Sunrise, and to have his visiting Rounds & Patrols going these more than ordinary; from watching through the night Men towards morning grow drowsy and careless and are more likely to surprize. An Officer’s reputation calls upon him to guard carefully against this Evil. A guard is bound to maintain its posts as long as possible, but if likely to be overpowered by numbers, it is at least to make a Skirmishing retreat, firing all the way it goes to give the alarm, taking advantage of Every Defile, morass, wood or advantageous spot it can find to delay the Enemy. If the Enemy does not pursue but retire after dislodged, the guard is to resume its posts, first taking measure to be sure all is safe. If two Guards are so posted as to have the same Object in view and depend upon each other, they must be attentive to every thing that befalls one another & act in concert if either is attacked; the other must not only put itself in a posture of defence but must keep patrols constantly going to bring intelligence of what is doing. If the one attacked retreats the other must also. If it returns the other must return. All these things however to depend upon Circumstances and the orders of the Brigadier & Field Officers of the Day. Any Party of whatsoever kind coming towards an Outguard are to be stop’d by the Out Sentries and Notice given to the Guard, which is in most cases to turn out & the Officer to Send a proper person to examine such party & give his orders accordingly. All Flags to be stopped at the Out-Sentries. The Officer of the Guard is to meet them there and to know their business. If they are Charged with Letters or any matter that can be Communicated to him he is to receive and transmit them immediately to the Major Gen’l of the day, otherwise the Flag must wait till Information can be sent to the said Major General, and his order received. No Officer or Soldier is to Sleep one Moment on Guard; no Cooking to go on while on Guard; the Men must either carry their provisions ready cook’d or have it sent to them-the former preferable. No Man to presume to be out of call without permission from the Officer, who is not to suffer more than two to be absent at a time, nor these at an Outpost. In Case of desertion from the out-posts the Officer from whose party it happens is immediately to Change the Counter-sign, advertising the other out-guards of it, who are to conform thereto. He is therefore to Send immediately to inform the Brigadier of the day of it. All, Guards to turn Out to the Brigadier’ & Field Officers of the day, and except the Out-guards, to turn out to all General Officers, paying them the honors due them according to their rank & usage of War. The out-guards to turn out to the Brigadiers & Field Officers of day only, the honours of the drum never to be paid by them; all guards to turn out to the Grand Rounds, the officer of each to prepare an Evening report to the Officer of the Rounds; all Guards of the Line when reliev’d to make a report of every occurrence that may have happen’d to one of the Field Officers, who is to attend at or near the Grand Parade to receive it when the Guard returns. Arms after this wet weather to be carefully inspected and put in the best order.

CAMP M. BROOK, June 13th, 1777.

An immediate return of the Strength of each Company now in Camp to be made to the Quarter Master that the tents may be Proportion’d-at the same time a return of Cloaths wanting will be expected; care to be observed by the Commanding Officer of each Company that there are none drawn but those who are really in want as they must sign the Returns & will be answerable for every article rec’d. The Orderly Sergeants must examine the Tents of their respective Companies & if any Straw shou’ d be wanting they will mention it when they deliver their returns. The Quarter-Master has one Day’s provisions on hand which must be drawn & cook’d tip immediately.


June 17th, 1777.
G. O. Parole. C. Sign.

Major General for to-morrow, Stephens.[52] Brigadier-General for to-morrow, Maxwell.[53] Field Officers, Col. Arendtt[54] & Major Morrell.[55] Brigade Major, Swain.

At a General Court Martial held the 9th inst. whereof Col. Marshall was President, Capt. Jesse Roe[56] was tried for insulting & ill-treating Mr. Coldough, Conductor of Wagons, on the March from Morristown. Acquitted and Justified by the Court. The General approves the sentence and orders Capt. Roe to be releas’d from his Arrest with Honour; he also approves the Sentence of the said Court Martial held the uth Inst. before which Alex’r Brandon of the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment was tried for horse Stealing & acquited; the prisoner to be immediately released from his Confinement. Different Modes of promotion having prevail’d in the Army conductive of Confusion & Discontent in many Instances, the Commander-in-Chief thinks it necessary to establish the following General Rules to prevent all further disputes and inconveniences on this head, all Commissioned Officers to rise regimentally according to Seniority until they arrive to the rank of Captain and from that in the Line of the they belong to by seniority also till they attain the rank of Colonel. This Rule, however, to admit of Exceptions where particular Officers signalize themselves by Conduct of extraordinary merit or where others prove themselves unworthy of preferment by the want or neglect of cultivating any qualification requisite to Constitute the good officer. Ten Men fit for the purpose from each Brigade to parade this Evening at 6 o’clock at Col. Biddle’s Quarters to form a Company of Pioneers. He is to provide them with a sufficient number of proper Officers & every thing necessary to qualify them for doing their Duty immediately.

In case of March of the Army they are to Encamp near his Quarters. The following men: Thomas Backus, Samuel Brown, Joseph Catlett, Isaac Green, Charles Cleer, Labor Camber, William CaIdwell, Joseph Gadington & William Thomas belonging to Captain Wattel’s Company havitig been sent to Camp some time ago and annext to some of the Corps. The Officer Commanding the Corps in which these Men or any of them are now doing duty are Desir’d to send a Return of them to the Adjutant General to-morrow Morning.

HEAD QUARTERS, 13th June, 1777.
Such Rifles as belong to the States in the different Brigades to be immediately Exchang’d with Col. Morgan for Muskets. General Officers Commanding Brigades are desir’d to pay atten. tion to this matter as the nature of this matter requires the utmost dispatch. If a sufficient number of rifles, publick property are not to be procured, the Brigadiers are requested to assist Colonel Morgan Either by Exchanging those that are private property or by purchasing them.

N. B.Those Brigades who have not furnish’d Col. Morgan with the number of Men return’d to the Adjutant General desir’ d to send them immediately.

CAMP M. BROOK, June 13th, 1777.

Major Gen’l Stephens has been pleased to order that there be a Field day of his Division on Sunday at 2 o’clock in the Afternoon. The General hopes that every Officer will make a point of having his Men in the best order upon this occasion both as to their Cloaths & Arms, & that every Non Commission’d Officer & private Soldier will consider his own Reputation as well as that of the Brigade to be concern d in his Conduct upon that day, where we shall be probably honoured with the attendance of His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, and all the the General Officers in Camp. As there has been permission for a General Discharge of Arms yesterday and positive Orders to have them well Clean’d, no Excuse will be admitted for those who have them in order.

The Artillery of the Brigade are likewise to prepare every- thing for their attendance. The Commanding Officer of Each Reg’t will have timely Notice where to apply for blank Cartridges for their Men.

HEAD QUARTERS, 15th June, 1777.

Major General for to-morrow, Sterling.[57] Brigadier General for to-morrow, Woodford. Field Officers Col. Spotswood, Major Crawford.

As it is proper the mode of performing & receiving the Grand Rounds be the same throughout the Army as well for the Sake of Security as uniformity and order. In future the following is that which is to be pursued. The Field Officer of the Grand Rounds before he begins his visits to procure such an Escort as he Chuses not exceeding a Serg’t and Six [men], accompanied by these he is to pass all Sentries remote from the Guards by his Serg’t who is to advance for the purpose answering Grand Rounds when hail’d & giving the Countersign when he arrives near the Guard the Sentry next to it hails, and upon being answer’ d “Grand Rounds,” Cries “Stand Grand Rounds and call the Guard to turn out. When this is done the Officer of the Guard sends a Commission’d officer (if the Guard consists of more than one) if not a Serg’t and six to meet the Rounds, who when arriv’d within twelve paces of them Challenges & on being answer’d “Grand Rounds” Cries “Advance Officer with the Parole,” at the same time making his Party open a passage by wheeling backward from the Centre, for the Officer of the Rounds to pass through them and resting their Firelocks as he passes, the Officer or Serg’t conducts him to the Officer of the Guard who receives him at the right of his Guard with his. Bavonet towards his Breast at which time the Officer of the Rounds whispers the parole in his Ear, the Officer of the Guard finding the Parole true, orders his Guard to rest their Firelocks upon which the Officer of the Rounds goes along the front of the Guard and after Counting them, asking such Questions and giving such Instructions as he thinks proper. Complaints having been made to the Commander-in-Chief that some Officers fond of any pretext to get out of the way of their duty Obtrude themselves upon the Hospital without answering any useful End but rather striving to Embarress & take up the room that might be better employ’d. He orders that not more than one Officer attend any Hospital unless from application of one of the Directors or Physicians and Surgeons General of the Army and that Officer to be a discreet, sensible Man, whose business shall be to observe the tredtment of the Sick & report any neglect or mismanagement he may discover. He is also to assist in supporting good order among the Soldiers but is to Exercise no Authority inconsistent with that perfect Controul the Doctors shou’ d have over their Patients. All Supernumerary Officers immediately to repair to their respective Corps.

CAMP AT MIDDLE BROOK, June 15th, 1777.

The several Regiments to draw provision immediately to compleat their Men to three days exclusive of this, which is to be Cook’d agreeable to General Orders; and the Commanding Officer of the Reg’ts will see that this is continued without the order being repeated, so that the Brigade may be alwavs three days before hand with cook’d provision. The Regiments will be attended on Wednesday and friday Mornings by their Chaplains on their own regimental parades. The seventh Reg’t having no Chaplain will join with the 15th Reg’t and on Sunday the whole to attend on the right of the Brigade as usual & the Chaplains to take it by turn to preach.

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, June 16th, 1777.

Major General for to-morrow Stephens. Brigadier General for to-morrow Conway. Field Officers Col. Wood[58] & Major Beauford[59] Brigade Major, Tarling.

The General Court Martial held on the 13th Inst. having reconsider’d their proceedings of the 3d and being still of their former opinion for acquitting Lieut. Myers of the German Battallion. The General directs that he be acquitted & releas’d from the Guard.

The Commanding Officer nearest any Hospital is to furnish a prudent, good Officer to assist in the Govemmentry so far as relates to the keeping of the Continental Soldiers in order, hav- ing proper Guards and the like, And to see that Justice is done the Sick, reporting any neglect or abuse they may observe; first to the Chief Director of the Hospital, and then, if not remedied, to the Commanding Officer of the Post from which he was sent, who, if he thinks the representations just, to communicate them to the Commander-in-Chief.

The Army not to omit exercising every day, as heretofore practiced; a thing so essential is never to be neglected, unless in such Circumstances as render it impossible.

All parties whatsoever from thirty upwards march’g under Arms to march by Sub. or Grand Divisions unless when the nature of the Ground, or any particular disposition makes a different mode necessary. The Officers to be very attentive that their Men keep their ranks always dressed, & use their feet in Concert which are equally Conducive to the Order, Beauty, Strength & expedition of a marching Body.

For the sake of regularity till a more eligible mode shall be pointed out, Officers are to salute in the following manner only-

For a Standing Salute they are to order their fuzees and take off their Hats gracefully, bringing the Arm down closely to the left Side, untill the person saluted passes. For a marching Salute they are to trail their fuzees & take off their hats as in the foregoing, in both cases it is supposed they have their Fuzees rested on their left Arm, from which they perform the order or trail the first in three, & the last in two Motions and afterwards return their Fuzees to the same Position-In the order they hold out their Fuzees in a Line with themselves with an easy extended Arm.

All regimental paymasters are desir’d immediately to join their respective Corps or they may depend on being punish’d & displac’d. No Excuse but Sickness & that properly certified will be admitted for eluding this order. No Regimental Paymaster in future to absent himself from Camp on any pretence whatever without leave from the Commander-in Chief.

HEAD QUARTERS, June 17th, 1777.
G. 0. Parole. C. Sign.

Major General for to-morrow, Greene. Brigadier General for to-morrow, Maxwell. Field Officers, Col. McClanahan & Lt. Col. Barber.[60] Do. for Baggage Guard, Lt. Col. Pray For Brigadier Major, Weatherspoon.

The Surgeon General is to give papers to all persons in his Department.

Two Officers from those Regiments who have Sick in the Hospital nigh Camp to attend the Same for the purpose pointed out in the Order of Yesterday. A Orderly Serg’t to be appointed to Each Company to take a List every Morning of the Sick belonging to it & report them to the regimental Officer of the day, who is to make a General Report to the Sergeon of the Regiment. The Orderly Se rg’ts to attend the Surgeon, distribute the medicines & do every thing necessary according to his Orders. A proportionate Number of Women to the Sick of Each regim’t to be Sent to the Hospital at Mendham & Black River, to attend the Sick as Nurses.

When Ever prisoners are sent to the Provost the Evidence against them to be inserted in the Charge which will save much unnecessary trouble & delay.

The General Court Martial whereof Col. Marshall was President is dissolved & another General Court Martial to sit to-morrow morning 9 o’clock at the usual place (Gen’l Waynes’ Brigade) to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them-all evidences to attend. Colonel Stephens is appointed President of the Court.

HEAD QUARTERs, June 18th, 1777.
G. O.

Timothy Pickering, Esq’re is appointed Adjutant General to the Continental Army. He is to be obeyed & respected as such. The General begs Col. Connor to accept this Thanks for his Obliging & punctual discharge of the Office for the Time he acted in it.

HEAD QUAR’S M. BROOK, June 19th, 1777.
G. O.

Major Gen’l for to-morrow, Stephens. Brigadier General for to-morrow, Woodford. Field Officers, Col. Malmadie and Major Heth. Brigade Maj’r, Tarling.

The Quarter Master of each Reg’ t is to draw provision for such sick as remain with the regim’ t for which purpose they are to be included and their Numbers ascertained in each Provision Return the Commissary will supply them with fresh meat when on hand.

The General Court Martial now Sitting will proceed forthwith to the Trial of Major Peers, Brigade Major to General Weedon, arrested by order of Colonel Spotswood for refusing a true & just return of his Regiment, and sending him an insulting message by his Adjutant, all Witnesses to attend.

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, June 20th, 1777.

Major General for to-morrow, Green. Brigadier.General for to-morrow, Conway. Field Officers, Col. Dayton[61] and Major Davis. Brigade Major, Witherspoon.

General Wayne’s Brigade is to practise with actual firing this afternoon at 4 o’C. Each Captain or Commanding Officer of a Company is to make out an immediate Sign’d Roll of his Company according to which his Men are ever to be drawn up & when formed in two Ranks, the shortest Men are ever to be plac’ d in the front, by which means the firing will be rendered rapid & the effect more certain. The Commander-in-Chief approves the following Sentences of a General Court Martial, held the 18th & 19th Inst’s, when Col. Stevens[62] was President, & orders them to be put in execution forthwith, viz: William Butler of Col. Thos. Hartley’s[63] Reg’t & Capt. Wm. Nichol’s Company, charg’d with desertion & forging paper, found guilty of the charge & sentenced to receive one Hundred lashes on his bare back. Rich’d Henley of the 7th Pen’a Reg’t charg’d with desertion, found guilty of the charge & sentenced to receive 100 lashes on his Bare back, well laid on. Alex’r McDonald of the 6th Penn’a reg’t, charg’d with desertion, found guilty and sentenced to receive 100 lashes 6n his bare back, & to be sent on hoard one of the Continental frigates to serve during the War. Lieut.Booker of the ioth Va. Reg’ t charged with attending the Parade drunk, found guilty of the charge & sentenced to be repremanded by the Colo. of the Reg’t he belongs to in the presence of the Officers.

Ensign Pope of the 10th Pa. Reg’t charg’d with not attending his duty on parade acquitted & ordered to be forthwith discharged from his arrest.

John Rawling of Colo. Patterson’s reg’t Charg’d with deserting & going to the Enemy found guilty of deserting & Sentenc’ d to receive 100 lashes on his bare back & to be sent on board one of the Continental Frigates & to serve during the term of his enlistment.

Michael Reynolds of the 5th Pen’s Reg’t charg’d for deserting towards the Enemy found guily and sentenc’d to rec’e 100 lashes on his bare back, well laid on & to be sent on board one of the Continental Frigates to Serve during the term of his enlistment.

William Pannell of Capt. Govan’s Com’d in the 4th Pens’a Reg’t charg’d with deserting from his reg’t and endeavoring to go to the Enemy, found guilty and sentenc’d to rec’e 100 lashes on his bare back.

Alex’r McDonald, John Rawling & Michael Reynolds who are sentenc’d to be put on board some of the Continental Frigates, are after rec’g their punishments still to be detain’d prisoners by the Provost Martial till further Orders.


A Court Martial to sit this morning for the trial of all prisoners in the Quarter Guard. The Officer of that Guard desir’d to make his report regularly to the General after he is releav’d, that he keeps his guard from stragling and that he does not leave it himself upon any pretence but to be always ready to turn out to any Gen’l Officer that may happen to pass that way.

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, June 21, 1777.

Major General for to-morrow Lord Stirling. Brigadier General for to-morrow Muhlenburg. Field Officers Cob. Martin & Lt. Col. D’Hart.[64] Brigade Major, Day.[65]

Colo. Shelburn’s Detachment at present w’th Gen’l Parsons[66] is to Join Gen’l Varnum’s[67] Brigade. Gen’l De Borre’s Brigade to get ready to march to-morrow morning at 5 O’C.-he will send to the Adj’t Gen’l for orders to march. Gen’l Varnum’s Brigade to relieve the picquets at Whannest’s Mill & Vanvartin’s Bridge at 4 o’C.


The Reg’t Quarter Master with the Camp-le-Men to preserve Neets fut & to make an Oil for the Musket Locks of the Corps. The Officers Commanding Companies will take notice that no excuse will be admitted for not having the Arms in the best order. They will be arrested & prosecuted with all the vigour which the regulation of the Army will admit.

The Division Will have a field day as soon as the Arms are in Order & the Men have two or three times practis’d the Manoeuvres to be performed that day. Officer hopes to find them in the best Order & ammunition complete.


June 23d, 1777.

Major Gen’l for to-morrow, Green. Brigadier General for to-morrow, Weedon. Field Officers, Col’o Lewis[68] & Major Nicholas.[69] Brigade Major, Peers.

The Commander-in-Chief approves the following Sentences of a Gen’l Court Martial held the 20th Inst. whereof Colo Stephens was president & orders them to be put in Execution forthwith, vizt.

Thos. White, otherwise call’d Thos. Jones of Col’o Hartley’s Batt’ n Charg’ d with desertion. The Prisoners pleaded guilty & was Sentenc’d to receive fifty lashes on his bare back. Alex’r Gray of the 5th P. Reg’t Charg’d with Desertion found guilty & Sentenc’d to receive fifty lashes on his bare back. Levi Bloxam of the 9th Virg’a Reg’t Charg’d with Insolence to & threatening to Shoot Ensign Robbins [John Robins] of the same Reg’t found guilty & Sentenc’d to rec’e thirty Nine lashes on his Bare back. James McCurle of the 5th P. Reg’t charg’d with insulting & charging his Bayonet on the Officer of the Ferry Guard at Trent Town, and presenting his piece at Lieut. Smith of 5th P. Reg’t in the face of the whole Reg’t, found guilty & Sentenc’d to receive 100 Lashes on his bare back.

William McCurl of the 5th P. Reg’t charg’d with insulting & Charging his Bayonet on the Officers of the ferry guard at Trent Town, no Evidence appearing to Support the Charge ag’t the Prisoner the Court ordered him to be discharg’d ftom confinement for the present.

The following letter rec’d from Col’o Spotswood.

MIDDLE BROOK, June 23d, 1777.


Although the Court Martial acquitted Major Peers w’th Honor yet, I think Something remains to be done on my Side for the Injury done that Gentleman. You’ll therefore oblige me by putting the Enclosed concession in the next Gen’l Orders.

Y’r Ob’t Servant,
Alex’r Spotswood Col’o.

Col’o Spotswood being Convinc’d that he was wrong in putting Major Peers under arrest is Extremely sorry for it.

To Colonel Pickering


The Militia of the State of New Jersey assembled upon the late Alarm by Signal are dismissed with the Cordial thanks of the Commander-in-Chief for the readiness w’th w’ch they have turn’d out, & the Spirit & bravery they have shown in harrassing the Enemy, & preventing their incursion, such manly Exertions in the Militia prove highly discouraging to the Enemy and while the Same Spirit remains, as Danger is to be apprehended from future attempts.


The rain having prevented the Execution of part of the after Orders of Yesterday-Every Brigade & Corps of the Army is to parade to-morrow morning at 4 o’C if it sh’d not rain -those after orders in other respects to be punctually comply’d with.

G. O.

In case of an Alarm the Army is to he drawn up in two Lines on the Northern Side of the Brooke, Gen’l Green’s Division on the right, Gen’l Lincoln’s on the left of the Front Line, Gen’l Stephen’s Division on the right of the 2d Line, & Brigadier Gen’l Parson’s Brigade on the left of the 2d Line-to be join’d by Gen’l Varnum when he comes up. The Troops to make best Shelter they can w’th boughs of Trees-Each Division to furnish [ S.2 S.2 C. 25 P. for Picquet to Parade forthwith near the Bridge. An Allarm will be made by the firing of two Field pieces at the park of Artillery, upon which the whole Army is to muster & take the ground Shewn to the Brig’r General with all possible dispatch. The Park of Artillery to form in the Center of the 1st Line.

CAMP Q. TOWN, 25th June.

A Brigade Court Martial to sit immediately for trial of all the Prisoners in the Quarter Guard, all Evidences to attend.

A Capt. from the 7th Reg’t President.

(2 Sub’s from 11th Reg’t.
Members (1 Do from 7th Do.
(1 Do from 15th Do.

HEAD QUARTERS Q. TOWN, June 25th, 1777.
Major General for to morrow-Stephen. Brigadier General for to-morrow-Woodford. Field Officers Lt. Cob. Sayers, Major Hays. Brigade Major, Swaine.

The Picquets to be relieved this day at 10 O’C A. M. Tomorrow at 6 0′ C., the usual Hour. Whenever any firing or anything Else unusual in the Camp is permitted by the Major Gen’l of the Day, he is immediately to report it to the Commander-in-Chief-to prevent any unnecessary inquiries into the Cause of it. The Officers are always to take the most particular care that no damage be where the Troops are encamped. The inevitable distresses of War are so great and numerous that any addition to them must be deem’d to prdceed from barbarity & wantoness alone-more especially on us, by whom that property was design’d, and ought to be protected.


The Cartridges which are too Small or have too little Powder, or are damag’d to be return’d to the Commissary of Stores, and they will be exchang’d for what will Suit their different Arms. by order of Gen’l Knox.[70]


The Commanding Officer is sorry he is Oblig’d to report the Orders of the 3oth May-viz’t) “No Officer, Non Commision’d Officer, or Soldier to absent themselves from the Reg’t without leave from the Commanding Officer of the Reg’t, with the addition that whoever disobeys them hereafter may expect to be call’ d to an Acc’ t. He is well persuaded every officer acquainted with him will not think this severe, or that wants any unnecessary or particular respect paid. He wou’d wish to know the time an Officer wanted leave, and where he might be sent for in case of Sudden call. It gives him pain that his Duty obliges him to point at two Subalterns whose disobedience in this Order, they upon reflection must acknowledge, Subject them to an Arrest, but from the high opinion he entertains of both these Gentlemen as promising Officers, He will take no further notice of it, and Sincerely wishes every officer will endeavor to make himself so well acquainted with his Duty as not to leave it in the power of their Superiors to call them to an Acc’ t which The Discipline & Subordination demand it, yet to an Officer of tenderness & Feeling it will ever give pain.

26th June, 1777.

The Troops are to complete 2 days Provision of Bread or Flour as Soon as possible & but one days Provision of Flesh (if Fresh) or 3 days if Salt, if it is to be had, and hold themselves in readiness to March at a moment’s warning. They will lodge themselves in the best manner they can this Night near the Gaps of the Mountains. From every Gap proper Picquets are to be posted, & Patrols Sent out during the Night. The allow’d Quantity of Rum to be drawn for the Men immediately.

June 27th, 1777

The cadets Isaac Davis, James Dowdale & John Heth[71] are in future to do duty when it comes to their turn in the Companies they belong to. The Officers and Sg’ts are desir’d to make themselves acquainted with the Signals of the Drum given at yesterday. At Revelie Beating, Officers of the different companies are to form them, and Join Such Other Companies as they please So as to have Musick to each when they will practice Wheeling, forming & Marching, taking every pains in their power to instruct them in this necessary part of discipline. It is expected those Officers best acquainted with Manoueveres will be very active and that the others (who are by far the greatest Number) will never Miss any opportunity of improving; as nothing can be more disagreeable than for any Officer commanding the Reg’t in manoeuvreing to be under the necessity of reproving by Name any Officer for his Extraordinary Ignorance.

W. H.


Major Gen’l to-morrow Lincoln. Brigadier Weedon. Field Officers-Colo. Chambers[72] & Major Rush. Brigade Major, Day.

Commanding Officers of Corps who have Men in the Provoal Guard ag’t whom Sentences have been passed & approved are, without delay to see these Sentences executed. It being neces- sary to Determine the rank of Cob. Bland[73] & Cob. Moylan,[74] Colonels of Horse, Major General Sullivan, Green, L’d Stirling, Stephens & Lincoln were appointed a Court to inquire into the Matter. hear the pretensions of the parties and Determine their Ranks. The Court to sit this Afternoon at 6 o’C at Gen’l Green’s Quarters. any three of them to be a quorum. The Commander-in-Chief earnestly desires that General Officers in Case of an Action or the appearance of one, will, when practicable, Send all their orders either in writing or by an Aid-de-Camp, or Brigade Major to prevent the unintelligible and Contradictory directions which are too often convey’ d, and may prove fatal to the views & designs of the Commanding Officers. Intelligence Of’ the Enemies movements & approach. they are also requested to communicate in the same manner to the Commander-in-Chief Officer, otherwise it will be impossible for them to make a proper disposition, as the goodness of this must depend upon the Certainty & precision of the information. All officers at out Posts are to govern themselves by this order So far as it will apply in their Case.

The General directs an immediate Return to be made to the Adj’t General of the kill’d and wounded and Missing since Sunday last inclusive.

For the future the Commanding Officer of Corps are as soon as possible to make an exact return to the Adjutant General of all the Kill’d wounded & missing of their respective Corps. Specifying the Ranks and Time, when, & Places where such Events shall happen.

Such Commanding Officers of parties are from time to time to make the like exact Returns of all Prisoners they shall take from the Enemy and as soon as possible after the Capture.


Major General for to-morrow, Stephen, Brigadier, Woodford. Field Officers, Lt. Col. Wilson[75] & Major Richeson.[76] Brigade Major, Peers.

The Several Reg’ ts are to Send for their Tents and pitch them where they are Posted. Orderely Serg’ts to attend at Head Quarters as usual. All Chaplains are to perform Divine Service to Morrow and every Succeeding Sunday with their respective Brigades and Regiments where their will possibly admit of it. And the Commanding Officers of Corps are to see that they attend themselves with Officers of all Ranks Setting the example. The Commander-in-Chief expects an exact Obedience in future as an invariable rule of practice and Every neglect being consider’d not only a breach of Orders but a disregard to Decency, Virtue and Religion.

CAMP MIDDLE BROOK, June 29th, 1777.

In future each Reg’t is to mount a Quarter Guard sufficient for its use, Convenience, independent of that which is daily furnish’ d for the Brigade.


Major General for to-morrow, Green. Brigadier, Mulenburg. Field Oflicers Col’o Spotswood L’ t Col. Febiger.

The Quarter-Master General is to make out a proper Distribution of Waggons among the Brigades & Corps of the Army & in proportion to their respective Members, to ascertain which they will apply to the Adjutant General.


Major General for to-morrow, Sullivan.[77] Brigadier, DeBorres. Field Officers, Col. Matthews[78] and Lt. Col. Willis. Brigade Major, Mullens.

A Special Court Martial to sit to-morrow morning at 9 O’C. at the usual place near Gen’l Wayne’s Quarters for the trial of Major Stewart of the 2nd Mary’d Reg’t. Colo. David Hall is appointed President of this Court-all Witnesses to attend.

All Commanding Officers who have in their Reg’ ts any Non-Commission’d Officers or Soldiers that were originally enlisted into the Reg’t lately commanded by Col. Smallwood[79] to deliver them to Colo. Stone,[80] who now commands that same Reg’t unon his making it appear they were so inlisted.

A Large Horseman’s Tent mark’d I H Stone 1st Maryland Reg’ t together with some common Tents were taken from one Waggon on the late march from Quibble Town & put into another. Whoever has them is to send them to Colo. Stone without delay.

30th June, 1777.
When the weather clears up, the Arms of the whole Brigade to be put in the best order, the locks well oil’d, and any deficiency in ammunition to be immediately completed. When oil is wanted The Commanding Officer of Reg’ts are to see that Neets feet[81] are Boil’d up for that purpose without delay. His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief Complains that the Gen’l Orders Given respecting the Troops being always provided with Three day’s provisions on hand has Either through the Negligence of Officers or carelessness of Commissaries not being Strictly comply’d with. The Commanding Officers of each Corps will carefully attend for the future that no part of this breach of Publick Orders may be Justly charg’d to this Brigade. They will please to Represent to their Brigadier in Writing what kind of Provisions the Commissary is deficient in that he may be able immediately to report the Same that the blame may fall upon the proper person. Major Gen’l Stephen could not help expressing his Concern the last evening at Seeing so few Officers attending the Parade at Retreat Beating. It is not only expected that Every Capt. & Subaltern off Duty Should attend to See their Rolls call’d, their Arms and Ammunition examin’d, their Men Warn’d for Duty & all Abseptees accounted for, but it is likewise hop’d the Field Officers will attend to See this very necessary piece of Duty purform’d. Their presence cannot fail of giving authority to the Inferior Officers & Setting that good Example that will produce the most happy effect. As this Brigade will probably be the next Detach’d the General hopes Every thing will be ready to move at the Shortest Notice.

30th June, 1777.

The Commanding Officers of the Different Companies are required to peruse the General Division & Brigade Orders for many Days back to prevent their being repeated, and Officers from being reflected upon. The Colonel & Major’s Orderly Book are at the service of the Officers ’till Books can be for Each Comp’y. In the meantime the Major insists ultimmediate compliance w’th the Orders of the 9th, 20th & Inst., as he would Consider it as Some reflection upon him if Major Gen’l Stephens should have sufficient reason for putting the last order referred to in execution. Indeed, he is much Surpriz’d that many Officers have not discover’d a greater inclination to improve themselves by reading the Gen’ 1 Orders frequently & with attention as there are many of them replete with Military instructions, to say nothing of the Orders which Every Officer is in a greater or lesser degree indispensably bound to execute.

JULY 1ST, 1777.

A Court Martial to sit this Morning for the Trial of all Prisoners in the Quarter Guard. The Rank of the Field Officers in the Virginia Line is to be settled to-morrow if any of the Gentlemen of this Brigade have other Claims to make than are already stated they will give them into the General. He thinks it will be necessary that the whole give in the Dates of their Commissions or appointments.

1st July, ’77.

Major General for to-morrow, Stephens. Brigadier, Weedon. Field Officers, Col. McClenahan & Lt. Cob. Mais, Brigade Major, Peers.

A General Court Marshal to sit to-morrow morning at 9 o’C at the usual place for the Trial of Such Prisoners as Shall be brought before them. All Witnesses to attend. Colo. Walter Stewart is appointed President of this Court.

The late Court Martial of which Colo. Stephens was President is dissolv’ d. Pay Abstracts for the Month of May are to be made out immediately & deliv’d to the Pay Master General for Examination.

The Several Troops & Detachments of Colo. Bland’s Light Horse are to assemble forthwith at their Colo’s Quarters. The Colo. will apply to the Quarter Master General to Assign a place where the regiment may get forrage to recruit their Horses.

A Return of the Sick in Camp of the Different Regiments to be made to the Surgeon General of the Army Every Tuesday & Friday at 3 o’C in the Morning Specifying the Men’s Names’ Disease & the Company they belong to. These Returns to be sign’d by the Regimental Surgeon. Jonathan Mifflin, Esq’r, & Henry Emanuel Lutterbock, Esq’r, are appointed Deputy Quarter Master Generals for the Army with the rank of Colonel and are to be respected & obey’d as such.

Clement Biddle, Esq’r, is app’d Commissary of Forrage for this Army. Notwithstanding the order of June 3rd the General is informed that many Officers are turning their Horses into Fields of Grain & Grasses & giving assurance to the Proprietors of them that the damage done shall be paid for by the Quarter Master General. When he recollects the orders already given and Considers the variety of Distress’s under which the inhabitants of New Jersey are still groaning the General is astonish’d to find that neither Duty, Honor nor Humanity even restrain officers from so cruel and unlawful a practice. He therefore once more & in the most Pointed & Positive terms forbids it, and orders that no Horses be turn’d into any field whatsoever without license first obtain’d from the Quarter Master General or Some Person acting under his authority. After this Second notice any Officers offending, upon Complaint being made may rest assur’ d that they shall not only be answerable for the Damage done but brought before a Court Martial for Disobedience of Orders.

July 1st, 1777.
That the Commanding Officer of each Company make an exact return of what arms and accoutrements are wanting to complete his Men, more especially Tawmahawks, for which but too frequent Orders have been given. All Arms slightly damaged & thereby rendered unfit for use to be brought in * * *



  1. It was presented to the Virginia Historical Society in September, 1881, by the late Rev. Philip Slaughter, D. D., who inscribed upon its cover: “Found among the papers of my father, Captain Philip Slaughter, the comrade in-arms of Major Heth in the American Revolution.”
    The Slaughter family can be traced back in England to 1485, when the name was spelled Schlostre. John Slaughter was a grantee of land in eastern Virginia as early as 1635. In 1731, Robert and Francis Slaughter were chosen as the first church wardens of St. Mark’s parish, Culpeper county. Robert Slaughter married a daughter of Cadwalader Jones, of Essex county, and had issue seven sons, of whom the fifth, James, “commanded a regiment at the battle of Great Bridge” in 1775, the first engagement of the Revolution in Virginia. He married Susan, daughter of Major Philip Clayton, and the eldest of their issue was Philip Slaughter, born December 4, 1758; died 1849; entered Captain John Jameson’s company of minute men from Culpeper county in 1775, and marched with it to Williamsburg to reclaim the powder seized by Lord Dunmore.
    Having been discharged from military service, Philip Slaughter reentered school, but in the spring of 1776, he re-enlisted in Colonel John J ameson’s troop of cavalry for a term of three years.
    Before it marched, however, he was appointed by the Committee of Safety of Culpeper county a lieutenant in Captain Gabriel Long’s company of riflemen, which joined the army under General Washington in New York. In 1777 this company was attached to the Eleventh Vir ginia regiment on Continental Establishment, commanded by the celebrated Daniel Morgan. Lieutenant Slaughter was promoted captain in 1778, and served gallantly throughout the war, participating among others in the mumentous battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth. He was one of those who endured the bitter hardships of Valley Forge. His mesamates were the two Porterfields, Charles and Robert, Lieutenant Johnson, and Captain John Marshall (subsequently the Chief Justice). Captain Slaughter kept a diary of his campaigns, which was unfortunately lost during the late war. Subsequent to the Revolution he held various civil offices, among which was that of High Sheriff of Culpeper county. He was twice married, his first wife being a daughter of French Strother, and his second a daughter of Colonel Thomas Towles. The issue by the two marriages was nineteen children-sons and daughters-whose descendants, now numbering several hundred, comprehend many of the most estimable family names in the State and Union. Slaughter’s History of St. Mark’s Parisk, and History of St. George’s Parish, second edition, with Memoir of Dr. Slaughter by the present writer.
  2. A relative of Dr. Robert Mackey, of Winchester, Virginia, an executor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin (the nephew of Lord Fairfax), and the maternal great-grandfather of ex-Governor F. W. M. Holliday.
  3. Several diaries kept by Colonel William Heth whilst a prisoner in Quebec, Canada in 1776, in 1788, and in 1792, are in the possession of his great-grandson, Mr. Richard Heth Munford Harrison, Richmond. In that of 1792, Colonel Heth gives an account of a visit to his parents, whose residence appears then to have been in Ohio county, in what was known as the “Pan-Handle,” and not fardistant from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  4. Henry Heth married in Richmond, November Jo, 1787, Nancy Hare. He was United States Commissioner of Loans for the State of Virginia, and owned the Blackheiath coal pits, in Chesterfield county, which were subsequently operated by his son, John Heth, who, in 1837, incorporated this property and another adjacent, as the Blackheath and Huguenot Coal and Iron Companies, with a directory composed of himself, Dr. John Brockenbrough, president of the Virginia Bank, and William H.Macfarland, president of the Farmers’ Bank, Richmond. In 1839 he went to England, and endeavored, unsuccessfully, to capitalize the property at L200,000. Another son, Beverley Heth, operated the Norwood coal mine in Powhatan county. He married in 1830, Virginia, daughter of Robert Gwathmey, and died December 29, 1842, aged thirty-five years, leaving issue. The daughters of Captain Henry Heth married respectively Messrs. Temple Gwathmey, Richard H. Cunningham,Archibald M.. Harrison, Miles Cary Selden, Robert Beverley Randolph and Thomas Lynch Hamilton, of South Carolina. John Heth was appointed a midshipman, United States Navy, but resigned in 1822. He was latterly known as “Colonel.” He married Margaret, daughter of George Pickett, Richmond, and aunt of the late George E. Pickett, Major-General Confederate States Army. Colonel John Heth died at “Needwood,” Chesterfield county, Virginia, April 30, 1842. Among his issue were the first wife of the late Colonel Julian Harrison, Confederate States Army, and Major-GeneralHarry Heth, Confederate States Army, now Washington, D. C.
  5. He was allowed by the State of Virginia, May 21, 1783, 7,777 acres bounty land for service from June, 1774. Military Certificates, Book No. I, p. 458. December 8, 1809. His representatives were allowed additionally 688 acres. Book No.2, p. 926, Virginia Land Registry.
  6. Saffell’s Records of the Revolution, p. 276, and Drake’s Biographicat Dictonary, so give the date of his appointment as lieutenant-colonel.
  7. Drake.
  8. See Ante, p.266.
  9. Still the war upon Colonel Heth did not cease. An amount of several hundred dollars accruing from a commission fixed by Congress was disputed. Colonel Heth referred the matter to the courts, where the legal decision was in his favor, and he received a receipt from the government in full and final satisfaction of his accounts. The net emoluments of the office appear to have been about $4,000 annually.
  10. Gray Briggs was a native of England, and his wife, the daughter of John Pleasants, of “Curles,” son of John and Dorothea (Cary) Pleasants, and grandson of John Pleasants (and his wife Jane, widow of Samuel Tucker), who emigrated from Norwich, England, and settled at “Curles,” James river, in 1668. Born 1640; died May 12, 1698.
  11. “Drowned by the capsizing of a sail-boat in James river, October 7, 1816.
  12. His descendants in Kentucky are said to be held in high socialesteem.
  13. Parents of Richard Heth Munford Harrison.
  14. The Virginia Convention in session at Richmond, January 12, 1776, by hallot elocted the fol1owing as officers of the Seventh Virginia regiment : William Diangerfield, Colonel (see ante, p. 216); Alexander McClanehan, Lientenant-Colonel, and William Nelson, Major. The last named was subsequently promoted lieutenant-colonel, and is presumed to have been the officer of the text. Waddill (Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, p. 160) states that Colonel McClanahan was at the battle of Great Bridge, near Norfolk, December 9, 1775, in which every British grenadier was killed, without loss to the Virginians. He served under General Andrew Lewis at Williamsburg in 1776, and was commissioned colonel of the Seventh Virginia, October 7, 1776. At that time General Woodford’s brigade was composed of the Third, Seventh, Eleventh, and Fifteenth regiments. McClanahan retired from the army before the end of the war. He married Miss Shelton, a sister of the first wife of Patrick Henry. He had issue-two daughters-Mrs. Abney and Mrs. Austin, and a son, John, who died unmarried.
  15. January 12, 1776, Abraham Bowman was appointed by the Virginia Convention lieutenant-colonel of the Eighth Virginia or “German Regiment,” of which Feter Muhlenburg was appointed colonel. The latter was subsequently promoted major-general. Bowman received from the State of Virginia, October 1, 1810, 7,591 2/3 acres of land as bounty for seven years and ten months’ service.
  16. Josiah Tannehill, subsequently, from January 1, 1782, paymaster and clothier of Colonel Gibson’s regiment, colonel of militia; and after the war married Nancy, sister of Colonel William Heth.
  17. The celebrated Daniel Morgan.
  18. Alexander, son of Colonel John, the eldest son of Colonel Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, 17I0-1722, was first captain of an independent company; appointed major of the Second Virginia regiment, August 17, 1775; promoted lieutenant-colonel; received, September 4, 1790, 6,000 acres of land as bounty from the State of Virginia.
  19. Richard Parker, lieutenant-colonel Second Virginia regiment; promoted colonel First Virginia, February To, 1778; received 6,666 2/3 acres bounty land from Virginia, June 4, 1783, for three years’ service.
  20. William Woodford, born in Caroline county, Virginia, in 1735; served with distinction as lieutenant in the French and Indian war (see ante, p. 228); appointed colonel Second Virginia regiment in 1775 subsequently commanded the First Virginia brigade; wounded at the battle of Brandywine; at the siege of Charleston was made prisoner and taken to New York city; died there November 23, 1780. His heirs received, August 20, 1783, 10,000 acres from Virginia as bounty land for three years’ service. His son, John T. Woodford, was a lieutenant-colonel in the war of 1812.
  21. Henry Vowles received 4,666 2/3 acres of land bounty for services as captain-lieutenant.
  22. Captains Reuben and Bernard Lipscomb, both received bounty lands from Virginia.
  23. Six men were usually appointed for each regiment and sometimes one for each company, as camp colourmen. They marched with the quartermaster to assist in making necessary preparations against the arrival of the regiment in a new encampment. They also carried the camp colors. (Duane’s Military Dictionary.)
  24. Captain Thomas Church (originally of Wayne’s battalion), of Colonel Francis Johnston’s Fifth Pennsylvania regiment, appointed January 5, 1776; promoted major Fourth Pennsylvania September, 1777; relieved from service January 2, 1782; died near Coventryville, Chester county, Pennsylvania.
  25. George Weedon patented 236 acres near the lands of John Winston in 1694 (Virginia Land Registry Book, No.2, p.5), and John Weedon 400 acres of land in Henrico county, July 9, 1724 (No. 12, p. 12). George Weedon served as an ensign in the French and Indian war (see ante, p.214). Subsequent to the Revolution he was an innkeeper and portmaster of Fredericksburg, Virginia.
  26. Peudhomme De Borre, a French officer of thirty-five years’ service in Europe, claimed the post of honor on the extreme right of the line at the battle of Brand ywine. General Sullivan would not yield, and by a circuitous march endeavoring to outreach De Borre was late upon the field. The latter then took the coveted position, but his brigade was the first to give way in the action. For his conduct on this occasion and also in the expedition against Staten Island, Congress voted an inquiry. De Borre was offended and resigned his comrnission, which was promptly accepted.
  27. Valentine Peers received from the State of Virginia 5,333 1/3 acres as bounty for three years’ service as captain.
  28. Lewis Woodruff was appointed, November 28, 1776, second lieutenant of the Fourth New Jersey battalion of the Second State Establishment.
  29. Colonel Clement Biddle.
  30. Michael Ryan, promoted from captain Fifth Pennsylvania regiment; suspended May 19, 1778; Inspector-General of Pennsylvania 1780; resided in Alexandria, Virginia, after the war
  31. Adam Hubley, Jr. lieutenant colonel Tenth Pennsylvania regiment.
  32. Samuel Hay, promoted lieutenant-colonel Tenth Pennsylvania regiment, February 2, 1778.
  33. Major-General Benjamin Lincoln.
  34. Following this record is a page filled with an account of blacksmith’s work, of date April 25, 1778, and a memorandum by one “William Bradford–Harford county, May ye 9th, 1780, State of Maryland.” Several leaves, probably are also missing. The succeeding page commences disconnectedly, being the judgment of the Commander-in-Chief, who dissents from an acquital by a court martial, and directs a reconsideration of the matter. A William Bradford was appointed November 28, 1776, first lieutenant in a rifle company of the regimental commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Moses Rawlings; resigned April, 1778.
  35. Peter Bryan Bruin, appointed captain Seventh Virginia regiment, December 13, 1776; promoted major; died in Claiborne county, Mississipii, January 27, 1827
  36. Robert Porterfield, lieutenant Seventh Virginia regiment, January 1, 1777; adjutant of Colonel Daniel Morgan’s Eleventh and Fifteenth Virginia regiments, incorporated as they stood from May 31, 1777 to November 30, 1778; promoted captain on the Continental establishment; received 5,221 2/3 acres of land as bounty from the State for seven years and ten months’ service; subsequently brigadier-general of State troops; married Mary, sister of Colonel William Heth.
  37. Again a break in the record-a leaf apparently missing.
  38. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenburg, promoted major-general born October 1. 1746; died October 1, 1807.
  39. General Charles Scott, from Virginia.
  40. Thomas Count de Conway, promoted major.general.
  41. James Harrison, of Colonel Daniel Morgan’s regiment.
  42. Thomas Ransadell or Ransdell, appointed lieutenant Seventh Virginia regiment, July 1, 1777.
  43. General Nathaniel Greene.
  44. Colonel Matthias Ogden, of New Jersey.
  45. John Sears, lieutenant-colonel of Virginia on Continental Establishment, received 6,000 acres bounty land from Virginia, September 4, 1790, for three year’s service.
  46. Morgan Conner entered the service in 1776 as lieutenant in Captain George Nagel’s company in Colonel William Thompson’s regiment; appointed brigade major to General John Armstrong, with rank of major; succeeded Wilkinson as lieutenant-colonel in 1777; he claimed rank, in 1779, as lieutenant-colonel Eleventh Pennsvlvania regiment; subsequently made lieutenant- colonel Seventh Pennsylvania; said to have been lost at sea. His estate was administered on in 1782.
  47. A German Battalion was raised agreeably to a resolution of Congress, May 25, 1776, composed of four companies from Pennsylvania, four from Maryland, to which was added a ninth, July 9, 1777. Lodowick Weltner was commissioned lieutenant-colonel August 9, 1777.
  48. Again a missing leaf.
  49. Tully Robinson, Captain of State Line of Virginia, received 4,000 acres as bounty for three years’ service, June 7, 1832.
  50. De la Raddiere appointed Colonel of Engineers, July 8, 1777; died in service.
  51. Nicholas Dietrich, Baron de Ottendorif, a nobleman from Lusatia, Saxony, bad served in the “Seven Years’ War” as a lieutenant under Frederick the Great. Upon the close of that war he went to Paris, where he associated with Kosciuszko and Roman de Lisle. At the breaking out of the Revolution the three came to America, Koskiuszke entered the staff of General Washington, De Lisle was made captain of artillery and Ottendorif, at the request of Washington, was appointed a brevet captain. On December 5, 1776, Congress directed Captain Ottendorif to raise an independant corps, he raised three companies in Philadelphia and took command of them with the rank of major. The corps was subsequently merged into Armand’s Legion.
  52. Adam Stephen.
  53. William Maxwell.
  54. Baron d’Arendt, a colonel in the Continental service, appointed March 19, 1777, to the command of the German battalion; superseded Lieutenant-Colonel Samuel Smith in the command of Fort Mifflin in October, 1777, but from illness was compelled soon to relinquish it to Colonel Smith.
  55. Major Thomas Morrell of the Fourth New Jersey battalion.
  56. Jesse Roe appointed February 3, 1777, captain of the artillery artificers of Colonel Benjamin Flower’s Pennsylvania regiment.
  57. William Alexander, Lord Stirling.
  58. James Wood, son of Colonel James Wood, founder of Winchester, Virginia; member of the Virginia Convention of June, 1776, from Frederick county; appointed colonel Novemher 15, 1776; Governor of Virginia in 1796; died in Richmond, Virginia, June 16, 1813. Wood county, Virginia, was named in his honor.
  59. Abraham Buford, promoted colonel and assigned to the command of Morgan’s Eleventh Virginia regiment, May 16, 1778; May 29, 1780, his command was surprised and massacred hy olonet Tarleton at Waxhaw creek; died in Scott county, Kentucky, June 29, 1833; received 8,611 acres of land as bounty from the State of Virginia for seven years and ten months’ service.
  60. Francis Barber appointed major third New Jersey battalion February 9, 1776 ; promoted lieutenant colonel of the second establishment, November 28, 1776; lieutenant-colonel Third New Jersey regiment frorm June 1, 1777; and commandant to January 6, 1783; killed by the falling of a tree in camp at New Windsor, New York February 11, 1783; served as sub-inspector on the staff of General Steuben April 1, 1778; adjutant-general to Lord Stirling; aid to General Sullivan; deputy adjutant-general to General Green; severally wounded at the battles of Monmouth, and woullded at the battles of Newtown and at the seige of Yorktown.
  61. Colonel Elias Dayton, of New Jersey; promoted brigadier-general.
  62. Colonel Ebenzer Stevens of the New York artillery regiment.
  63. Colonel Thomas Hartley, born near Reading, Pennsylvania, September 7, 1748; removed to York in 1766 and admitted to the bar July 25, 1769; appointed lieutenant-colonel Sixth Pennsylvania battalion January 10, 1776; colonel, January 11, 1777, of the Eleventh Pennsylvania; died at York, Pennsylvania, December 21, 1800.
  64. William D’Hart, appointed major of First New Jersey Battalion of First Establishment, November 7, 1775; major First Battalion of Second Establishment, November 28, 1776; promoted lieutenant-colonel January I, 1777; heutenarit-colonel of Second Battalion, September 26, 1780; resigned.
  65. Benjamin Day, adjutant Second Virginia regiment; after the war practiced law in Fredericksburg, Virginia; Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Masons of Virginia, 1797-1800; died 1821.
  66. Samuel Holden Parsons promoted major-General.
  67. James Mitcbell Varnum.
  68. Colonel William Lewis of the New Jersey militia, from Burlington county. The New Jersey State line rendered important service in the various sanguinary engagements in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, their value being attested by the commander-in-chief.
  69. Major George Nicholas, commandant of Company No.2, Second Virginia regiment.
  70. General Henry Knox.
  71. John Heth, a younger brother of Colonel William Heth, born 1760; promoted lieutenant and ensign Second Virginia regiment in 1781, and received as bounty from the State of Virginia 3,036 2/3 acres of land; member of the Virginia Society of the Society of Cincinnati; appointed March 5, 1792, captain Second United States infantry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel H. Gaither, and served in the campaign against the Northwestern Indians under General Anthony Wayne; died in Richmond, Virginia, November 15, 1810.
  72. Lieutenant-Colonel James Chambers, transferred from the Tenth to the First Pennsylvania regiment; retired the service January 1, 1781; at the battle of Brandywine he received a Hessian bullet in his side, which gave him much trouble in after years; died at London Forge, Franklin county, Pennsyivania, April 25, 1805, aged fifty-six years.
  73. Colonel Theod rick Bland, of Virginia.
  74. Colonel Stephen Moylan, brevetted brigadier.general, born in Ireland 1734; died at Philadelphia, April 11, 1811.
  75. John Neilson colonel New Jersey mounted men; colonel Second regiment, August I, 1776; brigadier general State militia, February 21, 1777; also deputy quarter-master general.
  76. Holt Richeson of King William county, received 6,000 acres from the State of Virginia, February 17, 1784, for three years service in the Continental establishment; member of the Virginia Convention of 1788.
  77. John Sullivan.
  78. George Mathews appointed lieutenant colonel of the Ninth Virginia regiment January 12, 1776; promoted colonel ; born Augusta county Virginia in 1739; led a volunteer company against the Indians at the age of twenty-two; distinguished himself at the battle of Point Pleasants October 10, 1774 removed to Oglethorpe county Georgia in 1785; Governor of Georgia, 1780, 1793-‘6; member of Congress, 1789-’91; afterwards. brigadier-general of militia; died at Augusta, Georgia, August 30, 1812.
  79. William Smallwood, promoted major-general.
  80. John Haskins Stone, early in the war a captain in Smallwood’s regiment; made colonel, December, 1776; resigned August 1, 1779 distinguished himself at the battles of Long Island, White Plains Princeton and Germantown, in the last of which he received a wound which disabled him from further service. In 1781 he became a clerk in the office of R. R. Livingston, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, and subsequently a member of the Executive Council of Maryland; Governor of Maryland 1794-97 died at Annapolis, October 5, 1804.
  81. Neat’s-foot oil, obtained by boiling calves’ feet.