Virginia Communites in War Time

History - Wars and Military

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New River Notes — Complete

January 21, 2014

After about two years of work we have completed a major upgrade to New River Notes. On January 21, 2014 we switched in the last of the updated files and final page revisions.

In January 2013 we introduced the new site layout but because there were many pages left to do there was a big red Under Construction on the front page. A year later we've finished all of the pages that were on the original site. Construction is complete. We have a great looking site full of material to help you in your research and possibly entertain you.

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New River Notes

January 6, 2013

New River Notes, a leading genealogy resource for the New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia, launched its new look website today.

new river valley mapNew River Notes was originally launched in 1998 by Jeffrey C. Weaver providing New River Valley researchers with a new wealth of information and that tradition is continued today by the Grayson County, Virginia Heritage Foundation, Inc.

Welcome and we hope you enjoy our new look. For more information on the changes and plans see posts on the GCVHF Google+ Page.

Virginia Communites in War Time

  • Albemarle County and City of Charlottesville

    A Community History

    By R. T. W. DUKE, JR.

    LOCATION AND EARLY HISTORY

    The county of Albemarle, in shape an irregular triangle, is situated almost in the center of the State and is one of its largest and most thickly settled counties. The Blue Ridge extends along its northern border and the James River is on the south The Rockfish River enters the James at the southwest corner of the county. Scattered from the foothills of the Blue Ridge in the southwestern part of the county are the "Ragged Mountains," whilst a higher and more regular range known as the Southwest Mountains bisects the county, running from the southwest to the northeast. On one mountain of this range, where it is broken by the passage of the Rivanna River, "Monticello," the home of Thomas Jefferson, is located, and across the river rises a much smaller elevation which was owned by Jefferson and fully named by him "Pantops," an adaptation of two Greek words meaning "all seeing."

    To the east of "Monticello" extends a wooded country called the "Flatwoods;" although it is, in fact, hill and dale with woodland interspersed with some fine farms. Toward the west, extending to the Blue Ridge, is a superbly beautiful country of rolling bills, upland lawns and rich meadows in a high state of cultivation, and, set in lovely groves are stately mansions and less pretentious. yet beautiful homes. The "Green Mountains," an extension of the Southwest Mountains, are really plateaux. They are adorned by some of the handsomest homes in the State. "Redlands." the home of the Carters, "Estouteville" and "Ennicorthy" and "Tallwood," built by the Coles, the home of the late Senator Thomas S. Martin, and many other fine residences are in this neighborhood. On the edge of the "Flatwoods" was the home of Andrew Stevenson, member of Congress, Speaker of the House, and Minister to England. Between this spot and "Monticello" is "Ashlawn," once the home of James Monroe. A noted mansion in the northern section of the county is "Castle Hill," the home of Dr. Thomas Walker, patriot, statesman, and the first explorer of Kentucky. It is now in possession of his beautiful and brilliant descendant, Amelie Rives, the Princcess Troubetskoi, having been previously the residence of her grandfather, William C. Rives, Congressman, Senator and Minister to France. Nearby were the homes of Dr. Walker's three sons, John Walker, Washington's confidential aid-de camp and United States Senator; Thomas Walker, a captain in the Revolution and Francis Walker, member of Congress.

    Across the mountain to the west was "Pen Park," the home of Dr. George Gilmer, Revolutionary patriot, and, not far away is the site of the birthplace of George Rogers Clarke, the conqueror of the Northwest. General Thomas Sumter, subsequently of South Carolina, was born so near the line between Orange and Albemarle counties that it would require a surveyor's compass to determine which county gave him birth.

    William Carey Nicholas, a member of Congress, Governor of Virginia and author of the celebrated Kentucky Resolutions of 1798-99, was born in this county, as were Thomas Walker Gilmer, Congressman, Governor, and Secretary of the Navy under President Tyler, and Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson's private secretary, who, with William Clarke, brother of George Rogers Clarke, made the famous expedition through the Northwest "where rolls the Oregon."

    It is obvious that a county which bred such men was ready to respond to any call to arms.

    Owing to its location the county saw little actual warfare in any of our wars. A troop of its militia met Tarleton's dragoons at the "Broad Mossing" Ford of the Rivanna in 1781, and, Jim Breathed imparked his guns at Rio in 1862 and scattered Averill's Cavalry in a raid into the county, chasing them for miles with no other weapons than fence rails. Sheridan, in 1865, swept through the county and gave the inhabitants a taste of the looting proclivities of his cavalry. The Saratoga-Hessians (Convention prisoners) were kept in the county for some time after Burgoyne's surrender. The road to the place where they were encamped is still known as the 'Barracks Road."

    Almost in the center of the county lies the little city of Charlottesville, like a gem in an emerald setting. It was found in 1763 by Dr. Thomas Walker, and its crowning glory is the great University of Virginia, the child of Thomas Jefferson and the pride of the Commonwealth. At first a mere hamlet, Charlottesville has spread its limits until now it numbers fifteen thousand inhabitants and is a stirring place whose energetic citizens arebusy studying and advancing its welfare. Two great trunk lines -the Chesapeake and Ohio and the Southern railroads cross one another here.

    The Monticello Guards, an old and noted military company and the Albemarle Rifles organized in 1861, served with distinction as members of the Nineteenth Virginia Infantry, C.S.A. A fine cavalry company, commanded by Dr. Hugh T. Nelson a lineal descendant of Governor Thomas Nelson, of Yorktown, was organized some years after the Civil War.

    Both city and county have ever been noted for the culture refinement and hospitality of their inhabitants. At the time of the World War there were few men of very large fortunes, while there were many of ample means who lived in solid comfort and whose homes were the seats of cultivatiQn and leisure and of highly educated men and women. The bone and sinew county and city were the independent, high-minded citizens of no fortune but their ability and willingness to work. These classes made up a population of contented, industrious people who were an honor to the county and to the Commonwealth. The owners of the small, well-tilled farms were far above average yeomen. Good breeding, courtesy and kindliness were the rule. In the county fine horses and fine riders, both men and women, were numerous, and packs of good hounds made fox hunting almost a universal sport.

    As might well have been expected, the men and women of this community had the highest sense of patriotic duty. Their ancestors had furnished their full quota of troops in the Revolution, in the War of 1812, in the Mexican War, and in the War Between the States, and so, when President Wilson sounded the note of war in 1917, it found in Albemarle and Charlottesville a ready response to the call, and "not a knight asleep."

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    There were, in 1914, and are now, no large manufactories in the community. The Charlottesville Woolen Mills was the largest industry. These mills specialized in blues and grays and the latter were the standard by which West Point purchased its goods for the cadets at that institution. An excellent ice factory and an abattoir were situated in the city, also the Monticello Wine Company made a famous grade of wines--clarets, sauternes, port and burgundy and a grape brandy equal to cognac. This company furnished a good market for the grapes grown in the county. Apple-growing was then, as now, one of the chief industries, and the Albemarle Pippin was largely exported to Great Britain. The population of the county was 29.871 and of the city about 10,000.

    The University brought a large number of young men into the community and they proved a source of revenue to merchants boarding-house keepers, etc. Two banks furnished abundant capital for the needs of all. The' Miller Manual Labor School for the poor boys and girls of the County gave opportunity for education and training and its graduates gave a good account of themselves in the World War.

    Up to the outbreak of the war life moved on quietly, our people going their way, "one to his farm and another to his merchandise," but it was not long until we became greaty interested in the struggle overseas. Very soon some of our English friends who had settled in the community returned to Mother Country to enter the ranks of the "Contemptibles." As reports of German atrocities increased some of the students of the University left and volunteered in the British or French armies and there was a steady growth of sentiment against Germany. When the Lusitania was sunk popular indignation was such that a declaration of war by Congress at that time would have been hailed by our people with almost unanimous approval.

    In January, 1916, active work for the Allied soldiers began in the University and in Charlottesville under the auspices of Mrs. Bessie H. Alderman, wife of the president of the University. The American Fund for French Wounded was sponsored by a group of citizens who met at Dr. Alderman's home, and surgical dressings were made, garments were cut and wool given out on receipts. Collections of money were also made.' This work was continued up to America's entrance into the war, when it was continued with redoubled energy. Branches of the organization were established at Ivy, Esmont, North Garden and Keswick. The organization collected $7,143.94 at headquarters and made a total of 325,690 hospital garments, surgical dressings and knitted garments. The Ivy branch situated in the midst of the English settlers, collected $2,468.47, and made 14,096 hospital garments. The Keswick branch, under the superintendence of Mrs. Murray Boocock, whose activities in every line of war work were phenomenal, also did splendid service in this organization.

    Two days after President Wilson's address to Congress declaring we were in a state of war with Germany, and the night before Congress did declare war, a large mass meeting was held in the Court house, presided over by Judge R. T. W. Duke, Jr. There were men in the audience who recalled that in this same month of April, eleven days later in the month and fifty-six years previous, the Monticello Guard and Albeinarle Rifles assembled around this same building and later on, with the two companies of students from the University left to join the Confederate Army, many of them never to return. At this meeting President Wilson's course was unanimously approved and Congress was asked to take immediate action. It was a very grave and serious assembly. Committees were appointed which met the following night. The Mayor and other city officials at once took action to arouse public sentiment and outlined plans for keeping watch against possible damage by the German element in our midst.

    All sorts of rumors were soon afloat-that the city reservoir was to be poisoned, the railroad bridges burned, etc. Volunteers were stationed at the reservoir and soldiers were asked to the bridges, but our citizens of German descent behavaed with perfect propriety. Some had talked foolishly and boastfully before the United States declared war, but they became silent after that and gave no occasion for stringent measures to be taken. One or two who were of military age and unnaturalized were interned for a short while.

    CHURCHES

    Every prominent Christian denomination had a church in Charlottesville: Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Baptist, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Disciples, and in the county the Methodist, Baptist, Episcopalian and Presbyterian churches flourished. With the conservatism characteristic of true Christians, the churches at first held aloof from any discussion of the war, though prayer was regularly offered for the suffering and sorrowing and for the dawn of peace. But with our own country at war, the churches recognized that duty to country came next to duty to God, and our ministers began to preach from our pulpits that it was incumbent upon every Christian man to bear his full share of the burden of war. Committees were appointed to cooperate with all charitable organizations and patriotic workers The first patriortic sermon in the community was preached at St. Paul's Memorial Church at the University of Virginia by Rev Beverly D. Tucker, D.D., on the Sunday following the declaration students were present. The hymns--"For Those in Peril on the Sea" and 'America" were sung and the large audience was stirred to a wonderful degree by the eloquence of the rector.

    The other churches were prompt to arouse the patriotic interest. In each one stirring addresses were made and in a short while in every chancel or beside every pulpit the "Stars and Stripes" were hung. Ere the close of the year service flags for those in service from the various congregations were raised and on most of them one or more gold stars appeared among the blue.

    In every Red Cross or Y.M.C.A. drive the churhces took an active part. Church members were urged from the pulpit to buy Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps, and every church, excepting the Catholic, threw open its doors and invited speakers regardless of denomination, to occupy its pulpit. The writer of this article spoke on war topics in a church of every denomination except the Catholic. Of course all sensible people understood and appreciated the reasons for the Roman Catholic Church refusing to invite secular speakers into their chanceis. The priests of this church did their full duty. They and their people cooperated with all war workers.

    The citizens of the Jewish faith in Charlottesville were no less active and generous than the more numerous members of the Christian faith. The ladies co-operated with the Red Cross in all of its branches and liberal donations were made-by both men and women. Several of the ladies took charge of first aid units, and, when necessary, soldiers in the bospital were visited and their families notified and kept in touch with.

    There was no sectarian spirit shown in any way. Jew and Gentile, Protestant and Catholic seemed endued with but one faith as far as good work and patriotic service were concerned.

    The country churches responded generously to every call. Their ministers preached and worked and the result of their labors was very evident in the several communities. The town of Scottsville, with about seven hundred inhabitants, held a meeting in the largest church in the town for the purpose of soliciting subscriptions to War Savings Stamps. After one or two addresses the Baptist minister got up and, metaphorically speaking, "passed around the hat." In about an hour $5,000 was subscribed and in the three days previous $7,000 ha4 been raised, making $12,000 in this small community which had few, if any, wealthy people in it.

    One of the smallest chapels in the county-Rio, sent out one nurse in 1915 and had four of the young women of its congregation in war work and furnished five volunteers for military service. It raised a good fund for the Red Cross, sent comfort bags and other articles at Christmas time in 1917, and sent money to the starving children in Europe. Statistics as to the work of other churches and chapels throughout the county are lacking, but there was not one which did not do its part freely and fully.

    THE UNIVERSJTY OF VIRGINIA

    The history of the University of Virginia in the World War has been prepared and published by the librarian, Mr. John S. Patton. This renders more than a passing notice here unnecessary.

    At the outbreak of the war more than six hundred students of the University formed a volunteer corps, and on March 23, 1917, the rector and visitors applied to the President of the United States for the establishment at the University of one or more units of a training corps. This corps was under the charge of Lieutenant Colonel James A. Cole, U. S. Army, retired, who was duly elected a member of the faculty as Professor of Military Science and Tactics. The members of this corps took part in the war, many going with the American Expeditionary Force. and others being assigned to the various training camps.

    On April 5, 1918, the University entered into an agreement with the War Department to train motor truck drivers and chauffeurs for the army, and commodious barracks, accommodatmg six hundred men and consisting of dining room, machine shops and garage were erected at a cost of $65,000. The City of Charlottesville guaranteed the University against loss under certain conditions to the extent of $20,000, which guarantee was underwritten by responsible citizens of the city and community. Over 1,800 men were trained in this school, eleven hundred of whom went directly overseas.

    Dr. William Dulaney Anderson, of the Class of 1915, returned in 1917 to the University from service with the French and enlisted under the American Flag. He reported the great need of medical units in France, and on July 23, 1917, Dr. W. H. Goodwin was appointed Director of the University of Virgiia Base Hospital, which, under the name of Base Hospital 41, became famous for its services at St. Denis, near Paris. Miss Margaret Lee Cowling, Superintendent of the Training School of Nurshing, was appointed nurse of this base hospital and seven young women from the county and city went with the one hundred nurses belonging to this unit.

    Two University ambulance units wer also formed under the names of S. S. U. 516 and S.S. U. 517. These units were trained at Allentown, went abroad and were in active service with the French army from January, 1918, till the close of the war. Numbers of these men were decorated and obtained medals from the French government.

    Mr. Patton's published history of the University contains the war records of Base Hospital 41 and the two ambulance units and also a list of the names of those Uriiversity students who were decorated or otherwise honored while in the service.

    DRILLING, VOLUNTEERING AND THE DRAFT

    Within four days after war was declared the students of the University organized into companies and Lieutenant Colonel James A. Cole, U. S. A., retired, took command of them. Mr. William Eskridge Duke, formerly a midshipman at Annapolis and then a student in the Law School, later a lieutenant of Artillery, A. E. F., acted as his adjutant. Active drilling commenced at once and it was an inspiring sight to see these 600 young men going through the maneuvres which were to soldiers. Our whole community woke up. Meeting after meeting was held. Many young men got ready to volunteer and later went to the various training camps. The Monticello Guards were drilling every day and a "Home Guard" company known as "The Albemarle Rifles" was organized. A military company from Brooklyn came down during August, 1917, and guarded the bridges, etc. On September 24th, the Monticello Guards left for the training camp at Anniston, Alabama. They were escorted as they left by the Fire Company, the Sons of Confederate Veterans, and members of the Red Cross. The Albemarle Rifles and the Students Corps under Col. Cole met them at Midway where an immense crowd had assembled. Speeches were made by Dr. Alderman, President of the University, and Rev. Doctor Lee. Nine days later we heard of the arrival in France of the American Expeditionary Forces and several Charlottesville and Albemarle men were among them.

    When the Draft Act was passed and it became necessary to aid in filling up the questionnaires, the members of the Albemarle and Charlottesville Bar held a meeting and volunteered their services. For a week or more the lawyers, aided by many of the professors at the University and others, gave up their offices and their time and worked both day and night to fulfill the requirements of the draft.

    There were many volunteers. Park Street in Charlottesville had twelve volunteers in service. They were R. H. Wood, Jr., who was killed in the aviation service; Richard S. Johnson, the only son of a widowed mother, who also lost his life in service; Thomas Johnson Michie, Hewson Michie, Thomas T. Hewson, Frank S. Irvine, Barton Lyons, Cephas Sinclair, R. T. Walker Duke, now Captain, U. S. A., who was twice wounded in the Argonne, and his two brothers, J. F. S. Duke and William Eskridge Duke, and M. E. Carter. These young men were all neighbors. From the little hamlet of Howardsville went seven young men, all of the same name and all related. They were C. S. Lewis, John B. Lewis, D. S. Lewis, William M. Lewis, Ed. S. Lewis, Z. R. Lewis and H. H. Lewis. More than one young man who volunteered was rejected for physical defects and later called in the draft. In spite of this seeming injustice, no complaint was made. When the young men, white and colored, were sent to camp they were given brave "send-offs." One of the most interesting meetings was that held in the largest colored Baptist Church of the city when the first contingent of colored men assembled to leave for camp. The meeting was by- the most prominent white citizens of the city. Stirring and patriotic addresses were made and the whole spirit shown was worthy of the time and the occasion.

    In 1918 it was rumored that some of the men called in the draft intended to make a fight. A meeting of the Bar was called and every lawyer attended the meeting. A resolution was unanimously adopted that under no circumstances would any lawyer make any technical exception to the provisions of the questionnaire for any drafted man but, on the contrary, any person seeking counsel would be sternly reminded of his duty and advised to do it as a patriotic citizen. At the same time the services ofevery lawyer were freely offered to every official board in case legal advice became necessary.

    As stated in the history of the University, a training camp was established on the University grounds and a school for auto truck drivers was also conducted. The citizens entertained the men in training by holding dances, receptions, lawn parties, "movie" entertainments, etc., which did much to break up the monotony of military life.

    In the first draft 347 men between eighteen and forty-five registered.

    MEN IN SERVICE

    The following men from Albemarlee County and the City of Charlottesville are credited in the Virginia War History Commission's volume-"Virginians of Distinguished Service in the World War" as having received special distinction in the World War: First Lieutenant Fred William Adams, of Ivy Depot, cited by Division Commander, French Croix de Guerre; John M. Dollins, of Batesville, cited by Division Commander, Silver Star citation; First Lieutenant Robert Bruce Jackson, of Keswick, cited by Division Commander, Meritorious Citation Certificate; Major Claude M. Lee, Medal of St. Anna of the Third Degree; Captain Frank Nelson Lewis (deceased), of Cismont, Distinguished Service Cross; Lieutenant Colonel Robert Baylor Shackleford, of Cismont, cited by Division Commander, cited twice by Commander-in-Chief; First Lieutenant Almeron W. Shanklin (deceased), of Crozet, Distinguished Service Cross; Captain Joseph Miller Wood, of Birdwood, French Croix de Guerre with gilt star, cited by Commanding Officer, U. S. M. C., cited by Commander-in-Chief; Captain Wilbert T. Woodson, of Crozet, Medaille d'Honneur des Epidemies (bronze). From Charlottesville: Staige Davis Blackford, French Croix de Guerre; Gilbert S. Campbell, French Croix de Guerre; Corporal Michael E. Carter, French Croix de Guerre; William T. Dettor, French Medal of Honor, Epideme; Major Armistead Mason Dobie, Order of University Palms, Officer d'Academie (Argent); Captain Oliver P. Echols, cited by Commander-in-Chief; Lieutenant Colonel James D. Fife, Distinguished Service Medal, French Legion of Honor, French Medal of Honor, British citation; Clem Goodman, French Croix de Guerre; Lieutenant Colonel William Hall Goodwin, cited by Commander-in-Chief; Colonel Daniel D. Harmon, French Legion of Honor; Captain Richard P. Hildreth, Distinguished Service. Cross, French Croix de Guerre; Frank S. Irvine cited by Division Commander; Commander Horace Walker Jones, commended by Secretary of the Navy; James Thomas Jones, French Croix de Guerre; Clarke Lindsay, cited at the Order of the Corps of the French army; John C. Marsh; Distinguished Service Cross, French Croix de Guerre; Fred E. Martin, cited by Division Commander, French Croix de Guerre; Sergeant Charles J. Morisette, French Medal of Honor; Peter Upton Muir, French Croix de Guerre; Hardwick M. Nevin, French Croix de Guerre; Earle B. Patterson, French Croix de Guerre; Marion W. Payne, French Croix de Guerre; Miss Edith V. Perry, French Medal of Honor; Randolph H. Perry, French Medal of Honor Philip Bradley Peyton. Distinguished Service Medal, cited by Division Commander; Sergeant Sidney F. Powers, French Medal of Honor; Marshall Scott (deceased); French Croix de Guerre; Lieutenant Commander James Downing Smith, commended by Secretary of Navy; Chief Paymaster Davis B. Wills, Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Cross.

    The following is a partial roster of those from the city and county who died in service:

    Killed: Joseph K. Bohst, Charles Andrew Boulding (colored), James Bryant, Thomas W. Burkhead, George R. Craig, John C. Culin, Percy Dowell, John W. Estes, Wayne France, Wesley Glass, Thomas P. Harrison, William H. Humphreys, Richard F. Johnson, Samuel F. Johnson, Henry B. Kennedy, ..... ..... Leake, Frank Lewis, Carl Marshall, Broadus Martin, James Moon, Maurice L. Payne, Marion L. Sandridge, Alvin W. Shankin, Thacker. A. W. I~. Trotter, Dakota Watts, A. White, Robert H. Wood, Jr., Frank Ware Woods, Finks Woods, F. Tucker Wilkins.

    Died in service: John L. Allen, Arvey Coles, Richard Ragland Cole, John H. Dickerson, L. E. Flannagan, Charles L. Hawley, Eddie Lee Harlowe, Samuel J. Juman, Victor S. Metcalf, James Murray (colored). Milton W. Moore, Edward Graham Timberlake. Frank W. Woods, and Eldridge Walker (colored).

    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    FINANCE

    As soon as the people were called upon to suhscribe to the Liberty Loan, a general organization was formed with Mr. George R. B. Michie as chairman, R. T. Minor, Jr., vice-chairman, and A. M. Phillips, secretary. Committees were formed in every precinct and ward in the county and city. Tn each neighborhood practically every leading man and woman was pressed into service and intensive work was carried on. The community was thoroughly canvassed and speeches were made in all churches, and schools. Enthusiasm was never allowed to lag. The consequence was that every Liberty Loan was oversuhscribed. The total apportionment for the city and county combined was $2,791,500 and the total subscrihed, exclusive of the First Loan for which no records were kept, was $3,494,400.

    R. T. W. Duke, Jr., was chairman in Charlottesville for the War Savings Stamps campaign. The first Sunday after this campaign started every minister, of whatever denomination, made an appeal to his congregation and there was a ready response. A large War Savings Stamps rally was held in July, 1918, and subscriptions were enough to meet the quota asked for and more.

    The beginning of the year 1918 found both county and city earnestly at work in every activity. The government had appointed the various administrators for Food Control and Control and the efforts of these gentlemen met with a response. Our citizens and merchants seemed anxious to in furthering every effort to aid in the successful prosecution of the war.

    THE RED CROSS

    The American Red Cross at the beginning of the World War had no organization in this community. The Albemarle Chapter was organized in July, 1917, with headquarters in Charlottesville and had jurisdiction over the six auxiliaries that were subsequently formed. The credit for organizing the chapter should be given to Mr. John L. Livers, who was then president Chamber of Commerce of Charlottesville. Dr. Edwin A. Alderman was the first chairman. He was succeeded by Frank Y. Hall and he was sifeceeded by W. Allan Perkins. R. T. Minor, Jr., vice-president of the National Bank of Charlottesville, was treasurer, and Mrs. Annie E. Walker, secretary. Mrs. Walker was succeeded in July, 1918, by Mrs. May V. Crenshaw

    Prominent citizens of the community began at once take an active interest in the work. Committees on Membership, Finance Publicity, Military Relief, Hospital Garments, Knitting, Packing, Instruction, Civilian Relief. Motor Corps and Junior Membership were formed and went actively to work. At every precinct in the county separate organizations were created which worked until the end of the war.

    The committee on surgical dressings took a room first at the University and deyoted itself during the summer of 1917 to making dressings for the University Base Hospital No. 41. It then transferred its headquarters to Charlottesville and averaged ten workers a day. Some idea of the work done can be gathered from the fact that an order for 5,000 absorbent pads to be finished in two weeks was received. Men came to the assistance of the ladies and in one week the order was finished, packed and shipped. In July, 1917, work was commenced in the basement of the McGuffey School for the making of hospital garments and surgical dressings, no Red Cross Chapter then having been formed. In October this work was taken over by the Albemarle Chapter and by April, 1919, 7,287 garments had been made. The work was of such excellent quality that the chapter was asked on several occasions to furnish national headquarters with samples In November, 19!7, a teaching center was opened with surgical classes and private lessons. A large class was also given instructions at Crozet and instructors were sent to conduct classes at Tazewell and Emporia. Classes were given also in First Aid and Elementary Hygiene and Home Care of the Sick.

    A home service section was organized and able instructors from Washington came to take charge of this work. Service cases to the number of 518 were handled, there were 309 information cases and financial assistance rendered amounted to $1,048.75.

    The influenza epidemic in the fall of 1918 put the Red Cross to its severest test. Every precautionary measure possible was adopted, the schools were closed and the medical faculty of University and every physician in the community rendered valuable aid. During this epidemic 1.775 masks were made for the Motor Truck Camp at the University. Seven hundred and and thirty quarts of soup and buttermilk were made and donated, and $298.45 was spent for those in need.

    Refugee clothing to the amount of 3,380 pounds was collected Two thousand eight hundred and fifty members were enrolled, and at Christmas time there were four thousand and six members. Forty-eight thousand one hundred and seventy-four dollars and thirty-nine cents ($48,174.39) was the total amount raised. Christmas boxes numbering 566 were wrapped and sent, after inspection by the chapter. There was no cessation in interest and enthusiasm until orders came from Washington to discontinue actual war work.

    The Red Cross drives met with great success. Men who could speak were mustered into service and they made numerous addresses in the churches and school houses, white and colored throughout the county. One touching incident occurred, an address made in one of the rural colored churches. After a stirring appeal for funds in which the speaker dwelt upon the large amount that could be realized from even the poor if each one gave a mite, one of the deacons arose and respectfully addressed the chairman of the meeting. He said "There's an old colored woman here who is too poor to give any money. For two or three years she has been getting little bits of wool from briers, where the sheep had left it, and wherever she could honestly obtain it, to knit a shawl to keep her old rheumatic body from suffering. She has never worn it. It's a pretty see. Now she wants to give it to the Red Cross and have them sell it to get money to help those poor suffering people in the war." The shawl was taken and sold and the money went into the fund.

    On July 4th, a large pageant was held for the benefit of the Red Cross. The Albemarle Rifles, Boy Scouts and school children took part, and there marched in the procession a line of God Star Mothers. Ball games were held and the proceeds of all the entertainments went for the benefit of the Red Cross.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATTQNS

    The outbreak of the war found a weIl-organized, well-housed Y.M.C.A. in Charlottesville under the charge of an active and zealous secretary and his assistants. At the University there was the oldest College Y.M.C.A. in the world, in a beautiful building and with a splendid set of workers. All of the resources, physical and spiritual, of the organization began to function as soon as America entered the war and there was no cessation of work until months after the war closed. Members of the organization were detailed to help guard the bridges in the county. The rooms of the association were thrown open-baths and library. stationery and rest rooms were made frequent use of enlisted men were looked after and, when possible, entertained. Thirty-two thousand dollars were raised for the general fund and seven thousand for special work. The same course was adopted to raise funds as was used by the Red Cross, and speakers toured the county and spoke in the churches and school houses with excellent results. In every Protestant church more than one address was made for the benefit of the association.

    Everything possible was done to help the troops as they passed through on the trains. A canteen was formed and food and drink provided. On one occasion four companies were taken from the train at the Union Station and marched down Main Street for exercise. They were halted just in front of one of the drug stores and a public spirited citizen walked in, bought out the entire stock of cigarettes and a couple of cigars for each officer. Every man in line was given two boxes of cigarettes. It was fine to hear the boys cheer as they wheeled to march back to entrain once more.

    In April, 1918, a great meeting was held in the city and "The Churches and Moral Aims of War" was the subject under discussion by speakers of distinction from home and abroad. Seven counties were represented at this gathering.

    In September, 1918, the British residents of the city and county held a large meeting at Fry's Spring for the benefit of the British war sufferers. An immense crowd assembled and heard addresses by invalided British officers and other speakers. War films were exhibited and amidst great enthusiasm, as the Star Spangled Banner, God Save the King, and La Marsailles were sung, a handsome sum was collected.

    In October, 1918, there was a meeting of war workers not only from the county and city but from adjacent counties, which was largely attended and plans outlined to carry on the work in every possible way. The cheering news of the disorganization of the German armies and the rapid advance of our troops did not for one instant check the enthusiasm of any organization or individual. "We must keep on and on and on," said one speaker, "not only until the Huns have surrendered and peace is declared but until we have bound up the wounds war has made, helped the widow and the orphan and safeguarded 'the world against another such scourge as this war." And there was no slacking of any endeavor, but men and women went on as if the war was never to end, until that November day when the blowing of whistle, the ringing of bells and the glad shouts of the multitude proclaimed that the Armistice had come and peace was in sight.

    POST WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    The close of the war found the community practically in a normal condition. The rapid cessation of food and fuel restrictions permitted the citizens to resume work and there was a quiet and yet earnest desire on the part of all to return to active business. But for the wounded soldiers returning and later on the return of the bodies of some of the soldiers who were killed in France, there was little evidence that there had been a war.

    The body of one of our colored soldiers was brought back from France by the government at the request of his relatives. The American Legion, with a portion of one of the military companies, acted as an escort at his funeral and over his grave they fired the customary military salute whilst the bugler sounded taps. Every one of the soldiers and ex-soldiers who accomanied the body of this humble colored man were white and his body was given the same honors that would have been given to the best known man in the community and that were given to the bodies of other soldiers when they were returned here.

    At this time the war is but a memory-in some respects a proud memory, for our community did its full duty. There are gaps in many families and men upon whom there are yet traces of wounds and disabilities, yet the world goes on very much as if there had been no war.

  • Bristol City

    A Community History

    By MRS. HENRY FITZHUGH LEWIS

    Bristol is located in the great plateau of valleys, hills, and rivers following the Appalachian chain of mountains, known locally as the Holston Mountains. However, the same range contains Mount Mitchell and White Top, the highest peaks, east of the Mississippi River. A local writer has said that these mountains were so beautiful that the clouds came down from heaven at noon day to rest upon their summit. A traveler, journeying across Dog Wood Bench connecting Delaney and Iron Mountains. said recently that he had crossed the continent nine times hut had seen nothing grander than the scenery at this point. He compared it with the Sierra Nevadas. From near this spot one may look away into Kentucky and count eight distinct mountain ranges.

    In the Revolutionary days, General Ferguson with his British Army was marching triumphantly through America and sent a message from the Atlantic Coast that he would come into the mountains and get the mountain men. Upon hearing this, the mountaineers donned their squirrel skin caps and sallied forth, mobilizing at Sycamore Shoals on the banks of the Watauga in Virginia. From there they marched on to Kings Mountain where they helped to turn the tide from defeat to victory.

    In 1812 so many men volunteered from the Holston Section that tbe community was asked if it expected to fight the war alone, and Tennessee won the sobriquet of the "Volunteer State."

    The people of Bristol and the surrounding community are of English and Scotch-Irish descent. Very few foreigners have settled here. Historians claim that this is the section of purest Anglo-Saxon blood to he found in America. About fourteen per cent of the population is colored.

    This section. like nearly all localities, suffered a business depression in 1913 and the early part of 1914. Immediately after hostilities began in Europe, however, business revived and continued to improve throughout the war period. Business inflation was not so noticeable here as in some parts of the country, and for this reason no particular reaction was felt at the end of the war.

    The writer and her husband were in Germany in the summer of 1914, being the nearest non-combatants at the time the battles of Namur, Liege, etc., were fought. We spent some time in Cologne, only a few miles from the battlefields, and had a near view of operations. While we make no defense of the German government, our impressions of the German people with whom we came in contact in the early days of the war were favorable under most distressing circumstances. They did everything possible to add to the comfort of the stranger within their gates, and no people could have been kinder nor more considerate. This assertion may be contradicted, but it is true according to our personal experiences and observations.

    Up to the time that the Lusitania was sunk the sentiment of our people was largely neutral, but from that time until the United States declared war, sentiment grew strong for the Allies, and we were ready to do our part when the time came to uphold the decision of Congress to enter the conflict against Germany.

    The churches of Bristol unveiled service flags and many of them raised the Stars and Stripes. The clergymen preached patriotism, and Rev. Stuart French went as a chaplain in the army. Christian ministers led in the work of the four-minute speakers.

    Patriotism in the schools was emphasized. The children sold Thrift Stamps and made scrap books for the sick soldiers. They also planted gardens which not only helped to increase the food supply hut furnished good training to be used in later life. The school teachers were among the most patriotic of our leaders and after school hours put in their time in sewing for the Red Cross or in some form of patriotic work.

    King College for Boys almost closed its doors because so many of its students were in training camps, and Sullins and Intermont Colleges for Girls helped in all forms of war and relief work.

    Bristol and the Holston settlement sent more volunteers into service than the Draft demanded and, bad we been given credit for those who volunteered, no one from this community would have been drafted.

    Company H of the Third Tennessee National Guard was composed of Bristol hoys. Their captain, Walter A. Buckles had been a charter member of the Cox Light infantry and had risen from private to captain before his company was ordered to the Mexican Border in September, 1916. Six weeks after their return from the Border, they were ordered to recruit the company to full war strength. This was done and the company, as a part of the 117th Infantry, Thirtieth Division, was trained at Camp Sevier, South Carolina. They sailed from Hoboken, N. J., on the transport Northumberland on May 11, 1918, and arrived at Liverpool, England, May 23, 1918. From there they went to Calais, France, and were attached to the British Army Corps, and fought on the Ypres front until August, 1918. This company took part in the advance on the Hindenburg line on the morning of September 29, 1918. During this engagement the Thirtieth Division suffered considerable loss but by five o'clock in the afternoon the objective had been reached and the Hindenburg line had been broken for the first. time. The company passed through Tincourt, Ribemount and Coursemount and Le Mans on the way to Saint Nazaire. They sailed from St. Nazaire on the transport Madowaska for the U. S. A. On March 18, 1919, arriving at Charleston, S. C., April 2, 1919. They left by rail the same day for Camp Jackson, S. C., and proceeded by rail to Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., for demobilization. The casualties included 139 wounded and 35 killed. It is claim that the 117th Infantry had more casualties than any regiment of the Thirtieth Division and that of the 117th Regiment, Company H exceeded all other companies in casualties.

    A party of fifty boys left Bristol in August, 1917, under the command of Lieutenant Lyle Burrow. These boys were placed in Company F, 12Oth Infantry, Thirtieth Division. Top Sergeant Lloyd S. Isaacs, a Bristol boy who was with his men throughout the fighting, gives the following information regarding Company F: "We landed at Liverpool 27th of entrained for Folkstone, crossed channel and landed at Calais, went next to Andrique for thirty days, hiked into Belgium, went on the line of Ypres front. We were under the command of Lieutenant Beck and Lieutenant Lyle Burrow of Bristol. On July 16th, went into line for the first time, spent six days in trenches and ordered back for a rest August 1st; again ordered into the trenches and stayed until the 13th. On September 25th, again ordered into the trenches and on morning of 28th of September we went over. When the captain was killed, Lieutenant Burrow succeeded in getting all the boys together, but was wounded in doing so. Company F went 'over the top' seven times."

    The Tenth Company, Virginia Coast Artillery, was mustered into National Guard Service at Bristol, November 17, 1917. The company was drafted into Federal service April 1, 1918, and became Battery E of the 35th Regiment, C.A.C. The battery went into training at Fort Monroe and from there was sent to Curtis Bay, Maryland, and thence to Newport News. It was mustered out of service at Camp Meade December 18, 1918.

    The first boys from Bristol to land in France were James A. Delaney who volunteered in Montana happened to be at the time, and Roy G. Paxton who went irom New York. Both were in France during the entire period of the war and returned home safely, having recovered from wounds received in service. Dr. and Mrs. W. K. Vance had four sons in service.

    The following men from Bristol are included in Virginia's Distinguished Service list: (1) Lieutenant James C. Brewer (deceased), French Croix de Guerre with Silver Star; Samuel H. Cartwright, cited by Division Commander, Silver Star citation, British Military Medal; First Lieutenant George William Cocke, Silver Star citation; Robert Hazen Goodwin, Distinguished Service Cross, British Military Medal; App Smolley, cited by Division Commander.

    In addition to the above named men, records of service of the following ex-service men have been furnished the Virginia War History Commission: Captain Walter A. Buckles, Lieutenant Lyle Burrow, Elijah M. Keeling, Allan Agee Goodwin, Edward Stuart Lewis, Lieutenant Colonel John H. Mort, James A. Delaney, Lieutenant John Gose, and Frank Baylor Blanchard.

    When the Liberty Bond campaigns were launched in the banks handled them most capably and the city oversubscribed its quota for each loan. The chairmen of the committees worked as a unit for both Bristol, Virginia, and Bristol, Tennessee, and the money was divided proportionately. In the beginning the bankers thought it unwise to entrust any of this work to the women, but they later took up their share and worked shoulder to shoulder with the men in raising the various allotments. Mrs. Henry Fitzhugh Lewis was chairman of the Women's Liberty Loan work for all loans.

    Bristol is the center of a rich agricultural and mineral section and our people worked during the war to "make two blades of grass grow where only one had grown before" in order to have more food and material for our soldiers. Our coal mines helped supply the fuel for transports that took soldiers to France and our cattlemen furnished meat to be used in the camps at home and abroad. Our railroads were kept busy hauling soldiers and supplies.

    Our young men were in the service, the girls were in Washington doing clerical work, and many of our citizens were working in shipyards and in munition plants. Those left in Bristol were working many hours a day to produce food and Red Cross supplies, serving in canteen work, etc., so that the only supplies, serving in canteen work, etc., so that the only social life we had centered in war work. Our citizens were united in a common cause; there were no aliens here, other than a German music teacher and a gentleman who had come from Vienna to visit his daughter.

    The only direct contact Bristol had with the soldiers was through that necessitated by the stoppage of troop trains for a change of engines and crews. The women of Bristol performed excellent work in canteen service at such times.

    A Red Cross was organized in Bristol during the pre-war period. There were thirty charter members, and the officers were Rev. Hunter Davidson, chairman.; Lawrence Caldwell, secretary, and Sam T. Millard, treasurer. When it became certain that the United States would enter the war, a mass meeting for soliciting memberships in the Red Cross was held at the Virginia Court-house which had been elaborately decorated for the occasion by the Sycamore Shoals Chapter, D. A. R. A representative attended the meeting and from the time war was declare organization functioned steadily and became a great factor in the war work of the town. There were eight chapters working under Bristol. There was also an active Junior Red Cross organization. Mrs. J. Norvell, of Bristol, was the first member of the Potomac Division of the Red Cross to be awarded the service pin for 800 hours' work. She earned more stripes on her ribbon than any other of our workers.

    The Y.M.C.A. has not a very strong organization in Bristol, but the building was the center of war work. The Army was very active, and Jewish Welfare work was successfully carried on.

    Near East Relief work was popular in this city. Miss Kathryne McCormick and Miss Margaret Caldwell worked in the foreign field and have continued in the work. Many French orphans were adopted. old clothing was gathered and shipped, books were sent, etc. One gentleman donated a suit of clothing which, when unpacked in Constantinople, stirred memories in the heart of the young woman worker at that post. She searched in the pockets and found a letter addressed to her father which confirmed her suspicions that she had seen that suit before. The following citizens and organizations of Bristol adopted one or more French orphans Miss Nell Keller, Miss Mary Came, C. L. Kidd, Mrs. W. K. Vance, Mrs. E. H. Robinson, Mrs. Clarence King, Mrs. Fred C. Newman, Mrs. M. C. Fain, Miss Florence Scherrin, G. T. Childress, Mrs. John Paul Jones, Mrs. Sam C. Hodges, I. H. Blackwell, six students at Sullins College, Sycamore Shoals Center, P. A. F. Missionary Society of the Mary Street M.E. Church South; the 1900 Club, Washington School, the Ladies' Aid Society of the First Baptist Church, Bristol Teachers' Association, the Gibbon Club, the Sunday-School of the State Street M. E. Church, South; Chancel Guild Episcopal Church, Circle I, State Street; Bristol Tennessee High School Improvement Association, Baraca Class of the State Street M. E. Church, South; Bristol Virginia High School Improvement Association, Current Events Class.

    The Bristol Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was very active in all war work. They sewed regularly for the hospitals. endowed a cot in a French hospital, helped build a hospital at Neuilly, France, adopted French orphans, etc. One of the services of which this chapter is proudest is that of furnishing clerical workers to the draft board, enabling the Bristol Draft Board to send in the first correct report in the State to headquarters. It is thought that the first spot in America to be decorated in memory of the boys who died in France is in East Hill Cemetery, Bristol, Virginia. The U. D. C. selected the planted the U. S. Flag, covered the ground with flowers and held appropriate exercises.

    The Sycamore Shoals Chapter. Daughters of the American Revolution had chartered a hospital the Kings Mountain Memorial Hospital. before the war, and they left this work abeyance in order to perform their share of war work. They were actively engaged in all war-time activities. This planted a row of elm trees on Park Avenue as a memorial to the Bristol boys who lost their lives in the World War.

    We had very few colored people in Bristol, but they were loyal during the war period. The only person the writer heard express regret that the war was over was an old colored woman whose son was drafted. When asked why she was sorry the war was over, she replied that the war had kept Zeke out of jail and she had gotten some money from the government and, anyway, "it was a good place for bad niggers to be."

    When news of the Armistice reached Bristol the people repaired to the churches where reverent thanks were returned to God, and then pandemonium broke loose. For hours every kind of noise imaginable rent the air until the farthest mountain peak must have heard the good news. As our boys returned they took up their former occupations and but little change in them was noted. Readjustment in Bristol was not difficult. The writer was in the hall of the United States Congress when the American Legion was chartered. She took first-hand information regarding the organization to Bristol and the James C. Brewer Post was soon organized, named for the first Bristol boy who fell in battle. Mrs. Kate Ghent, of Alabama, who was living in Bristol at this time, organized an auxiliary to the Post. Later on a second American Legion Post was organized. It is known as the Hackley-Wood Post, named in memory of two members of Company H who died in France. This Post also has an active auxiliary.

    Great strides in highway construction have followed in the wake of the war. The poor mountain trails have grown into good roads and now some of the best roads in Virginia are in the vicinity of Bristol. It is on the Lee Highway and the American Automobile Association is routing tourists bound for the South through this city.

    On the walls of the Kings Mountain Memorial Hospital will be hung a tablet in memory of the soldiers who were killed at Kings Mountain in 1775. On these same walls the American Legion and its auxiliaries will place a bronze tablet containing the names of the World War victims of Bristol. These are Bruce R. Alley, Joseph Bacliman, Jr., James L. Barr, Morris Beaver, Edward L. Bolling, James C. Brewer, H. H. Burton, William F. Carnahan, Isaac Cross, Robert Crusenberry, Gilford Denton, Charles Dishman, Edgar Feathers, Nelson Fleenor, Thedford H. Fleenor, James L. Glover, John L. Godsey, Valdria D. Hawk, Joseph Hawkins, Joseph K. Hayton, Charles L. Hicks, Fred Hicks, John S. Henry, George Humphrey, George B. Hunigan. Champ L. Jones, Edward L. Jones, William E. Jones, Arthur Keesee, James Kitchen, Wilson Leonard, Verlin P. King, Paul E. Massie, James W. Mobley, Clyde C. Morton; Frederick Lee Peoples, James W. Rogan, Frank Slagie, Eugene E. Starke, Alexander Swiney, Harry B. Trammel, David Graham Vance, Albert Wampler, Albert Warren, James E. Warren, Samuel S. Woods, George F. Hackler, Carl Brandon, and Onie Sanford.

  • Clifton Forge

    A Community History

    By F. W. LONG

    Clifton Forge is situated in Alleghany County on the Jackson river, three miles above its confluence with the Cowpasture, at which point the historic James is formed. It numbers 6,500 in population, 20 per cent of which is colored. Its population is overwhelmingly Anglo-Saxon, which fact accounts for its strong pro-English sentiment. But few aliens are resident. These are principally Jews and Greeks, who are also anti-German in sentiment. There was no great influx of people during the war period nor was there any exodus of labor, white or colored, of any consequence. The city's growth was normal, and this was due to the gradual and substantial development of its industries.

    It has never been militaristic in tendency nor has it adhered closely to the policy of peace at any price. It does believe in a reasonable preparedness. Shut in by the mountains and distant from the sea, the thought of war has not concerned it as much as the metropolitan centers along the coast.

    The immediate section is so mountainous that it is little adapted to agriculture. In normal times there never was a great variety or quantity of food production. The war, however, created such an unprecedented demand for these products that the native farmer tilled his land more intensively than ever before. Such lands that were available for farming purposes doubled in value; waste lands were reclaimed and cultivated; orchards were planted, while vegetable gardens became numerous. Tracts were divided and subdivided as the unusual migration to the farm continued. "The earth yielded her increase." and the inflated prices seemed to reward the farmer who hitherto had been somewhat tardy in reaping his own.

    Changes in the industrial life of the community were even more radical. What the mountains lack in agricultural advantages they make up in mineral deposits. The city is situated in an extensive iron-mining region. Rich deposits of iron ore lie in close proximity to the city's limits. This accounts for the presence of so many iron furnaces in the vicinity. The "Long Dale Furnace" is more than 100 years old. Most of these furnaces were idle at the beginning of 1914. The sudden demand created for these products by the European conflict opened them full time. Dense and gigantic volumes of smoke belched forth from the stacks by day-, while at night the horizon was intermittently illumined by the coke ovens near by. This condition naturally created a keen demand for labor. Wages were high. Every man had a chance to work. Prosperity abounded. With the increase in wages came a corresponding increase in rents and the cost of living in general. The people were not long in realizing that they were living in a new and strange industrial world.

    CHURCHES IN WAR TIME

    The city has eight churches, two of which are colored. Prior to the war evidence of genuine cooperation among these was somewhat lacking. This should not convey the impression that there was open hostility between them, but that a Luke-warcii fellowship was assumed. Denominational lines were drawn rather tight, which was, in part, the reason for delay in mobilization for national service. They had not faced the war situation very long until a spirit of unity imbued the whole church life:. which condition exists today. Denomination and creed were forgotten while they concentrated their efforts on the one great common task. Union services were held; ministers exchanged pulpits; jealousy, discord and division vanished. This spirit of harmony has been of incalculable benefit to the entire community Narrowness, intolerance and sectarianism have found no quarters in the church life since. When factions in politic would arise or rivalries in business affairs become bitter; when industrial strife waxed tempestuous or social cliques would appear bringing misunderstandings, thereby threatening the city's common welfare, the churches through it all have maintained a kindly, fraternal spirit of peace and harmony, powerful and, far-reaching in its influence over public life. The era of good will now so predominant in all civic questions is due in no small measure to the fact that the churches proved by example that such an equilibrium could be maintained when all concerned v, ere willing to be prompted by unselfish motives.

    The war was a shock to the spiritual nerves of a few devotee of peace. They visioned the forces of Christianity routed and they despaired of its ultimate triumph over war. A vast majority Of the membership, however, looked upon the struggle as a necessary conflict between the forces of good and evil and set to work in a serious way to win. Every church had its individual service flag prominently displayed, to which it pointed with peculiar pride. The Stars and Stripes were in evidence patriotic services were frequently held in which duty and justice were lauded. Sewing clubs and knitting circles were formed by the women without regard to church affiliation. Liberty Loan committees, interdenominational in character, were appointed. The churches most assuredly made a large contribution to the city's part in helping to win the war.

    SCHOOLS

    The schools played no little part in the city's war-time activities. While there vas some feeling manifested towards the opposing nations in war, yet it did not develop into exceeding hatred. The German language was not taught in the curiculum. Instead of enlarging upon the present greatness of Germany as a nation, emphasis was shifted to her past greatness and the primary reasons for such. It was no part of the school authorities to engender hatred in the hearts of the children, but to enlist their united effort in the task of speedy victory. The schools throughout it all manifested a fine spirit of patriotism. National anthems were frequently and regularly sung, accompanied by flag drills and patriotic addresses. Classes were drilled more in the rudiments of American history and the elementary principles which gave the nation birth were emphasized as never before. The meaning and the value of liberty were stressed with the idea of impressing each student with the thought of the pricelessness of this heritage. Such training was given with the ultimate purpose of making future citizens, loyal to and appreciative of, their country. To be mindful ever of those who fought and died to give it birth and to treasure highly the rich legacies it has handed down from its very beginning to the generation of today. This teaching has not been in vain.

    The schools did not limit their work to patriotic demonstrations and to elementary training in national history. They made a liberal contribution in a material way. The children were urged to participate in garden contests, in which prizes were offered for the greatest variety and quantity of production. Canning clubs and thrift clubs were organized. So many hours were given each week to these clubs. Pupils helped to collect books and magazines for the soldiers. There were knitting and sewing clubs in behalf of the Belgian orphans. More of the older pupils were enrolled in these. Considerable time was given to collect clothing and other necessities of life for the Armenians and destitute people of Europe.

    The work of the schools was not interrupted or interfered with except at one or two intervals when there was a scarcity of teachers. Public-spirited citizens volunteered their services as teachers until such conditions were changed. By means of this co-operation the schools were able to run on schedule to complete their curricula according to the regulations of the State Board of Education.

    Two causes brought about this shortage of teachers. The first was due to the high wages paid by the government and other public and private concerns. Teachers resigned in favor of some other kind of work that carried with it more lucrative reward. Competent instructors became difficult to secure. A second reason was due to the fact that many teachers volunteered for war work. Some entered the army, among whom were the superintendent and principal. Others went as nurses or for Y.M.C.A. and Y. W. C. A. work. Some of the older students entered service in one way or another. Some few volunteered for farm work. Altogether it was a testing time for the schools; they were weighed in the balance and not found wanting. They weathered the storm of difficulty and became stronger institutions by the heroic unselfish service rendered in the trying times through which they passed, proving that education is the anchor of the community as it is the hope of the nation.

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    The National Guard was organized with an initial enrollment of sixty-eight. The officers were: Captain, Swinton Roadcap ; first lieutenant, Ralph Harris; second lieutenant, Fred Harris. Under the competent leadership of these officers this organization has maintained its reputation for service to the present date. The personnel of the men is equal to the best of the city's young manhood.

    A recruiting office was maintained in the city for a definite period of time. Government posters and newspaper advertisements were the chief methods used in recruiting men for both navy and army. The question was also kept before the public at all patriotic meetings. About 100 were enlisted through this office for the various departments of service. A number of young --omen volunteered as nurses; three physicians enlisted for oversea service; a few did Y.M.C.A. work: one minister, John. Paul Tyler, pastor of the Methodist Church, served as chaplain. He was cited for his excellent service in the battle of St. Mihiel France.

    W hen the draft law was made known the public became more serious than ever before. It felt the law to be wise and just, and refrained from hostile criticism. The legal profession assumed the responsibility for the registration, which required seven days to complete. Public-spirited citizens. including the ministers, volunteered their assistance. Prior to the registration days a mass meeting was held in the opera house for the purpose of acquainting all with this law. Circuit Judge G. K. Anderson and Prosecuting Attorney T. J. Wilson, among other local speakers, urged upon all of draft age the necessity of registering promptly in order to escape the penalty for failure to comply with the act. So far as is known no one failed to register for duty. There were in all about 475, including twenty-five women, volunteers who answered their country's call for definite service.

    When the conflict was over and the final roll was called back home there were four voices silent. These were Reyburn and Rolland Williams, brothers; Robert L. Mowyer, and Victoria Good. The three young men fell while in action in France; the young woman died while serving as a nurse in the Brooklyn Naval Hospital.

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    LIBERTY LOANS AND WAR SAVINGS STAMPS

    The Liberty Loans were pushed zealously under the aggressive leadership of the committee headed by Mayor A. B. Davies. All of the city's quotas were included in those of Alleghany County with the exception of the Victory Loan. This quota was $329,200. The amount subscribed was $314,000. The number who subscribed was 1,037. The maximum apportionment for the county, exclusive of the first loan, was $2,318,000. The amount raised was $2,226,000. The total number of subscribers was 11,599.

    When the figures of the first apportionment were made known some held their breath in astonishment. They thought the task impossible. They were not accustomed to thinking in so large terms. But the public soon girded itself for the task and it was greatly surprised at its own efforts. The second loan seemed excessive, but the public was more accustomed to thinking in big terms and it was better schooled to act accordingly. It now understood that it would require vast amounts of money and heroic effort to win the war, and that service abroad must be matched by millions at home. With less hesitation the committee undertook the raising of the third loan. The fourth loan prepared the people to expect most anything in the way of the amount and the frequency- of loans before the war was terminated. It was good news when the people learned the armistice had been signed. When the Victory Loan was announced they gave hilariously, prompted by a feeling of joy and gratitude.

    The means of raising the five loans were by personal work and advertising. Billboard arid newspaper advertising was resorted to extensively. A house-to-house canvass was made. This, perhaps, was the most effective method used. Certain men were designated to see certain men. The question was put to them from a patriotic viewpoint. There were some who were inclined to dodge the issue, but not without protest on the part of others more patriotic. The excuse for not subscribing ryas, "I am borrowing money from the banks no-vv, and I am paying more interest than I will receive." It was nearly always the case that they were either buying property or making some other investment in a selfish way. They apparently forgot that the peaceful possession of the property they were investing in was absolutely guaranteed by the government they repudiated by refusing to subscribe to help it in winning the war. These were few in number, for along with the financial canvass went an educational campaign in which men were schooled along the line of honor and duty. They were saved front their selfishness and greed. They were made more generous, less self-centered.

    In addition to the Liberty Loans the War Saving Stamps canvass was made. This quota for the city was $100,000. The actual amount raised was $84,500. F. W. King was in charge of this particular work. The postoffice, schools, banks, stores and other agencies took an active part in this phase of tear work. The school children were urged to buy Thrift stamps and War Savings stamps. They were taught the lesson of thrift, along with that of patriotism. It was an inspiring thing to watch the interest of the children grow in this worthy movement.

    AGRICULTURE, FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION

    The agricultural problem was never very acute. The local food committee and the Council of Defense stressed the necessity of food conservation. Practically every vacant lot in the city was cultivated intensively to help solve what might otherwise have been a food shortage. People abundantly able to buy food at most any price co-operated by tilling gardens and vacant lots, thus not only helping to solve the problem but setting a good example for others less patriotic along such lines. Prizes were offered by different organizations to encourage greater production of supplies. -Not only did the public cooperate in producing more food, but in conserving it also. Economy was especially practiced when a sugar famine was threatened. Hotels, restaurants and other public eating places placarded their places of business urging conservation at home that the might have more for our boys and the Allied armies who were looking to America for food. It was gratifying to all patriotic citizens to note how scrupulously the average person honored this request. It was a time when the "fragments were gathered up," for in them was life.

    This campaign was of inestimable value, for it taught the people to economize that they might have more for others. In some instances suspicion was aroused and rumors afloat that some might be hoarding sugar and flour, but not one was actually discovered doing so, and there is no record of the willful disregard of the request for conservation either in the careless use of food or wanton hoarding of it for pecuniary profit. Had there been a tendency on the part of any to do this, public sentiment was so pronounced that it would have been uncomfortable for them to reside in the community. There was no price regulation other than that which the government considered a fair and legitimate profit.

    INDUSTRY AND LABOR

    Although an industrial city, Clifton Forge had no special war-time industries. Large shops of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, employing more than 2,000 men in normal times, are located here. The number of employees increased during the war because of the enlarged business of the road. ` Each department took on an extra force of workmen. There, were three shifts working eight hours each. Wages, especially for skilled labor, were almost doubled. There was but little labor trouble and few labor agitators. A very few wished to take advantage of the war emergency to contend for shorter hours and more pay, but they were so much in the minority that they had but little influence, and the strike '.they seemed to want to bring about did not mature. Genuine ;:love for country and home will pilot men and industry through many an emergency, be it ever so acute. These employees, being mountain people for the most part, and with few of foreign blood within their ranks, are not the kind who tolerate rebellion and sedition. NO more patriotic blood can be found than that which courses through the veins of the native mountaineers. They are genuinely Anglo-Saxon in sentiment with a strong belief in the destiny of their nation. For them Old Glory floats above wages and patriotism rises above greed.

    Owing to the heavy demand of the shops and other nearby industries, common or day labor became exceedingly scarce. Work done was often inferior and only that which was absolutely necessary was undertaken.

    SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    The effect of the war on social conditions was very noticeable. Scarcity of labor, high wages, the universal cry of democracy, conspired towards the creation of an atmosphere of independence of thought and conduct. There was an evidence of a lack of self-restraint. Society was more or less restless. Democracy in government and industry was expressed in a form of socialism. Men hitherto conservative e in their views embraced this idea as a panacea for every ill. It appeared to be the guerdon-the dividend paid humanity for its colossal sacrifices in war. Many expected the war to right all wrongs; to adjust matters large and small. In fact, it seemed the millennium was at hand.

    The feeling ran high for government ownership and control of public utilities. There is no question that the war broke open the social dam and let through a flood of ideas, right and wrong, which have never been checked and perhaps never will be. A change of attitude towards the control of industries; the emancipation of woman in business and politics; changes of age-long social questions and standards; the insatiable desire for luxuries and extravagant living were some of the immediate effects.

    THE RED CROSS

    The Clifton Forge Chapter of the American Red Cross was organized June 15, 1917. It had auxiliaries at Millboro, Longdale and Iron Gate, all of which rendered most efficient service throughout the war period. The War Fund Campaign Committee began its work June 18, 1917. During the year it secured $2,405.85, which was only 50 per cent of tile amount apportioned. The membership of the chapter reached 1,012 for the year. The November roll call returned a membership of 1,492.

    The local order of the Elks gave a Red Cross benefit fro", which the chapter realized the sum of $800. Mrs. B. F, Donovan also gave a benefit from which the chapter realized the sum of $77.

    In November a canteen committee was appointed. This committee met all incoming trains and fed and ministered, ill other ways to several thousand soldiers. A mass meeting was held March 7, 1918, at which a public subscription was taken. This resulted in a regular income to the chapter of $450 per month.

    The Home Service Section rendered the usual financial relief to civilian families and all possible service to soldiers and sailors in the way of supplying information to families concerning the boys in the army and navy. The committee produced the following supplies: 520 towels, 80 sheets, 180 napkins, 180 handkerchiefs, 770 hospital shirts, 180 bed socks, 457 refugee garments, 42 layettes, 997 pairs of socks, 399 sweaters, 50 mufflers, 30,085 sponges, 11,737 compresses, 200 gauze strips, 640 gauze rolls, 1,224 absorbent pads, 4,200 other pads, 11,975 gauze wipes, 39 wristlets, 250 heel rugs, split irrigation pads, paper pads and other useful articles in quantity were produced. All soldiers who were recruited in Clifton Forge were supplied with one wool sweater and two pairs of socks. This local chapter survived the war and is still rendering a most excellent service in the community. Its motto seems to have been. "I am among you as one that serveth."

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    Welfare and relief work became a necessity. While wages were high and the people had full-time employment, yet the excessive price of everything made living hard for some. Those accustomed to large incomes had been swept into the orgy of spending somewhat recklessly, and when they faced the problem of reduced wages and sometimes no wages at all, through the loss of jobs, their embarrassment waxed keen.

    Churches, Sunday schools, Bible classes, railroad brotherhoods, lodges, the Woman's Club, the Red Cross and other organizations were committed in some measure to the task of providing charity. Fortunately the railroad maintained its full complement of employees, which greatly relieved the conditions. When the country's condition is sound and healthy there is little need for the balsam of charity. Relief committees and charity boards vanish simultaneously with the appearance of legitimately thriving business.

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    The home-coming of the soldiers was a time long to be remembered. The news of the armistice was heralded and received with great joy. It came into every mountain hamlet and home as a burst of morning light, thrilling every heart with joy and gratitude. It was a day- of much celebration. Educated and uneducated, rich and poor, employer and employee, white and black, Jew and Gentile, Democrat and Republican, Protestant and Catholic, saint and sinner, people from every walk of life came together with one accord to rejoice at the thought of the return of the boys to country, community, home-to life and to peace.

    Armistice Day is what the soldier thinks of peace. This is peculiarly his day and no doubt has become a permanent institution in the nation. The average soldier believed that the armistice not only marked the close of the World War, but the close of all wars as well. He felt that his sacrifice helped to bring about the era of everlasting peace, the realization of that age-long dream of "Peace on earth and good will to men."

    When the men were mustered out of service and large war industries shut down, releasing great numbers of workmen, labor soon became plentiful. Before it was necessary to seek labor; now labor was seeking work. In fact, conditions changed so rapidly and so radically that a local employment bureau was established. While it gave preference to the returned soldier seeking work, yet it helped all who applied for assistance. This bureau located a large number of men and helped to quell a growing spirit of unrest on the part of those who had been seeking work for some time without results. The soldier's grievance was just, for he had been at the front fighting his country's battles, making property and life more secure, and it was right that upon his return he should not stiffer the humiliation of seeking work and finding none. Whenever possible the returned soldier was given his old position.

    The American Legion Post was organized in the city with an initial enrollment of 65. It was named "Williams Post" in honor of the Williams brothers who were killed in action in France. It fosters all public enterprises of a worthy- nature, encourages patriotism; it is interested in the enactment of good legislation, local, State and national. In sentiment it was about equally divided on the question of the soldier's bonus, but it has been a unit in its effort to see justice meted out to the wounded and disabled soldier. The individuals or this organization rendered an important contribution for the maintenance of the altar of liberty, hence the reason it stand guard as a vigilant sentinel at freedom's post. Anarchy or bolshevism has nothing in common with the Legion. The soldiers felt that vocational education, sponsored by the government, was both just and profitable. At first many seemed enthusiastic over the idea, but for some reason only a very few took advantage of the offer.

    Soon after peace was established matters began to adjust themselves and people gradually returned to a more normal way of living. They discovered the war did not right everything, but that it left other battles to be fought, other victories to be won. With but few exceptions the restless current has been harnessed to the old channel and the community moves on in the even tenor of its way, whether better or worse for the scars of war future generations can best judge.

    The first impulse that moved the public, after the boys had returned triumphant from war, was to erect a suitable monument in some prominent place in their behalf. Enthusiasm for this project ran high. Committees were appointed under the auspices of the Daughters of the Confederacy. Several thousand dollars were subscribed. When it came time to decide on the particular kind of memorial to be erected there was a variety of opinion. Some thought one thing suitable and proper and some thought another thing better. The result was that no action has been taken. The funds raised are on deposit, the interest of which is being added to the principle yearly, and it is hoped that in the near future the memorial will be agreed upon and established to perpetuate the memory of the soldiers from Clifton Forge.

  • Dickenson County

    A Community History

    By E. J. SUTHERLAND AND J. H. T. SUTHERLAND

    FOREWORD

    Dickenson County is the "baby county" in Virginia. It was formed in 1880 from parts of Buchanan, Russell and Wise Counties. It is located on the Kentucky border line, high up on the southeastern slope of the Cumberland Mountains. The terrain of this county is rough and mountainous, with but few facilities for travel or commerce. In 1915 a railroad was built through its center, opening it up for the first time to outside industries and influences. It was the last county in Virginia to be settled. In 1816, Richard Coney, a descendant of the sturdy Scotch-Irish, building his three-walled log cabin at Sand Lick, became its first permanent settler. Since that time until the C. C. & O. Railroad was constructed, the county has been inhabited almost wholly by "native whites." Very few negroes and no foreign-born whites lived here previous to the building of the railroad and the opening of the coal mines in 1915. Its citizenship before, during and after the World War compared favorably with that of any other county in the "Old Dominion."

    Dickenson County performed its part in the World War gallantly and patriotically. It calmly and uncomplainingly bore its share of the sacrifices, burdens and inconveniences of the war period, and when the victory was won it joined hands with the other counties in Virginia to preserve, as carefully and completely as possible, the record of the activities of its sons and daughters, both at home and abroad, in that titanic struggle. When the State organized its War History Commission, the following persons were appointed members of the local branch for Dickenson County: S. H. Sutherland, Chairman ; John W. Flannagan, Jr., and Mrs. Fannie E. Wise, all of whom had been active in war work. The Board of supervisors of Dickenson County patriotically appropriated a fund to aid in the collection of material for a history of the county during war time and two ex-service men, Jonah E. Beverly and E. J. Sutherland, were selected to do this work, in which they were engaged about two months. Service records were prepared, war letters and diaries read and copied, and written articles prepared on the following topics:

    Pre-War Conditions, by Walter B. Phipps
    Churches in War Time, by E. J. Sutherland.
    Schools During the War, by B. D. French.
    'The Draft Law, by E. J. Sutherland.
    Liberty Loans, by E. J. Sutherland.
    The Red Cross, by Mrs. J. K. Damron.
    War-Time Food Production, by N. B. French.
    Post-War Conditions and Activities, by E. J. Sutherland.

    The present account of Dickenson County in War Time is based mainly upon the material gathered by the local branch of the Virginia War History Commission, in addition to the personal knowledge of the editors. Other sources of information used in this history are: "Virginians of Distinguished Service," a source book prepared by the Virginia War History Commission; "The Dickenson County News" and "The Dickenson County Moon," the only newspapers printed in Dickenson County during the war period, but both of which are now defunct, and of which a few scattering copies can be found in private hands. In the footnotes may be found references to the sources from which were drawn the facts and figures given.

    CHAPTER I

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    One hundred years before the beginning of the World War, hardy pioneers began settlements in that part of the hill country of Southwestern Virginia that is now Dickenson County. These trailblazers found immense potential wealth, but could make very little use of it. They found virgin forests on more than 200,000 acres, timbered with choicest oak,[1] poplar and other valuable trees. They found later that almost the entire surface of 332 square miles is underlaid with valuable coal deposits. They followed trails and streams to reach their new-homes which they established thirty miles and more from other settlements and stores. They built their cabins at strategic points and feasted upon the roasts of bear, deer and other wild meats found in the forests, and protected themselves from the wolves, rattlesnakes and many other dangers of pioneer days.

    Descended chiefly from the Scotch-Irish, English and German stock, these pioneers established in the mountains a race of liberty-loving, gallant, resourceful and fearless people.

    Perhaps three-fourths were descendants of the Scotch-Irish and English. Several of the larger families-among them the Countses (Kuntzee), the Rasnicks (Rasnakes), the Kisers (Keysers) the Deels (Diehls), and the Vanovers--were of German descent. Yet they were not of that GermanAmerican type that spread pro-German propaganda. The ancestors of these people had come to America so long ago that most of them had forgotten their Germanic origin; but those who knew of their German blood, through tradition or history also knew that it was the religious and military persecutions of the old German rulers that drove their freedom-loving forefathers from their ancient Fatherland, so their descendants held no special love for present-day Germany. This was true in a large measure with the descendants of the Scotch-:]lrish and English. There had been much inter-marrying between the descendants of these nationals, and they had consequently blended into a new race-the American. Add to that condition the further fact that they were now so far removed moved from the conflict, and it is easy to see why there was little expression of favor or antagonism for either side at the outbreak of the war.

    Year by year these pioneers and their descendants mastered more completely the dangers and hardships of the hill country, and when the World War came it found 12,000 happy and contented people living in the county. Very few were extremely poor, and none very rich. There was a rapid growth starting about 1910, when the population was 9,199. Talk of a railroad was heard, and better facilities of travel and communication were asked for. Finally, in 1915, the Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio Railroad opened a line through the center of the county, between Elkhorn City, Kentucky, on the north, and the Carolinas on the south. In 1920 there were 13,542 people in the county. Of these 13,107 were native white Of native parentage, 50 native white of foreign parentage, 15 native white of mixed parentage, 74 foreign-born white, and 296 colored. Thus only 74, or onehalf of one per cent, are foreign born. The foreign born and negroes live almost entirely in the mining and lumber camps.

    With the opening of the C., C. & O. Railroad in 1915, for the first time[2] the rich mines and forests of the county were made accessible to the world markets. From 1915 to 1917 several mines were opened up, and new towns sprang up along the railroad, such as Clinchco, Haysi, Splashdam and Trammell. These towns were the results of the mining industry and had a population ranging from 200 to 1,500 people. The W. M. Ritter Lumber Company, during the same period, had begun extensive lumber operations at Fremont and Caney in this county.

    The great demand for coal and lumber at that time made Dickenson County a veritable hive of industry. The people were all busy at mining, lumbering or on their farms producing to supply these laborers with food. It was the construction of the railroad and the great growth in industry that followed that caused the rapid increase in population at this time and found Dickenson for the first time with ally colored or foreign population.

    Most of the people lived on farms in 1914, and raised most of the products they used, but no surplus for profit. The farms were isolated, and social contacts were not frequent. Few telephones were in the county; many mail routes were tri-weekly; roads were only fair mountain trails. Not a large number of the citizens read daily papers; news was often brought from the outside world by peddlers. The people were used to hardships, and few modern conveniences and luxuries were known.

    Radical improvements and the urge of a new era cache with the railroad in 1915. In Clintwood alone in that year[3] $75,000 to $100,000 were spent on the courthouse, the Dickenson County Bank building, and beautiful homes. The McClure Bottling Works started at Haysi that year, and general prosperity led to the establishment of the Bank of Haysi in 1919. A Freeling correspondent of the Roanoke Times in June, 1915, stated that labor was scarce on the farms, but it was easier to get the labor than the money to pay the wages The people were busier and making more money than they had ever made before, and being far removed from Europe, were consequently not greatly concerned about the war.

    To be sure, the county was shocked with the news that Germany had brutally crossed Belgium, and eagerly awaited to see if Paris could be taken. On the part of most citizens there was a comparatively neutral attitude. There was sympathy for Belgium, Serbia and France, and a hostility toward the brutality of the German leaders. Many of the isolated hill people were unable to comprehend the reasons for the warcould not realize its immensity and terrors at first. As the Germans drew near Paris, and the fierce fighting around Verdun was in progress, the citizens began openly to express the hope that the Allies would win, although many of them thought our people should not go across the seas to fight for the other nations. Most of them were individualistic acid held that it was none of our business; but on the other hand. had America been invaded they would have responded to a man in defending the country.[4]
    As the war progressed the people became better acquainted with its causes. The constant newspaper reports of the German atrocities shocked these peaceful and liberty-loving hill people; many citizens saw it was inevitable that America should take up the fight, and advocated war long before President Wilson recommended this to Congress. Most citizens had such confidence in their President and Congress that they willingly and unquestioningly accepted their leadership. When war was decided upon, as well as the other incidents connected with it, the Dickenson soldier, true to his traditional and gallant defense of honor and right and home, set sail to fight and cover himself with the glory of his fathers.

    CHAPTER II

    CHURCHES IN WAR TIME

    The churches of Dickenson County performed a valuable function in the war period that aided very much in achieving the final triumph. The church served as a steadying influence to those who went into the army and navy and a consolation to those who remained at home. It gave spiritual succor to the weary and despondent and was a fountain of strength for all. In spite of the manifold services of the churches during war time, it is difficult to lay hold of and record the tangible results of their endeavors. The main reasons for this condition are these: (1) Mountain men, as a rule, do not join a church in youth. They are not born and bred in the church of their fathers and mothers; they feel it would be an act of' sacrilege and hypocrisy to attach themselves to a church before they have personally experienced the pardoning and Saving power of God. For this reason but few of our soldiers were allied with any church which could lay just claim to them as its own: (2) The great majority of Dickenson County people do not believe in mixing church and state affords and as war is necessarily a business of the state, the church as an organization, stands aloof, though its members individually may be strong advocates of war as a last resort. (3) These same people do not believe in collecting funds for such purposes through the medium of church organizations. They do not pay their preachers salaries; they give willingly and freely to causes they think worthy; but they believe in old admonition: "Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth." For these reasons church records give no satisfactory information as to the extent of the war-work activites of the church members in Dickenson County.

    In no other county in the State of Virginia is there a deeper religious feeling and belief in the existence of an Omnipotent d than among the people of Dickenson County. Nutured in the eternal mountains and living close to nature, they have abundant evidence of God's power and mercy. When troubles come thick and fast and the future looms dark and threatening, they know of no other source of comfort and protection than their Maker. So when the World War began to reach its powerful tentacles across the ocean and to draw America irresistibly into the conflict, the people of Dickenson knew that alone they were powerless to avert the catastrophe that was coming into their lives. Suffering, destruction and death could not be avoided. God was punishing the world for its sins. America could not escape her share of this punishment, and her people would have to pay along with the rest of the world. So they put their trust in the Ruler of the Universe and sent their sons forth to battle with the abiding faith of those who know their cause is just and that God is with the right.

    While the religious faith of our people was strong and they did not despair of ultimate victory, a casual observer would not discern readily such sentiments in the written records of our churches. Very much that was said and done was never recorded. The vast majority of the people of Dickenson County belong to-or believe in the tenets and practices ofthe Primitive Baptist Churches. Unfortunately for their own history, these churches do not keep a careful record of their proceedings, and they have no active and powerful interchurch organizations like those that characterize other religious denominations. They have no higher board or bishop to which to report their actions and deliberations. Consequently no complete record is ever made of their meetings. Local conditions make it inadvisable to hold more than one or two meetings each month in their church. No organized effort is possible in communities that are sparsely populated. Nevertheless, many special meetings for hearing Liberty Loan and Red Cross speakers were held in these churches. Several of the Primitive Baptist preachers took a leading and effective part in these war-time campaigns for raising funds for war work. While no special war-time services were held in these churches, the prayers and sermons of their elders were filled with patriotic fervor and devotion to our soldiers.

    The Methodist and Missionary Baptist Churches at Clintwood?????[1] and a few other points in the county were very zealous in their war work. Funds were collected for the Red Cross and other organizations; special patriotic services were held; service flags and national colors displayed, and other work of a similar nature accomplished.

    The general attitude of all congregations, except perhaps the Dunkard Church at Skeetrock, was that America's participation in the war was unavoidable and that our nation should exert itself to the utmost to win the victory. They were earnest and anxious in their solicitation for the welfare and comfort of the soldiers and sailors. The people willingly complied with every request of the Federal government in so far as it was in their power. Food conservation and thrift became popular, and a spirit of helpful cooperation manifested itself strongly throughout the county. The opportunity for social intercourse at church meetings aided the growth of these sentiments in a very material way.

    One gratifying effect of the war was the disappearance, in a large measure, of the factional and denominational friction between the various churches. The spirit of patriotism and national danger drew all people of the county together in one common bond of brotherhood, and they forgot their theological differences for the time being. They saw only their boys in camp and trench facing the national foe, and they all looked to the same God for succor and guidance.

    CHAPTER III

    SCHOOLS DURING THE WAR

    The World War wrought many mighty changes in the various avocations of life. The public school did not escape. One of the most marked changes in the school curriculum of this county was the effect upon the teaching of history and geography. History, which was at one time viewed as a group of dry facts concerning the different peoples of the world, was made realistic. When the boys of this county donned the khaki uniform and went overseas to fight a foreign foe, the children began to realize in a vivid way that their old histories had really told of true happenings, and that history was repeating itself. A new impetus was therefore given both to the study and to the teaching of history. Geography was also given a newer and more realistic meaning. The children became interested in the geography of the Old World. During the war they mere enthusiastic to note the various battle fronts. Since the war they have become particularly interested in the new map of Europe.

    Not only has the school curriculum been changed as noted above, but other innovations have come into being that are proving of real north. Before the war there were many children of this county who had perhaps never heard the "Star-Spangled" Banner," but when the spirit of patriotism began to assert itself, our national anthem was taught in all the schools and was heard ringing from the many bird-like throats of the boys and girls of this county. Flag drills and salutes, with other patriotic exercises, were introduced in many of the schools.

    Another change worthy of note is that of calisthenics. We learned from the war that America's physical manhood was considerably below people's expectations. The fact that a large number of the young men of this county were physically unfit for the government's service caused the boys to yearn for a physical strength that would manifest itself with proper physical exercise. As a result, calisthenic exercises have been introduced in all of the schools of this county, with increasing satisfactory results.

    A chief contribution of the pupils to the winning of the war was the sale of War Savings Stamps. The amount of money raised in the county in this way was considerable the pupils buying many of the stamps. Pupils also carried home the enthusiasm imparted by patriotic speeches in the schools and interpreted the meaning and menace of the war to their parents, thereby aiding in maintaining and increasing the morale of the people.

    Thrift was taught by every means, to young and old, during the whole war period. June 28, 1918, was set aside as Thrift Day in Dickenson County by the thrift director, W, W. Pressley. The County School Board urged all teachers to purchase at least $10.00 in War Savings Stamps, while at district teachers' meetings thrift and questions concerning the winning of the war were eagerly discussed, the patrons taking part in the proceedings.[5]

    The personnel of the teaching force has been greatly changed. Below are three lists?????[1] of teachers of this county who served in the World War; the first being those who were teaching at the outbreak of the war; the second, those who have formerly taught in this county; the third, those who volunteered for the government's service:

    1. Service men who were teaching at the outbreak of war--G. T. Anderson, A. A. Curtiss, J. C. Colley, B. D. French, J. P. Fuller, M. T. Meade, L. M. Owens , Olney Owens, Morris Phipps, W. M. Phipps, R. S. Stanley, L. N. Sowards, C. C. Sutherland, F. S. Sutherland, Avon B. Sykes, J. F. Sykes.
    2. Service men who taught in county before outbreak of war-Robert Baker, C. S. Beverly, E. R. Beverly, J. E. Beverly, Clarence Branham, G. W. Branham, E. M. Counts, L. H. Counts, Vernon Damron, Arthur Deel, Ezekiel Duty, W. S. Duty, C. D. Elkins, R. S. Grizzle, Alex Hackney, C. R. McCoy, C. F. McFall, E. P. T. Mullins, I. C. Owens, W. B. Phipps, B. S. Powers, J. M. Rasnick, W. E. Rasnick, W. G. Rasnick, E. B. Rush, W. L. Rush, E. J. Sutherland, F. H. Sutherland, H. C. Sutherland, H. M. Sutherland, James Sutherland, R. L. Sutherland, W. A. Sutherland, Vernon Vanover, McKinley Yates.
    3. Volunteers from teaching corps in service-G. T. Anderson, Robert Baker, J. C. Coney, B. D. French, R. S. Grizzle, I. C. Owens, W. E. Rasnick, E. J. Sutherland, F. H. Sutherland, R. L. Sutherland.

    Before the war broke out nearly all teachers in Dickenson County were men. About this time general progress laid hold on the people with the building of a railroad and the beginning of development of the great resources of the county. Lumbering, mining and other industries, with better wages and year-long jobs, have drawn away many former menteachers, and women now fill three-fourths of the teaching positions in the county. During the war many schools were without teachers; some were filled with incompetent teachers because of the scarcity of qualified teachers. Larger boys dropped out of school to work. Conditions have radically improved since the war in the school system, with equalized opportunities, more standard schools, better trained teachers, and one of the best high schools in the South, the Memorial High School, at Clintwood.

    CHAPTER IV

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    The people of Dickenson County welcomed the draft law as being the fairest and best method of securing soldiers for service in Europe. They did not thoroughly know what the war was about, nor why American soldiers should be sent to fight in Europe, but our boys were ready to do their share of this work. Very few objected to the spirit and operation of the law. It is true many did not understand the various provisions of the selective service act or draft law, and they did not know what effect it would have on their work and life, yet they had enough confidence in their government to leave the details to those in authority. They did what they were instructed to do, and left the outcome to the wisdom of their leaders and the mercy of God.

    The registration of those within the draft age was accomplished by the local registrars at the various voting precincts on June 5, 1917. Very little opposition was encountered in this work. All the questionnaires were returned to Clintwood and there they were checked and classified by the Local Draft Board. This board consisted of M. C. Swindall, chairman; G. M. Jones, secretary, and Dr. W. H. Reed, physical examiner. This board organized and began its work immediately after the questionnaires were returned. The work of exemption was performed by the same board. There was little objection to the classification by the board, and few appeals were taken to the State Exemption Board. In every appeal case the State Board sustained the classification of the Local Board.

    The Local Board was engaged for several days on the work of classification and exemption. Dr. Reed was assisted materially by Dr. R. L. Phipps in the physical examination of the selective service men. This examination was perhaps the most thorough ever submitted to by the youth of this county. That in itself was a great help to the individuals, as it showed them for the first time just where they were weak physically and laid the foundation for a general improvement in the health and sanitary conditions throughout the whole county.

    The Board of Legal Advisers,[6] composed of judge A. A. Skeen, S. H. Sutherland and S. P. Riddle, rendered very valuable service in the short time allowed them in aiding the people to understand the selective service law, and also in assisting the young men to fill out their questionnaires properly. Other lawyers volunteered their services in this very important and helpful work.

    All the men drafted were sent to the army cantonment at Camp Lee, near Petersburg, Virginia. Upon receiving the quota for the county the Local Draft Board sent out the call for a number of men sufficient to fill the quota, and they reported at Clintwood where they were usually entertained overnight. A captain or leader was chosen from among theta, who took charge of the men and the papers to accompany them, and delivered them to the camp authorities at Camp Lee.

    Practically all claims for exemption[7] were based on marriage. A few claimed exemption on account of their religious or conscientious scruples. These latter claims came from persons residing at Skeetrock and adjacent points south of Cumberland Mountain. At that place the Dunkards had an active church, and several of its members objected to military service because of their religious tenets. They were required to report for service.

    A second registration was accomplished in the county on June 5, 1918, at which time all the men who had attained the age of 21 since June 5, 1917, were registered. This included about one hundred young men.[8] On September 12, 1918, all the men from eighteen to forty-five years of age, except those in the army or navy or already registered, were registered for military service, the original Local Draft Board, being in charge of this final registration.

    There were few slackers and deserters in Dickenson County. Some hesitated at first to go into the army, but after a short period of meditation, most of them reported for training. The Adjutant-General of the Army reported the following slackers from Dickenson County:

    Omar Reed Clifton, Hazel, Va.; Henry Cully (subject of Canada); Emplues Hawkins, Dwale, Va.; Roy Hawkins, Darwin, Va.; Thomas Isiah Hawkins, Dwale, Va.; Creed Mullins, Georges Fork, Va.; Luther Mullins, Georges Fork, Va.; Walker Page, Dante, Va.; Johnnie Phipps, Freeling, Va.; Andy Stevens, Duty, Va.; John L. Turner, Dante, Va.; Nathaniel Williams, Edwardsville, Va.

    As will be noted,[9] Cully and Williams were not residents of Dickenson County. None of these men were ever apprehended by the authorities or punished for their evasion of the draft law.

    A number of citizens of Dickenson County, being anxious to do their bit in actual military service, did not wait to be called by the draft authorities. Others, too young or too old for the draft, tendered their services. The navy had a fascination for many, and near the close of the war several men from the second registration, who persuaded the naval authorities to give them an early chance for active service, enlisted for sea service.

    The number actually in service from Dickenson County is unknown. The necessary result of the selective service law was to scatter the county's quota in various military organizations. No complete roster can be compiled by resorting to the roster of any particular organization.

    From records supplied from the office of the Adjutant-General of the Army, it is ascertained that the number called to the service from Dickenson County by the draft was approximately 275. There were about 20 volunteers in the navy, and more than 50 entered the army as volunteers or were drafted outside the county. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that more than 350 sons of Dickenson County saw military or naval service in the World War.

    There has never been any military organization in Dickenson County. It has been too isolated to make feasible the organization of a National Guard, Home Guard, or State Militia unit. It was too sparsely settled and its transportation and travel facilities were too meager to permit the organization of any of these units during the war period.

    CHAPTER V

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    The people of Dickenson County have never handled large sums of money. In undeveloped resources this county is perhaps the richest in the South, but its permanent citizens have never been able to convert much of this wealth into ready money. When the World War began the most valuable asset of the county was its young men, and of them it gave without stint or limit.

    In years gone by the citizens had sold perhaps half their holdings in the county to large corporations for a song, so to speak; coal lands were sold for 50 cents to $2.00 per acre, and virgin forests for $15.00 per acre. A few citizens had foresight enough to keep their property for better prices, or saved the puny proceeds from the sale of their potential fortunes. Some had slowly accumulated funds by the sweat of their brow. Patient industry and frugal living had brought some rewards, but there were no idle rich in the county. On the other hand, the county has never had the slightest need for a poorhouse nor other institutions for the indigent.

    When[10] the World War came so suddenly and snatched their sturdy sons from their homes and hillside fields, the people thought that was enough to demand of them. But as the months wore on and the immensity of the struggle became more apparent, they saw that it was necessary for the homefolks to supply the real sinews of war-money. The boys must be clothed and fed and armed, and that took money. For the first time, perhaps, in their lives, the people began to realize that the government was no magician that was able to create unlimited funds with the single stroke of a wand. In the past they had hardly realized that they themselves were an important part of a government that existed and lived alone by their combined efforts and aid, or perished for want of those things. Now that their sons were under the immediate control of the government, they took a closer look at it, and found that in the end the money that it must use came from their own pockets. It was an important as well as startling discovery to many.

    When the Federal government called for the First Liberty Loan, the people of Dickenson County were not quite adjusted to the whirlwind developments of that time. News did not then penetrate the hill country so rapidly as elsewhere, and the full strength of the county was not organized for this drive. But at the second call, the response was better, and on the third loan the quota secured a 160 per cent response. The fourth quota was larger, as was the fifth, and the subscription to the last three drives was approximately the same, being near $75,000[11] per loan. It was inspiring to witness a small population, without much money but eager to do their part, dig down into their pockets for their last penny, saying: "Take it for my boy's sake. I don't need it now -- I can save more by the time I need it." Such was the spirit of a people at last aroused to the knowledge of their power and duty as patriotic American citizens.

    In the various drives for Liberty Loans, Mr. John W. Flannagan, Jr.,[12] a young lawyer of Clintwood, served as county chairman of the men's organization. He had a strong and active organization spread over the whole county, composed of the leading citizens. These men worked as a unit, and deserve great credit for arousing the people to understand the treed of responding to the government's call for funds to prosecute the war to the limit. The women's organization had for its chairman, Mrs. J. K. Damron,[13] of Clintwood. This organization also did splendid work.

    Printed circulars were sent broadcast over the county urging the necessity for subscriptions, and announcing speakers at certain hours.) Schools and churches were utilized to spread the cause. Strong and convincing speakers, both resident and non-resident, covered the county in the effort to arouse the cause. Strong and convincing speakers, both resident were: A. A. Skeen, S. H. Sutherland, R. E. Chase, C. Bascom Slemp, T. J. Munsey, W. A. Daugherty, Bruce Johnson, A. K. Morrison, W. H. Rouse, R. L. Hooker, Lee Long, Eivens Tiller and Wm. B. Sutherland.

    Detailed figures for the First Liberty Loan are not available. For the remaining loans the following figures are supplied by the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, which handled the loan for Virginia:

    Loan Maximum Apportionment Amount Subscribed Subscribers
    2nd $ 30,500 $ 11,500 No report
    3rd 50,000 79,000 459
    4th 200,000 75,000 326
    5th 75,000 75,250 521
    - $355,500 $240,750 1,306

    While many citizens gave much time and money to the work in all the loans, the following men, in the opinion of the county chairman, [14] did exceptionally fine work: John F. Trivitt, William B. Sutherland, Frank Clark and M. C. McCorkle. Valuable assistance was rendered by Mr. Frank Hammel, general counsel for W. M. Ritter Lumber Company, who lives at Columbus, Ohio, and by Mr. Lee Long, general manager and vice-president of the Clinchfield Coal Corporation, who lives at Dante, Virginia. Employees of these companies living in the county liberally used their wages to purchase bonds.

    No record is available for the workers in the First and Second Loans in Dickenson County. Associate [15] of the chairman, Mr. Flannagan, in the Men's Association for the other loans were:

    THIRD LOAN-John F. Trivitt, Frank Clark, Frank H. Fuller, Captain Deviney, R. L. Hooker, W. B. Sutherland, S. H. Sutherland, W. W. Pressley.

    FOURTH LOAN-J. G. McFall, W. J. Branham, W. J. Artrip, D. R. Crabtree, B. F. Kenady, J. P. Kelley, J. T. Kiser, Joseph Mullins, Will Buckles, Mert McCorkle, R. L. Hooker, Drayton Musick, Zack South, S. H. Sutherland, W. W. Pressley, Mr. Randolph, Lee Long, T. K. Colley, N. C. Fuller, Frank Large, J. W. Mullins, G. B. Counts, W. B. Sutherland, George W. Stone, J. E. L. Sutherland, N. J. Buchanan, Dave Kenady, R. L. Mullins, E. C. Kiser, G. C. Mullins, Meredith Willis, M. C. McCorkle, Frank Smith, R. D. Sutherland, Lucian Priode, Henry Keel, John F. Trivitt, Frank H. Fuller, Frank Clark, C. G. Jackson, W. J. Cochran, John G. Kerr, E. D. Sutherland, J. W. C. Counts, T. C. Sutherland, Eivens Tiller.

    FIFTH (VICTORY) LOAN-J. G. McFall, J. E. L. Sutherland, W. J. Artrip, D. R. Crabtree, B. F. Kenady, J. P. Kelley, J. T. Kiser Joseph Mullins, J. W. Richardson, Mert McCorkle, R. L. Hooker, Drayton Musick, Henry Hamilton, S. P. Riddle, W. W. Pressley, D. Litton, Lee Long, C. G. Jackson, W. J. Cochran, E. S. Counts, Frank Large J. W. Mullins, G. B. Counts, W. B. Sutherland, George W. Stone, W. J. Branham, N. J. Buchanan, Dave Kenady, R. L. Mullins, E. C. Kiser, G. C. Mullins, Meredith Willis, M. C. McCorkle, Frank Smith, R. D. Sutherland, Zack South, G. -Mark French, John F. Trivitt, Mr. Randolph, Frank Clark, Captain Deviney, T. K. Colley, N. C. Fuller, John G. Kerr, E. D. Sutherland, J. W. C. Counts, T. C. Sutherland, Eivens Tiller.

    Besides Mrs. J. K. Damron, chairman, the members of the Women's Organization were:

    FOURTH LOAN-Mrs, Hobart Kiser and Mrs. Will Mason.

    These same workers directed the Fifth (Victory) Loan in the county for the women.

    While the persons named had the responsibility of directing the loans in the county, many others contributed very largely to this cause and deserve much credit for the success of the various loans. Those who could not fight on the battle front gave all aid and support from the rear.

    No figures are available for the War Savings Stamps campaign in the county, but it is known that the sales were general at all points and that young and old responded generously to the call. In July, 1918, Dickenson[16] had sold only $3,583 in War Savings Stamps, which was proportionately loner than for other counties in the Ninth District.

    During the war period there was a noticeable increase in production on the farms. Concerted [17] efforts were made to conserve and increase the production of wheat, rye, buckwheat and corn; of hogs, sheep and poultry; of milk and milk products, and of potatoes, beans, peas and other garden truck.

    Citizens were encouraged to furnish most of the family needs from home gardens. Wasteful methods of harvesting and storing crops were discouraged.

    Mr. J. Nick Jones, county farm demonstrator, organized pig clubs, poultry clubs, corn clubs and advised the farmers concerning their problems, which resulted in larger yields per acre, rotated crops and better ways of doing the work of the farm. Although labor was scarce and wages almost prohibitive, the farmers loyally bore their share of the burden during the war.

    The local Food Administrator, Dr. N. B. French, of Clintwood, tactfully and energetically performed his duties. Instructions were spread as completely and quickly as possible concerning food regulations, the columns of the Dickenson County News being employed for this. There was a spirit of co-operation on the part of the people to observe the principles of conservation, to do without sugar and other article to a great extent for the sake of the soldier and his welfare. There was little, if any, profiteering in Dickenson County.

    With the completion of the only railroad in the county in 1915, mining towns sprang up rapidly, and the W. M. Ritter Lumber Company began extensive operations in the county. During the war the demand for coal was so great that coal was often mined some distances from the railroad and hauled in wagons to shipping points. The choicest and largest white oaks[18] were cut in lengths from 12 to 40 or more feet, running from 12 to 30 inches on the face, and shipped for export or ship timbers, in addition to the increased lumber production at several small mills in the county.

    There was a large increase in transportation over the only railroad, and fuel and war supplies had the right-of-way. Along with the later trend toward highways, Hon. R. E. Chase, aided by Senator Swanson, secured extra train and mail services early in 1919.

    No strikes marred the record of laboring men in Dickenson County during the war. The farmers were native-born whites, as were most of the industrial workers. All were loyal and earnest. As has been the custom of mountain women, the Dickenson women bore their share of all burdens as bravely as did the Spartan women of old. Wages went beyond the dreams of the workers, and many were filled with a feeling of their self-importance. Whereas they received $1.00 to $2.00 before the war on the farms, wages of $4.00 per day,[19] with pay day each Saturday, were offered for work at stave mill and in the mines in 1918. By 1919[20] free board and $3.00 per day were offered for cutting and shipping timber. Naturally there was a shortage of farm labor, since the farmers could not afford to pay such wages.

    Since practically all people in the county are related by blood, and are native whites of purest stock, there has never en any class feeling. The absence of negroes until 1914 moved all causes for racial prejudice. Customs brought into the mountains with the settlement of the county prevailed in 1914. Women assumed a greater share of the home work than their lowland sisters, and the children had their dart of the work. A majority of the women perhaps did not desire suffrage, but they have been interested and instrumental in elections since they have won their equal rights. These equal rights arid the new freedom have perhaps wrought eater changes in the mountains than elsewhere. Before the war most of the teachers in Dickenson and other mountains counties were men; now most of them are women. On "the farm and in the home the men now perform more of the duties. The advent of women into the official and political life of the county, along with the urge of progress brought back by the soldier, has begun to transform the potential wealth of Dickenson into highways, better schools, civic improvements greater comfort in the homes, and a growing interest in the affairs of the day.

    CHAPTER VI

    THE RED CROSS

    In May1917, a start was made by the Woman's Literary Club, of Clintwood, to organize a Red Cross Chapter for Dickenson County. This movement was retarded by the fact that most of the people of the county were unfamiliar with the Red Cross, and the organization was not perfected until September, 1917. That the people were finally aroused by e chapter to do their part is shown in the fact that Dickenson raised three times her quota in the Red Cross work. The following prominent men[21] of the town were elected officers of the chapter: W. H. Rouse, chairman; J. W. Stewart, vice-chairman; J. W. Flannagan, Jr., secretary; W. W. Pressley, treasurer.

    The following executive committee was elected: W. H. Rouse, J. K. Damron, F. P. Sutherland N. B. French, Jonah Mullins, W. W. Pressley, J. W. Flannagan, Jr., Rev. F. H. Fuller, Henry Keel, Rev. J. W. Stewart, and Mrs. J. K. Damron. Mrs. J. K. Damron was elected chairman of this committee, which was composed of persons of high standing in the town, being lawyers, preachers, doctors, bankers, etc.

    Mr. Rouse served as chairman about six months and then resigned because his business required him to be absent so much that he felt he could not give the office the time it deserved. A special meeting was called and Rev. F. H. Fuller was elected chairman. He served about nine months, then moved away. Professor M. W. Remines was then elected chairman. Mr. Flannagan served as secretary about nine months and then resigned. Mrs. J. K. Damron was elected in his stead.

    A public meeting was held at Clintwood, at which judge W. E. Burns, of Lebanon, Virginia, after making an appropriate address, presided. At this meeting a working branch, known as the Clintwood Auxiliary, was organized with the following officers: Mrs. J. K. Damron, chairman; Mrs. A. A. Skeen, secretary: Mrs. F. H. Fuller treasurer.

    The following working committees were appointed:

    1. Purchasing Committee-Mrs. J. K. Damron, Mrs. F. H. Fuller. The duty of this committee was to buy material for workrooms.

    2. Committee on Supplies-Mrs. J. K. Damron, Mrs. J. C. Smith. The duty of this committee was to determine the materials needed and report same to purchasing committee.

    3. Membership Committee-Mrs. A. A. Skeen, Mrs. J. C. Smith, Mrs. Floyd Dan-iron. The duty of this committee way to solicit members.

    4. Cutting Committee--Mrs. J. K. Damron, Mrs. G. D. Davis and Mrs. W. H. Reed. The duty of this committee was to cut and prepare materials for workers.

    5. Comfort-Kit Committee-Misses Lillian Damron, Lillian Sutherland and Estelle Rucker. The duty of this committee was to solicit money to fill comfort-kits with article needed by the soldiers. It required from $1.50 to $1.75 toy buy articles for each kit.

    Two workrooms were donated to the chapter by the Board of Supervisors. These rooms were maintained and operated by the chapter for many months.

    Most of the time was devoted to cutting, sewing by hand and on sewing machines, and knitting by hand. The following is a list of active workers and the kind of work done by each at Clintwood.

    Mrs. F. C. Hillman, knitting and sewing; Mrs. Floyd Damron, knitting Mrs. J. K. Damron knitting, sewing and cutting; Mrs. J. M. Skeen, knitting; Mrs. J. W. Stewart, knitting and serving; Mrs. W. H. Reed, knitting and sewing.

    Front time to time the chapter had plays, public meeting. etc., to raise money for the purpose of carrying on the work. Some of the most liberal contributors were: W. H. Rouse. T. H. Long, T. K. Damron and G. B. Long. All supplies bought from Red Cross headquarters, Washington, D.C., except a small amount of material from local stores. Our Red Cross quota was always filled.

    The chapter supplied all our county boys who left for the different cantonments after November 1, 1917, with knitted outfits, consisting of sweaters, wristlets and socks:

    The following articles were shipped to Potomac Division headquarters and to France: 17 sheets, 99 inches long; 1 sheet, 71 inches long; 21 convalescence robes; 212 hospital shirts; 33 pair pajamas; 506 substitute handkerchiefs, dish towels, napkins, etc.: 18 refugee garments; 180 pair socks; 53 pair wristlets ; 96 sweaters; 8 helmets; 50 pair hospital socks; 7 layettes. This work was accomplished by fewer than a dozen members.

    When the boys were called to the county seat to be entrained for camp, there was served to each a nice dinner, and they were given lunch boxes, fruit, etc., and were sent away with good cheer.

    During the summer of 1918 there were collected and sent to Camp Lee, 169 jars of preserves, jellies and pickles, valued at $100.00.

    A Home Service committee was appointed, with Professor M. W. Remines, chairman, and Mrs. J. K. Damron, secretary. This committee did splendid work during the influenza epidemic in 1918, assisting more than twenty-five families by loaning garments, furnishing food, medicine, etc., and nursing the sick. The influenza epidemic was perhaps more fatal in Dickenson than in any county of the State in proportion to the population. It was spread from the county fair at Clintwood, early in October, 1918, and more than fifty deaths[22] were known to have occurred in the county, in October of that year, from influenza. As many as six in some families died.

    Auxiliaries were organized in different parts of the county, namely: Clintwood, Nora, Fremont, Clinchco, Haysi and Bucu. Only two of these auxiliaries were especially active, Clintwood and Nora. Nora is a small place in the county, but Mrs. Hugh Binns, with only a few associates, accomplished a Mrs. amount of work. A small amount of work was done at Bucu by the ladies of the Red Cross, especially in knitting and sewing.

    Letters[23] from the soldiers in camp to the folks back home, Fin which the work of the Red Cross, Young Men's Christian; Association and other organizations were praised, aided much in educating the public to the value of these auxiliary agencies and stimulated concerted and county-wide effort in the drives for funds for them and for necessary supplies for the soldiers.

    CHAPTER VII

    DICKENSON SOLDIERS OF DISTINGUISHED SERVICE

    Very few citizens of Dickenson County had seen military service prior to the World War. Occasionally a youth with the fire of adventure in his blood would enlist in the regular army, but usually a short term weaned him of any desire to make soldiering a life profession. No student from this county had attended a military school. Thus when war came the soldiers from Dickerson County had to begin at the bottom; yet in the short period of their active military- experience they proved that they, had the stamina and ability to make excellent soldiers. The following natives of the county won commissions in the army:

    Winfield Scott Duty, second lieutenant, infantry; Charles Rufus McCoy, second lieutenant, infantry; Leland Stanford Owens, second lieutenant, infantry; James Corbett Senter, second lieutenant, aviation; Brady Sutherland, second lieutenant, infantry; Elihu Jasper Sutherland, first lieutenant, infantry; Fitzhugh Sutherland, second lieutenant, infantry.

    The names of Dickenson County soldiers who won special honors in military service follow:

    Abb Hill,[24] of Millard, Dickenson County, Virginia. Private, machinegun company, 16th Infantry, First Division. Cited by brigade commander.

    Thomas F. Howell,[25] of Clintwood, Dickenson County, Virginia Sergeant, Company G, 2nd Ambulance Train, Second Division. French Croix de Guerre with bronze star; Champagne, October 3-10. 1918.

    Walter Blaine Phipps,[26] of Clintwood, Dickenson County. Virginia. Private, Headquarters Company, 319th Infantry. Eightieth Division. Son of Columbus and Margaret Skeen Phipps. Distinguished Service Cross, Vilosnes, September 27-28, 1918. French Croix de Guerre with gilt star.

    CHAPTER VIII

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    The war closed suddenly, but the effects of the cessation of hostilities did not reach Dickenson County at once-it was too far from the center of camp and industrial activities. There was a welcomed sense of relief, but no one was greatly confused. The news of the Armistice, on November 11, 1918 brought great joy to the people. At Clintwood and other points great bonfires were built to celebrate the coming of peace, and young and old alike roamed the streets till late at night, engaged in the spontaneous celebration.

    The war was over[27]at last the awful suspense, the sleepless nights, the days of anxiety were ended. The enemy was on his knees, and the victory-so costly yet so priceless-was won. The soldiers on the firing line, those trooping up from the rear, and those still in the training camps in America breathed a sigh of relief, and the folks at home-brave and toiling ceaselessly-could now rest a moment with their work well done.

    No sooner was the Armistice signed than the soldiers in the home camps began to come back to their mountain homes in Dickenson County. Camp Lee, 350 miles away, was the nearest camp to this county. To that camp practically all our soldiers went for training. The steady stream of our young men was suddenly reversed, and now their steps led homeward. Those who had barely gotten there, together with some who had been there for months, were speedily discharged. It was only when a great number of them had come home and a few of the overseas boys had returned to the hills, that the people felt the full joy and assurance of peace.

    As quickly as the boys could get discharged they struck a bee-line for Dickenson to see the old folks and the neighbors. All were glad to get back. Practically every soldier visited home before going to work as a civilian. It was pathetic and also inspiring to see father and mother often go many miles to the station to meet THEIR hero and escort him proudly to the little home in the hills. Here, surrounded by admiring brothers and sisters and all the neighbors, from infants in arms to tottering gray-beards, the soldier paraded in his neat uniform, and, if given to talkativeness, he told them his thrilling experiences in the far-away camps and battlefields. Often the crowd would sit up all night, talking and joyously celebrating the return of the defender of his country. Sometimes an old rebel, his fighting blood once more aroused, and the memory of the days that he followed Jackson and Lee corning back upon him strongly, would quiz the modern son of Mars as to how "they fit in this war." He would make the young man do the manual of arms, or mark tune, or give the countersign in the new way, much to the old veteran's dismay.

    Very few soldiers returned without being given a dinner or party, or both, by their parents. To this event all the neighbors were invited-or since everybody. is always welcome to such affairs in the Dickenson mountains, they came any way-, if they heard the news. This occasion usually happened the first night after the return, and often there were parties at two or three homes in the same neighborhood on successive nights. The merrymaking- was kept up all night, and a holiday was observed for several days. After many soldiers had returned, and a belated one carne home, all the "vets" for miles around helped welcome their comrade home.

    Several home-coming celebrations were held in the county during 1919. The hearts of the people being stirred by a sublime spirit of patriotism, the Fourth of July was chosen as an appropriate day on which to hold these exercises. That day being fair, great crowds gathered at the appointed place. At Haysi everybody went on a picnic to Hylton's Bottom. Several khaki-clad boys were present. On Frying Pan Creek, near Tiny, a great feast was served by the good ladies of that community. Foot races were had and a hot baseball game was staged between the soldiers and civilians. Eighteen returned service men were present, and to the delight of the 500 spectators, they went through, under the direction of Lieutenant E. J. Sutherland, matey of the closeorder movements and setting-up exercises which had formed part of their daily program not many months before.

    The main home-coming event in Dickenson County took place at Clintwood on October 4, 1919, during the county fair. All the soldiers in the county were invited to be present in their best uniforms and to give their people an exhibition of real soldiering by veterans. It was to be their farewell drill. Old veterans of other wars were also invited to sec the new maneuvers. Several of the Gray and the Blue-so white-haired and feeble now-watched the spectators. .1 brass band was on hand to supply martial music. Former Governor Andrew J. Montague made a stirring patriotic address to the assembled citizens. The fathers and mother of service men were rewarded with appropriate emblems. About 100 "vets" were present, and in charge of Lieutenants C. R. McCoy and F. H. Sutherland, they executed many dose-order movements. This was the first military drill ever witnessed by the vast majority of the spectators.

    The suddenness of the war disjointed the "even tenor" of life in the Dickenson hills. Accustomed to infrequent intercourse with the outside world, the mountain people were not prepared for the cataclysm of the war. The selective service law, which swept the sturdy youth of the whole land into the army, affected our people more than those of most other sections. Few of them had been away from the hills, and few had carefully studied the causes of the gigantic struggle in Europe. They were home-loving boys, and the war was far away. Yet there is no doubt that under a volunteer system, the percentage of their volunteers would have compared favorably with any other section of the whole nation. When the country called in the recent emergency, they responded as had their grandfathers in the Civil War.

    Now that the war was over and they were back home, the question of readjustment and the problem of utilizing the knowledge of life, health and society that they had gained in the army and navy were demanding attention. In sentiment some of them had changed. Their old, calm, eventless life did not appeal to them any more. The glare of the white lights and the urge of the wanderlust were strong upon them. Some had learned more of the Bad Book than of the Good. They were restless and dissatisfied with their old life and work. The sudden plunge into the mad life of the outside world had shattered their life-long plans and they could not easily readjust themselves to the life to which they had come back. That was true of some of our boys but most of them, though profoundly shaken by the war, hung tenaciously to the old anchors, and after the storm had spent itself, quietly and easily took up the task that their hands, a short while ago, had left incomplete. They found that readjustment was a matter of work, time and serious thought, and conditions gradually returned to normal as our boys settled down to steady work.

    In the matter of sanitation, the soldiers of this county probably learned their greatest and most valuable lessons. Neatness and simplicity in dress, cleanliness of the person, the beauty and desirability of order, both indoors and outdoors, use of toothbrush and shoe polish, and numerous other lessons were indelibly fixed upon the sensibilities of all. At home, the erstwhile soldier painted the house, repaired and improved the gates and fences, mowed and swept the lawn, and introduced the army method of sawing wood and caring for the horses. And in the community where cooking and its attendant labors have been almost invariably the lot of women, it was an historical event when Johnny donned an apron and helped mother and sister "put up a corking feed." Most of the boys learned how to K. P. while spending their vacation with Uncle Sam.

    The war sharply changed the social conditions in the county. The people realized once more-if only temporarily their need of each other. Bearing the same burdens, having the same anxieties and realizing as never before their duties to the nation as an integral part of it, they could see the value of co-operation with their neighbors, as had their fathers and grandfathers in pioneer days. The desire of everybody for social intercourse with their neighbors was very apparent to any one who saw the crowds that gathered at churches and other public functions. Parties were very popular, and sorne of the boys, who had learned to turkey-trot and tango in the camps, tried to introduce these innovations, but they met with small success. The dance craze did not conquer the hill people as it had done the lowlander.

    Educational conditions have been re-adjusted slowly. Previous to the war, the majority of the public school teachers were men. The draft took the major portion of these. Then the work of teaching fell to the young ladies. They responded nobly, but in a community where women teachers were not popular, they had a hard struggle to make any headway. Unfortunately, also, the sudden rise in prices and the heavy demand for laborers at high wages robbed the schools of most of the remaining male teachers and many of the boys over fourteen years old. Education was neglected in the mad scramble for money. However, the pendulum of public opinion has swung decidedly within the past three years toward better schools, with more equal opportunities for all the county pupils, so that the educational advantages of Dickenson County are beginning to compare favorably with those of any county in the Old Dominion.

    Labor conditions in the county were chaotic for a few years after the war. During the last year of the war and the year following, wages in the mining and lumber camps-at Trammel, Nora, Caney, Fremont, Clinchco, Calhoun, Lick Creek and other points in the county-shot upward and drew laborers from the farms and governmental works in such swarms that these industries were badly crippled. There were no employment bureaus, and each soldier chose what work suited his fancy. Many of the returning soldiers, instead of going back to their pre-war jobs, entered these mines and lumber camps. In exceptional cases women had taken the absent soldiers'. jobs and still retained them. The wages paid for farm laborers, teachers, store clerks and road hands were too small to tempt the lusty, self-reliant ex-service men. Big wages in new industries gave him a chance to gratify some of his newly-awakened desires. He "blew his money like a gentleman" on fine clothing, automobiles, guns, whiskey and other luxuries impossible before the war. The people acquired the spend-thrift habit, and when hard times came they were not prepared to live economically. This condition, however, slowly adjusted itself.

    There were no labor unions in the county, and no strikes marred the period of readjustment. Mines, lumber and stave plants ran at full blast for a few years-then suddenly the bottom fell out of the market and most industries were swamped. The prices of foodstuff, clothing and other necessaries of life had gone up with wages, but they have not come down in proportion to the wage cuts.

    Several ex-service men met by agreement at Clintwood in July, 1919, and formed the Dickenson County Post of the American Legion. Its first officers were: Commander, Walter B. Phipps; secretary, W. G. Rasnick, and treasurer, Clinton Sutherland. This post aided very materially in helping needy comrades to get their service claims adjusted and in fostering the spirit and memories of the World War among the people. It was active in securing and completing the Memorial High School building at Clintwood, and in furnishing it with portraits of the soldier dead and a bronze tablet to their memory.

    Several of the returned soldiers who had been wounded or gassed in France took advantage of the government's offer of vocational education and were trained in special professions. Most of these chose auto mechanical and business training.

    When the soldiers returned the home folks proudly told them that they had done their job well, and that whatever they wanted they- could have. For a while the service men could not decide what they wanted. At least the county election of 1919 gave them a chance to get something. The vote of the county was normally Republican by a small majority. In this campaign that party nominated its strongest ticket, composed of old, tried-and-true party workers. Then the Democrats sprang a surprise on their opponents by nominating two ex-service men for office. J. Frank Sykes, who had been desperately wounded while fighting bravely on the Marne River in France, was nominated for county treasurer, and Willie E. Rasnick, who had served faithfully in the Naval Reserve, was named for Circuit Court clerk. After a bitter campaign both these men amateurs in politics but veterans in the service of their nation-were elected to their respective offices. Later, in 1921, when the office of Commonwealth's attorney became vacant, the presiding judge appointed Leonard N. Sowards, who had served gallantly for many months overseas, to fill that vacancy.

    The honor roll of Dickenson County contains the names of sixteen soldiers who gave their all for America. The citizens of the county believed that a permanent token of esteem for and indebtedness to their soldier dead should be erected in the county while the memory of their sacrifice was still strong in the public mind and relatives yet lived to see that their great personal loss was not forgotten by the people. This sentiment was so strong that the leaders of public life in the county cast about to find some memorial project that would be appropriate for the occasion and yet bring great future benefit to the people of the county. The ultimate decision was the erection of a Memorial High School building at Clintwood, in which industrial courses could be given in addition to the regular academic courses. In 1920, the Honorable Roland E. Chase, a firm friend of the soldiers and a member of the House of Delegates of Virginia, carried a bill through the General Assembly to allow the Board of Supervisors of Dickenson County to raise $75,000 by local taxation to be used for the erection of the proposed building. Ground was purchased and the construction of the edifice pushed until completed. In 1922 the General Assembly authorized the Board of Supervisors to lay an additional levy for the years 1922, 1923-1924 to be used to complete this project, which has been done. Now the school children of Dickenson County have a high school building second to none in Southwest Virginia, in which they are being trained for better citizenship under the inspiring surroundings of a structure dedicated to the lives and ideals of our soldier dead.

    The Dickenson County Post of the American Legion donated and hung in the auditorium of the Memorial School building portraits of the following eleven members of the soldier dead, being unable to obtain pictures of the other five: Allen Jackson Bailey, Fred Haskins Colley, Thomas Jefferson Grizzle, Alexander Killen, Nelson Mullins, Teddy Owens, Fred Hicks Priode, Jessie Lee Silcox, Leonard Joseph White, Luther Hay and Garland Wright.

    The Board of Supervisors appropriated a fund for the purchase of a bronze roll of honor tablet, and, the local post of the American Legion superintended the purchase and installation of the tablet in the D. M. H. S. building. The inscription on the tablet is in the following words and figures:

    DEDICATED

    BY THE

    PEOPLE OF DICKENSON COUNTY, VIRGINIA

    TO HER

    SONS WHO SERVED THEIR NATION

    AND HUMANITY IN THE GREAT

    WORLD WAR, 1914-1918

    AND IN

    MEMORY OF THOSE WHO MADE THE

    SUPREME SACRIFICE

    Allen Jackson Bailey (K. A.), October 5, 1918.
    Fred Haskins Colley (K. A.), October 5, 1918.
    John Henry Deel,(D. D.), November 9, 1918.
    Thomas Jefferson Grizzle (D. D.), October 15, 1918.
    Luther Hay (D. D.), October 18, 1918.
    Walter H. Keel (D. D.), September 22, 1918.
    Alexander Killen (D. W.), October 6, 1918.
    Nelson Mullins (D. D.), October 9, 1918.
    William A. Neece (K. A.), October 3, 1918.
    Teddy Owens (K. A.), September 17, 1918.
    Fred Hicks Priode (K. A.), October 7, 1918.
    Willie Ratliff (D. D.), October 17, 1918.
    Jessie Lee Silcox (D. W.), November 2, 1918.
    Morgan Stanley (D. D.), October 17, 1918.
    Leonard Joseph White (K. A.), October 1, 1918.
    Garland Wright (K. A.), July 15, 1918.

    "Greater Love Hath No Man Than This."

    Under the auspices of the local post of the American Legion, the following program was arranged and carried out for the dedication of the D. M. H. S. building on Saturday, November 10, 1923:

    "Song: Star Spangled Banner.
    Introduction of Speaker: W. B. Phipps.
    Military Address: Major Richard F. Beirne.
    Unveiling of Memorial Tablet: June Priode.
    Lunch.
    Parent-Teacher Association Address: Mrs. Harry Semones.
    Introduction of Speaker: J. H. T. Sutherland.
    Literary Address: President J. N. Hillman, Emory and Henry College."

    The war is over and peace is come. But to none of the people of Dickenson County will the world ever be just the same as it was on April 6, 1917. To some it will have changed but little-a new duty, an extra effort, a fleeting glimpse into a world of ideals, but the vision will linger however imperfect-until death comes; to many the change will have been profound and lasting-new life, new energy, new hopes, new vision. A light has penetrated the hills that cannot be totally extinguished.

    NOTES:

    1. The Forests of Dickenson County; Bulletin 17, State Forester.
    2. Pre-War Conditions and Activities in Dickenson County; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    3. Dickenson County Moon; June 11th, 1915.
    4. Pre-War Conditions and Activities in Dickenson County. Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    5. Dickenson County News; June 15th, 1918.
    6. The Draft Law in Dickenson County; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    7. The Draft Law in Dickenson County; Dickenson County file, Virginia War History Commission.
    8. Dickenson County News; June 8, 1918; June 15, 1918, and September 7, 1918.
    9. The Draft Law in Dickenson County; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    10. The Liberty Loans in Dickenson County During the World War; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    11. Richmond Federal Reserve Bank Report
    12. The Liberty Loans in Dickenson County During the World War; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    13. The Liberty Loans in Dickenson County During the World War; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    14. The Liberty Loans in Dickenson County During the World War; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    15. The Liberty Loans in Dickenson County During the World War. Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    16. Dickenson County News; July 20th, 1918
    17. War-Time Food Production in Dickenson County; Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    18. The Forests of Dickenson County; Bulletin 17, State Forester.
    19. Dickenson County News; June 15th, 1918.
    20. Dickenson County News; January 18th, 1919.
    21. The Red Cross in Dickenson County During the World War. Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
    22. Dickenson County News; November 2, 1918.
    23. Dickenson County News; June 8th, 1918.
    24. Virginians of Distinguished Service: Source Book, Virginia History Commission.
    25. Virginians of Distinguished Service. Source Book, Virginia History Commission.
    26. Virginians of Distinguished Service. Source Book, Virginia War History Commission.
    27. Post-War Conditions and Activities in Dickenson County. Dickenson County files, Virginia War History Commission.
  • Franklin County

    A Community History

    By MRS. W. C. MENEFEE

    LOCATION AND RESOURCES

    Franklin County was formed from Henry and Bedford Counties in 1785 and named in honor of Benjamin Franklin. It lies at the eastern base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, in the Southern part of the State, is 140 miles southeast of Richmond, 30 miles southeast of Roanoke, and 30 miles northwest of Danville. The county is 30 miles long and 20 miles wide, having an area of 690 square miles and a population of 26,000.

    The surface of Franklin is rolling and, in some parts, mountainous. The chief products are wheat, corn, oats, rye, hay and tobacco, especially tobacco. In the western part fruit is the leading product, first prizes having been awarded the pippins at the Buffalo. St. Louis and Jamestown Expositions, and also in Paris. France. These prize apples were grown at Algoma Orchards, the home of Dr. Samuel S. Guerrant. Growing and canning tomatoes is an important industry. Grazing facilities are good. Live stock, poultry and dairying are being entered into along general lines of modern methods. A number of dairymen furnish milk directly to the Roanoke market. Forest products are the source of considerable revenue, and in the county are found such minerals as iron, asbestos, mica, granite and soapstone.

    The Staunton River, the Pig River and Blackwater River with their tributaries afford ample drainage and excellent water power. Upon then are found many saw mills and flour mills, etc.

    Transportation is furnished by the Franklin and Pittsylvania and the Norfolk and Western Railroads. A national highway from Atlanta to New York, passing through Franklin, is nearing completion. An auto bus line runs over this highway from Martinsville to Roanoke.

    The county is proud of its many modern church and school buildings. There are 104 one-room and 26 two-room schools for white children, 25 one-room schools for colored children, nine consolidated schools for white and one for colored. Out of a public school population of 8,953 children, 7,021 are enrolled in the. schools.

    Besides the public school system, there are three schools in the mountains doing a wonderful work. Ferrum Training School at Ferrum is under the direction and control of the Methodist Virginia Conference and leadership of the principal, Dr. B. M. Beckham. St. Peter's and St. John's Schools are under the control of the Episcopal Church. To Rev. W. T. Roberts is due a great deal of credit for the splendid work they are doing.

    Rocky Mount, the county seat, is the only incorporated town. Ferrum and Boone Mill are thriving small towns, having well-equipped, modern churches, schools and banks.

    The banks of the county are: First National Bank at Ferrum, Farmers and Merchants Bank at Boone Mill, People's National and First National at Rocky Mount. The total resources of all these banks is about $3,000,000.

    While agriculture is the biggest industry of the county, the manufacturing side is also important. The largest manufacturing plant is located at Rocky Mount. This is the Bald Knob Furniture Factory, which has about 200 people on its pay roll. The value of this plant is estimated at $1,000,000. The famous Black Prince overalls are manufactured at Rocky Mount. A local company has a franchise to bottle Coca-Cola at Rocky Mount. Another local factory is a flour and grist mill which manufactures "Franklin Favorite Flour." The American Pin and Bracket Company for making insulator pins and cross-arms, has a plant at Boone Mill. All of these industries in the county are operated and financed by local men.

    Rocky Mount is a tobacco market. At present there is one open warehouse and the Tobacco Co-operative Association has a receiving station.

    SCHOOLS

    During the war the superintendent of public instruction, R. A. Prillaman, being in service in France, the vacancy in that department was filled first by W. D. Rucker, then by H. D. Dillard, then by J. L. Wade. Superintendent R. A. Prillaman is back on the job now, and he is very conscientious in the discharge of his duties. The public school system under his management is making rapid strides in Franklin County.

    DRAFT LAW AND VIRGINIA ORGANIZATIONS

    The local Exemption Board of Franklin County was composed of Dr. W. T. Chitwood, Sheriff J. P. Hodges and W. A. Belcher. The Legal Advisory Board appointed by the local Exemption Board was composed of judge J. P. Lee, H. N. Dillard and A. H. Hopkins. J. O. Martin was recruiting officer for the Merchant Marine Corps. Many of the soldiers of Franklin County volunteered. Two specimens of real patriotism were afforded by Buford Angle and Greenwood Garrett. The former was under weight and the latter was under age. Both were turned down several times before they were finally accepted. Both boys got to France and were wounded in battle, but after the war reached home safe and sound.

    Below are some clippings taken from the Franklin Chronicle:

    "The citizens and ladies of Rocky Mount will give all the drafted soldiers, including those who go now and those who will go on October 1st, a patriotic celebration at Rocky Mount on September 21, 1917, at 1 o'clock P. M. Patriotic speeches will be made and the Roanoke Machine Works band will be on hand to render patriotic airs. The soldiers and all their friends are invited to be present, and the citizens of the county are invited. The Odd Fellows will give a banquet Friday night of the 21st to those who leave on the morning of the 22nd."

    Another clipping reads as follows

    "Franklin's third allotment of men left here Tuesday for Camp Lee. William E. Jefferson, of Penhook, was in charge of the group, and all seemed in good spirits at the prospects of training to fight the 'Fritzies.' "

    Monday evening, from eight to ten, the boys were guests of Jubal Early Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy, at the Masonic Hall. After the rendition of the splendid program arranged for their pleasure, the young men were invited into the banquet hall, where bountiful refreshments were served by the young girls of the Chapter. The welcome was given by Mrs. J. W. Williams, Miss Myrtle Shoaf played a piano solo, and vocal solos were rendered by Miss Shoaf and Miss Lulie Simms. Patriotic songs were sung by a choir composed of Miss Frances Shearer, pianist Misses Myrtle Shoaf, Lulie Simms, Mary Dillard, Mary Robertson and Mesdames H. N. Dillard, H. D. Dillard, B. S. Robertson, G. C. Greer, I. N. Price and J. C. Shearer.

    Franklin's first quota left in charge of Elliot B. McGuffin, of Callaway. He was the first Franklin boy accepted by the local board of this county. He was one of the nineteen men selected by the War Department from Camp Lee to attend the Quartermasters' Officers' Training School at Jacksonville, Fla. He received the first commission given to a drafted man from his county.

    The second quota left in charge of B. C. Harrison. He reached France and was wounded in battle, but came home safely after the war.

    The fourth quota left in charge of J. Bradie Allman- He reached France and was "in the fight." Below is an extract from his letter to Mr. and Mrs. Lindsay Mitchell clipped from the Franklin Chronicle:

    "In confirmation of the telegram that has been sent you by the War Department, your son, Roy T. Mitchell, was killed in action in the 'Verdun-Meuse' offensive, September 27, 1918, by an enemy shell. In expression of my sympathy to you and to other bereaved relatives and friends, I voice the sentiments of every man from Franklin in the A. E. F., and particularly those who knew him best. Death found him at his post of duty. He led his platoon through the battle and gained the desired objective. The fact that he was permitted to live through the battle and until the approach of relief, makes the supreme sacrifice that he made for his country's sake all the more illustrious.

    "Sergeant Mitchell was an excellent soldier, his never-tiring obedience, his conduct as a man throughout his military career, his valor as a soldier in battle, was a grand inspiration to his comrades."

    Bradie came home after the war, and on January 1, 1926, he will go as Representative to the State Legislature from Franklin County.

    It has been impossible to get an accurate list of the boys who served in the war. There were about 493 white soldiers from the county in service. Franklin County can boast of as many volunteers as any other county. Every Rocky Mount boy volunteered and many from the rural districts.

    It does seem fitting that Franklin County should mention especially Colonel Willis Helms, who has been a member of the standing army for years, and trained the boys at Camp Meade. Colonel Helms still calls Franklin his home and still casts his vote in this county. Franklin is proud to own him as one of her distinguished sons.

    The boys who were awarded citations of honor were: Private Charley N. Parcell, A. S. No. 1817718, Company D, 317 Infantry, Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in action near Nantillois, France, October 5. 1918; French Croix de Guerre with Palm; Italian War Cross. Private Isaac F. Ingram, Company I, 116th Infantry, A. S. No. 128918, Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in action near Samogneux, France. Private Posey Lee Webb, Eighteenth Company, Fifth Regiment, Second Division, awarded the Croix de Guerre for heroic service in action in battle of Belleau Woods. Walter M. Green student from University, volunteered and served in the Ambulance Corps in France. He was awarded the Croix de Guerre for special bravery.

    The following is a partial list of the men from Franklin County who died in service: Lloyd Davis, Bunyan Davis, Harvey Leonard Holland, Charles Blankenship, Harold Brodie, George Patrick Washburne, Richard Wright, Crockett Wright, Cabell Allman, John Stanley Penn Holland, Jack Altice, Roy Mitchell, Edgar Ramsey, Raymond Mason, Richard Roberts, Seth Prillaman, Ben W. Foster, Graddfield Pasley, Grover Pasley, L. S. Nolen, Parker Thompson Willard, Jack Ames, two Underwood boys, Clarence Lumsden, Agie Mitchell, Jim Bowles, Herbert Hale. Keva Campbell, John Jameson, Willie McBride, L. O. Quarles and George Laprade have died since the war from injuries received while in service.

    Some of those wounded, but still living, most of whom are in good health, are: Charley Parcell, Oat Hodges, B. C. Harrison, Posey Webb, Henry Foster, H. E. Painter, B. B. Angle, Greenwood B. Garrett, Hairston Brown, John Washburne, Harry C. Ingram, Dr. Hodges' son, George Herman Gravely, Price Hodges, J. W. Bradner, E. S. Moore, C. L. Ross, J. A. Mullins, Willie Clement, R. E. McGhee, Beecher Jones.

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    Since Franklin is an inland county, the activities during the war were not as pronounced as in counties near the sea coast, or in counties having large cities. Of course, the county suffered greatly in having to give up men for service; the homes were saddened by the absence of loved ones. At every public gathering the young men were conspicuously absent. Self denial and sacrifice were practiced. Numbers of housewives pledged themselves not to buy veal, to have meat of any kind only once a day and to lessen their usual amount of sugar. They were loyal supporters of "Hoover." Food values ran high. Below is a list of products with war prices and prices of 1925:

    The loyalty of the citizens was further shown in the buying and selling of Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps, by the organization and support of a Red Cross Chapter, by daily prayer for soldiers and by special church services in honor of "our boys." The women as well as the men were organized for the selling of Liberty Bonds. Mr. N. P. Angle was county chairman for the men's work in every drive. The women organized for work in the second and third drives and in the Victory Loan. In the second and third drives Mrs. W. C. Menefee was county chairman for the women. The captains working with her were Mesdames E. W. Saunders, C. A. Johnson, W. L. Hopkins, George Mattox, R. L. McNeil and members of the teams were: Mesdames G. P. Holland, J. L. Perdue, W. A. Belcher, E. Y. Poole, N. P. Angle, Herbert Fields, G. C. Greer, H. D. Menefee, L. M. Menefee, Misses Frances Shearer, Mary Nelson Strayer, Mary Dillard, Myrtle Shoaf, Ruby Adams, Mamie Davis, Elizabeth Mitchell, Gladys Greer, Ann Joplin and Flora Greer. Miss Ann Joplin was chairman for the Victory Loan. Those who gave freely of their time and gasoline in travelling over the county and speaking at public places were: Judge E. W. Saunders, Judge J. P. Lee, Commonwealth's Attorney A. H. Hopkins, Rev. B. T. Candler, Rev. W. T. Roberts, Rev. E. Y. Poole, Senator B. A. Davis, Dr. B. M. Beckham, Hon. H. D. Dillard, Hon. H. N. Dillard, W. R. Davis, cashier of First National Bank of Rocky Mount; C. J. Davis, cashier of People's National Bank of Rocky Mount, and B. L. Fisher. The amount of bonds sold amounted to $750,000. War Savings Stamps sold amount to $70,000.The canned goods of Franklin were eaten by the soldiers "somewhere in France," judging from a letter that appeared in the Franklin Chronicle during the war. The letter `vas from W. F. Mills to his wife at Boone Mill. It said that he had eaten a can of tomatoes packed by Mr. Jack Garst of Boone Mill, `'a. Edmund Roberts, of Rocky Mount, also wrote his parents that he had eaten a can of tomatoes packed by Mr. Garst. Gilbert Finke, of Salem, wrote his parents that he had eaten tomatoes canned by Mr. Garst. In proof of the fact, Mr. Finke tore off the label and sent it home to his parents. The label showed a beautiful picture of the Magodee Valley above Boone Mill, skirted by the Blue Ridge Mountains. Doubtless this scene from home was very interesting to the young soldiers. The War Savings and Thrift Savings committee for Franklin County was as follows: N. P. Angle, county director; District directors: Walter St. Clair, C. W. Dudley, J. H. Ferguson, Dr. B. M. Beckham, J. M. Emswiler, R. L. Kent, R. A. Barnhart, I. T. Cannady, J. B. Washburne, J. O. Abshire, George L. Bowman, W. D. Rucker, Professor J. S. McDonald, A. W. Robbins, Peter Saunders, W. E. Beverly and A. H. Hopkins. At noon every day, Bald Knob Furniture Factory blew a whistle as a signal for people to stop in their duties and to remember the soldiers in prayer. A touching thing happened one day when a little girl, playing in her own front yard with a little friend, heard the whistle, and said to her little friend, "Let us pray." Down on their little knees in front of the steps they went and with bowed heads and closed eyes they said: "God bless our soldier men." Such was the loyalty of even a little three-year-old child. Too much praise cannot be given the colored people of Franklin for the loyal way in which they responded to every call made upon them. They were able supporters of the war work in its every phase.

    THE RED CROSS

    In November, 1916, a Red Cross first aid class was organized at Rocky Mount with a membership of twenty. Dr. G. W. Hooker was instructor, Mrs. George Greer, president; Miss Frances Shearer, secretary and treasurer. This class during the year 1917 did some soliciting for Red Cross funds and completed the first aid course. On October 22, 1917, a meeting of people interested in Red Cross work was held in the home of judge and Mrs. E. W. Saunders. Rev. B. T. Candler opened the meeting with prayer, and he was elected to preside for the afternoon. Judge Saunders was elected temporary- chairman until an organization could be perfected. On November 7, 1917, the Franklin County Red Cross Chapter was organized at the courthouse. Judge Saunders gave a clear presentation of the aims and workings of the Red Cross. The following officers were elected: Chairman, Hon. E. W. Saunders; vice-chairman, Rev. B. T. Candler, secretary, Mrs. W. C. Menefee; treasurer, A. W. Robbins. The following committees were appointed at a later meeting: Finance-Judge J. P. Lee, C. S. Greer, B. L. Angle, H. W. Peak, J. O. Martin, H. D. Dillard, W. A. Belcher, G. P. Holland, W. R. Davis, C. F. Hudson, Mrs. J. M. Williams, Mrs. C. S. Greer, Judge P. H. Dillard, W. H. Bowles, A. H. Hopkins, Mrs. C. J. Shoaf, T. W. Carper, B. L. Fisher, Mrs. N. B. Hutcherson. Membership committee-Mrs. G. C. Greer, Mrs. Z. Bernard, Mrs. T. W. Carper, Mrs. W. H. Bowles, Mrs. N. P. Angle, Mrs. B. S. Robertson, Mrs. B. L. Angle, Mrs. N. G. Carper, Mrs. J. R. Webb, Mrs. D. C. Grubb, Misses Josephine Menefee, Frances Shearer, Alice Saunders, Dr. J. M. Williams, V. E. Beverly, Dr. G. W. Hooker. At a still later meeting the following chairmen were appointed: Finance-Judge J. P. Lee; executive committee-Mrs. G. S. Greer; chairman of organization of auxiliaries, Mrs. E. W. Saunders; director of knitting units, Mrs. N. B. Hutcherson; director of comfort kits, Mrs. T. W. Carper; director of hospital garments and supplies, Mrs. D. C. Grubb. When Mrs. Hutcherson resigned as knitting director, the place was ably filled by Mrs. Z. Bernard. The home service department consisted of the following members: Rev. E. Y. Poole, chairman; Miss Pauline Hundley, secretary; Mrs. J. P. Lee, Mrs. R. L. McNeil and Mrs. H. D. Dillard. The tobacco market solicitors were under the direction of three chairmen, Mrs. J. C. Shearer, Mrs. C. A. Johnson and Mrs. H. D. Dillard. This was the chief resource for the raising of funds. Often the ladies were at the warehouses (Rocky Mount then had three warehouses) by 4 A. M. begging tobacco from the farmers as they unloaded. This tobacco was graded and sold for the Red Cross. The farmers were liberal in their contributions. Branches of the chapter were formed at Boone Mill, Callaway, Ferrum, Gills Creek, Snow Creek, Pleasant Hill and Penhook. Knitting clubs and sewing circles were organized all over the county. It would be impossible to give the names of all the people in the county who "did their bit," but below is a partial list of those in the rural districts who superintended and aided in every way possible to carry on the Red Cross work: Dr. and Mrs. Samuel Guerrant, Dr. W. P. Reese, Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Turner, Mr. and Mrs. Harris Ferguson, Prices, Cobbs, Lovelaces, Mr. and Mrs. Emmett Turner, C. C. Stone, Mr. and Mrs. Muncey Mitchell, Mr. and Mrs. Peyton Gravely, Miss Christine Dickenson, G. F. Fralin, Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Law, Mr. and Mrs. B. T. Turner, W. J. Sutherland. Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Mills, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Emswiler, Mr. and Mrs. R. A. Barnhart, Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Bouldin, Miss Hattie Reese, Mrs. George Helms, Mrs. S. C. Stone, Mrs. W. J. Haynes, Mrs. B. M. Beckham, G. C. Nickleson, Mrs. Booth, Miss Louise Poff, Miss Ora Harrison, Miss Ette Davis, Miss Mieme Dudley and many, many others. Miss Ora Harrison, a teacher at Endicott, and Miss Davis, at St. Peters, in the mountains, deserve special mention for the way they worked in establishing a friendly feeling toward the Red Cross among the mountain people, many of whom were prejudiced against Red Cross work. The Jubal Early Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy united with the Red Cross Chapter to do war work. Mrs. C. A. Johnson was chairman for the drive for used clothing, and Miss Ann Joplin chairman for the canteen contributions to the canteen headquarters at Roanoke. The Odd Fellows turned over their hall, free of charge, to be used as a Red Cross workroom and place for entertainment for the departing soldiers. The Masons also gave the use of their hall for entertainments given to departing soldiers. At the close of the war, when badges of honor were presented to women who worked a certain number of hours daily for the Red Cross, the women felt that it would be impossible to find out just how many hours had been given in service. They were afraid that in giving the names of some, many who deserved mention might be left out, so no names were sent in to Washington for special mention. Those who had done possibly more than others said: "We do not want any distinction of honor for what we have done. It was done willingly and cheerfully, and that is all the praise that we want. If we were mentioned especially, some who deserve as much mention as we might be overlooked. "Early in the spring of 1918 A. W. Robbins moved from the county, so W. E. Skinnell was elected treasurer of the county chapter and has been serving in this capacity ever since. The concrete results of the war work of the Red Cross Chapter are as follows: Money raised for material to be made up for the soldiers, $3,639.23 ; war fund drive, $5,000 ; canteen contributions, estimated at $500; number of sewed garments, 1,112 ; knit garments, 1,517 ; articles contributed to linen shower, 1,060.At the close of the war Red Cross membership dropped from 696 to far below 100. A few have kept the organization alive by the payment of annual dues. In September, 1924, a Red Cross nurse was obtained for Franklin County. The funds for the support of this nurse were furnished by the Red Cross, the County Board of Supervisors and the State Department of Health. At the end of the first quarter this nurse was called home because of a death in her family. Since then the Red Cross has been quiet again, but it hopes to soon have another nurse in the field. The officers and executive committee of the Red Cross Chapter are now: Chairman, N. P. Angle; vice-chairman, Rev. Kelly Hobbs; secretary, Mrs. W. C. Menefee; treasurer, W. E. Skinnell; N. B. Hutcherson, Judge J. P. Lee, B. L. Fisher, Rev. Starke Jett, R. A. Prillaman, Mrs. Z. Bernard and F. A. Turner. In the summer of 1918 the First National Bank of Rocky Mount paid the expenses of a home demonstration agent for Franklin County. Junior Red Cross Societies were organized in many of the county schools. The first school to organize was the Strayer Private School, taught by Miss Mary Nelson Strayer. It might be interesting to read the letter below:

    Dear Juniors:

    Mrs. Menefee thinks you would like to hear how we organized and what we are doing for the Red Cross.

    We organized about March 5th. Our teacher called the roll and each member walked up and paid 25 cents and had a badge pinned on, then we sang "America." The roll was called again and each one took the small Red Cross and pasted it on the flag. We sang the "Star-Spangled Banner" and the teacher pasted the flag in the window.

    After the flag was put in the window we marched out in the yard to see how it looked. We were so pleased that we gave three cheers and sang "America" again.

    Committees to plant small plots of vegetables to be sold were appointed. Knitting circles for both boys and girls were formed. We are knitting a bright wool quilt for the sick soldiers. If there are ladies in the county that would like to encourage us, they can knit a square for this quilt and send it to me. Cast on 34 stitches (on No. 5 Red Cross needles), and knit it seven inches square of any color yarn. We need 196, so we will appreciate help.

    I forgot to say who our officers are. Of course our teacher is chairman. Secretary. Page Price; treasurer, Paul Bowles.

    Hoping that all schools will form a junior Red Cross Auxiliary.

    STRAYER JUNIOR RED CROSS AUXILIARY.

    (Signed) PAGE PRICE, Secretary.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    Rocky Mount

    The Y.M.C.A. Council consisted of B. L. Fisher, chairman; district chairmen: C. R. Blount, B. T. Hodges, C. G. Noel, J. O. Abshire, J. M. Emswiler, Dr. B. M. Beckham, J. H. Ferguson, C. C. Brodie, C. C. Stone, G. P. Cooper, R. A. Barnhart, I. T. Cannady, N. P. Angle and C. J. Davis.

    The Y. W. C. A. Council consisted of Mrs. C. J. Shoaf, county chairman; Mrs. J. C. Shearer, secretary and treasurer; Mesdames H. W. Peak, W. C. Menefee, C. J. Davis, W. D. Rucker, W. R. Davis, J. R. Robinson, C. A. Johnson, W. T. Chitwood, Z. Bernard, Miss Mattie Menefee. District chairmen: Mrs. R. E. Dudley, Mrs. B. M. Beckham, Miss Hattie Dickenson, Mrs. D. Ruff, Mrs. Marcus English and Miss Hattie Reese.

    Below is a letter copied from the Franklin Chronicle, showing another line of work engaged in:

    Mrs. J. P. Lee,
    Rocky Mount, Va.

    My dear Mrs. Lee

    I have just received check for $50.00, the contribution to the War Library Fund raised by you and other ladies in Rocky Mount. I am very much obliged to you. If the other centers of population in the State do as well, Virginia's allotment of $25,000 is assured.

    Very truly yours,

    H. R. McILWAINE,

    State Director.

    POST WAR CONDITIONS

    At the close of the war Mrs. W. L. Hopkins. and others assisting her tried by correspondence to get in touch with all the soldiers who had been wounded so that they might report at Roanoke for examination.

    The American Legion was organized. Below is a clipping from the Franklin Chronicle:

    "On last Saturday, November 15, 1919, the grand reunion given by the Daughters of the Confederacy and the Franklin Post of the American Legion to the Confederate Veterans and the soldiers, sailors and marines who served in the World War, was a great success and was enjoyed by all. The N. and W. Band from Roanoke furnished music for the occasion. At 10:30 the veterans of the World War assembled in the courthouse. The meeting was called to order by W. L. Hopkins, who had returned from Washington for this special occasion. Rev. W. T. Roberts opened the meeting with prayer. W. L. Hopkins then addressed the meeting in the interest of the American Legion. explaining the benefits to be derived therefrom. At 12 o'clock dinner was served at the Franklin warehouse by the U. D. C. At 2 o'clock the parade started from the courthouse and marched around town. The order of the parade was as follows: Band, old soldiers, World War veterans, sailors, marines, school children, Daughters of the Confederacy and members of the Red Cross. At the warehouse the large crowd was addressed by Senator B. A. Davis and Congressman E. W. Saunders."

    The American Legion and the Woman's Auxiliary of the Legion have been assisting the soldiers in need in every way possible.

    During the years that have intervened since the signing of the Armistice there has been marked improvement along all lines-better schools, better roads, more modern methods of farming. In many instances the young men who came back from war have been real educators along all lines of progress.

  • Giles County

    A Community History

    By BERNARD MASON

    Giles County is situated in the mountainous section of Southwestern Virginia, bordering for many miles on the State of West Virginia. It has an average elevation of two thou sand feet, and many mountain ranges varying in height from three to four thousand feet. New River traverses the entire county and adds much to its natural beauty. Bald Knob, 4,500 feet high, and Mountain Lake are two interesting points in the county.

    The people are descended from English, Scotch and Irish ancestry. They are home-loving and peaceful and have never been disgraced by a mountain feud. However, when the call to war has been sounded they have ever been amongst the first to respond.

    When the World War started in 1914, the sympathy of our people was largely with England and France. With England because of our kinship and with France on account of the help she gave us in the war of the Revolution. It would not have taken much to have stirred us to the point of joining forces with our cousins overseas when Germany first began to violate the neutrality of Belgium. As time went on, however, and our government decided to stay out of the conflict, the settled down to a condition of neutrality, our sympathies still with the Allies.

    In 1916 and the early part of 1917, when Germany began an unrestricted submarine warfare and started dictating where our commerce should and should not go, the folks in Giles County, as elsewhere, became indignant. As news of sinking ships became more and more frequent the feeling against Germany grew more bitter, and when the Lusitania was sunk the spark was fanned to a blaze, and it needed but the word of our great war President, Woodrow Wilson, to fire the nation. That word was given on April 6, 1917.

    Pearisburg, the county seat of Giles County, soon became the center of local activities. No great demonstrations were indulged in, but the seriousness of the situation and the determination of every one to do his bit could be read on each face.

    A few of the boys from the county volunteered at once, but the Draft Act was soon passed by Congress and it was the general opinion that the proper course to follow was for each man to register and await his call. Robert William King, of Poplar Hill, was the first man in the county to volunteer. He was living at Gary, West Virginia, at the time and volunteered at that place the day after war was declared. He was assigned to duty on the U. S. S. Mt. Vernon, and was on her at the time she was torpedoed just off the coast of France. It will be remembered that this ship was carrying wounded soldiers home from France and was flying the hospital flag. Thirty-six wounded soldiers were killed and William King had leis knee badly hurt.

    Immediately after the Draft Act became a law every man in the county between the ages of twenty-one and forty-five was registered and given a serial number. This registration in Giles County did not cost the Federal government a penny, the work being gladly and willingly volunteered.

    Interest was very keen concerning the first report from the office of the Adjutant General which was to show the result of the draw from the "Mystic Bowl" and determine the order in which the boys were to report for examination and service. George William Johnston was number one, but was rejected because of ill health.

    The Draft Board for the county was composed of W. H. Thompson, sheriff of the county and, as such, chairman of the board; F. E. Snidow, clerk of the court and secretary of the board, and Dr. W. D. Woolwine, chairman of the Board of Health.

    The Legal Advisory Board was composed of judge Martin Williams, Judge Bernard Mason and Mr. D. J. Chapman. Mr. M. P. Farrier, Commonwealth's attorney for the county, was appeal agent for the government. It is impossible to say too much in praise of the fairness of the Draft Board and tile efficient way in which its work was done under the management of F. E. Snidow, secretary of the board.

    Dr. F. S. Givens, Newport, and Dr. H. G. Johnston, Pearisburg, were members of District Medical Advisory Board, No. 36.

    Dr. Woolwine, assisted by Dr. H. G. Johnston, spent many days in snaking the necessary physical examination of the boys. The Board of Supervisors' room at the courthouse was used for this purpose, scales were brought in and charts for testing the eyes were installed. The courthouse, during those days, became the scene of many activities.

    The first quota for Giles County was ninety-four men. The cost per capita for the quota was $7.59 as against $36.46 for the highest county in the State.

    A day long to be remembered was the one on which the first drafted men left home for Camp Lee. The German armies were then sweeping everything before them. Paris was almost in sight, and it looked like a needless waste for us to drop raw recruits into the defeated battle lines to become fodder for the German cannon. The successful submarine activities intensified this feeling. Nevertheless, when the day came for the first draftees to go to camp all of then showed up early at the courthouse, and a large crowd from all parts of the county went with them to the station and bade them Godspeed. Never did a braver company go forth to war. None of the men expected to live to come home, but under the leadership of Perkine W. Orndorff, of Narrows, they boarded the train amid the tears and prayers of friends and relatives.

    Other groups of men left in rapid succession as soon as the, various camps could be made ready to receive them.

    Soon after the first draftees were called the classified service was adopted and the Draft Board spent many days in getting the boys properly classified. There were very few appeals and no general dissatisfaction over the work of the board. Some few then from the county refused to accept deferred classification, and took their places as indicated by their serial numbers.

    There were four hundred and forty enlisted men from the county, of which number thirty-four were colored. An almost complete list of these men's names has been furnished the Virginia War History Commission by the writer of this, sketch. A copy, of the list has been filed in the vaults of the county clerk's office and should be recorded in a permanent. book.

    Lawrence Fillinger, from Narrows, volunteered at the age of sixteen and succeeded in getting into the service and overseas.

    Corporal Walter L. Haskett. Company L, 317th Infantry,. Eightieth Division, was recommended by his captain at Nantillios, France, October 5, 1918, for the Distinguished Service Cross for unusual gallantry during the Argonne offensive. This recommendation never reached headquarters and appears to have been lost. An effort was made after the war through the War Department and Congressman Slemp to have it carried into effect, but this could not be done. However, Corporal Haskett was cited in general orders of the War Department for distinguished braver- on this occasion and was awarded a silver star to be worn on the ribbon of his Victory Medal. The 317th Infantry was held up by an enemy machine gun nest and Corporal Haskett and two others crawled on their stomachs in the face of machine-gun fire to a point sufficiently near to be able to throw hand grenades into the nest, killing two and -,wounding two, and thereby permitting the regiment to advance.

    In addition to Corporal Haskett, the Virginia War History Commission in "Virginians of Distinguished Service in the World War," includes the following honor men from Giles Sergeant John NN". Christian, silver star citation; William Robert King, commended by Secretary of the Navy; Lieutenant Robert C. Snidow, Polish Commemorative Cross and Polish Decoration-Krzyz Walecznych.

    Sidney F. Johnston, of Eggleston, was awarded the Croix de Guerre at the battle of Chateau Thierry, France.

    The following men from the county received commissions: W. C. Caudill, Pearisburg, captain, medical corps; Herbert L. Eaton, Staffordsville, captain, sanitary corps; Arthur P. Sibold, Pearisburg, captain, infantry; Robert Chapman Snidow, Pembroke, captain, infantry; James Robert Goodwin, Eggleston, second lieutenant, U. S. R.; James Wilmer Hedrick, Bane, second lieutenant, field artillery; Frank Early Johnston, Trigg, 2nd lieutenant, U. S. R.; James Blaine Munsey, Pearisburg, second lieutenant, M. C., Russell Howe Pearson, Pearisburg, second lieutenant, R. M. A.; Thomas J. Pearson, Jr., Pearisburg, second lieutenant, D. C.; Robert H. Woods, Pearisburg, first lieutenant, infantry; Martin Williams, Jr., first lieutenant, infantry; John W. Williams, Jr., Richmond, second lieutenant, 163rd Aero Squadron.

    Those who made the supreme sacrifice were: Leonard C. Duncan, Rich Creek, died of wounds; Wylie Smith Lucas, Pearisburg, killed in action; Evermon P. Powell, Lurich, killed in action; Warren D. Ratcliff, Newport, died of wounds; Kenneth L. St. Clair, Bane, killed in action: Nain Harless, Lurich, killed in action; Toni Williams, Hoge's Store, died of wounds. Those who died in camp while in France were: Otey H. Elmore, Kire ; John B. Henderson, Thessalia; Robert B. Hale, Narrows, and Ernest M. Williams, Pembroke.

    Those who died in home camps were : Walter Kyle Echols, Newport; Elcany Johnston Gillespie, Goodwin's Ferry; Samuel M. Johnston, Narrows John R. Johnston, Jr., Bluff City; Leslie E. Kirk, Narrows (died at sea) ; Everett Lee Meredith, Pembroke ; John Kale Sarver, Newport; Alfred Howe Williams, Pembroke; T. Bittle Woods, Pearisburg (drowned at Old Point), and Tom Smith (colored), Pearisburg.

    Captain Robert Chapman Snidow remained in Germany with the Army of Occupation and brought back with him the only war bride to come to the county.

    Five brothers from Newport volunteered-Dallas, Eustace, James, Howard and Early Criner.

    Mr. and Mrs. James D. Johnston, of Pearisburg, had four boys in service-Fount, John Witt, Jesse and Tobias.

    Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Pyrtle, of Ripplemead, had four boys in service: Alvis Clay, Clarence Ernest, Frank Earl and John Willie.

    Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Douthat, of Rippletnead, had eight sons who registered, but only three were called into service.

    Bayard H. Taylor, Thessalia, was with the Y.M.C.A. and served in France for some time.

    Judge Martin Williams was appointed explosion commissioner for the State by President Wilson.

    While first place should be given to those who offered their lives in military service, their sacrifice would have been useless but for the hearty co-operation of those at home. No task was too hard, no sacrifice too great, in order that our own soldiers and our Allies might be fed and clothed and armed for the conflict.

    Very little change was occasioned by the war in our churches and schools. Possibly the people attended church a little more regularly. The ministers of the county did their full duty, not only in their own fields of endeavor, but every one of them did good service in the several drives and campaigns for funds. The schools were maintained as usual, the attendance being about the same as before the war, except during the winter of 1917-18 when the influenza epidemic interfered.

    The Liberty Loan drives were all put on with an enthusiasm that resulted in a subscription of $627,200 for the county (not including the First Loan, for which no official figures were kept)-$79,900 more than the total quota assigned, which was $547,300. The citizens of the county subscribed generously. Special mention should be made of the work of C. L. King, W. H. Wheelwright, Dr. F. D. Kelley, Mrs. W. P. Miller and Miss Gertrude King.

    Bernard Mason was chairman of the War Savings Stamps campaign which lasted for a year and did much to encourage the idea of economy and thrift, especially amongst the children. Some $200,000 worth of stamps were sold, a considerable number being taken by school children. An amusing incident occurred in this connection. Mr. C. L. King offered his young son, Clarence. a stamp for every mouse he would catch. Several days afterwards he happened to be in the barn and hearing a commotion in a barrel found that Clarence had fastened up all the cats around the place so as to give the mice a chance to multiply.

    Mr. J. T. S. Hoge was made Food Administrator for the county and reported the most hearty co-operation on the part of all. There was never any- especial shortage of food of any kind except sugar, but the requirements of the government were met just the same. Corn bread was used once a day, and "long sweetening" often took the place of sugar, especially in coffee.

    Bernard Mason was Fuel Administrator for Giles County, and during the severe winter of 1917-18 he was frequently compelled to take cars of coal from trains to meet the needs of the people. The railroads never failed to set out cars of coal on six hours' notice. The price of the coal was fixed in Washington and, while higher than usual, no great hardships were undergone in paying for it.

    The County Red Cross was organized at Narrows, with Mrs. J. E. Hammer as chairman and Mrs. J. A. Vaughan, assistant. Local branches were organized in all parts of the county, and the women went to work with an earnestness that never let up until the war was over. Large boxes of supplies were sent at regular intervals to the Red Cross headquarters. The women and girls learned to knit sweaters, gloves and socks, hoping as they worked that the garments they were making might be drawn by a son. brother or lover, The writer saw four generations busily knitting at one time. Mrs. F. G. Thrasher, Mrs. Minnie Easley, Mrs. Bernard Mason and her daughters. No call was ever trade that the Giles Count- Red Cross failed to meet.

    The Y.M.C.A. drives were under the management of Mr. A. D. Gerberick, aided by the various ministers of the county. All of these drives were efficiently and fully handled.

    Giles County, being situated far from any of the camps and having no munition plants near at hand, had no war-time activities other than those above mentioned.

    The progress of the war was watched with the keenest interest. The people in the county were closely related by the ties of blood and friendship, and the news from the camps and from overseas was eagerly received by everyone.

    At the time this is written-October, 1925-but little interest is shown by the returned soldiers in any of the events of the war. There is no American Legion Post in Giles County and not much interest is shown by the boys in anything connected with the war. No appreciable effect is noticeable as regards the religious, social or economic life of the people. It cannot be said that the returned soldiers are any better or any worse, morally and spiritually, by reason of their service in the armies. It-is possible that the high price of labor and of all commodities during the war created habits of extravagance that may never be entirely overcome.

    Whether the sacrifice of billions of dollars and thousands of liven has helped to make the "World safe for Democracy" or not, it is certain that in Giles County, as in other parts of our great country, the World War has proven that in a just cause Americans, true to the example set them by their forefathers, are not "too proud to fight."

  • Gloucester County

    A Community History

    LOCATION, NATURAL FEATURES AND RESOURCES

    This county lies entirely in the Tidewater section. Plankatank River is on the north, York River on the south. Mobjack Bay on the east. Ware and North Rivers make in from the Chesapeake Bay. The county contains 253 square miles and is about twenty-seven miles long and eight miles wide. Population, 11,894. Gloucester was formed from York, which was one of the original shires, in 1651, and named in honor of the Duke of Gloucester, son of Charles I, or possibly after Gloucestershire, England, from which most of the early settlers came.

    On the water courses the land is low and level; further back it is higher and undulating. The soil is sandy loam with rich alluvial lands. The soil and climate are admirably adapted to trucking. In addition to trucks, general farm crops are grown. Grasses grow well on both the low grounds and uplands, and attention is being given to the raising of stock. Fruit culture is receiving attention. Marketing facilities are excellent, there being daily water transportation to nearby and eastern cities. Rural road connections with the middle and northern tidewater counties are complete, connecting at Gloucester Point across York River, at Yorktown, with improved highway from Richmond and Hampton Roads port cities.

    In the waters every variety of fish is found, as in the Chesapeake Bay--herring, alewives, large and small catfish, croakers, shad, rock, sea trout, sheephead and spot. The quality of Gloucester oysters ranks with the best, and the county is largely engaged in this industry.

    Gloucester, the county seat, is located near the head of Ware river. It is a prosperous village, with two banks (State and National), general stores, many fine homes, and a well-equipped hotel. There are two four-year accredited high schools in the county. A State bank is located at Gloucester Point. The farmers are progressive and co-operate with a county farm demonstrator in a progressive program for agriculture. Fair grounds and equipment are located at the county seat.

    This county has some of the finest estates in Virginia--new and old. Along York River there is considerable development in summer resort bungalows. During the siege of Yorktown, Gloucester, the county seat, was one of the outposts of Cornwallis. Nathaniel Bacon, the leader of Bacon's rebellion, died and was buried in this county. Tradition has it that in this county on the York River, Pocahontas, the beautiful Indian princess, saved the life of Captain John Smith.[*]

    CHURCHES

    Rev. C. W. Hudson, pastor of the Union Baptist Church, is the only minister in the county who has furnished a full report on church activities. He reports that his church had a Red Cross auxiliary whose members conducted knitting circles. Mr. Hudson was chairman of the local Red Cross and later of the county chapter, and he and his members were active in all campaigns conducted by war work organizations.

    The following men were in service from this church: W. H. Templeman, Howard F. Belvin, James Jenkins, Hubert L. Shackleford, W. A. Shackelford, John F. Shackelford, Marion F. Hogge, Robert F. Jenkins, James A. Templeman, Earlin L. Brown, Walter L. Brown, Lemuel R. Belvin, Clinton Jenkins, Herbert Shackelford, W. B. Thornton, Philip P. Thornton, Aubrey F. Ash, Harvey V. Williams, William M. Buck, William B. Lawson, Ira C. Brown, Ernest Shackelford, John W. Belvin, Christian Rowe, Frank West, David West, Ira N. West, Neelie C. Bonneville, Bernard F. Thomas, David E. nneville, John C. Williams, Talmage Smith, John Rowe, Thomas Jenkins, James King, Joseph Green, John Jenkins, James H. Ash, William C. Brown, George W. Shackelford, Morgan Shackelford, Samuel Jenkins, Marion King, Melvin Thomas, Bernard Hayes, Hadley Shackelford, Captain Marvin V. Healey, Luther Jenkins, Marcus Rowe, Willie Roberts, Willie West, Lawrence Smith, Voight Jenkins, Edward Brown, Luther Rowe, Willie Shackleford, Christian Rowe, Robert F. Rowe.

    Severn Presbyterian Church had three men in the army and one in the navy. They were C. K. Deal, Henry Berry, Mack Bonnewell, in the army, and Thomas Sterling in the navy.[1]

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    The Gloucester County Draft Board was composed of George B. Field, R. A. Folkes and H. A. Tabh.[2] Out of 2,151 registrants, 253 were accepted at camp.[3]

    There was a Home Guard company in Gloucester County, and an attempt was made to muster this company into the Virginia Volunteers, but it did not succeed.[4]

    The following men from the county are included in Virginia's Distinguished Service roster: George E. Allen, cited by division commander; Lieutenant Irving B. Campbell, cited by division commander; Edward T. Corbell, cited by division commander; Dave B. Bonneville, cited by division commander.[5]

    The Eighth Company, Virginia Coast Artillery, National Guard, was recruited from Gloucester and Mathews Counties. After being drafted into Federal service it was order to -Fortress Monroe, arrived on August 17, 1917, and was "split," one-half going with an overseas organization and the other being stationed at Fort Monroe for the duration of the war.

    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    The report of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond shows the following figures for four of the Liberty Loans in Gloucester County, no figures having been kept for the First Loan.

    Second Loan-Apportionment, $61,300; subscribed, $30,050; number subscribing, 33. Third Loan-Apportionment, $60,000; subscribed, $89,450; number subscribing, 674. Fourth Loan- Apportionment, $240,000; subscribed, $100,150; number subscribing, 392. Victory Loan-Apportionment, $90,000; subscribed, $102,850; number subscribing, 191. Total apportionment for the last four loans, $451,300; subscibed $322,500; number subscribing, 1,280.

    THE RED CROSS

    The Gloucester County Chapter of the American Red Cross was organized on October 26, 1917, with the following officers: Rev. C. W. Hudson, chairman; Mrs. H. O. Sanders, vice-chairman; R. F. Heywood, secretary, and W. DeW. Dimock, treasurer, succeeded by Mr. Wallace Robinson, in turn, was succeeded by J.T. DuVal. When C. W. Hudson resigned, B. B. Roane was elected chairman.

    The first auxiliary to be organized in the county was one formed at Achilles in the Union Baptist Church. A month later an auxiliary was organized at Gloucester with Mrs. H. O. Sanders as chairman. Mr. C. W. Hudson, Jr. was chairman of an auxiliary formed in the Cash High School. These auxiliaries were the forerunners of the chapter organization. Within the six months following, auxiliaries were formed at Cappahosic, with J. W. Orr, chairman; Wicomico, with Mrs. Preston Williams, chairman; Beechgrove, with Mrs. H. L. Carr, chairman, and Ware Neck, with Miss Lelia B. Brown, chairman.

    The following were school auxiliaries: Botetourt High School, N. C. Starke, principal; Achilles High School, F. M. Bristow, principal; Hayes Store High School, H. D. Pegg, principal; Cappahosic Graded School, Miss Esther Tuttle, principal; Belroi Graded School, Miss H. S. Minor, princioak; Sign Pine Graded School, Miss Mary Wiatt, principal; Shelly Graded School, Miss Lucy Minor, principal; Severn Graded School, Mrs. D. R. Craig, principal.

    Colored auxiliaries were formed as follows: Ark, Rev. J. W. Lemon, chairman; Woods Cross Roads, L. B. Wilson, chairman, Sassafras, Mrs. Emma Burrill, chairman; Clopton, Jeff Carter, chairman; Ware Neck, Mrs. Harriett Talliaferro, chairman, Bena, Rev. John Fauntleroy, chairman. At Smithfield and Dragon there were colored auxiliaries.

    These organizations covered the county and had a total membership of 1,500. The chapter raised more than $1,000 in the Red Cross drive for $100,000,000.

    The Achilles Auxiliary made 8 sweaters, 47 hospital shirts, 5 suits pajamas and sent two large and two small boxes of refugee garments, 5 large bags of refugee garments, 1 bag of shoes, 1 cot equipment and 20 property bags.

    Mrs. T. E. Duval, chairman of the knitting committee, gives the following report for 1918: 106 sweaters, 36 pairs of socks, 73 property bags.

    After May, 1918, the Ware Neck Auxiliary made 16- children's dresses and collected $91.00, $75.00 being membership dues.

    This report does not cover all the work accomplished by the various auxiliaries, since some of them sent material direct to headquarters and furnished no report to the county chapter.[6]

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    Mrs. H. O. Sanders was secretary of the Gloucester Branch, National League for Woman's Service. The Navy League unit of this Organization made 512 sweaters, 75 pillows, 12 comfort sets, 10 pairs extra wristlets, and sent tobacco, magazines, etc., to the sailors. Mrs. R. P. Taliaferro was commander of this unit.

    The Ware River unit, of which Mrs. W. C. Perrin was commander, made four dozen operating shirts, 54 pillow cases, 14 pairs bed socks, 18 tray cloths, two dozen bandages and pads and two cot equipments for the Armenian and Syrian Relief.

    The North River unit, Miss L. S. Taliaferro, commander, made 32 pairs pajamas, 100 triangular bandages, 100 jug covers, 50 property bags, 25 surgeon's caps, 12 hospital shirts 8 bed wraps, 6 pairs Operating socks, 5 pairs bed socks and one emergency cot.

    The Rose Hill unit, Mrs. W. B. Duncan, commander, made 20 property bags, one pair sheets, five pairs pajamas, 40 pillow cases, 36 wash rags, 25 tray covers, 13 comfort bags, 12 napkins, one convalescent home outfit.

    The Court House units, Mrs. W. A. Robinson and Mrs. W. B. Lee, commanders, made garments, bandages, etc., which were not reported.

    Home hygiene and first aid were taught by Mrs. F. W. McKee and Mrs. H. A. Tabb. Committees headed by Mrs. A. W. Withers and Miss Vandergrift raised $200. For wounded soldiers and sailors. Mrs. H. A. Williams conducteded a canning outfit which put up 506 cans and 72 glass jars of fruit and vegetables.

    The Gloucester Branch of the League for Women's Service as- a whole entertained enlisted men and convalescents from overseas, sent 202 comfort bags to the Red Cross, sent birthday and Christmas boxes, contributed $20.00 to the War Commission and $171.00 to to the United War Work fund.

    Misses Rebecca Stubbs and Emily Janney had the Junior Branch in charge. Under their direction sweaters and scarfs were knitted, comfort bags made and much work was accomplished.[7]

    The Gloucester Woman's Club turned over its rooms in the summer of 1917 to the Eighth Virginia Coast Artillery to be used for recreation and as a hospital. Members of the Club served refreshments to the men once a week, and the women of the county served a home-cooked dinner once a week to the men at the club. The clubrooms were used by the various war relief Organizations for working and meeting purposes. Club members, organized as a committee, sold Liberty Bonds and nearly $2,000 worth of- War Savings and Thrift Stamps. Four club members were prominent in overseas work: Mrs. Stephen Wolcott, Mrs. Thomas Blakernan, Miss Margaret Tabb and Miss L. Nancy Benson. The club gave a dinner to the returned soldiers at which 200 people were served.[8]

    NOTES:

    1. Report of Thomas B. Ruff, V. W. H. C. Files
    2. Virginia War Agencies, Selective Draft and Volunteers, p. 254.
    3. Adjutant General's report for 1918, p. 49
    4. Virginia War Agencies, Selective Draft and Volunteers, p. 361
    5. Virginians of Distinguished Service in the World War, p, 220, Supplement to Source Volume V.
    6. Red Cross report taken from a history of the chapter submitted by a committee of which Rev. C. W. Hudson was chairman, and approved by Mr. B. B. Roane, V. W. H. C. Files
    7. From a report by Mrs. N. T. Sanders, V. W. H. C. files.
    8. From a report by Mrs. N. T. Sanders, V. W. H. C. flies
    9. * See Virginia, published by the Department of Agriculure and Immigration, p 175.

  • Goochland County

    A Community History

    By LELIA SCOTT BUCHANAN

    SETTLEMENT AND EARLY HISTORY

    As each achievement can he measured truly only by its relation to past, present and future events, it is necessary to know something of Goochland's past in order to snake a proper appraisal of her World War record.

    In September, 1606, Christopher Newport. with several adventurous companions. sailed up the James River hoping to find an inland sea lined with gold. Tales of this Eldorado had reached them through the Indians who doubtless referred to the deposits of pyrites. Reaching the falls, now the site of Richmond, they found it impossible to proceed further with so large a craft.

    Still undaunted, Newport went back to England where he had a light boat made, and, shortly after his return to Jamestown, again sailed up the James. Lifting his new craft over the falls, he paddled upstream for a few miles until hailed by a band of Monacan (Manakin) Indians. Such is the record of the first white man's foot upon Goochland soil. Captain Newport was permitted to return unmolested, though disillusioned, leaving the vast wilderness to the Red Men.

    A century later brought a band of Huguenots from France to find peace and religious freedom after long persecution. Lands were patented along the James River for twenty miles, chiefly on the south side, and the rich low grounds put under cultivation. Gradually, scions of the early Jamestown settlers moved higher tip the river and established large plantations.

    To meet the needs of these people, Goochland, named for the Colonial Governor, Gooch, was made a county in 1728, though the area included Amherst, a part of Nelson, Albemarle, Buckingham, Cumberland, Powhatan and Fluvanna Counties.

    The westward march of the early colonists continued, necessitating a closer touch with the courthouse, therefore, new boundary lines were drawn. and the seven above-named counties were taken from Goochland, leaving her the narrow strip she is today-ford- miles long and about ten miles wide, with a population of ten thousand, of which fifty-two per cent is colored.

    It is interesting to note that the first coal ever mined in Virginia was from the old Dover mines near Manakin Town, and the first school for deaf mutes in America was established at Bolling Island, the seat of the Bolling family.

    The doors of Tuckahoe, Dungeness, Rock Castle, Elk Hill and many other hospitable homes opened to the great and the lowly in the days of the packet boat on the old James River and Kanawha Canal. Rhythmic voices of the negroes in the low grounds blended with the boat's whistle by day, and sounds of the banjo and fiddle were wafted from the "quarters" long after nightfall. The Civil War, however, marked the end of this ideal life, as many a pine forest, shading forgotten corn furrows, now attests.

    Goochland furnished two companies of Confederate troops under the command of Colonel John Guy, and has the distinction of having given James A. Seddon, as Secretary of War, to the Confederate Cabinet, and Edward Bates, as Attorney General, to President Lincoln's Cabinet. Mr. Bates was a presidential nominee in 1860.

    The succeeding years left few homes in the possession of their original owners. Small farms replaced the early plantations; bad roads handicapped the marketing of produce; isolation sapped much of joy out of young and old, making them skeptical of new ways and new people.

    The shock that staggered civilization in 1914 was discussed on the court green and in the cross-roads' store, but its full significance was never felt until the khaki-clad youth left his home for the courthouse to join his comrades in arms destined for Camp Lee or Camp McClellan.

    DRAFT LAW AND MEN IN SERVICE

    As soon as the United States declared war some of Goochland's sons volunteered for active service. Later a larger contingent was drafted, and inane who were not influenced by the excitement in the air responded to the call of duty and patriotism.

    On the official list in the clerk's office are the names of one hundred and eighty-five men, volunteers and drafted. Of these, ninety-one are white and ninety-four colored men. There were some native sons of Goochland residing elsewhere who volunteered or were drafted from their places of residence at that time, thus adding to this official list. Of the registered men, seventy-seven served overseas: others never within the sound of the enemy's t-'s guns did their duty faithfully in camp or training school, while earnestly hoping that their turn would come to go "over there." Some of these came home as physically unfit as those who had been gassed or wounded.

    James Walker Seay, of Elk Kill, and Bernard Isbell, of Brooking, died at Camp Lee; James Samuel Carter met death in the Argonne, while George Abert Cary, aviator, was killed by the fall of his airplane on Kelly Field.

    Several of our brave young soldiers will never be really well again, but they have taken up their tasks with the same undaunted spirit that sent them forth to battle for their country's honor.

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    LIBERTY LOANS AND WAR SAVINGS STAMPS

    Great credit is due Mr. T. D. Stokes, the chairman for the Liberty Loan drives, who gave generously of his time and means. The Third, Fourth and Victory Loans exceeded the county's quota. Goochland had no organization for the Second Loan drive.

    Mrs. L. R. Barras was made chairman of the Woman's Committee. The canvassing was done from house to house, the workers reporting that "the people responded gladly and liberally, in some cases borrowing from banks at a higher rate of interest in order to do their part. Many who were unable to give money, freely gave their time."

    The War Savings Stamp campaign was not so successful, although many stamps were sold. Unfortunately the records of this drive were burned and no details can be obtained.

    SERVICE FLAG

    "On June 22, 1918, on the same day that a handsome shaft erected by the Daughters of the Confederacy in memory of the heroes of 1861-1865 was unveiled, a large service flag was unfurled. This was presented to the county by the Goochland Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy, and four children of the members unfurled it: Anne Holman, dressed as a Red Cross nurse; Nancy Parrish, as America; James Rutherford, as a U. S. soldier, and Robert Massie, as a U. S. sailor.

    "Thrift stamps were sold at a booth erected for the purpose; there was an executive meeting of the Red Cross Chapter: a band played, and a striking feature of the day was that for the first time in the history of the county the white and colored races met together to celebrate with the same feeling of patriotism the honor done to their soldier boys. All were so united, so peaceful, it was difficult to realize that a terrible war was being waged overseas and that there were few persons present who were not anxious, even sick at heart, over the fate of their absent ones.

    "The orator of the day was Robert E. Lee, grandson of General Robert E. Lee, commander--in-- chief of the Confederacy, and the Confederate monument was unveiled by the great-granddaughter of Colonel David B. Harris, Beauregard's chief of staff, a gallant officer of Goochland, and by the grandson of Colonel John H. Guy. This date was a record day in the annals of the county."

    BOY SCOUTS

    Rev. R. V. Lancaster, assisted by Dr. McCoy, organized a troop of Boy Scouts. These boys worked on farms and in the gardens, and secured one hundred and thirty walnut trees. Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps were sold by this splendid little troop of nine boys, subscriptions made to the Red Cross and the United War Work campaign, and many pieces of literature distributed.

    U. S. FOOD ADMINISTRATOR-HOME ECONOMICS

    Perhaps the most difficult tasks of war expediency fell to the Food Administrator, James T. Rutherford, and to the director of home economics for the county, Mrs. Horace G. Buchanan, the former dealing direct with the producing farmer, who often felt his rights were being infringed upon. Millers and storekeepers were also kept posted as to government regulations. Forty-six retail stores and thirteen mills were given the varying scales of prices. Customers complained to their merchants over the small allotment of sugar, and the merchant in turn told his grievance to the administrator. Farmers could have only enough wheat ground for their own consumption, the surplus being offered to the government at its own price. In a short time, however, every one acknowledged the necessities arising from war, and submitted peacefully if not cheerfully.

    The home economics director borrowed a lantern, and slides were sent from the department in Washington, which she showed personally at six different centers, demonstrating the necessity for wheat and sugar substitutes as well as the substitutes themselves. These shows were much discussed among the busy housewives who ridiculed them at first, but finally adopted them in good spirit. In fact, at a county rally on the court green in June, pies and cakes of all kinds were proudly passed around labelled "Made by Uncle Sam's recipe."

    GOOCHLAND COUNTY HISTORY

    In private homes everywhere the restrictions as to cereals were observed, often at great inconvenience and greater expense, as flour and meal were plentiful and substitutes had to be bought.

    RED CROSS

    The phenominal growth of the national Red Cross caused it to take first place in the public mind as a medium for war relief work, so it was unanimously decided by Goochland and Powhatan to separately petition for a charter to become a branch of the Richmond Chapter Red Cross, thus merging the two organizations. This was granted September 6, 1917, and a meeting was held at Goochland courthouse September 19, which formally initiated the Red Cross in the county. Mr. Thomas D. Stokes, of Elk Hill, was made chairman; Mrs. H. T. Parrish, vicechairman; Dr. W. M. Holman, treasurer; Mrs. H. G. Buchanan, secretary. The men of the county who had directed their efforts in other war measures now threw themselves whole heartedly into the service of the Red Cross.

    During the six months that Goochland remained a branch of the Richmond Chapter, 234 hospital shirts, 639 towels, 125 pairs pajamas, 26 bath robes, 164 pairs socks, 104 sweaters, 75 pairs wristlets and 13 mufflers were sent to headquarters.

    The work in the county having grown so rapidly the Potomac Division deemed it advisable to make Goochland an independent chapter. Mrs. M. V. Woodley was sent from Washington to reorganize the Red Cross work at a meeting held at the State Farm April 10, 1918. The former officers were unanimously re-elected with Mrs. W. M. Holman, chairman of woman's work; Mrs. James T. Rutherfoord, home service; Mrs. W. B. Fraser, finance; J. Cannon Hobson, division and extension, and an active executive committee appointed.

    Speakers from Richmond Chapter's bureau gave great impetus to the work. Public meetings were held in every community, and lantern slides demonstrating the many phases of Red Cross activity were shown. The headlights of Ford cars served as footlights at many novel out-of-door entertainments. At Montrose, the home of H. G. Buchanan, the arrival of three army airplanes with their quota of young lieutenants for the weekend, was a novel sight in Goochland at that time, and was made the occasion for raising funds from the three hundred or more guests who came to witness the maneuvers, the proceeds being given to the War Relief Association of Virginia and the Red Cross Canteen Girls of Richmond.

    At the same home, two months later, Mr. John D. Lee, of Lynchburg, thrilled a large gathering in a masterful speech in behalf of the great American Red Cross.

    The machinery set in motion for patriotic service was now running full speed, and co-operative effort made such service a real pleasure.

    The home service committee sent eighty letters to soldiers which were delivered to them as they were leaving the courthouse. Information and help were given to one hundred and fifty families, including many letters written for same. Three hundred dollars was advanced to ten families. A band of Red Cross workers served coffee and sandwiches to the drafted men, and bade them Godspeed with cheers and waving flags.

    Too much cannot be said of the ten junior auxiliaries under the leadership of Mrs. James Bowles. Several Richmond merchants furnished the materials which they made into four hundred and seventy garments of several sizes for refugee children. Scrap-books, games, "housewives" and other articles were sent overseas for Christmas presents to the soldiers. The entire output was so creditably done it was taken to the Virginia State Fair to be exhibited, but, unfortunately, the influenza epidemic had reached such alarming proportions in Richmond at that time the mayor ordered the fair closed to safeguard the public health. A fine assortment of canned and conserved fruits and vegetables was also sent by Goochland women for the same exhibit, and this was taken to the army hospital at Westhampton.

    Meetings were held at eight colored churches where Red Cross auxiliaries were formed which did splendid work, cooperating with the chapter in every way possible. Thrift Stamps and several Liberty Bonds were sold by them.

    During this period of anxious waiting and physical stress, no woman appeared at meetings, railway stations or even at the table without a bag of knitting at her side, and scores in the thinly settled districts who could not come to meetings put every possible moment into some article to warm the body and cheer the heart of some brave boy.

    Goochland Chapter shipped to Washington at this time 1.120 made articles, including sweaters, socks and refugee garments; 1,060 pounds of clothing were sent to the Belgian Relief. There was never a call made, an allotment requested, which the chapter did not respond to and exceed in volume.

    The treasurer, Miss Lucy Green, of Elk Hill, reported $6,100.46 raised through subscriptions, entertainments and donations.

    All work was voluntary. No headquarters was maintained, as the work was done in private homes.

    So lasting has been the work of Goochland Red Cross, even though its membership showed a decline as did other chapters after the war, it still sponsors and directs a broad program of community activities. In conjunction with the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia under the leadership of Rev. W. W. Brander who, for nineteen years, served as chaplain in the United States army, it finances the social welfare work of the county, directs clinics, and is the organization ever ready for cooperative effort.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    Barring the United Daughters of the Confederacy and local church groups, Goochland was without an organization and without a county newspaper before the World War. This condition greatly increased the task of making any concerted effort. A few patriotic women had aided in war relief work in Richmond, and it was through them that a meeting was called at the State Farm, April 10, 1917, to organize the counties of Powhatan and Goochland jointly under the National League for Woman's Service. Mrs. Horace Buchanan, of Goochland, was elected chairman; Mrs. R. B. Tucker, of Powhatan, Secretary; Mrs. James T. Rutherfoord, of Goochland, treasurer.

    "The broad scope of this organization's activities soon enlisted practically all of the representative women of the two counties, who threw themselves eagerly into the tasks assigned them. The difficulty encountered in holding joint meetings, however, because of the James River dividing the two counties, compelled them to act independently of each other, each sending generous contributions in garments through the Richmond Red Cross, and preserves and vegetables to nearby camps."

    THE GOOCHLAND GIRLS SPONSOR LEAGUE

    Under the direction and guidance of the Service League, the Goochland Girls' Sponsor League for the French War Orphans was formed, and, with the local chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy, undertook the task of supporting six children. Letters were exchanged with their little wards, and great pleasure as well as benefit derived therefrom.

    The Goochland League for Woman's Service at once became the nucleus from which other organizations sprang. The county branch of the State Council of Safety was formed, and the National Council of Defense-these two looking to greater production along agricultural lines.

    UNITED WAR WORK DRIVE

    There was no work done by the churches individually during the war period, as all members of the various congregations were interested in the organized county work.

    There was so Salvation Army- unit, Jewish Welfare League, nor was there even a Y.M.C.A. or Y.W.C.A. group in Goochland to put on the United War Work drive, therefore Mrs. Horace Buchanan was designated chairman for the county.

    As the Red Cross had enlisted all available workers, it was an easy task for the chairman to appoint sub-chairmen in each district with local committees to canvass their respective communities. Representative speakers came out from Richmond, who spoke in several churches and the most populous centers. A spirit of enthusiasm pervaded every one and carried the War Work campaign well "over the top." Goochland was assessed $2,350 and raised $2,840.30.

    AMERICAN WAR LIBRARY

    When the campaign for the American War Library was put on in Goochland, the chairman, Mrs. Bradley S. Johnson, with only ten days' notice, was able to raise $115. Many boxes of books were sent to Camp Lee and to Dr. McIlwaine, State Librarian; also a large box of books and magazines to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Club in Richmond. Contributions of books were sent to the Chaplain at Paris Island, S. C., for the sick men in the hospital and for the prisoners in the military prison there. Mrs. T. Ashby Wickham made a liberal donation of choice fiction to several hospitals in France through the War Relief Association.

    POST-WAR ACTIVITIES

    On June 3 1920, medals of honor were presented to the soldiers of the World War from the citizens of Goochland. General W. W. Sale, the Adjutant General of Virginia, made the address of the occasion. It was stressed that if the exservice man did not make out his war questionnaire his record would be lost, and that it would be a keen regret to him and his descendants if there was no proof of his service.

    Mrs. W. W. Sale, Mrs. Bradley Johnson and Mrs. Horace Buchanan presented the war medals and endeavored to get as many papers as possible made out. There are yet twenty white soldiers not recorded and fifty colored who have not made out their records.

    Shortly after the return of the major part of the colored troops to Goochland, their churches and social organizations planned a celebration to welcome them home. A band played throughout the day at Manakin, patriotic songs were sung, speeches were made by leading men of their race, and a baseball game completed the memorable day.

    To Mrs. Bradley S. Johnson, the chairman of the War History committee for Goochland, and her associates, is due the grateful acknowledgment of a county justly proud of its record for patriotic service. The fruits of their tireless efforts are carefully filed in the clerk's office at the courthouse where generations yet unborn may read them with a righteous pride.

  • Grayson County

    By F. H. WILSON

    Location and Prewar Conditions

    Grayson County is one of the three counties that lie on the elevated plateau formed by the bifurcation of the Blue Ridge range of mountains. Floyd and Carroll are the other two counties. Grayson borders on North Carolina and is bounded by Smyth, Wythe and Carroll Counties. The western portion is mountainous, but the eastern and central parts lie in a fertile valley, comprising a fine farming section. Mt. Rogers in the western part is the highest peak in the State. New River and its branches drain the county. Grayson people derive their living mostly from the soil. Stock and poultry raising, agriculture, lumbering arid a few factories furnish employment to the people. Galax, Fries and Speedwell are the only railroad towns on the eastern border, and Troutdale is on the railroad in the western part of the county.

    Independence is the county seat and is the chief rally ground both in times of war and peace.

    At the beginning of the World War the citizens of the county were a peaceful and home-loving people. Each one was busy at his own trade, endeavoring to make a good living for himself and those dependent upon him. Lands were being reclaimed from the forests, the building of roads was progressing. and homes were being beautified. There were ample churches and schoolhouses to fill the needs of the county. These buildings were mostly painted, and they glistened from the hilltops on which they were builded. We were a happy and contented people. There were few very poor and fewer very rich. Most of our people were home owners. Approximately 20,000 people live here, of which number about 2,000 are negroes. There are very few foreigners in the county. Fries is supported by a cotton factory and Galax by agricultural products and three furniture factories. As far as the writer knows none of our citizens at the outbreak of the war boasted a national reputation, and there were few of even State-wide renown. Each citizen, however, took upon himself a task according to his ability and performed it earnestly and courageously.

    The press furnished a knowledge of the magnitude of the war being waged overseas, but because of the distance no other interest was shown than that of a spectator. As the war progressed, however, the cruelty and injustice heaped upon neutrals arouse& the anger of our citizens, and when the declaration of war was made there was little criticism of our representative officials at Washington.

    Grayson County is inhabited almost entirely by native born Americans. There are only five or six persons in the county that were born in Germany and they are naturalized. There are no colleges in the county, but the public and high schools flourished in the period between 1914 and 1917. The churches paid little heed to the war raging in Europe other than to listen attentively to what mention the various ministers made of it in their sermons and prayers. The people generally pursued the even tenor of their way, little dreaming that the war would have any personal interest for them.

    Industrial conditions were normal in the pre-war period, and all who wanted jobs had them. There were no organized bodies of labor in the county. The Washington Cotton Mill at Fries employed a number of operatives, and the furniture factory, chair factory and acid plants at Galax gave employment to many people, but wages were good and the workmen contented.

    When it became evident that the United States would be drawn into the conflict a great wave of patriotism swept the county. All political, religious and other differences were obliterated at once. With very few exceptions the county was a unit in supporting the government in any move it saw fit to make.

    Pre-war times in Grayson are now a pleasant memory. Never again will the quiet, peaceful conditions obtaining in all parts of the county at that time return. Just as the survivors of the Civil War longed for the "good old days," will those who remember the days before the World War hark back to them with an appreciation that was lacking when peace and plenty were accepted as a matter of course.

    Churches in War Time

    The churches in Grayson County, as in other communities, took no part, as such, in war-time activities. The ministers explained the various war measures to their congregations, urged loyalty and co-operation in all the "drives," offered prayers for the men in service, and threw the weight of their influence on the side of the government. The church members, as individuals, took their full share in all war work. It has been impossible for the writer to secure information regarding those in service from the various congregations in the county except in one or two instances. The following men were in service from Grables Chapel: Ferd G. Cox, James Dowell, Claud S. Cox, Isom Lonnie Rutherford, Harden Neal Cox, French Graham, Dixie Graham. The following service men were members of the congregation at Cox's Chapel (Methodist): Lenine Cox, C. D. Cox, Harvie Osborne, Fred C. Osborne, McF. Phipps, Price Willey, Robert Dixon, Alex. Brown. The members of this congregation were active in subscribing to Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps. Practically every member of both the church and Sunday school was a member of the Red Cross.

    Draft Law and Virginia Organizations

    Before the Draft Act was passed many of the young men of the county volunteered. The majority of them, however, waited for the draft, but it is impossible to believe that they went into service because of this compelling law. They viewed the Draft Act as a true and logical means used by the government to call the men as they were needed and place them where they could be most effective.

    The county Draft Board was quickly formed and became an active machine to register and select the men for the various assigned quotas. Practically every eligible man registered. The work was done by the Draft Board quietly and thoroughly. Many of the single men waived all exemption claims and let it be known that they were ready at the first call. Members of the bar and those who were qualified to serve on the draft and exemption boards offered their services free of charge. Practically every man called to report for service did so at each call, and the board had full quotas to send to camp.

    Entertainment was provided at the courthouse for the men who were to entrain the following day. There were few cases of despondency. The men showed grim determination to do their bit whatever it might he. The ladies were always on hand with kit bags containing the small necessities for comfort in camp.

    There were a few instances of disloyalty where fathers, some of them well-to-do, tried strenuously to keep their sons out of the service, and a few men of draft age made false representations to the board. We shall not name these men, as they are well known in the county, where they will not soon be allowed to forget that they were slackers. It is known that some of the would-be slackers are descendants of traitors in the Civil War. As has been said, however, the vast majority of the men of military age in Grayson County entered the service willingly and served throughout the period with honor.

    The Volunteers

    A Virginia Volunteer unit was organized at Galax. Gordon C. Felts was captain and Prince Burnett, lieutenant. A few of the boys who joined this company lived out in the country as far as nine miles from the meeting place. and came to drill regularly, sometimes walking both ways. The company was disbanded early because so many of its members were drafted into the army or volunteered in the navy. The history and roster of this company-the Blue Ridge Guard-have been published in Source Volume IV., Virginia War History Commission publications.

    Men of Distinguished Service

    Grayson County's Distinguished Service list is as follows:

    Claude S. Anderson-Cited by commander-in-chief; cited by division commander; commended by Secretary of Navy; French Croix de Guerre.

    Walter L. Dowdy-Named in Third Division citations.

    Colonel Samuel R. Gleaves-Distinguished Service Medal; French Croix de Guerre; French Legion of Honor.

    Robert H. Hall-British Military Medal.

    Major Kyle C. Hash (deceased)-Cited by division commander twice; silver star citation; cited in General Orders 88; French Croix de Guerre.

    Lieutenant George Garland Rhudy-British Military Cross.

    Economic and Social Conditions

    Liberty Loans and War Savings Stamps

    Senator James M. Parsons, of Independence, headed the Liberty Loan committees of the county. He gave liberally himself and used his time freely in an effort to put each loan "over the top." He was assisted by the Hon. J. M. Padget, J. M. Bourne, and many others. There was speakng at every church and schoolhouse in the county. There were no figures kept for the first Liberty Loan, but the results of the four subsequent campaigns are shown below:


    Loan Maximum Apportionment Amount Subscribed
    Second Loan $129,200 $36,300
    Third Loan $100,000 $88,500
    Fourth Loan $400,000 $122,650
    Victory Loan $150,900 $78,400
    Total $780,100 $325,850

    It has been estimated that about $40,000 was subscribed in the First Loan. This would bring the total subscription to Liberty Bonds up to $365,850. Grayson is wholly an agricultural county, and this fact probably accounts for the failure to meet the figures shown in official allotments. Farmers have but little ready money, and they were uneducated regarding the value of government bonds.

    School children and those who did not feel able to invest in Liberty Bonds bought War Savings Stamps and Thrift Stamps. The exact amount resulting from the sale of these stamps in the county is not known, but it is estimated at $112,000. A few men bought a thousand dollars worth of War Savings Stamps and carried them to maturity.

    In this connection special mention should be made of Mrs. Lida Crabill, of Galax. She was the head of the Red Cross in both Carroll and Grayson Counties, and was editor of the Galax Post Herald. In addition to these duties, she gave invaluable help in each of the Liberty Loan campaigns, giving both her time and the columns of her paper most generously.

    Disloyalty to the government in the matter of buying bonds was rarely found. Once in a great while some man or woman, through ignorance or political prejudice, would try to hamper some war-time measure. One old man refused to buy bonds and advised all his friends to refrain from doing so, saying that the United States was sure to be defeated and -they would certainly lose their money. One woman declared that she would much rather own an old Confederate bank note than to possess a War Savings Stamp. However, ninety-eight per cent of the people of Grayson, regardless of political party or religious affiliation, were loyal to the government in prosecuting the war by giving of their time, their money or their lives without complaint.

    Food and Fuel Conservation

    Food production was increased to the limit, and all citizens of the county did their utmost in the way of conserving food and co-operating with the Food Administration. Meatless and heatless days were strictly observed. There were few exemptions for agricultural reasons, and a great many women and girls worked in the fields to save the crops.

    General Conditions

    There were few manufacturing enterprises in the county, and these had no contracts with the government. Grayson, as an inland county, had no commerce, and the war had little effect on the transportation, labor, trade or lines of communication.

    The Red Cross

    The Blue Ridge Chapter of the American Red Cross, having jurisdiction over Carroll and Grayson counties, was organized June 4, 1917, and officially recognized June 30, 1917.

    The first chairman of the Blue Ridge Chapter was J. Frank Vass, who was then mayor of Galax and one of its leading men. The vice-chairman was Mrs. J. W. Nortenstine, and the secretary was Mrs. Lida R. Crabill. C. A. Collier, cashier of the First National Bank of Galax, was treasurer. A. C. Painter, director of the First National Bank, was chairman of the executive committee, and J. P. Carico, vice-president of the same bank, was chairman of the finance committee. E. F. Perkins was chairman of home service. There were changes in the officers of the chapter from time to time.

    The first entertainment given by the Red Cross was staged at the fair grounds in Galax, July 4, 1917, when $1,000 was cleared. This sum was sent to Washington to be added to the State contribution in the first Red Cross drive. A permanent entertainment committee was appointed and recitals, minstrel shows, moving pictures, lectures, etc., were popular methods used for raising funds. The county auxiliaries held box suppers, debates, concerts, etc., in the schoolhouses and churches.

    Mr. H. Prince Burnett was appointed publicity chairman. He was editor of the Galax Post-Herald, and the columns of his paper were given to the Red Cross in its propaganda campaigns and as an advertising medium without charge.

    The First National Bank furnished a workroom and office on the first floor of the bank building and a stock room on the second floor. Materials were ordered in large quantities and distributed among the working branches by parcel post. The greater part of the sewing and knitting was done in the homes. Deliveries were made and work given out every Wednesday. Packing and shipping, under the supervision of Mrs. Edwin Dodd and Miss Bertha Nuckols, was done whenever sufficient quantities of finished garments were ready for shipment. No surgical dressings were attempted on advice of headquarters.

    The chapter had a membership of five hundred when the second Red Cross drive was launched. The quota assigned for the drive was $1,000, and the subscriptions amounted to double this sum. The auxiliaries always subscribed their quotas and often oversubscribed them. Auction sales for the disposal of produce were held. A gallon of the first strawberries of the season was sold eight times. A large Red Cross with a clock face outlined in black kept the public posted on the progress of the drive. The hands went around the face of the clock twice. A sugar barrel was nailed to the flag staff on the principal corner in Galax; a slit in the top permitted donations to drop into a box inside the barrel. Every large store had a mite box for collecting small change to add to the fund.

    The first supplies were sent to headquarters November 12, 1917. By April 15, 1919, the following articles had been shipped by the chapter: 57 helmets, 39 mufflers, 633 pairs of socks, 418 sweaters, 55 pairs of wristlets, 132 pairs pajamas, 160 substitute handkerchiefs, 219 pillow cases, 81 sheets, 112 bed socks, 1,167 wash cloths, 218 property bags, 274 bed shirts, 31 comfort kits, 7 suits of men's underwear, 350 towels, 51 fracture pillows, 1,762 surgeon's wipes, 256 refugee garments and bay quilts, 1,000 pounds second-hand clothing for Belgian relief, five bushels of nut shells and three pounds of tin foil. To Camp Lee were sent two full cot equipments, 100 quarts jellies, jam and preserves and two large boxes of gun wipes. The Juniors sent one large box of scrap books.

    The home service section of the Blue Ridge Chapter was organized in the month of July, 1918, by Mrs. M. A. Doran, Potomac Division headquarters, Washington, D. C. Previous to this time much relief work had been conducted by Attorney S. F. Landreth, of Galax. As stated previously, E. F. Perkins was chairman of this section. Mr. H. P. Burnett served as legal advisor and Dr. H. A. Dalton was medical advisor. There were five branches of the chapter in home ser- vice work and six auxiliaries. The branches were at Independence, Fries, Troutdale, Elk Creek and Fox. The auxiliaries were at Bridle Creek, Summerfield, Volney, Baywood, Grant and Spring Valley. A great deal of the work of this section was accomplished by the executive Secretary through correspondence. When a personal investigation was necessary a worker was detailed to visit the case and report conditions. More than 500 cases were handled during the war period. Instances of financial need were few in number, only about $350 being appropriated for relief work.

    The Blue Ridge Chapter, through its branches and auxiliaries in Grayson County, endeavored to supply every soldier with a filled comfort kit when he left for camp. About 520 Christmas boxes were sent to soldiers and sailors in 1918. The employees of a firm in Galax contributed a liberal amount each month to the chapter treasury for the purchase of wool and occasional personal donations were received from individual citizens of Galax.

    Practically all citizens of Grayson regardless of religious affiliations or political differences, were earnest supporters of the Red Cross in all its activities during the war period. By means of entertainments, carnivals, membership drives and personal solicitation the membership of the chapter had been built up by January 15, 1919, to about 2,500 enthusiastic members, with every branch and auxiliary in good financial condition. As a war-time measure the Red Cross in Grayson County was a great success, and it is well organized for peace-time work.

    War Work and Relief Organizations

    While most of the organized work in the county was conducted through the Red Cross, many of her citizens gave liberally to the Y.M.C.A., the Salvation Army and all other worthy organizations laboring for the welfare of the soldiers.

    Post-war Conditions

    By January 1, 1919, the soldiers began to return to the county. There were few public home-coming celebrations, as the boys drifted back one or two at a time. Several of our boys who had been wounded, gassed or shell-shocked were held in hospitals. Many of these cases were restored to health, received honorable discharge, and are back at their old jobs today. A few, however, are yet receiving treatment in the government hospitals and are mere relics of their former selves, constituting a sad reminder of the ravages of war.

    During the war prices were high and farmers had more ready money than they had ever known. When the war ended, farm products were the first to come down in price. Extravagant habits had been formed and it was hard to readjust the manner of living to fit prevailing conditions. The farmer found that the crops he had produced by the aid of expensive labor and costly fertilizer would bring only a fraction of the cost of production, while the commodities he was forced to buy held to war-time prices. Live stock bought at war-time prices had to be sold for from fifty to seventy-five per cent of their original cost after having been fed and grazed for a year or more. In the latter part of 1920 it looked as though all farmers would go bankrupt.

    In the fall of 1921 there was no cash market for farm crops, except for beans, and live stock were selling at fifty per cent lower than they had sold the previous year. Money was scarce and people were hard put to it to meet their accounts.

    Most of the soldiers from Grayson County were farmers, and upon their return they took up their former enterprises in the county managed to keep running with their full quota of hands at a greatly reduced scale of wages. There were no strikes or labor troubles in the county. Every one seemed to realize that they were passing through a period of readjustment and deflation as an aftermath of the war, and all seemed anxious to meet conditions bravely and courageously. The wave of crime that swept man parts of the country had little effect in Grayson County. he eighteenth amendment is held responsible for an increase in arrests for drunkenness and resultant lawlessness, but no other increase in crime was noted.

    The returned soldier fitted into his old niche and his presence caused no excess of labor and made necessary no readjustment of industrial conditions. About a dozen of the ex-service men of the county have taken vocational training because of injuries received in the war, making it impossible for them to return to their former occupations.

    There was no shortage of houses when the soldiers returned, but rents were many times higher than before the war, and these have declined in price but little. Real estate doubled and tripled in price during the war, and while it does not now sell so readily as heretofore, when it does sell it brings the war-time price.

    The only perceptible social effect of the war is the elimination of all social barriers. However snobbish a soldier may have been before the war, a few months in camp or trenches lessened his ideas of self-importance and increased his respect for the other fellow.

    A home-coming day was celebrated at Independence just after the return of the soldiers. The old Confederates met the World War veterans, dinner was served, and speeches were made by young and old. It was a joyous occasion, Inarred only by the knowledge that some of those in our midst were desolate because of loved ones who slept in the soil of France.

  • Loudoun County

    A Community History

    LOCATION, NATURAL FEATURES AND RESOURCES

    Loudoun County was formed in 1757 from Fairfax and named in honor of the Earl of Loudoun, a prominent officer of the French and Indian war. He had been appointed Governor of Virginia in the same year, but military duties prevented him from assuming the office. This is the northern most of the Piedmont counties, lying on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge. Land area, 519 square miles; population, 20,577.

    Mountains, gently sloping hills and broad valleys mark the surface. The soil is clay and loam, a large per cent being under cultivation. Grain crops, hay and alfalfa are among general farm crops, corn and wheat leading. The county takes first rank in production of corn and third in wheat. Blue grass is indigenous, rivaling blue grass sods of Kentucky, making this a Blue pasture country. Much attention is given improved breeds of cattle, horses, hogs and sheep. Many high-class dairies find market for special milk, raw milk and cream on The Washington market. A ridge of the county is especially suited to commercial apple orchards, and this is an important industry.

    Grazing and finishing beef cattle has been an important farm enterprise for many years. Transportation facilities are ample. The Washington-Old Dominon Railroad to Bluemont runs through the heart of the county. There is a hard-surfaced improved State highway from the Maryland line through the county southward; the Lee-Jackson highway from Alexandria to Winchester, along the southern border, connects with the famous Valley Pike. Leesburg, the county seat is a town of 2,000 people, equipped with water works, electric lighting, a new high school, modern hotel, hospital, public library, two national banks, mills, the usual stores, with active Chamber of Commerce. Purcellville, Hamilton, Ashburn, Round Hill and Bluemond are other towns, each with some special feature serving the locality. There are nine accredited high schools in the county. There are lime kilns and quarries near Leesburg. A county farm demonstrator is active. The farmers are organized. Agriculture and domestic science are taught in the schools.

    Oak Hill, the borne of President Monroe, is about nine miles south of Leesburg. It was built by him during presidency. On the wide-spreading lawn he planted his from each State in the Union. General Lafayette was a tree of Oak Hill during his visit to Virginia in 1824. Many beautiful and lavish modern estates adorn the landscape of Loudoun. [See "Virginia" published by Department of Agriculture and Immigration, p. 191]

    CHURCHES

    Rev. Conrad H. Goodwin was rector of the St. James' Episcopal Church at Leesburg until he went as a chaplain to France. The men in service from this church were: Colonel Thomas Bentley Mott, Major Arthur Carterlater, Major I. Fauntleroy McGill, Major Pinkney Herbert, Major Rittenhouse, Captain Hugh V. McCabe, Captain Richard H. Tebbs, Lieutenant William L. Tebbs, Lieutenant John A. Tebbs, Lieutenant James F. Manning, Captain Benjamin H. White, George O. Ferguson, William C. Ferguson, Mervin Bly, William D. Hempshire, Cuthbert P. Conrad, William R. Grimes, Samuel H. Grimes, Albert E. Warren, William Stuell, Sam L. Howard, Randolph McGill Loughborough, Edward L. Nalle. Stilson H. Hall, Wilbur Hall, Walter W. bun, Mort Mock, Morris Atwell, Alfred L. B. DeZerega, William Upson.

    The Church of Our Savior, at Oatlands, had the following men in the service: Captain Charles Riticor (deceased), Major William H. Clifford, Captain William C. Eustis, Captain David Tennant, Rev. Robert L. Goodwin, John Howe, Robert Riticor.

    The Baptist Church of Leesburg had the following in service : Albert Moriarity Leroy Moriarity, RandolphTillett, Lieutenant Hugh Tillett, Lieutenant William H. Jenkins, Edwin Royston, William T. Jackson, Arthur T. Fulton, Henry Carey, Copeland Crouch, Wade Lynn, Charles W. Gibbons, Richard Dwyer, John Dwyer, William Scott, Milton Pearson and Victor Jackson.

    The churches of the county all tried to comply with Federal requests, and where two fires were ordinarily required to heat the churches they used only one. Sometimes the services were held in the basements. At St. James' Church in Leesburg, no fires were built except on Sunday, the rector holding the Wednesday evening services at the rectory. During Lent the rectory was also used. and at this time the rector lectured on the book, "Religious Interpretation of War," by Fosdick. A Red Cross service was held in St. James' Church, in which all the ministers of the town participated. On this occasion two handsome silk flags were presented to the church-an American flag and a Red Cross flag. The service flag of the church was also hung on the front door. Members of the Red Cross and other citizens of the town and of all denominations attended the service. Rev. Conrad Goodwin, the rector, preached a fine, patriotic sermon. He later resigned his pastorate to go as a chaplain to France. The Sunday school of St. James' Church gave money to buy Testaments to be sent to the soldiers, and also bought a $50 Liberty Bond. The Bible class bought a $100 bond, and the King's Daughters of this church purchased a $500 bond. The children of St. James' Church belonged to a Junior Red Cross and were enthusiastic in their work. An Easter offering from St. James' Church and Sunday School was given to the Near East Sufferers. It amounted to $1,250.[1]

    THE DRAFT AND MEN IN SERVICE

    There were 4,094 men from Loudoun County registered in the draft and 473 of these were accepted at camp.[2] The members of the county Draft Board were Thomas W. Edwards, J. R. H. Alexander, John A. Gibson and W. E. Norris, chief clerk. Mr. Edwards succeeded C. C. Vanderwater, who had suceeded Thomas A. Dudley.[3]

    There were no military organizations in the county. The following names of men from London County are included in Virginia's Distinguished Service list: Captain David L. S. Brewster, Order de Avis; Colonel Arthur II. Carter, Distinguished Service Medal; Captain Edward C. Fuller (deceased), Distinguished Service Cross, Navy Cross, Second Division citation; Major William H. Gill, cited by division commander; William R. Grimes, Victoria Cross; Samuel C. Hirst, Distinguished Service Cross, Navy Cross, French Croix de Guerre, Second Division citation; Lieutenant William P. Hulbert, French Croix de Guerre, French Medaille d'Honneur des Epidemies (Argent); Lieutenant James F. Manning, Jr., Distinguished Service Cross; Colonel Thomas B. Mott, Distinguished Service Medal, British Order of St. Michael and St. George, French Legion of Honor, Belgian Order of Leopold, Italian War Cross, Montenegrin Medal for Bravery, Order of St. Stanislas (Russia); Bryan Rust, French Croix de Guerre; Captain Richard H. Tebbs, Jr, commended by Secretary of Navy, Order of Wen Hu (Chinese), Striped Tiger, fifth class; Robert L. Reid, cited by division commander; Lieutenant Colonel Harry A. Toulmin, Distinguished Service Medal.[4]

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    Loudoun County had a Patriotic Society, of which Mr. Charles Fauntleroy Harrison was president, and Rev. Conrad H. Goodwin, vice-president. When the Liberty Loan campaigns were launched the Patriotic Society secured automobiles, which they decorated in the national colors, and toured the county. Public meetings were held at various localities, the speakers being Mr. Harrison, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Sidenstricker, of the Methodist Church, and Mr. Baker, of the Baptist Church. Frequently some wounded Frenchman or Englishman would come up from Washington and join the party. When they returned to Leesburg they held a grand rally at the Town Hall. The meeting was opened by prayer, followed by numerous speeches urging the buying of bonds. Thousands of dollars worth of bonds were sold upon these occasions.[5]

    There were no figures kept for the First loan. Those for the last four campaigns follow:[6]

    Second loan apportionment, $511,700; subscribed, $261,500 number subscribing, 255. Third loan apportionment, $294,600; subscribed, $400,100; number subscribing, 1,105. Fourth loan apportionment, $629,600; subscribed, $635,850; number subscribing, 1,721. Victory loan apportionment, $487,300 subscribed, $502,800; number subscribing, 586. Total of last four loans apportionment, $1,923,200; subscribed, $1,800,250; number subscribing, 3,667.

    The women of the county were faithful in conserving food and everything that could be canned was preserved by that process. Two barrels of jelly were sent to Camp Lee.

    There is a German settlement near Lovettsville. In the Revolutionary War the Germans of the county were intensely loyal, many of them serving in Armand's Legion, recruited by authority of Congress during the summer of 1777 and composed of men who could not speak English. The descendants of these Germans still live in the locality where they first settled and they were very patriotic in the World War, numbers of them serving in the American Army.[7]

    THE RED CROSS

    The Loudoun County Chapter of the Red Cross was organized on April 11,1917, with the following officers: Mr. Edward Chamberlin, chairman; Mrs. W. C. Eustis, honorary chairman; Mrs. Arthur Chichester, vice-chairman; Mr. C. L. Robey, treasurer, and W. O. Russell, secretary.

    The earliest work of the chapter was that of giving instruction in first aid under the direction of Dr. Harry Gibson, in Leesburg and Middleburg, and Dr. Rusiniselle at Waterford Branch. The next activity was the making of surgical dressings, instructions for which were given by Mrs. Edward Chamberlin in a room given for the purpose by Mr. and Mrs. H. T. Harrison. About this time Mrs. E. B. White was made chairman of the supply committee, or which Mrs. Edward Chamberlin and Mrs. R. R. Walker were members. Miss Cornelia N. Walker had the knitting work in charge.

    The work of the chapter was well tinder way in 1918, and the officers were busily engaged in inspecting, packing and shipping articles sent in by the local branches. Mrs. White Mrs. Chamberlin did most of this work. In the spring and summer of this year the drafted men were leaving the county and the chapter provided each one with a sweater, socks, etc., and from a fund raised by Mr. H. T. Harrison candy and tobacco were also furnished.

    The Home Service section was under the direction of Miss Charlotte Noland for a short time. It was later managed by Miss Lacy Plaster. the executive secretary, who worked on a salary. Miss Blanche Rogers, of Hamilton, was assistant secretary until Miss Plaster resigned, when Miss Rogers took over and continued the work.

    The Loudoun County Chapter co-operated with the Patriotic Community League and donated $200.00 to the expenses of its committee. The purpose of this organization was to take charge of all campaigns for war purposes. Its executive committee was composed of Messrs. D. C. Sands, Paul Popkins and J. V. Nichols.

    The following is a statistical report by branches:

    The Aldie Branch was organized in April, 1917, with a small working force, never larger than twenty members. Katherine F. S. McCormick was chairman of the branch and director of the workroom during the greater part of the time. From June to December, 1917, Mrs. Tennant had the work in charge. During her term of office no record of the work was kept, but from December, 1917, to February, 1919, the work was as follows: 177 pieces of knitted work (sweaters, helmets, scarfs, socks, etc.), 95 hospital garments and 4,750 surgical dressings. Mrs. P. P. Popkins was secretary-treasurer. In the three Red Cross drives the branch sent in $600,000 from subscriptions. The Juniors raised $20.00.[8]

    The Ashburn Branch was organized November 6, 1917. The officers throughout its existence were: Miss Mary Silrey, chairman, succeeded by Mrs. Thomas Hutchinson; Mrs. J. T. Jones, vice-chairman; Miss Blanche Ankers, secretary, succeeded by Mrs. Millard Wynkoop and Mrs. Charles Costello; Mrs. C. B. Arundel, treasurer, succeeded by Miss Pauline Hutchison. There is no record of garments made. Donations were as follows: Wool fund, $1,200.00; miscellaneous $3,200.00; receipts from entertainments, $91.00; sundries at sales, $144.50; membership dues, $1 32.00.[9]

    Officers of the Bluemont Branch were John E. Lewis, chairman; E. C. Iden, vice-chairman; Miss Ethel Seaton, secretary Mrs. C. J. Hansbarger, treasurer; Miss Lucy Plaster, manager of the workroom. The branch had twenty-two members and contributed $1,344.11 to Red Cross work.[10]

    The Hamilton Branch was organized on June 18, 1917, with thirty-one members. This number later increased to 140. The officers were Mrs. Mary Offley, chairman; Mrs. M. L. Herndon, vice-chairman; Mrs, J. E. Claggett, secretary, succeeded by E. Gertrude Peugh; Miss Blanche Rogers, treasurer; Mrs. Oscar Tavenner, chairman of workroom, and Miss Margaret McFarland, chairman of surgical dressings. The work accomplished by this branch was as follows: Pajama suits, 116 bed socks, 35 pairs; hospital shirts, 127; bed jackets, 12 operating gowns, 6; helpless-case shirts, 9; house gowns, 7; aprons, 21; pinafores, 4; comfort kits, 12; pillows, 27; sweaters, 48; scarfs, 5; helmets, 4; wristlets, 18 pairs; socks, 45 pairs; children's sweaters, 14; children's stockings, 6 pairs; one afghan, the squares for which were knitted by men, women and children, was sent to Walter Reed Hospital and Mrs. J. T. Griffith made and donated one layette. Mrs. J. M. Hawley pieced and made a quilt of scraps from the workroom. Our branch equipped air emergency cot at a cost of about $50.00. Mrs. Hattie Gregg, eighty years old, knitted eighteen sweaters. Mrs. Harriet Everett and Mrs. Miriam Thompson also deserve special mention as knitters of socks both of them being nearly eighty years of age. The surgical dressings department made 171 slings, 88 bandages, 1,508 compresses arid 150 oakum pads.[11]

    The Hillsboro Branch was organized March 23, 1918, with the following officers: Mrs. L. J. Rex, chairman; Mrs. Rose Thompson, vice-chairman; Mrs. M. V. Hammerly, secretary; Mrs. Lucy Potts, treasurer. Later on Miss Rose Virts was chairman. She reports the following work done by the branch; Bed shirts, 28; pajamas, 48; bed socks, 14; pillows, 2; gingham aprons, 14; comfort bags, 48; outing dresses, 6; satteen pinafores 4; barrels to Belgians, 7; boxes to Belgians, 3 ?. There were 76 members in the first roll call, 81 members in the second roll call, and 66 members in the third roll call.[12]

    Officers of the Leeshurg Branch were Mrs. E. B. White, chairman, Miss Preston, secretary; Miss Pike, succeeded by Miss White, treasurer. The committee on garments was composed of Miss Alice Davis, Mrs. Merwin Bly and Mrs. Edward Nichols.

    The Leesburg Branch was the first one organized in the Loudoun County Chapter and began its work April 15, 1917. The first box of their work was sent off on July 5th, and consisted of 528 surgical dressings. A week later they sent 2,496 bandages and surgical dressings and a box of 700 hospital garments and linen. All records between this time and December, 1917, have been destroyed. From December 15, 1917, until June 15, 1918, we have records of work as follows: Surgical dressings, 23,480; hospital garments, 1,268; knitted wool garments, 644; knitted wash cloths, 48; comfort kits, 570 Christmas packets, 250; Christmas stockings, 300; pieces of linen, 693. We sent to Walter Reed Hospital: Sweaters, 100; socks, 100 pairs; wash cloths, 72. We sent to the Loudoun County Hospital: Surgical dressings, 5,262; pajamas, 11; operating shirts, 9; knitted wash cloths, 24. The following were distributed to the needy in the winter of 1920: Sweaters, 91; socks, 78 pairs; children's stockings, 38 pairs; wristlets, 40; hospital garments, 46.[13]

    The Lovettsville Branch was organized in June, 1917, by Mrs. Edward Chamberlin. The officers were Mrs. William Frazier, Succeeded by Mrs. A. W. Rusmiselle, chairman; Mrs. A. W. Rusmiselle, succeeded. by Mrs. William Frazier, vice-chairman; Mrs. H. J. Buhrman, succeeded by Miss Lorna Wolford, secretary; Mrs. E. V. Chinn, treasurer. There is no record of articles made nor of money expended by this chapter other than the statement that $35.00 was contributed to the branch by Mrs. Millard Baker. There were 250 members.[14]

    Paeonian Springs Branch was organized on June 12, 1918, with the following officers: Mrs. Helen J. Arthur, chairman; Mrs. Caroline Tavenner, vice-chairman; Miss Margaret Pierpoint, secretary, and Mrs. E. M. Hagan treasurer. The members of the cutting committee were Miss Botts, Mrs. Hagan and Mrs. Arthur; membership committee, Mrs. McCray and Miss Mozelle Braden; gauze work, Miss Elizabeth Lauman and Miss Pierpoint; knitting, Mrs. Kate Braden and Miss Elizabeth Lauman. Mrs. Meek donated the use of a workroom. The membership drives netted $114.00. Two boxes of used clothing were sent to the Belgian refugees. Clothing was also sent to the Armenians. Garments were made as follows: Pajamas, 52; aprons, 18; socks, 26 house gowns, 6; pinafores, 4; outing jackets, 42; comfort kits, 50.[15]

    There were 249 members of the Purceliville Branch which was organized on May 17, 1917. The officers were as follows: Mrs. Notley Ball, chairman; Mrs. J. A. Speer, vice-chairman, Mrs. A. M. Janney, secretary; Mrs. P. M. Milner, treasurer; Mrs. C. R. Emerick, director of workroom; Mrs. Virginia Hirst, chairman of knitting. The record of work follows; One comfort, knitted by the Ladies' Home Interest Club; 1 comfort, knitted by the children of Purceliville; 1 comfort knitted by the ladies of Purcellville; 1 cot equipment; valued at $40.00; hospital supplies valued at $100.00 as follows: Sheets, 12; Turkish towels, 24; hand towels, 36; napkins, 24; handkerchiefs, 24; articles of gauze, 4,962; articles of muslin, 1,810; knitted articles, 383; jellies and preserves to Camp Lee, two barrels. Garments were collected and shipped both to the Belgians and to the Armenians. Christmas boxes were sent to men in service.[16]

    The Round Hill Branch of the Red Cross was organized on June 11, 1917, with seventy-five members, and the following officers were elected: Mrs. George Laycock, chairman: Mrs. George Troth, vice-chairman; Miss Linda Caruthers, secretary; Dr. Edward V. Copeland, treasurer. Mrs. Johnson Taylor and Mrs. Samuel Hersperger were heads of the workroom. In June new officers were elected as follows: Mrs. H. C. Thompson, chairman; Mrs. George Troth, vice-chairman; Miss Linda Caruthers, secretary, and Dr. Edward V. Copeland, treasurer.

    Mr. Henry Gibson, Mrs. Charles Campbell and Dr. J. E. Copeland each gave our branch the use of a workroom free of charge. We had many other small donations such as the use of sewing machines, chains, tables, electric irons, stove, etc.

    The list of articles made follows: Pajamas, 69; operating gowns, 19; shirts, 29; bed socks, 27 pairs; aprons, 29; pinafores, 3; house dresses, 4; layettes, 3; oakum pads, 170; comfort bags, 50; pillows, 2; gauze compresses, 1,897; abdominal bandages, 64; four-inch bandages 54; convalescent robes, 7; triangle bandages, 312; head bandages, 12; wipes, 136; gauze strips, 45; many-tailed bandages, 175; Christmas boxes, 10; Belgian Relief, November, 1918, 16 packages; Near East Relief, December 1919, 3 packages; donated to Leesburg Hospital in 1918; 6 sheets, 17 bath towels, 15 handkerchiefs, 31 hand towels, 12 napkins.[17]

    The Sterling Branch was organized May 10, 1918, with officers as follows: Miss Blanche Ankers, chairman; Mrs. William Groome, vice-chairman; Miss Genevieve Groome, secretary Mrs. Julia Fox, treasurer; Miss Hazel Clause, head of workroom. The Juniors were organized by Miss Mamie Lyon. Mrs. William Groome was later elected chairman, Mrs. L. E. Larcomb, head of workroom, and Mrs. C. E. Chick, chairman of home service work. No record was kept of the work done.[18]

    The Unison-Bloomfield Branch, with Mrs. Humphrey Chamblein, chairman, sent in 46 bed sheets, 25 operating gowns, 50 pajama suits, 85 sweaters, 32 mufflers, 33 pairs of of wristlets and 26 pairs socks. No complete records were kept and the above represents only a small portion of the work accomplished.[19]

    Waxpool Branch had fifty members and was organized July 7, 1918. Wilmer Cross was chairman; J. W. Ankers, vice-chairman; Miss Susie Bitzer, secretary, and Mrs. Mollie Bitzer, treasurer. This branch was organized late and because of the scarcity of wool at that time did no knitting. It furnished its required quota of hospital supplies and all else that was asked of its menibers.[20]

    The Waterford Branch was organized April 25, 1917, with164 members. A surgical dressings class was conducted by Mrs. J. M. Chamberlin, of Washington, and ten members of the class received diplomas. Dr. Leslie T. Rusmiselle taught a first-aid class numbering twenty, seven of whom were graduated. An unusual amount of knitting was done by the following members: Mrs. Albert Gore, Mrs. J. W. Marshall, Mrs. William James and the Misses Mock and Steer. Ten barrels of old clothing were shipped to the committee for Belgian Relief, and barrels of jellies and preserves were shipped to the soldiers at Camp Lee. The Waterford Branch took an active part in all drives and led the other branches in the production of sewed and knitted garments. In the 1919 sale of Christmas stamps the Waterford school led all other schools in the county in the sale of stamps.[21]

    The financial report of the Loudoun County Chapter, A. R. C., is as follows: From the first Red Cross drive, $11,499.99; second drive, $23,912.50, making a total of $35,412.49. Total contributions received from War Chest fund, $7,608.20; from various kinds of membership funds, $3,983.00 miscellaneous contributions, $5,580.55 ; contributions for home dietetics, $65.00; total receipts, $17,275.20. The membership drive at Christmas, 1917, resulted in 751 members, 12 magazine members and 2 contributing members; Christmas 1918, 700 annual members, 22 magazine members and 2 contributing members; Christmas, 1919, 734 annual members, 21 magazine members and 1 life member.

    The expenditures of the chapter show $74.12 spent for transportation of materials, supplies and finished articles. $3,016.77 for home service work, $73.72 for postage, printing, and stationery, $586.98 for additional administrative expenses, $3,628.69 remitted to division headquarters for membership and class fees, $2,000 remitted to headquarters for other purposes, $7,234.50 paid for supplies. Total cash paid out $17,918.78[22]

    The record of women's work is as follows: Seventy-four boxes containing 50,915 gauze compresses, 5,000 bandages 5,000 pads, 5,341 hospital garments, 1,000 pairs of 525 sweaters, 100 pairs of children's stockings, 35 sweaters for refugees, 13 scarfs. Each boy as he left for camp was presented with a sweater, scarf, two pairs of socks and a pair of wristlets. All the work done by the fifteen branches of the Loudoun County Chapter was inspected, packed and shipped by the women in charge of the workroom at Leesburg.[23]

    The Home Service section dealt with 1,000 families, rendered services to 700 families, gave information to 300 families. Financial assistance was given to the amount of $222.11, of which amount $117.11 was returned.[24]

    Early in 1918 a tentative committee for the Junior Red Cross was appointed, consisting of O. L. Emerick, Mr. Felts, and Captain McCormick. In 1918 there were six Junior auxiliaries in the county with a total enrollment of 697 school children who paid dues to the amount of $186.97. They sold War Savings Stamps amounting to $500.00 and Thrift Stamps to the amount of $7,500.00. In 1919 there were 28 auxiliaries with a total enrollment of 1,627 members, who paid dues amounting to $508.69. They made 20 layettes, 244 scrap books, 582 gun wipes and 232 other articles. In 1920 there were 53 school auxiliaries, with a total enrollment of 2,090 members, who paid dues amounting to $314.88. The financial report of the Juniors to June, 1919, shows receipts of $511.19, expenditures of $365.23, with a balance in treasury of $145.49. The report from June, 1919, to June, 1920, shows receipts of $471.49, expenditures $437.38, and a balance of $34.19.[25]

    In November, 1919, a nursing committee was formed in connection with the Red Cross, which employed a county nurse--Miss Eareckson--to instruct the women of the county in the principles of nursing.[26]

    Colored Red Cross auxiliaries were organized in the spring of 1918 at Leesburg, Waterford, Hamilton and Round Hill.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    The chairman of the Syrian Relief committee in Loudoun County was Mr. Henry Winston, and he was very successful in collecting funds. The amount raised is not known.

    The women of the county formed knitting and sewing circles. During the war it was unusual to meet a woman on the street that did not have a knitting bag on her arm. Mrs. Judge Murray, president of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, knitted and gave away a number of sweaters and scarfs. Mr. Ross, owner of the moving picture plant, gave a "wool benefit" from which the women realized $60.00.

    Fort Myer was the nearest camp to Leesburg, but on weekends numbers of the boys came from Camp Lee. On these occasions, and when men were sent to camp (most of them from various points in the county had to start from Leesburg), the citizens assembled at the court house, where prayer was offered and speeches made. Mr. Harry Harrison, of the Loudoun Times, was always active in seeing that the men were provided with all they needed for the journey to camp. The letters sent Mr. Harrison from time to time showed their gratitude.[27]

    The Masons of the county were active in war work and many of them were in the service.

    POST-WAR

    In May, 1919, the county held its home-coming celebration. Ex-Governor Davis and other speakers made addresses. Tables were spread on the court house green and thousands of people were in attendance. In the evening medals were given the men, these being presented by Mr. Henry Harrison, who had solicited funds for their purchase through the columns of the Loudoun Times.

    The war is now a thing of the past but the county still has on its heart the widow and the orphan. Some are being cared for individually and others from funds collected for the purpose.

    After the war ex-Governor Davis invited fifty soldiers from the Walter Reed Hospital, in Washington, to "Marvin Park," his country home near Leesburg, for a day's outing. They were met at the station by automobiles and driven out to the Davis home, where a sumptuous dinner had been prepared. A number of ladies from the town were there to help them have an enjoyable day.

    The people of Loudoun County are working to raise seven thousand dollars for a memorial tablet to be placed in the Leesburg court house. This will be in memory of those who died in service. As the tablet will cost less than $7,000 the remainder of the amount will be put on interest, and a bed in the Loudoun Hospital endowed for the use of any Loudoun County boy who served his country in the World War.[28]


    NOTES:

    1. Data on churches secured from report of Miss Elizabeth Worsley of Leesburg, V. W. H. C. Files
    2. Adjutant General's report for 1918, p. 49.
    3. Virginia War Agencies, Selective Draft and Volunteers, p. 25.
    4. Virginians of Distinguished Service in the World War; p. 223; Supplement to Source Volume V
    5. From report of Miss Elizabeth Worsley, V. W. H. C. Files
    6. From Report of Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, V. W. H. C. Files
    7. From report of Miss Elizabeth Worsley, V. W. H. C. Files
    8. From report of Katherine F. S. McCormick, V. W. H. C. Files
    9. From report of Mrs. Thomas Hutchison, V. W. H. C. Files
    10. From unsigned report in V. W. H. C. Files
    11. From report of Miss E. Gertrude Peugh, V. W. H. C. Files
    12. From report of Miss Rose Virts, V. W. H. C. Files
    13. From Report of Mrs. E. B. White, V. W. H. C. Files
    14. From report of Mrs. A. W. Rusmiselle, V. W. H. C. Files
    15. From report of Helen J. Arthur, V. W. H. C. Files
    16. From Report of Mrs. Asa M. Janney, V. W. H. C. Files
    17. From Report of Mrs. H. C. Thompson, V. W. H. C., Files
    18. From report of Miss Genevieve Groome, V. W. H. C. Files
    19. From an unsigned report in V. W. H. C. Files
    20. From report of W. B. Cross, V. W. H. C. Files
    21. From report of Cornelia Walker, V. W. H. C. Files
    22. From report of J. E. Lewis, treasurer county chapter, V. W. H. C. Files
    23. From report of Mrs. E. B. White, V. W. H. C. Files
    24. From unsigned report in V. W. H. C. Files
    25. From report of Junior Red Cross, V. W. H. C. Files
    26. From report of Constance B. Hall, chairman nursing committee.
    27. From report of Miss Elizabeth Worsley, V. W. H. C. Files
    28. From report of Miss Elizabeth Worsley, V. W. H. C. Files
  • Nottoway County

    A Community History

    By AGNES EPES

    LOCATION AND PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    Nottoway County has an ideal location. It is only a few hours' ride from the very heart of Virginia's magnificent hills and an equally short distance from the broad Atlantic. Richmond may be reached in two hours, Washington in six, and New York in twelve. Thus Nottoway people have the advantages of mountains, seaside and the large cities without the disadvantages of any of these. The Norfolk and Western Railroad linking the West to the East passes through the county, and the Southern Railroad cuts the western section. There are no large rivers, but the falls of Nottoway River afford promising water power. Nottoway is one of the smaller counties of Virginia and has between 14,000 and 15,000 population.

    The pre-war period found the people of Nottoway County enjoying the old Virginia fox hunts, coon hunts and bird hunts, together with the more modern amusements. Its location, however, made it a more readily awakened community than many others.

    The sympathies of our people were with the Allies, yet one often heard Germany defended in the early days of the war. When the powder plant at Hopewell was opened many of our young men went to work there, and a godly minister rebuked them, saying: "You have gone to make powder to kill Germans." The crew of the German submarine that slipped into the United States harbor was rather applauded over its escape. But alas! the time soon came when our people could not believe that they had held such sentiments.

    During the period of unrest preceding the entrance of the United States into the war the farmers continued to haul their crops of tobacco to the warehouses. The chilly fall and winter days found long lines of wagons and Fords hurrying along with their loads of this commodity. Groups of people gathered here and there to discuss the war that was raging across the seas, and when it became certain that the United States was becoming involved, the more optimistic were heard to console the disturbed ones by saying that so few of our boys would be called that the community would hardly miss them.

    But suddenly, almost before we could realize what had happened, Nottoway found herself robbed of many splendid young men. Mass-meetings to teach patriotism were held. The flag was displayed from many homes. A meeting was called to urge young men to join a local military company that should prepare them to serve before they went to camp. This company grew rapidly and proved a help to those who later became the service men from the county. They worked by day and drilled by night.

    CHURCHES

    The churches of the county-the Methodist, Episcopal, Baptist, Presbyterian and Disciples of Christ-all served by keeping in touch with the boys in camp and helping those who were preparing to go. They kept before their congregations service flags and honor rolls in order that no boy should be forgotten. The churches served as gathering places to promote the growth of the Red Cross and various other welfare organizations. The ministers were officers in these organizations. Rev. C. O. Tuttle was chairman of the Nottoway Red Cross; Rev. R. L. McNair served in the Blackstone Branch, and Rev. W. W. Bain in the Crewe Branch. Rev. L. P. Little finally went to Quantico to serve for the Baptist State Mission Board. Church members contributed liberally to the Red Cross, Armenian Relief and Y.M.C.A. funds.

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    The public schools of Nottoway, Blackstone College and Blackstone Military Academy all did their part in the war work of the county.

    The public schools were appealed to in practically all campaigns for funds. Each child was supposed to engage in some form of service for his country. It was touching to see little children of German parents contribute the sum of $5.00--the amount that each child was supposed to earn in the Victory Girls and Victory Boys drive. These children listened attentively to the lectures on "Why We Are at War With Germany." Reports were given from day to day in both the English and history classes of the tragic happenings overseas. The classes in history tried to follow on their war maps the drives in which the American army had a part.

    The sacrifices made by some of the children of the public schools in order that a 100 per cent record in the various war campaign drives might be made will never be forgotten by the teachers of that period. Editorials written by members of the upper English classes were strong enough to have some: influence. Honor rolls of the schools contained the names of Nottoway's finest boys. Some of these boys never returned. They had been trained for most every profession except that of a soldier. Not once had their instructors wished for them the "paths of glory" that "lead but to the grave." Indeed, there was a movement just before the war to teach universal peace.

    The three high schools of the county-Burkeville, Crewe and Blackstone-were the centers of all public school war work in the county. The rural schools responded to every call from these centers.

    In Burkeville High School the girls and teachers knitted many sweaters and mufflers during vacant periods. The principal, Mr. C. A. Edwards, resigned a month before school closed (1917) and went into the army. Mrs. Bowry served this principal's unexpired term. The teachers were active Red Cross workers. Burkeville school responded liberally to the Soldiers' Library fund. There were thirty-nine boys in service from this town.

    In Crewe the work was excellent. A knitting club was formed in the school and first aid packages were prepared by the pupils.

    Blackstone High School and Graded School are proud of their work for the Library fund, the Victory Boys and Girls drive, the United Welfare War Work, the War Savings Stamps campaign, the Red Cross and the Nottoway Soldiers' Comfort League. There was never any need to enforce compulsory giving in the schools of Nottoway County. All that was necessary was to tell the children that the money was needed for our soldiers and in came their contributions. They felt it a privilege to give. The teachers of the schools helped the local board in getting questionnaires properly filled out.

    The Blackstone High School boys and girls had an honor roll, showing the names of those in camp, those overseas and those that died in service. The roll was decorated by Mary Hurt, who had several brothers in service whose names were on that honor roll.

    Two of the boys died in service, William Geyer and Larkin Clay. Two were decorated for bravery, Lieutenant John C. Boggs and Rev. James Cannon, III. One of the girls, Miss Nannie Tucker, served as a nurse at Camp Sevier and in San Francisco.

    The Blackstone High School pupils have named two literary societies in memory of the two boys from that school who died in service-the "Larkin Clay Society" and the "William Geyer Society." In the school auditorium two flags have been placed on pedestals, one the Virginia flag in memory of Larkin Clay, the other the United States flag in memory of William Geyer. On Armistice Day the girls and boys bring armfuls of flowers to place at the bases of these flag pedestals. Later in the day, after the patriotic services have been concluded, a committee of girls and boys place these flowers on the graves of the five World War soldiers in Lakeview Cemetery.

    Blackstone Military Academy responded liberally to the subscriptions for the Soldiers' Library fund as well as to many other causes. Mrs. E. S. Ligon has the following to say of the work of the academy:

    "Blackstone Military Academy was headquarters of the Nottoway Soldiers' Comfort League, and it was here that the members frequently met to wrap, address and send the sweaters to the Nottoway boys. On these occasions news of our boys was exchanged and letters read from those who had received the league's gifts. From the faculty and cadet corps of B. M. A. we furnished fifteen commissioned officers and twenty-seven noncommissioned officers, and at one time eighty-one percent of the total enrollment of the school faculty, cadets and alumni were in service. Three of the cadets lost their lives."

    The Blackstone College for girls contributed largely to the Red Cross through its Y. W. C. A. Dr. Christian, president, and Mr. Adams, secretary, went into different parts of the county and collected for the Y.M.C.A. fund. It was in this auditorium that the Y.M.C.A. held a successful meeting. The girls in this college did their part in the Victory Girl drive.

    THE DRAFT-MEN IN SERVICE

    There were 480 men drafted in the county and 195 recorded enlistments. Mr. Robert Jones, chief clerk of the local board. prepared and preserved invaluable records of each soldier. The members of the Local Board were: Charles Deane, county clerk; Arthur Hooks, M. D.; Henry Clay Smith, M. D.; William Robert Jones, attorney; Miss Emma Gray Lambert, clerk of board.

    The members of the Advisory Board were: Moncure Gravatt, attorney; Henry Lee, Commonwealth's attorney, and Hunter H. Watson, attorney.

    The Medical Advisory Board consisted of John H. Younger. M. D.; Doctors James M. Habel, William R. Warriner. Charles C. Tucker, R. T. Taylor and R. Irvine Stith.

    The two men of distinguished service in the county, according to the Virginia War History Commission in "Virginians of Distinguished Service in the World War," are:

    Rev. James Cannon, III., of Blackstone, chaplain, Tenth Engineers, First Division-French Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star, Silver Star citation, citation by division commander, citation by commander-in-chief.

    Spirley E. Irby (colored), of Blackstone, private, Company H, 370th Infantry, Ninety-third Division-Distinguished Service Cross with citation.

    Another distinguished service man whose record is given in the War History Commission's volume and who properly belongs to Nottoway County, though accredited to Richmond, is John Campbell Boggs. Lieutenant Boggs was at school when he enlisted in Richmond, but his home is in Blackstone. He was a lieutenant in the Second Machine Gun Battalion, First Division, and won the Distinguished Service Cross with citation.

    Nottoway had two nurses in service, Miss Nannie Tucker and Miss Ruth Atkins. As was stated in the history of Blackstone High School, Miss Tucker was stationed first at Camp Sevier and later in San Francisco. Miss Atkins was trained at Camp Lee and stationed at Toul, France, from September 9, 1918, to February 11, 1919. She writes:

    "We arrived in Toul three days before the St. Mihiel drive and nursed sick and wounded from the St. Mihiel, MeuseArgonne and Verdun sectors. We also nursed German prisoners and American returned prisoners of war."

    She states further that during the five months of actual service her unit-Base Hospital 45-treated over 17,500 boys.

    Those of our Nottoway boys who sacrificed their lives in the World War were:

    Jesse Veale Reed, first lieutenant. 116th Infantry, killed in action.
    Percy S. Dowell, private first class, died of wounds.
    W. B. Small, private, died of disease.
    Richard Leroy Bishop, private, died of disease.
    Kirby Smith Selden, corporal, Company H, 318th Infantry, Eightieth Division, killed in action.
    Minyard Dowley Vernon, private, died of disease.
    Thomas Lafayette Walker, died of disease in France.
    Larkin James Clay, private, killed in action.
    James John Mattox, private, U. S. marines, died of disease.
    Frank J. Dalton, died of disease.
    William Orrell Geyer, private first class, lost in Tuscania disaster.
    Len Augustus Harper, private, died of wounds.
    Carter Haskins, corporal, Company G, 318th Infantry, died of wounds.
    Hiram P. McDaniel, private, died after being discharged.

    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    LIBERTY LOANS

    The bank officials of the county faithfully sold Liberty Bonds. They report that the first bond issue was not so easy to sell as the later ones. The second issue came close to quota, and the third, fourth and Victory loans easily reached or exceeded the quota. The National Bank sold $100,000 worth of bonds at one time, and the Citizens' Bank sold $90,000 worth of bonds.

    The following figures have been taken from the report of the Federal Reserve Bank in Richmond and show the quota, amount subscribed and number of subscribers for each loan except the first, for Which no figures were kept.

    Loan Quota Amount Subscribed Number Subscribers
    Second Loan $269,500 $184,050 448
    Third Loan 181,800 203,100 672
    Fourth Loan 388,500 409,900 1,607
    Victory Loan 294,000 294,150 1,203
    Totals $1,133,800 $1,091,200 3,930

    THE RED CROSS

    The Red Cross Chapter in Nottoway County did splendid work. "This work," so Rev. C. O. Tattle, chairman, writes, "took definite shape in a mass-meeting at Nottoway Court House, July 30, 1917 . . . . The petition that was circulated received the signature of such citizens as J. A. Hardy, H. H. Seat', H. L. Williams, J. N. Crawley, L. S. Epes, R. F. Dillard, J. M. Hurt, H. H. Watson, G. R. Brittenham. C. O. Tattle. Headquarters was fixed at Blackstone and the permanent officers were: Rev. C. O. Tuttle, Blackstone, chairman; Hon. H .H. Watson, of Crewe, vicechairman; Mr. J. P. Agnew, of Burkeville, treasurer, and G. R. Brittenham, of Crewe, secretary.

    "After prompt recognition of this chapter was received from national headquarters in Washington, D. C., Mrs. R. F. Dillard, of Blackstone, was made chairman of military relief, and Mrs. W. P. Bostick, of Burkeville, was put in charge of home service. Hon. L. S. Epes was chosen secretary to fill the vacancy created by Mr. G. R. Brittenham's resignation, and Mr. C. B. Lane was made chairman of the second War Fund drive. These are the chapter officers as they remained substantially for the period of the war."

    There were three branches and six auxiliaries as follows:

    Blackstone Branch. Hon. L. S. Epes, chairman, succeeded by Rev. R. L. McNair; Miss Clara E. Sullivan, secretary ; S. L. Barrow, treasurer; Mrs. R. F. Dillard, succeeded by Mrs. H. B. Jones, chairman of military relief; Mrs. H. H. Seat', followed by Mrs. Bessie Moore, chairman of knitting.

    Crewe Branch-Rev. W. W. Bain, chairman; Mrs. WV. R. Warriner, vice-chairman; Mrs. H. H. Watson, succeeded by Mrs. J. W. Harding, secretary; Mrs. I. W. Sheffield, treasurer; Mrs. J. V. Robinett, Mrs. J. D. Tucker and Miss Kate L. Moore, committee on military relief; Mrs. C. O. Burgon, home service and information.

    Burkeville Branch-Mrs. J. P. Agnew, succeeded by Mrs. F. L. Overton, chairman; Mrs. H. W. Hundley, succeeded by Mrs. J. F. Osborne, secretary; Mrs. J. F. Boswell, treasurer; Mrs. J. H. Young and Mrs. T. P. Shelton, military relief committee; Mrs. William Forrest, chairman knitting committee; Mrs. W. P. Bostick, chairman Camp Lee mending.

    *Nottoway Auxiliary-Mrs. John B. Tuggle, Sr., chairman: Mrs. E. W. Brooks, secretary; Mrs. F. L. Dunn, treasurer; Mrs. A. E. Dillemuth, chairman of knitting; Mrs. E. W. Brooks, chairman military relief.

    St. Mark's Auxiliary-Miss Sallie May Oliver (now Mrs. Cleveland Marshall), succeeded by Miss Ruby Oliver, chairman; Mrs. Stern Stables, secretary; Miss Ruby Oliver and Mrs. Ida Nunnally, military relief.

    Spainville Auxiliary Mrs. Wallace Coleman, chairman; Miss Ethel Williamson (now Mrs. F. B. Jones), secretary; Mrs. H. L. Allen, treasurer; Mrs. G .R. Williamson, chairman military relief.

    Darvills Auxiliary-Miss Fannie Davis (now Mrs. V. B. Powell), succeeded by Mrs. Gordon R. Davis, chairman; Mrs. Cleveland Skelton, secretary and chairman membership committee ; Mrs. R. E. Webb, treasurer; Mrs. Gordon R. Davis and Mrs. Bettie P. Rives, knitting and military relief.

    Tree Auxiliary-Mrs. Waverly Hurt, chairman; Mrs. J. M. Thomas, vicechairman; Miss Lillian Thomas, secretary and treasurer; Mrs. M. R. Barrow, chairman of knitting.

    Bethel Auxiliary-Mr. Joe Keller, chairman; Mr. Homer Powell, secretary; Mrs. T. R. Kreider, chairman military relief.

    The following work was done by the Nottoway County Chapter:

    Article Burkeville Crewe Blackstone Total
    Sweaters 182 189 265 636
    Mufflers 33 11 49 93
    Helmets 1 - 13 14
    Wristlets 62 26 99 187
    Socks 109 95 254 458
    Children's stockings 6 ...... 3 9
    Children sweaters 11 ..... ...... 11
    Shawls 1 ...... .... 1
    Pajamas .... 143 389 532
    Hospital bed shirts 164 92 242 498
    Sheets 5 ... .... 5
    Pillow cases 84 2 ... 86
    Comfort pillows .... 32 24 65
    Comfort pillow cases .... 64 16 80
    Property bags 62 16 26 104
    Comfort kits 7 10 10 27
    Bed socks ... 8 33 41
    Old kid gloves, pounds 3 ... ... 3
    Substitute handkerchiefs 82 .... .... 82
    Total 812 688 1,423 2,923

    The material for the garments and other articles listed above was donated by people of the county. After the articles were completed by the faithful women of the county a conservative estimate of the value was given as $5,720.50.

    The branches of the Nottoway Chapter made, from materials supplied by the American Red Cross headquarters, a total of 621 garments. These branches contributed 3,285 pounds of used clothing for the Belgian Relief, $34.50 in money, and $7.15 was contributed to the Federal Council of Churches in America.

    The chairman of military relief states that "most of the Red Cross work done in Nottoway County was for military relief. There was no occasion for camp or canteen service, since no camps were located nearer than forty miles, and no trains bearing soldiers needed to be stopped here. Civilian relief and personal service to soldiers was cheerfully- supplied by the organization and by individuals. All families asking information concerning men in the army and navy were given all the help possible.

    The Red Cross members of Nottoway County have the distinction of doing their bit without charge of any kind-not even the price of an honor badge. The women here practically refused to near the badge that they saw paid workers from other localities wearing. The chairman of military relief gave more than 1,200 hours of work, but asked for no badge. Hundreds of Nottoway ladies gladly gave hundreds of hours of work.

    The Junior Red Cross was organized and worked in connection with branches of the Senior Red Cross. Here we might add that even baby fingers clipped soft cloth into bits for pillow stuffing.

    The Nottoway Soldiers' Comfort League was organized at the home of Mrs. R. F. Dillard, October 29, 1917, to supply every soldier from Nottoway with a regulation army sweater and wristlets. The officers of the county chapter were: Mrs. E. S. Ligon, Blackstone, chairman; Miss Aline Beville, Crewe, secretary; Mrs. R. F. Dillard, Blackstone, treasurer. Mrs. Dillard was later succeeded by Mrs. J. M. Jones, Crewe. The charter members were: Misses Lucy B. Adams, Frances Campbell, Mary Stokes, Mary Lee McNair, Evelyn Tucker, Virginia Robertson, Josie Jones, Jessie Jones, Ada Blanche Perkins, Elizabeth Epes and Mattie Epes. There were five branches of this chapter as follows:

    Blackstone Branch-Mrs. E. S. Ligon, followed by Miss Louise Adams, chairman; Miss Louise Hurt, followed by Miss Jessie Sullivan and Mrs. Wilfred G. Epes, secretary; Mrs. T. T. Holden, treasurer; Miss Frances Campbell, chairman membership committee; Miss Frances Irby, Miss Mattie Hite and Mrs. W. R. Jones, knitting committee; Miss Lucy B. Adams, produce committee; Mrs. Louis S. Epes, warehouse committee.

    Burkeville Branch-Mrs. M. P. Bradshaw, chairman; Miss MaryLouise Overton, secretary; Miss Louise Redford, treasurer; Mrs. W. H. Eldridge, knitting committee.

    Crewe Branch-Mrs. W. P. Bivens, chairman; Mrs. Willis, vicechairman; Miss Reed West, secretary; Miss Louise hove, treasurer; Miss Kate L. Moore, knitting committee.

    St. Mark's Branch-Mrs. Cleveland Marshall, chairman; Miss Fannie Green, secretary; Miss Florence Hood, treasurer; Mrs. D. Robertson and Mrs. Maggie Robertson, knitting committee.

    Spainville Branch-Miss Ethel Williamson, chairman; Mrs. G. R. Williamson, knitting committee.

    Nottoway Branch-Mrs. C. F. Deane, chairman; Mrs. A. E. Dillemuth, knitting committee.

    Tree Branch-Mrs. Waverly Hurt, chairman; Mrs. J. M. Thomas, vicechairman; Miss Lillian Thomas, secretary-treasurer; Mrs. M. R. Barrow, knitting committee.

    The Nottoway Soldiers' Comfort League did such real service that the soldiers from that county will long remember the organization with grateful hearts. There were 248 sweaters and 228 wristlets made. Two hundred and forty-one soldiers were supplied. The young girls did a large part of this work. They often went to the warehouses before daylight to ask for a strip of tobacco from each farmer's pile of tobacco. These gifts were placed in new piles and sold. This brought to the league a goodly sum of money to carry on its work. There were 130 sweaters left on hand after the signing of the Armistice. Some of them were given to the soldiers who were still in need of them and 100 were sold to the Red Cross and to individuals. The proceeds were added to the money left in the treasury and invested in Liberty Bonds. The total amount of money collected was $1,854.51. In the summer of 1925 when the drive came for the American Legion endowment fund to support the widows and orphans of soldiers, the sum left in the treasury was given for this worthy cause.

    The Woman's Service League of Nottoway County was the first patriotic organization formed in the county. ;firs. W. A. Land of Blackstone, was appointed chairman by Airs. W. W. Sale, State president. Miss Edith Sturgis was county secretary with Mrs. T. E. Chambers, county treasurer. Miss Sturgis was succeeded by Mrs. J. A. Dunlap, of Blackstone.

    Local chairmen were appointed as follows: Mrs. H. H. Seay, Blackstone; Mrs. W. T. Warriner, Crewe; Mrs. G. R. Williamson, Spainville ; Mrs. T. B. Oliver, for comfort kit work, Crewe.

    Mrs. Land, in her report of the work of this organization, says:

    "A large membership was secured, with auxiliary or subsidiary organizations in three places in the county. Assistance was also freely rendered in other sections of the county, fine work resulting. Aside from the direct work done by the league, much assistance was rendered the Red Cross through the organization. Several boxes of sheets, pillow cases, tray cloths, handkerchiefs, napkins, sweaters, wristlets and mufflers were also turned over to the Red Cross. Barrels of canned goods were sent to the camps. As a direct contribution from the league, every soldier boy, upon his being called into the service, was presented with a "comfort kit." These kits contained buttons, thread, cigarettes. tobacco, chewing gum and other accessories for the boys' comfort. In all our work we had the hearty cooperation of the local chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy."

    The physicians of Nottoway were faithful during the epidemic of influenza and the death rate was not so appalling here as in many places. Nottoway was so near Camp Lee that the people were well instructed in the care that should be taken of themselves before the influenza reached the county. When it did come, through the blessings of Providence, the instructions to the people and the faithful attention of the physicians were proven to have not been in vain. In Blackstone during the height of the epidemic not one death occurred. Many of the people of Blackstone nursed in poverty stricken homes in the country districts.

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS

    With the passing of the war the old country seemed nearer than formerly. The men that could find work on their return went quietly back to it. Some of our soldiers sacrificed their professions through the interruption of the war. The men were welcomed home in various ways, suppers and other forms of entertainment being given in their honor, but nothing we at home could do seemed adequate to express our pride in the achievements of our boys or our joy at their return.

    Gradually the old sports and social gatherings crept back into Nottoway. Thrift seems to have come to stay. A company of National Guard known as "The Nottoway Grays" has been formed in the county.

    Our citizens may well boast of a community untouched by any influence other than that which stands for the great American ideals for which our boys fought.

    NOTE:

    Much of the material used in this sketch was taken from The Final Roster, written by W. W. Cobb soon after his return, having served in the army as a first lieutenant. This volume is in the files of the Virginia War History Commission.

  • Orange County

    A Community History

    By SARAH BENNETT CARTER

    LOCATION AND RESOURCES

    Orange County lies for the most part at the foot of the Blue Ridge and is overlooked by those azure peaks from which, perhaps, the spirits of the Red Men watch silently and tenderly over the hunting grounds of long ago.

    The county was first formed from Spotsylvania County in 1734, and was divided and sub-divided into many other counties, some of which form its boundaries today. The area is about 1,349 square miles.[1] The name is of "royal descent," the county having been christened for William, Prince of Orange.[2] While the name of the county did not originate from the color of the soil as Mr. Howe and many others are wont to believe, such an assumption is not as absurd as Mr. Scott, the county historian, suggests, for the clay soil in some parts of the county when seen in the glow of an autumn sun has the hue of an orange.

    The surface in the eastern part of the county is undulating and hilly, and is mountainous to some extent in the central and western part. The soil is clay and well adapted to the production of grains, grasses, alfalfa and other legumes.

    The people of Orange are for the most part descendants of Jamestown settlers, but it is believed that no part of the county was settled by the white men until one hundred years after the founding of Jamestown. Overlapping of early grants has caused so much confusion that it is quite difficult to determine just when territory became a separate and distinct part of the "Mother State."

    Orange County's early history is replete with names of distinguished Virginians-a legacy of which she is justly proud. The county is situated in the very center of a section where patriotism has always run high. Great white roads, winding their way in all directions toward old battle grounds, serve as reminders of the days of '76 and '61.

    The county is peculiarly adapted to fruit growing, producing all standard varieties. The Winesap apple perhaps is the best-known fruit of the county. This variety has a State-wide reputation, having won first prize repeatedly at the county and State fairs, nor is its fame confined to the State, but covers wider territory. The orchards have increased forty per cent since 1917,[3] or certainly during the past ten years.

    Another product is large, succulent hams; not just a Virginia ham, but an "Orange County ham"; not "air cured," or "sun cured," but "Orange cured." These hams are steadily growing more popular and their sale bids fair to become an important industry.

    Lumbering is also a useful occupation. Forest products in some sections of the county have great economic value. The minerals found are iron, asbestos, gold, marble, soapstone and limestone, some of which have been successfully mined. The county of Orange supports three milling companies, one located at the town of Orange, one at Madison Mills, and the third at Rapidan. The output from these mills was large during the war.

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    When war broke out in Europe the daily reports were eagerly read and discussed. Almost without exception war incidents formed the topic of conversation of any chance group that one might see. Opinions were unbiased and freely expressed The German atrocities were condemned and sympathy for the Allies grew steadily. The citizens of Orange stood solidly behind their chosen leader, Woodrow Wilson, and awaited his decision regarding our entrance into the conflict. When the Lusitania was sunk on the high seas, all thought of America's neutrality vanished from our minds and the declaration of war April 6, 1917, was welcomed. The heroic deeds of those long dead were recounted by the people of Orange, and the cry for war was heard on all sides.

    CHURCHES IN WAR TIME

    The churches of Orange County are quite numerous for its size and population. There are four Episcopal, four Presbyterian, four Methodist and twelve Baptist churches. These do not include the negro churches.[4] Some of the churches of Orange have a thread of history woven about them. At St. Thomas' Church, at Orange, one of the oldest churches of the county, General Robert E. Lee worshipped while in winter quarters near there. Just outside of the church at the foot of a very old tree, the United Daughters of the Confederacy have placed a grey stone tablet to mark the spot where "Traveler" waited none too patiently for the return of his master.

    At the very outset of the war the churches were mobilized for service, particularly those in the villages. From that time the church became not only a place of worship but a place of reassurance, a harbor to dispell fear, to renew strength and hope; a place where all could unite in one common prayer for a common cause the safety of State and nation. Union services were often held and in many other ways church forces were united. In St. Thomas' Church, the church where Lee and Stuart once worshipped, hung a service flag studded with stars, some of them gold, that shone forth in splendor from a somber background.

    Some of the pastors of the churches served as chaplains in the army. Too much cannot be said of the services rendered by these men on the field, in the camps and in the trenches. Rev. Frank C. Riley served with the 318th Infantry, Rev. Rice Quisenberry was senior chaplain for the Eightieth Division, and Rev. John William Decker was chaplain in the navy.

    The churches were the centers where men, women and children met for the community sings and from which were wafted on the air heroic songs-songs of home, songs of camp, songs of hope. So united were the people that it is difficult to separate or distinguish between the activities of organizations and those of the community at large.

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES DURING THE WAR

    War had a very decided effect upon the schools. History became the most interesting of subjects and new maps began to take form. Flesh and blood heroes supplanted those of fiction; patriotism burned brighter than ever before in this generation ; national songs were sung with a new meaning. Little hands fashioned bandages, made scrap books and did what they could find to do under the leadership of their teachers. Perhaps the greatest service rendered by the schools during the war was given in the Liberty Loan and War Savings Stamps campaigns. The children quite distinguished themselves in the sale of War Savings Stamps, in the Armenian Relief campaign and in the sale of Red Cross Stamps. They have continued the latter activity, having taken active part in the sale of Red Cross Seals each year since the war. From out of the schools came volunteers for farm service.

    Woodberry Forest, a standardized preparatory school and one of which Orange is very proud, was not wholly untouched by the effects of war. The school can boast of three or more volunteers and of many workers in war-time activities. Unfortunately, no actual records were kept. Military drill became part of the curriculum, perhaps at the cost of academic preparation. Adequate teachers were difficult to secure.[5]

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY MATTERS

    The first draft came early in June, 1917. The draft board for the county was composed of Hon. George Barbour, chairman; Hon. W. C. Williams, and Dr. Lewis Holladay, all prominent residents of the county. The number of Orange County men who registered in June, 1917, was 884; in August, 1917, 82, and in September, 1918, 1,316, making a total of 2,282.[6] From this number the quota was selected. Records show the total number of registrants of the county accepted at camp to have been 249.[7]' The total number recorded in service reached 383, including 140 negroes.[8] Approximately 1 out of every 14 men held the rank of an officer. Records show 82 volunteers.[9] This number is not entirely complete, since there were others who volunteered early in the struggle before it became an American conflict. Still others volunteered in other States and sections in which they were residing. The county that gave the statesman, James Madison, and the hero, Zachary Taylor, and about which heroic deeds are recounted, gave freely of her sons. Eighteen of these sons made the supreme sacrifice, the same sacrifice that some of their forefathers had made in the long ago. A bronze tablet placed at the right of the old courthouse in the town of Orange reads as follows:

    "In honor of the men of Orange County, Va., who served in the Great War and in the memory of eighteen who gave their lives:

    Daniel Ashby McIntosh, Edward Dowley Northrop. Bernard E. Verling, Charles R. Clarke, Vivian Slaughter, Richard Beadless Tood, Lucian L. Vaughan, Garrett Edward Waugh, Fitzhugh L. Jones, Marion W. Bowler, James Foster, Henry H. Woodville, William Jackson Whitlock, Luther Forbes, Charles Henry Brame, Archie Galloway, Andrew Fund, Peter Ellis.

    Dr. Vivian Slaughter, son of the late Mercer Slaughter, of Orange, was killed in action overseas. He was a graduate of the University of Virginia and had studied medicine in Germany. He joined the medical corps of the British army in 1914.[10]

    Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Clark, Rhoadesville, Va., received news of the death of their son, Charles R. Clark, early in September. (Died of pneumonia August 28, 1918.) He was with the infantry corps and was 29 years old.

    Daniel A. McIntosh, of the 319th Ambulance Company, was killed in action October 9, 1918, after having participated in the following battles: Picardy sector and Meu-se-Arg-onne. His body was brought home September 2, 1921, and was buried September 4, 1921, in Graham Cemetery, Orange, Virginia.[11]

    Mrs. R. C. Duvall, of Rhoadesville, Va., had five sons in the war. E. M. Duvall was a member of headquarters troop of the Rainbow Division and was fortunate enough to reach German soil. R. C. Duvall was a lieutenant with the American Expeditionary Forces in France. All five sons returned home safely at the close of the war.[l2]

    Among those cited for bravery are Captain Samuel O. Garrett, William B. Bell, Colonel Henry- Cabell Maddux, Lieutenant George Coleman Reedy.[13]

    Young Garrett received the French Croix de Guerre with bronze star for rendering services of the highest type during violent bombardment, also for gallant conduct during the battles of Aisne-Marne, St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne.[l4]

    Corporal William B. Bell, of Gordonsville, Orange County, won his Distinguished Service Cross near Cierges, France, July 31, 1918. Corporal Bell voluntarily went out in the front lines during machine-gun fire to rescue a comrade and to administer first aid.[15]

    Colonel Henry Cabell Maddux, stationed at the hospital center at Toul, France, received the "Medaille d'Honneurs des Epidemics (Argent)" for his unusual ability and initiative and for his meritorious services in organizing and constructing the hospital center at Toul.[16]

    Lieutenant George Coleman Reedy, of Liberty Mills, Orange County, Virginia. Air service. Was cited for bravery on August 10, 1918, and received a Croix de Guerre with palms for his dash and courage during a severe combat against fifteen enemy airplanes. He shot down one of them and had his own plane-hit by ten bullets.[17]

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    LIBERTY LOANS AND WAR SAVINGS STAMPS

    The financial status of the county was good. Mr. Maxey Field, president of the National Bank of Orange, served as chairman of the Liberty Loan drives. The faith in his ability was not misplaced. The Hon. George L. Browning steered the Victory Loan to success. Every one, both great and small, was given an opportunity to do his bit. Subscriptions reached the high mark-an estimate of about a half million is conservative. The following figures show the quotas, subscriptions and subscribers in the county for the four loans:[18]

    Loan Maximum Apportionment Amount Subscribed Subscribers
    First Liberty Loan No record kept.
    Second Liberty Loan $156,950 $120,400 397
    Third Liberty Loan 92,200 124,850 615
    Fourth Liberty Loan 260,000 224,700 622
    Victory Liberty Loan 166,100 200,050 466

    These drives were conducted in many ways. Sometimes public meetings featuring speakers of no little fame were held. At some of these meetings a display of aeronautic art was given. The planes brought messages from the national capitol and distributed literature bearing the slogan, "Win the War Today." The postoffice promoted the sale of War Savings Stamps. The amount of sales in the county aggregated $144,855.00.[19] It is impossible to give the actual count for the whole county, but the wealth of the county was back of America and her great war leader, Woodrow Wilson.

    FOOD CONSERVATION

    Food conservation in the county was undertaken early in the war. During the first few months, after the declaration of mar, the need for increased production and conservation was apparent. At first the conservation of food was left to the community to handle in its own way. Later more definite rules were worked out. The Food Administrator's office was located in the town of Orange, and local men were placed in charge of it, each serving in his own department without remuneration. Small allotments of coal, sugar, flour and other staple products were made. These rules were not so rigidly enforced as to cause any great discomfort. Wheatless and meatless days were observed by many.

    COMMERCE AND TRANSPORTATION

    Two main railroad lines served the county, the Southern and the Chesapeake and Ohio. There were also two narrow gauge roads, having their terminals in Orange-the P. F. P. Railroad, operating between Fredericksburg and Orange, and connecting the Tidewater regions with that of the Piedmont, and the Rapidan Railroad, running from Orange to Madison and tapping a section of her virgin timber. Massive logs from that region fed for a long time the large lumber mill located in the town of Orange. Both narrow-gauge roads, however, have been discontinued. Good shipping facilities relieved much of the war-time congestion, though there was a decided influx of business.

    SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    War has a tendency for letting down barriers and cementing communities, even in the country where the classes and social groups are distinctly marked. The men and women of the county worked as a unit. The negro, too, was called upon to do his part and contributed very materially to all war enterprises. Particularly was this true in the towns. Many of the colored people, attracted by the "wage of war," went into industrial sections to avail themselves of the higher wage. Generally speaking, the social conditions remained unchanged. The young girls of the community sought positions left vacant by the men who entered service.

    RED CROSS ACTIVITIES

    The Orange County, Virginia, Chapter, American Red Cross, was organized July, 1917. It consisted of fifteen branches and four auxiliaries, white; and six branches and four auxiliaries, colored. Total membership in the county was 3,000-1,500 adults and 1,000 children, white; and 500 colored adults. Total number of articles made and shipped to Red Cross warehouses was 12,195 ; sweaters for soldiers, 495; comfort kits, 287; surgical dressings, 5,000 (made at Rapidan, Va.).[20] The treasurer reported 1917 and 1918 receipts to be $8,743.00, $7,879.91 of which was sent to the national treasurer. A balance of $863.30, together with the membership fees of 1919 and 1920, was used for emergency relief and public health work in Orange County. The chapter had its headquarters in the town of Orange. There were no overhead charges because rooms, lights, heat, telephone service, sewing machines, automobiles and time were all given cheerfully by members of the chapter.

    The work was divided into five departments-executive department, superintendent of woman's work, superintendent of packing and shipping, home service department and junior department, all of which were skillfully operated. Unlimited time and untiring energy were given to this cause by the ladies of the community. Public funds were raised in various ways. A number of individuals gave substantial allowances each month. A public dinner was given March court day, 1918, from which $500.00 was realized.

    Following is a list of officers and chapters of the Orange County Red Cross: Chairman, Allen B. Warren; vice-chairmen, Virginia Randolph Shackelford (Mrs. George Scott Shackelford), Mrs. Virginia Mullen, Dr. L. S. Ricketts, E. V. Huffman; secretary, Eva B. H. Browning (Mrs. George Landon Browning) ; treasurer, H. F. Priest; superintendent of women's work, Mrs. George Scott Shackelford; superintendent of packing and shipping, M. N. Mason Crittenden (Mrs. W. S. Crittenden) ; home service department, N. C. Bailer, chairman, and Miss V. B. Kite, secretary; home service house, Ida Cave Woolfork (Mrs. Charles Woolfork) : Junior department in schools, Mrs. E. H. DeJarnette, chairman; Mrs. J. W. Browning, secretary, and Mrs. P. S. Boxley.

    FIFTEEN BRANCHES (WHITE)

    1. Barboursville-Mrs. Sam Munday, chairman; Mrs. T. H. Ellis, secretary.
    2. Gordonsville-Rev. L. McWilliams, chairman; M. O. Smith, secretary.
    3. Lahore-Mrs. W. C. Graves, chairman; Miss B. Foster, secretary.
    4. Locust Grove-J. T. Payne, chairman; Mrs. J. L. Almond, secretary.
    5. Mine Run-W. R. Tinder, chairman ; J. W. Lane, secretary.
    6. Montpelier-J. Tyson, chairman.
    7. Orange-L. S. --,Macon, chairman; Mrs. J. W. Johnson, secretary.
    8. Rapidan--H. T. Holladay, Jr., chairman; l-Irs. E. NV. Armentrout, secretary.
    9. Somerset-Mrs. J. H. Reed, chairman; Mrs. J. H. Wilhoit, secretary.
    10. True Blue-Mrs. W. S. Smoot, chairman; Mrs. R. E. Rhoades, secretary.
    11. Rhoadesville-Rev. E. V. Peyton, chairman; Mrs. L. T. McCord, Secretary.
    12. Unionville-J. P. Clark, chairman; J. B. Martin, secretary.
    13. Blue Hill-Miss M. Collins, chairman; Mrs. K. Brooking, secretary.
    14. Eheart-A. M. Ship, chairman, Athoa, Va.; Mrs. A.. M. Ship, secretary.
    15. Bernard-Miss P. Collins, chairman.

    FOUR AUXILIARIES

    1. Madison Run-Mrs. Anthony Mustoe, chairman.
    2. Nasons-Mrs. C. W. Harris, chairman.
    3. Parish Aid (St. Thomas' Episcopal)-Mrs. L. S. Macon,. chairman.
    4. Indian Town-Miss M. Wood, chairman.

    SIX BRANCHES (COLORED)

    1. Orange-Dr. I. A. Jackson, chairman; L. Galloway, secretary.
    2. Gordonsville-Burrell Hill, chairman; R. Gordon, secretary.
    3. Mt. Sinai Church (Grassland, Va.)-Thomas L. Scarver, chairman; A. L. Scarver, secretary.
    4. Little Zion Church-Martha Poindexter, chairman; E. C. Walker, secretary.
    5. Mt. Zion, Indiantown, Va.-E. Braudus, chairman; L. Jackson, secretary.
    6. Orange Grove Church, Tatum, Va.-L. Powell, chairman; L. Jackson, secretary.

    FOUR AUXILIARIES (COLORED)

    1. Blue Run-William Durrette, chairman; J. T. Smith, secretary.
    2. Mt. Pisgah-E. Groom, chairman; C. Ragglin, secretary.
    3. Shady Grove-L. M. Morton, chairman.
    4. Bethel Baptist Church-S. E. Dade, chairman.[2l]

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    War work and relief work were centered in the Red Cross, though many church and civic organizations contributed their strength. Boy Scouts were mustered for civic emergency service. [22] The Camp Fire Girls also rendered active service. They made garments, bandages, scrap books, and added in many ways to the war chest. They also contributed to the relief funds. The Hon. George L. Browning, who so ably piloted the Victory Loan, was chairman of the Near East Relief. This organization is still an active one.

    August 17, 1918, fully three thousand people gathered at Orange Horse Show Grounds to attend the community picnic which was given for the benefit of War Relief, Red Cross and Y.M.C.A. The receipts amounted to over $1,000,00, and over $10,000.00 worth of War Savings Stamps were sold. Major Fitz Maurice, of the aviation corps, thrilled the crowd with his daring flights. Among the speakers were Henry W. Anderson and Louis C. Williams, of Richmond. On October 6, 1918, a fete was held from which $900.00 was realized, and $9,000.00 worth of Liberty Bonds veer sold. Addresses were made by Hon. Rosewell Page, of Richmond, and H. T. Holladay, of Rapidan.

    Orange County has the distinction of having bought and equipped an ambulance for service on the front. This was made possible by an able committee composed of Mrs. R. M. Brady, Mrs. N. W. Harper, Mrs. J. G. Walker and Miss Miriam Hill. The ambulance was presented by the people of Orange County to the American Red Cross, June, 1917, and was assigned to Naval Base Hospital No. 4. It was seen in active service and reports were made from time to time concerning its service and condition. It went through the war practically uninjured, though one of its brass plates was found in a dugout and brought back to Orange. It rendered a great service to both Russia and the Baltic States. A late report stated that it was located at Rege and was still in active service, making long trips twice every week. A picture of the ambulance has been framed and hung in the court house at Orange, and posted with it is a letter from one who saw it in service. The letter gives information that should interest all citizens of the county.

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    Immediately following the war a convalescent home way established by Mrs. William DuPont on her large estate at Montpelier (the onetime home of the illustrious James Madison). Soldiers debarking at Baltimore were sent down in companies of ten for two weeks of rest. Dr. Lewis Holladay was in attendance and was ably assisted by a trained nurse and a capable matron. Many of these soldiers were entertained in the homes of the Orange people.

    Active service during the war and following it did not go unnoticed. November 29. 1918 the Orange County Shrine held a reception. in the Masonic building at Orange for the wives, sisters and mothers of members who were in the service. A service flag was dedicated and those on the honor roll were Thomas W. Hooper, W. H. Kite, A. H. Carpenter, F. D. Bond and E. J. Jennings.

    As soon as the Armistice was signed the dominant desire in the hearts of our people was for the return of the soldiers. The business world faced the necessity for readjustment long before changes were noticed elsewhere. Reconstruction had begun before the news of actual peace was proclaimed.

    No welcome home celebrations were staged in Orange County because the return of the soldiers in small groups and one by one covered so long a period of time that no such demonstration could be planned.

    There have been some very decided changes in industries during the past few years. Some of these are very evident results of the World War, others are more or less results of that conflict. Farming has become intensive rather than extensive. And while there has not been an increase in acreage under cultivation, there has been an increase in home ownership. Modern means and methods in farming are expressed in modern machinery of a labor-saving type. The purchase of the same has been brought about by two forces, the one growing out of the scarcity of labor and demand for increased production during the war; the other, perhaps, is a result of inflated crop prices during that period. Since the war Soy beans have become a grain crop of the county. A conservative estimate by the county demonstrator was that the yield would reach approximately 10,000 bushels in the harvest of 1925.[23]

    There has been a noticeable tendency to swing from farming to the raising of live stock, certainly a decided effort to make the one industry support the other, which has resulted in the repletion of the soil. The little "creamery receiving station," the first of its kind within the State, located at Gordonsville, has grown from a "two-cow station" to a "'herd station." The number of pounds of butter fat shipped from that point now reaches 400,000 pounds yearly.[24]

    Cattle, sheep and hog raising are extensive, while dairying has increased more than 50 per cent. The county now claims to have more Jersey breeders than any county in the State, and also boasts of some of the finest Holstein cattle. Fourteen hundred pounds of butter fat are shipped daily from Orange, the county seat.[25] As a cream-shipping station, it is said to rank first in the State, which is partly due to the inflow of that product from Madison County, which has no outlet of its own and finds Orange a convenient shipping point.

    A farmers' club, which was organized during the early war period by a handful of men who recognized the advantage of co-operative buying of such commodities as lime and fertilizers, has now grown so large that it has not only outgrown its warehouse, but has become a self- supporting organization. The Orange County Fair, perhaps, bespeaks the true progress of the county. This fair originated from a county school exhibit in 1910. While the school exhibits are still one of its most attractive features, the fair as an event has grown beyond expectation, the attendance having increased more than 200 per cent. War seems not only to bind but to have a tendency to mold minds into a common interest, and the result, within this particular county, is a stronger and more lasting community.

    The report of the Census Bureau shows a marked decrease in population from 1910 to 1920, but a large percentage of this decrease is due to the migration of negroes and foreign born from the county. Few, if any, aliens now reside in the county. Labor, wages and prices have fluctuated in recent years, beginning with the outburst of the European struggle.

    The Orange schools have made much progress since the war. Education is fast becoming of county-wide interest and importance.[26] At the present here are four four-year accredited high schools, six two-year high schools, and sixteen small rural schools, together with twenty-four negro schools. Latest census report gives 3,829 school children. The attendance has greatly increased and now that compulsory education is being enforced, enrollment has likewise increased. There is a strong tendency toward consolidation, and the "one-room school" that has so bravely withstood the wave of progress and the cry for efficiency seems doomed. Expenditures have likewise increased, but not in proportion to the rising scale of efficiency. Public education is fast becoming the main item of county interest.

    Orange County today has not only maintained her financial footing, but has greatly increased her assets. The reports from the banks show an increase of capitalization in 1917 to 1925 as follows:[27]

    Orange County Capitalization
    Bank Deposits Assets
    1917 National Bank of Orange $463,000.00 $649,000.00
    1925 National Bank of Orange $890,480.60 $1,174,861.80

    Orange County Capitalization
    Bank Assets
    1917 Citizens National Bank of Orange $487,585.28
    1925 Citizens National Bank of Orange $1,338,972.32

    Orange County Capitalization
    Bank Assets
    1916 National Bank of Gordonsville $84,101.74
    1924 National Bank of Gordonsville $230,502.95

    The business of the post offices, too, shows an increase. The office in the town of Orange shows an increase of about 60 per cent.[28] The amount of Treasury Savings Certificates sales to date is $7,925.00.[29]

    There are thirteen mail service routes throughout the county. The roads are good. Improved road mileage has increased. Twenty-three miles of hard-surfaced roads have been taken over by the State to form highways and arteries of highways. There are about fifty miles of sand and clay roads in the county. Truck service began almost simultaneously with good roads; indeed, good roads in some parts were an outgrowth of the demand for truck service. Congestion of freightage, together with difficult railroad operation during the war, brought forth urgent need for trucks, so today, in addition to adequate railroad service, Orange County enjoys truck and bus service en route to Charlottesville, Fredericksburg, Madison and Culpeper.

    Orange County has met every issue of the reconstruction period bravely and is proud to have contributed her share to the cause of world peace.

    NOTES

    1. Scott's History of Orange County.
    2. Scott's History of Orange County.
    3. Report of County Demonstrator-E. V. Breeden.
    4. PreWar Narratives-By Henry E. Button.
    5. Report of President Woodberry Forest.
    6. Report War Department (Major-General) copy of report to War Department December 20, 1918 (Orange County, Virginia).
    7. War Department report.
    8. Muster Roll of Orange County.
    9. Muster Roll of Orange County-Volume I (clerk's office)
    10. Virginia War History Commission Clippings-Section XI, Volume II, page 77.
    11. Virginia War History Commission, Clippings-Section XI, Volume III, page 71.
    12. Virginia War History Commission Clippings-Section XI, Volume III, page 80.
    13. Virginia War History Commission Source-Volume I.
    14. Virginia War History Commission Source-Volume I, page 57.
    15. Virginia War History Commission. Source-Volume I, page 11.
    16. Virginia War History Commission Source-Volume I, gage 104.
    17. Virginia War History Commission Source-Volume I, page 135.
    18. Report of Federal Reserve Bank (October 20, 1925).
    19. Post Office Report, Orange, Va.
    20. Secretary's report, 1918 (Red Cross).
    21. Red Cross report, 1918 (Secretary).
    22. Secretary's Report (Camp Fire Organization).
    23. Report from County Demonstrator, E. V. Breeden.
    24. Virginia Hand Book, pages 187-8.
    25. Report of Frank S. Walker, President of Association.
    26. Report of Chairman of Board-See also Superintendent's report, 1925.
    27. Bank statements and President's reports.
    28. Post Office report (1917-1925).
    29. Not included in Post Office sales.
  • Pittsylvania County

    A Community History

    By MRS. N. E. CLEMENT

    LOCATION AND RESOURCES

    Pittsylvania County is situated in the central part of Southern Virginia on the North Carolina State line and ranks first among Virginia counties in size, having a total area of 1,012 square miles, or 647,680 acres. Its dimension from north to south is forty miles and from east to west twenty-eight miles.

    Pittsylvania lies wholly in the Piedmont plateau, having a rolling surface which is broken by several small mountain ridges. White Oak Mountain extends through the central part of the county in a northeastern-southwestern direction, and Smith Mountain in the northwest, Turkey Cock in the west and Bushy Mountain in the north rise many hundred feet above the uplands of the surrounding country. The general elevation of the county is from 400 to 800 feet above the sea level, while the mountains rise to some 2,000 feet.

    The county has three well-defined water systems of drainage, the Roanoke River forming the northern boundary, Banister River flowing eastward through the center, and Dan River flowing through the southern part of the county. These streams and their tributaries have rapid currents and afford good water power.

    The county has good railroad facilities, the main line of the Southern Railway from Washington to Atlanta passing north and south through the county, while branch lines of this system extend from Danville to Norfolk and Richmond. The Virginian Railroad touches the northeastern corner of the county at Long Island, and the Danville and Western furnishes communication westward.

    Danville, which is situated on Dan River in the southern part of the county, is a modern and progressive city of some 20,000 inhabitants. Chatham, the county seat, has a population of 1,171 (census of 1920), and is the site of two church schools, the Chatham Episcopal Institute for girls and the Hargrove Military Academy for boys.

    Pittsylvania is distinctly an agricultural district, with a rural population of 56,493 (1920 census), or 55.7 persons to the square mile. It lies in the great tobacco belt famous for the "Virginia leaf," soft as silk and of a golden tint. While corn, wheat and fruits are raised, tobacco is the cash crop and life in the county is regulated by the demand for it when tobacco is selling high, money is plentiful and life in Pittsylvania is cozy; when tobacco is low in price, money is scarce and life is correspondingly hard.

    The acreage devoted to the three principal crops in 1909 was as follows: tobacco, 34,201 acres; corn, 45037, and wheat, 26,586 acres. Danville is the main tobacco market for the farmers of the county, being the leading looseleaf bright tobacco market in the world. Here is handled, annually, around 50,000,000 pounds of tobacco. Adjacent to Danville and situated on Dan River are the large Schoolfield Cotton Mills, where many hundreds of the county people find employment.

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    LABOR

    When the tocsin of war sounded in 1914 in far off Europe the people of Pittsylvania little thought that the distant conflict would so soon affect their industrial life; but they found that there was an almost immediate increase in the price of all things. Then the call of Europe for war materials drew labor to the great munition and manufacturing plants, leaving a shortage of labor upon the farms. However there had been a growing scarcity of farm help in this county for many years, but prior to 1914 a fair amount could still be procured, wages for a farm hand being about $25.00 per month, with rations.

    The year 1914 was a hard year financially in Pittsylvania. The outbreak of the war disturbed trade, causing tobacco to sell very low through the winter of 1914-15, which produced a sharp stringency in money matters. In the succeeding winters tobacco sold on a rising market, and a great era of prosperity for our people set in.

    RACIAL CONDITIONS

    The inhabitants of Pittsylvania are largely pure English in blood, being descendants of the early Virginia colonists who settled along Tidewater, and whose sons and grandsons gradually spread the settlements westward. Prior to the war these Virginians were busily pursuing the even tenor of their lives, developing the resources of their county, sowing and reaping their crops, secure in the confidence that their government could protect them against the might and power of any country. But with the progress of the war, as the strength of the German military machine and the atrocities of German warfare became known, it was realized that our peaceful life in Southern Virginia was menaced by this sinister power across the sea. Pittsylvania had her share of German sympathizers, but in the main our sympathies were with the Allies.

    THE CHURCHES IN WAR TIME

    The church, which is our guide and comfort in times of great stress, rendered loyal service through the trying months of the World War. The ministers responded to all appeals made to them, calling upon the people to give of themselves and their substance to the needs of their country and of suffering humanity. A pure unselfish patriotism was the keynote of their sermons throughout the period of the war.

    Service flags, carrying a star for each member of the congregation absent in the service, were placed in the churches of the county. The following item is taken from the county paper:

    "A special service will be held at the Episcopal Church next Sunday morning at 11 o'clock, at which time a United States flag and a Service Flag will be presented. The flags are the gifts of Mrs. T. J. Coles and Mrs. W. C. N. Merchant."

    The church, being the general place of meeting in rural communities, was used as a medium for giving notices of meetings. The church was also used for patriotic rallies in the interest of the Red Cross and Liberty Loan drives. It was through the church that the Red Cross auxiliaries were formed. After the divine services were over the congregations were asked to remain, and through the efforts of some visiting patriots, the Red Cross organizations were effected. The County paper records:

    "At St. Johns Methodist Church an last Sunday the Hon. Harry Wooding, of Danville, addressed a large and enthusiastic meeting in the interest of the Liberty Loan. Mrs. Gill and Mrs. Gwinn gave a very fine rendition of patriotic music, and there were recitations by Mrs. Harry Wooding, Jr. It was a delightful occasion and all present enjoyed it to the fullest extent. $3,100 in bonds were taken, and the week before $1,700 had been raised for the Red Cross." At another time the paper notes:

    "There will be a patriotic rally at Marion Baptist Church Sunday, October the 13th, at eleven o'clock in the interest of the Fourth Liberty Loan. Everybody come and help put this auxiliary "over the top."

    The ministers of the county took an active part in all public meetings such as patriotic rallies, Liberty Loan meetings, Red Cross drives, Farewell meetings,-opening and closing the meetings with prayer, and speaking whenever called upon.

    Dr. C. A. Pruden, president of the Chatham Episcopal Institute, was especially active in war work, showing his patriotism in a very evident and pronounced way. On the large farm connected with the school he raised quantities of food stuffs, and followed all Federal food regulations in his school, however difficult. At the unveiling of the bronze tablet placed in the Courthouse in memory of Pittsylvania's noble dead in the war, on July 4, 1921, Dr. Pruden made a powerful patriotic appeal to the large crowd assembled, warning against failure to uphold the principles for which our noble men had given their lives.

    Especial mention must be made of the faithful and active patriotism of the following ministers: the Rev. Ryland Sanford of the county Baptist churches, the Rev. O. S. B. Newton of the Chatham Methodist Church, the Rev. A. L. Kenyon of the Chatham Episcopal Church, Dr. R. G. McLee of the Chatham Presbyterian Church, the Rev. Chiswell Dabney of the county Episcopal Churches, the Rev. F. W. Kerfoot of the Chatham Baptist Church. Mr. Kerfoot met his death in the discharge of duties attendant upon his departure for the battlefront, where he was going as a Y. 1I. C. A. worker. He was bringing his family back to Chatham from a visit to bid his mother goodbye before sailing for France, when his automobile was struck by a passing train and he was instantly killed while wearing his uniform of service.

    THE SCHOOLS IN WAR TIME

    In the loyal service of the school children of Pittsylvania was reflected the patriotism of their parents. There was an increased production of food stuffs through the active work of the boys' corn clubs and pig and poultry clubs of the county, while through the canning clubs of the girls much food was conserved. Mr. Perry, the Farm Agent employed by the county, found it necessary to maintain an office in Chatham and Danville, owing to the demand for information relating to the farm and garden. The county paper notes:

    "Miss Dickey, who has been in Chatham for some time in the interest of the canning clubs, left Monday to teach at Spiny Gorden School."

    Mrs. Campbell was in charge of the home demonstration work in the county, with Miss Dickey as an assistant. The agents organized the clubs in the schools, visiting them at regular intervals, and also overlooking the work of the children in their homes.

    A school of a week's duration was held in Danville in the summer, at which time the girls received especial instruction ill food conservation.

    At a great patriotic rally held at Chatham on the Fourth of July, 1917, the boys' corn clubs of the county marched in a body. Governor Henry Carter Stuart was the speaker of the day.

    It became the custom of the schools to sing patriotic songs every morning at chapel exercises, and each child proudly learned to salute the flag.

    At the Chatham Training School, a preparatory school for boys, military training, with an officers' training course, was installed under the direction of an officer of the U. S. army. So beneficial was the military training found to be that it has been continued til today, and the school is now called Hargrove Military Academy.

    THE DRAFT AND MEN IN SERVICE

    The passage of the draft law and the registration which followed were matters of grave concern to the young men of Pittsylvania. Being a rural community, and not given to wide travel, the thought of crossing the seas to fight in a foreign land filled many with trepidation.

    In so large and populous a county there were naturally many young men to be registered, and the filling out of the questionnaires became the all important matter of the hour. The lawyers of Chatham gave freely of their services as advisors to the registrants, and some gave practically their entire time for months to filling out the papers.

    The draft board for Pittsylvania county, appointed in the summer of 1917, was as follows: Dr. James Semple Haile, chairman; Dr. Coleman D. Bennett, health officer, and Walker W. Hurt, clerk. January the 1st, Mr. Hurt resigned and was succeeded by Mr. Lee Paul who served as clerk to the end of the war.

    In July 1918, Dr. Haile, who was postmaster at Chatham, finding the work of the draft board so heavy as to interfere with his duties, was forced to resign. He was succeeded by Davis Alexander Jefferson. In September 1918, Dr. Coleman D. Bennett enlisted in the Navy, and was stationed at the Naval Hospital, Hampton, Va. This place on the draft board was filled from September to November by D. T. Williams. Dr. Oscar L. Ramey succeeded Dr. Bennett as, examining officer of the board.

    The gentlemen who composed the draft board conducted the work upon the high plane of "justice to all, favors to none" and the people of the county felt that their trust in them was not misplaced. The work of the board was very efficiently, and yet economically done. The cost to induct a man into the service was $5.75 per man. The total cost of the draft in Pittsylvania was $6,883. There were registered in the draft of June 1917-1918, (men from 21-31 years of age), 4,477 men in Pittsylvania. In the registration of September 1918. (men from 18-45 years of age) there were registered in Pittsylvania 5,488 men, making a total of 9,965 registrants. The following items were copied from the last report made to the Provost-Marshall General, Nov. 29, 1918:

    "There were 1,588 men from Pittsylvania county classified in class 1-9. Of these 1,283 were called for service, 1,165 were accepted, 134 men were finally rejected on account of disabilities contracted after getting to camp. Of the 1,165 men accepted, 746 were white, 419 were colored."

    There were some incidents connected with the draft which we like to treasure. One is the story of a great love between two brothers, like the love of David and Jonathan. Their name was Short, but there was nothing short in them save their names, for they were fine upstanding young men. One of the brothers was called in the draft and the other was not. On the day appointed for the drafted one to appear at Chatham he came, accompanied by his father and brother. The father appeared before the board and said: "My boys are twin brothers, and have never been separated in their lives; they work together and play together. Now you are going to send one to the war and leave the other at home and they cannot bear the separation. You will have to let the brother go too." The boys were eager to go, assuring Dr. Haile that if he would just let both go, they would "get those Germans." Both were sent, and bore all honorable part in the battles of the American army, and returned home safely from overseas.

    Another incident of the draft touches the heart in its pathos. There lived in the heart of the Brushy Mountains a boy- and his aged mother. Their place was isolated, they had no near neighbors, and the boy was the sole support of his old mother. Through some error he was called in the draft. On the day appointed he appeared before the board, bringing his feeble old mother with him, and explained how alone they- were in the world. The board, realizing a mistake had been made, sent the boy home assuring him that he would not be called unless there was a more urgent need. And then in a few weeks there swept over Pittsylvania the terrible plague of influenza, taking its toll of young and old. The boy's mother died, and as soon as be could get his affairs in order, he again appeared before the board, saying simply, "I am ready to go."

    The drafted men assembled at Chatham to take the train to camp, and the following item from the county paper tells of one of these farewells.

    "An enthusiastic meeting was held in the town hall Tuesday night, for the purpose of giving a suitable sendoff to the boys (about 90 m number) who were to leave for camp next day. These young men, who were from all parts of the county, were the guests of the people of Chatham until they departed for Petersburg on Wednesday morning. The boys were escorted into the hall by the home guards, and on the platform were two members of draft board, Doctors Haile and Bennett. The speakers for the evening were the Rev. C. O. Pruden, A. L. King, F. W. Kerfoot, R. G. McLeer, and Mr. J. H. Whitehead, all of whom were introduced by Dr. Haile in his inimitable manner.

    "We know of no time when the community has been treated to such a display of local talent, and the interest both on the part of the young men and of the audience was intense throughout the meeting. Dr. Pruden presented soldiers' kits to the men on behalf of the Red Cross. Chatham wishes them God speed and a safe return."

    Serving with distinction in the regular service of the army and navy were Colonels Edward Anderson and Harry C. Clement, Major William P. Currier and Henry P. Carter, and Lieutenant Clifton Hunt of the U. S. army; Captain V. W. Gilmer and Lieutenant Commander Samuel P. Clement of the U. S. navy.

    There were a notable number of volunteers from the county, many joining companies in Danville and adjacent cities, while others went into the marines, hospital service and aviation. Battery "E," First Virginia Coast Artillery Corps, a volunteer company which mustered at Danville July 25, 1917, included in its roster many young men from Chatham and the county. Some of these young men won high recognition for valiant service.

    Hunter Pannill, son of the late David and Mrs. Augusta Hunter Pannill, went overseas with the Canadian forces and was decorated with the Victorian Cross at Buckingham Palace by King George for the valor he displayed at Vimy Ridge when, his superior officers having been disabled, he took command and led the men to victory.

    Young Richard Willis, son of the late Dr. Richard and Mrs. L. May Willis, joined the ambulance corps in 1917, and was assigned to duty under the French. He was cited and decorated with the Croix-de-guerre by General Petain for his gallant service in rescuing the wounded from the battlefields under heavy bombardment.

    Langhorne Barbour, the son of Mr. Ennis Barbour, was signally honored in being selected by General Pershing for one of "Pershing's Fifty," to be sent back to the United States from France in the interest of the war. Young Barbour was brought to General Pershing's notice through having rescued his commanding officer from a trench which was being raided and bombed by the Germans.

    The county paper, the Pittsylvania Tribune-Enterprise, has preserved some interesting bits of war news. We read of the return from overseas of Paul Sanford, son of the Rev. M. F. Sanford of Chatham, who served in the aviation. From his plane he witnessed the surrender of the German fleet in Scappa Flae, which he described as wonderful.

    "Between the double lines of English, French and American warships steamed first of all the most powerful dreadnaughts of Germany's navy, followed by the torpedo boats and destroyers."

    The paper also records the return from overseas of Buck Sours, Clarence Haynes, Charlie Harvey, and Carleton Carter: it states that "Munford Reid has been promoted to sergeant in France," that "Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Anderson have received a cable announcing the safe arrival of their daughter, Rebecca, Base Hospital 41, over there," and the sad tidings that a message had been received announcing the "death of Samuel Inman, of Whittles, a volunteer member of the U. S. marines serving in France."

    Fifty of Pittsylvania's sons gave their lives in the great struggle, and, as a memorial to their sacrifice, the county- has erected upon the walls of the courthouse a tablet upon which their names are inscribed in enduring bronze. The names are:

    Julius Batton, Joseph Blair, Wallace Brown, Benyon Bright well, C. David Boswell, Willie A. Cross, Matthew Chattin, Andrew Collins, George Craig, Doctor D. Dodd, ........ Edmonds, Wm. V. Farmer, Raymond Farthing, Clarence Geyer, Willie Gregg, Russell Grant, Dr. Oscar E. Hedrick, Allie Howker. Samuel J. Inman, John Daniel Jefferson, Gaines Large, William Lockett, Willie Lewis, William D. Littles, Rev. Francis ? . Kerfoot, Nelson D. Mitchell, Western Myers, Wm. Henry Merritt, Roy Norcutt, Frank Harmon Oaks, Wm. C. Price, Charles E. Peatross, Homer James Reynolds, Otis C. Richardson, Edward G. Roe, James B. Snyder, Henry G. Sentall, Harry C. Shivars, Flournoy Short, Gurney Smith, James B. Stone, Charles A. Strickland, John E. Terry, Franklin W. Spangler, Henry Shields, Lonnie H. Thompson, Walter B. Wyatt, Dr. Crispen Wright, Willie B. Walker, and Alexander D. Yeatts.

    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    FINANCE

    The county seat was the center from which the various drives for war purposes were made, but in each vicinity were found active men and women, whose high sense of patriotism made them leaders. There was frequent speaking at the churches, school houses and stores throughout the county for the Liberty loans, the War Savings Stamps, the Red Cross, Food Conservation, the Y. W. C. A., the Salvation Army, and other patriotic causes.

    Mr. Thomas J. Coles, at that time treasurer of Pittsylvania county, served as chairman for the sale of War Savings Stamps. He appointed a local chairman for each of the seven districts of the county as follows:

    Staunton River district, N. E. Clements; Pigg River district, J. W. Marks; Tunstall, Judge E. J. Harvey; Collonds, J. J. Patterson; Dan River, T. J. Coles; Chatham, G. E. Thompson, and Banister, J. M. Jones.

    Effective work was done by these gentlemen in their districts, and the sale of the stamps was most satisfactory.

    Especial mention should be made of the editor of the county newspaper, the Hon. C. R. Warren, whose eloquence resounded throughout the county in behalf of all war measures, and whose editorials and writings breathed an ardent patriotism.

    The Hon. N. E. Clement was appointed four-minute man for Pittsylvania and was active in upholding all war policies of the government.

    Serving in the halls of Congress at this time as Virginia's junior senator was the Hon. Claude A. Swanson, the county's favorite son. He and the State's Senior Senator, the Hon. Thos. S. Martin, were strong supporters of the President through the heavy months of the war. So arduous were the duties of Senator Martin that he succumbed to the strain and overwork.

    In the Fifth Liberty loan the county was allotted $266,800 and the amount sold was $412,990.00. Mr. Gerard Thompson was chairman of this drive, which was ably carried through.

    FOOD PRODUCTION

    One way in which Pittsylvania could materially help in winning the war was in increased production of food, and to this end her citizens worked with a will.

    The council of defense became actively interested in food production and its members, together with a number of other gentlemen, spoke through the summer and fall of 1917 throughout the county, urging the farmers to grow more food stuffs. Week after week this question of winning the war by planting more wheat and corn and raising more hogs and cattle was discussed by the people of Pittsylvania.

    To maintain the farms at normal production was difficult, owing to the shortage of labor due to the draft and the lure of high wages. To increase the production of food in Pittsylvania entailed real hardships, and yet it was done. In 1919 the acreage planted in corn was 50,175 acres and in wheat 31,440 acres.

    The women of Pittsylvania cheerfully met all calls made upon them by their government, and ran their households largely without sugar and flour, finding in the hour of their country's need hundreds of little ways in which they could conserve. Syrups were used in the place of sugar, and corn bread in the place of wheat breads.

    The summer of 1918 was spent by the women of the county in canning foods, each housewife putting up hundreds of jars of fruits and vegetables of all kinds. Both the State and Federal government supplied bulletins of the latest and best methods of canning, and with these as guides the results were very satisfactory. The two women agents in home demonstration work in the county were helpful, going from house to house giving practical aid.

    Little or no social life was indulged in, the one thought in every mind being the winning of the war. The main thing the people of Pittsylvania could do toward this end was to produce and conserve, and upon this they bent their energies. And an all wise Providence blessed us in the year 1918 with full crop of fruits, vegetables and farm products.

    THE RED CROSS

    The history of the Red Cross work in Pittsylvania county is one which we are proud to relate.

    Early in 1917, the William Pitt chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution located at Chatham appointed -Mrs. E. S. Reid, Jr., to solicit members for the National Red Cross Society, and as a result of her efforts forty or more members were enrolled. During the month of May of that year the president of the Women's Federation of Clubs determined to have a great public meeting in the interest of the Red Cross work. Through the efforts of Mrs. James S. Jones, who was appointed to make the call the meeting was held in the Farmers' Warehouse June the 10th, at which time a large and deeply interested audience was present. Mr. Thomas J. Coles was chairman, and a temporary organization grew out of this meeting. A few weeks later a permanent chapter of the Red Cross, with a charter was effected at Chatham, with the following officers duly elected: t . H. Whitehead, chairman; Mrs. T. A. Watkins, vice-chairman; Frank Marshall, treasurer, and Mrs. E. S. Reid, Jr ., secretary.

    The geographical limits of the chapter were to include five of the seven magisterial districts of the county, Dan River and Tunstall having been assigned to the Danville chapter.

    In February 1918, Mrs. E. S. Reid, Jr., resigned as secretary and was succeeded by the Rev. A. L. Henyon.

    Mrs. J. F. Hart, with Mrs. T. A. Watkins as assistant, was first elected chairman of the military relief committee. Mrs. Hart later resigned and was succeeded by Mrs. J. Lawson Carter. These three ladies, together with a great number of patriotic women in the town of Chatham and in that part of Pittsylvania county in the jurisdiction of this chapter, were responsible for the work done by this committee.

    The work of establishing auxiliaries throughout the county was pressed vigorously with the result that forty-one were organized, with a membership of 2,500, exclusive of the Chatham Episcopal Institute and the Chatham high school, both of which had active auxiliaries.

    There were three colored auxiliaries, viz : Chatham, Snow, and Ebenezer, which are to be commended for their good work and faithful service.

    When we note the immense amount of sewing done by the Chatham chapter and its auxiliaries, of which some items were Bed shirts, 681 ; helpless shirts, 664 ; pajama suits, 466, and socks knitted, 750 pairs, we realize the devoted service of these patriotic women. Mrs. Watkins and Mrs. Carter were awarded Red Cross medals by the National organization for their splendid work.

    In the second Red Cross drive, which was ably led by Mrs. Gerard Thompson, the Chatham chapter and her auxiliaries, gave $13,142.52 being almost three times their allotment.

    WAR RELIEF

    As soon as the war was won the United War Work campaign was put on, raising funds through the Salvation Army, Y.M.C.A. and other organizations to care for our soldiers overseas. Mr. J. M. Jones was appointed chairman and Mr. D. A. Jefferson, treasurer for the campaign. The $17,000.00 allotted to the county was cheerfully given, the girls of the Chatham Episcopal Institute giving $775 at one time. The Schoolfield Cotton Mills, situated on Dan river in Pittsylvania county, gave to this fund $8,271.00, and the colored people of Chatham gave $76.79.

    In addition to the above, the county made a separate drive for the Young Men's Christian Association and raised for this purpose $5,347.76, and $2,132.28 was contributed to the Armenian and Syrian Relief Fund.

    POST WAR CONDITIONS

    The economic conditions in Pittsylvania county, for the year: succeeding the Armistice remained practically the same as during the war period. The high cost of living continued. There was no lowering in the prices of food, but on the other hand the price of many things was greatly increased and profiteering became the order of the day. Sugar, which had been eleven cents per pound during the war, after the Armistice soared to the price of thirty cents per pound.

    The housing question remained a difficult one for a number of years for the reason that all building operations ceased throughout the period of the war, while the making of new families was far above normal, and no provisions could be made to meet the unusual activity of the marriage market.

    Tobacco continued to sell on a rising market until prices were reached beyond all precedent, resulting in a period of great prosperity. Money was plentiful, though the purchase value of a dollar was small. The price of lands selling of farm lands followed.

    Pittsylvania county helps to illustrate the truth which history teaches, that when a nation passes through a great crisis such as the World War, many years must elapse before living conditions again become normal.

  • Radford City

    A Community History

    By SADIE JOHNSON REID

    LOCATION

    The city of Radford is located on the waters of the New River, in the southwestern portion of Virginia at the intersection of three branches of the Norfolk & Western Railroad. It is two thousand feet above the level of the sea and is often spoken of as the Gateway of Southwestern Virginia.

    Radford is the "Terrace City" of this section. The first terrace which is fully eighty feet above the water line is about one-fourth mile wide and extends the entire length of the town. This section comprises First and Norwood streets on which are the business houses and manufacturing plants. The second terrace rises above the first about sixty feet and extends south. Still another terrace some hundred feet higher, forms beautiful sites for many dwellings. The city is divided into almost equal parts by Conoly's Run.

    The scenery is magnificent. To the east rise the crags and spires of the Alleghanys, to the north Salt Pond ridge and John Mountain purple the horizon. Northwest, standing as a sentinel, is the beautiful Angel's Rest and directly southwest the cone shaped mountain of Peak Creek, the landmark of the Pulaski Valley, rises, and to the south are the rising and falling spurs of the Alleghanies terminating within a mile of Ingles Mountain. No picture has ever been painted that can depict the beauty of Radford's sunsets.

    The old emigrant trail, also known as the old State Rock Road, and the Lee Highway pass through the city. Pepper and Ingles Ferries are within a short distance. Radford is said to be the youngest city of Virginia and, according to the city directory of July, 1925, it has a population of 6,612.

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    There could be no better beginning for this topic than the account of the forming of the Radford Militia. Through the activity of Mr. Wise Worrell of the Radford Record, Company M Second Infantry, Virginia Volunteers, was organized in February, 1913. On Saturday night, February 21, a meeting was held to elect the commissioned officers. Major W. M. Davant, of Roanoke, presided. Dr. J. G. Bowman was elected captain, Wise Worrell, first lieutenant, and J. V'. Wright, second lieutenant. Of the sixty-one members, who had passed all examinations and been sworn in, fifty-eight were present.

    Dr. Bowman, the captain, had been with a South Carolina regiment in the Spanish-American War and later served in the United States Artillery. Wise Worrell served as a trooper with the Eleventh Cavalry and Mr. J. W. Wright had two years training at V. P. I. to his credit. Several members of the company had seen service in the army. This company saw service on the Border, being stationed at Brownsville, Texas, from June, 1916. to February, 1917. The wartime service of the company will be mentioned under "Draft Law and Military Organizations," one of the subdivisions of this sketch.

    While Radford was busy organizing a military company, there was little thought given in 1914 to the possibility of our entrance into the European conflict. The papers of that period record a wide interest in matters that had nothing to do with war and its possibilities. The city was busy organizing a board of trade and the women were agitating the question of putting on a school nurse; the fight was on for prohibition, for tax reduction and city managership. About this time Harry Fark received from the War Department a service medal for service in the Philippine War. The Julia Bullard monument was unveiled in West View Cemetery. Arrangements for the sale of Red Cross seals at Christmas time were completed. Dan Howe arrived in town from Trinidad, his trip having been made interesting by an encounter with a German cruiser.[1]

    In November, 1914, the Belgian Relief work was started. Ex-Governor J. Hoge Tyler requested that all donations be left at a central point by Thanksgiving Day.

    Two interesting letters were published in the Radford News of May, 1915. It will be remembered that the fall of 1915, witnessed the election of Woodrow Wilson to his second term as President of the United States, and while interest in the coining election was rife in Virginia these letters, written in 1898, by Governor J. Hoge Tyler, of Radford, then Governor of Virginia. and Dr. Woodrow Wilson, at that time president of Princeton University, found their way into the local paper. The letters of peculiar interest to Radford citizens and to all Virginians, are reproduced here:

    "Commonwealth of Virginia,
    "Governor's Office,
    "Richmond, Virginia.

    "Dr. Woodrow Wilson,
    Princeton, N. J.

    "Dear sir,-I am in the confidence of the University of Virginia board in their efforts to bring you to the University. I want to write just a line to express to you my interest in this matter, and my wish that you may accept the important and honorable trust offered you. The past of the University is truly grand, but the future should hold even better things in store for her. I think you can materially contribute to this future.

    "Very truly yours,
    "J. HOGE TYLER,
    "Governor of Virginia."

    "Princeton, New Jersey,
    2nd April 1898.

    "Hon. J. Hoge Tyler,
    Governor of Virginia,
    Richmond, Virginia.

    "My dear Sir,-I cannot too warmly express my appreciation of the honor and kindness you have done me in urging upon me the acceptance of the call of the board of visitors to the chairmanship of the faculty of the University. I have been obliged to decline the call, with a reluctance and pain which I should find it difficult to express. But I shall not soon forget the kindness of your letter.

    "I have declined for reasons very fully set forth in a letter of recent date to Mr. George Miles. Summed up, they come to this: that my obligations here are such that I did not feel morally at liberty to leave. I am conscious that it is more than probable that no honor equal to this one will ever be offered to me again. I love Virginia, too, and the University in a way that makes me feel almost like an unworthy son in declining to serve them. But I did not and could not see or find any other truly honorable course.

    "With much regard and appreciation,

    "Respectfully and sincerely yours,
    "WOODROW WILSON."

    In the Radford News of February 16, 1916, we find the following item regarding a hospital unit organized by Dr. Bowman:

    "Major Koepher of the U. S. army and Capt. Warrick of the medical corps of the Virginia militia Monday night inspected Dr. Bowman's company of the hospital branch of the service. This is a new company composed of thirty-six Radford men, the only one of its kind in the State and one of not many in all the States. The equipment has arrived and is stored temporarily over Johnson's pharmacy until the company gets into its own quarters in the new hardware building owned by Mr. Epperly and drawing to completion. The company bas some $16,000 appropriated to its use."

    The population of Radford has grown steadily since 1910, when the census showed it to be less than 5,000. That taken for a directory in 1925 showed 6,854. During the early part of the war many of the negroes and some whites went North for higher wages. The cost of living was so much higher, however, that most of them drifted back. Radford, at the time war was declared, had practically no aliens.

    As early as 1915 flags were displayed on business houses and on private homes. There was an undercurrent of restlessness and a desire to be prepared for whatever might come. This spirit prevailed until the call to arms.

    Radford was loyal to all the policies of the Wilson administration and approved most heartily of war preparations early in 1917. The people as a whole were eager and anxious to enter the conflict. Their sympathies were with the Allies and strongly against the Kaiser and his German war machine. The Radford News loyally and faithfully expressed public opinion prior to our entrance into the conflict, as well as during the struggle, and co-operated to the limit with the publicity department of the government.

    CHURCHES IN WAR TIME

    The churches early realized the gravity of war and became more earnest and untiring in their efforts to administer to the spiritual needs of the boys who were so soon to enter the service, as well as to the needs' of those who were destined to remain at home to produce and conserve. There was no definite war work done by the churches but the members and pastors engaged in many forms of work through other organizations. The ministers were watchful as regarded the moral conditions of tile community, and prayer was regularly offered for the triumph of right.

    A union service for the members of Company M was held in the State Normal School auditorium on July 22, 1917. The hall was full. Rev. Frank Y. Jackson, of Marion, preached the sermon and on the platform were Rev. J. H. Whitmore, Rev. Brown, Rev. Stevenson, Mr. Keadle and others; also a anion choir. The singing of Mr. E. S. Jones, Radford's sweet singer, was greatly enjoyed upon this occasion. At the conclusion of the service Mr. Whitmore presented to each soldier a Testament. As many of the members of the field hospital unit could not be present they were presented with Testaments later.

    The Missionary Society of the First Baptist Church held a week of prayer beginning March 17, 1918. An American flag and a Service flag were raised, the latter having seven stars, representing the following men in service from the congregation: Major J. C. Bowman, Lieut. E. H. Howe, Carmel Gibson, Fred Ring, Robert Vaughan, Harry Bond and R. N. Gentry.

    Calvary Baptist Church in addition to having five members in service, was honored in having its pastor, Rev. W. J. Hubbard appointed a Y.M.C.A. chaplain. He reported at Camp Lee in June, 1918. The Camp Lee Bayonet stated that Mr. Hubbard had four sons in service. The eldest, Walter J. was a member of the headquarters detachment, Tenth Regiment, U. S. Marines, S. Bramner, the second son, was then in training at Camp Lee. David Paul, the third son, was among Rockingham's first volunteers and was then with the American Expeditionary Forces in France, and William B., the last male member of the family was a member of the Students Army Training Corps at the University of Virginia. The five members in service from Calvary Baptist Church were Jesse Woodyard, Roy Epling, Sidny and William Johnson, and George Lyle.

    Special services for the presentation of a service flag were held on April 7, at Grace Episcopal Church. The flag contained fifteen stars. The members in service were: Miss Celia Turner, nurse in France; Thurston Turner, Stanley Galway, William and Edward Kearsley, Ambrose, Edward and Hugo Wilson, James T Tinsley, Ambrose Fink, Jack and Arthur French, Dan Howe, and Ballard Preston. The rector was Rev. C. E. A. Marshall.

    The Radford Presbyterian Church presented its service flag on September 21, 1918. The flag was given by the ladies' aid society and contained six stars representing Walter Budwell, Charles Zimmerman, Thomas M. Jones, Alex Sharp, Wallace W. Goldsmith and Thornton Scott. Dr. J. H. Whitmore, the pastor, before making the presentation, talked on the "Call to Service." Mr. E. S. Tones sang Wilbur Chapman's paraphrase of "America"-"God Keep and Guard Our Wen."

    Central Presbyterian Church had the following names on her honor roll-Earl Wall, Eugene Gerald, Harry Buck, Hugh French, Tebe Hite, and Guy Moore.

    Grove Avenue Methodist Church held a beautiful service when its service flag, containing forty-one stars, was presented. The sermon was preached by the pastor, Rev. H. B. Brown. The flag was presented by J. H. Barnett and received on behalf of the congregation by- Capt. E. F. Gill. Those in service from this congregation were: L. B. Allen, J. E. Baker, Lieut. G. W-. Bond, Sergt. R. J. Bond, Sergt. H. E. Bond, Lieut. W. K. Barnett, P. R. Garden, A. E Carper, Lieut Frank Y. Caldwell, W. L. Dudley, Corp. H. A. Goodykontz, Lieut. R. E. Hall, C. T. Hall, S. T. Kuhn, Corp. W. E. Kemp, Corp. T. L. Kirby, C. D. Lucas, K. H. Kirby, C. F. Kirby, la. L. Lawrence, Sergt. P. H. Martin, Sergt. H. P. McElrath, E. D. Munday, Sergt. H. L. Morehead, J. M. Morgan, C. H. Moore, J. Mills, W. C. McCarty, C. M. Peters, H. S. Rader, Sergt. G. E. Sullivan, Sergt. R. E. Stegall, Sergt. R. B. Scott, Sergt. C. A. Stump, Sergt. H. W. Ward.

    Bourne Memorial Methodist Church had only three names on its honor roll They were Frank Painter, Harry Ross and Bruce Ross. Rev. M. A. Stevenson was pastor.

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    During the World War much interest was aroused in the study of history, especially English history and our relation to England and France. There was a more intensive study of history during this period than formerly and a better understanding of the Revolutionary period and the War of 1812.

    Special emphasis was laid on patriotism in school work and on the singing of national anthems, on flag drills and patriotic addresses. A great many patriotic programs were rendered, both by the high school and the grades, including singing, addresses, drills, salutes to the flag, etc.

    Flags were purchased and flag poles erected for each school. A service flag was purchased for the high school. A large number of the alumni of this school volunteered for service, as did a few who had not completed their courses but were old enough to be accepted.

    Instruction in food production and conservation was given both in the high school and in the grades. A large number of school gardens were planted.

    Thrift organizations were formed in all the grades and programs were put on to stimulate the sale of Liberty bonds. Pupils in the schools made story books for the soldiers and collected books to send to the training camps. A number of the girls worked in the surgical dressing department of the Red Cross and also did knitting for the soldiers. The high school and grades had junior Red Cross chapters in which every pupil was enrolled.

    "Tag Your Shovel" day was observed successfully in the schools and prizes were given for the best gardens. The pupils spent their money freely for War Savings Stamps. Prof. J. P. Whitt was superintendent of city schools during the war and Mrs. J. P. Whitt was principal of the high school. Both assisted enthusiastically in staging celebrations, in putting on "drives," and gave many other manifestations of patriotism.

    Since the war the Red Cross organizations have been continued in the schools and the same interest continues in the study of history. Patriotic programs are given from time to time, keeping alive the custom inaugurated in war time.

    STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE

    Under the direction of Miss Mary Montague, a member of the faculty of the State Teachers College, the student body was organized into a junior Red Cross chapter with a one hundred per cent membership. The first important piece of work was the creation of a war chest fund in which every student and all members of the faculty had a part. Each student then enrolled in the school contributed $10.00 and the members of the faculty gave a percentage of salary. The whole amounted to $2,000. This amount was divided among the various organizations doing war work, such as the Red Cross, the Salvation Army, Refugee workers, etc. The students, who graduated or left the college during the war period, were definitely instructed as to the methods of organizing junior Red Cross chapters and many organizations sprang from the parent chapter. Hundreds of pairs of sacks, dozens of sweaters, several rag rugs, hundreds of scrap books for hospitals, and dozens of layette; for refugees were made by tile students. Two of the members of the home economics department made a beautiful silk flag for the Red Cross which is still in possession of the college. Other work done in co-operation with the town chapter included the making of hospital garments and surgical supplies. Miss Montague conducted a course of instruction in first aid which was taken by a large group of both town and college people. Dr. J. A. Noblin examined the members of this class and each member received a certificate.

    During the influenza epidemic of 1918 and 1919 students and faculty gave voluntarily of their strength, time and service. Under the supervision of nurses and doctors they tools care of children, old people and the chronically diseased, as well as those suffering from influenza and assisted in the operation of emergency hospitals and diet kitchens.

    Health classes were conducted in the college and the lessons learned from these classes became a vital part of the daily lives of those taking the instruction. The desire to put the knowledge gained to practical use in the community was evident. Health clubs were organized and these participated in all community projects -which had for their object the betterment of health conditions.

    The students in the college studied the courses sent out by the United States Food Administration. During the summer demonstrations were given in the use of home products, canning and preserving of foods and the use of milk and cheese products. Assembly periods of the college were given over to speakers of the Red Cross and other relief organizations of the country and a great amount of information was thus disseminated.

    Cooking classes by government experts were held for the benefit of the students from time to time. These classes were thrown open to town people and proved to be particularly helpful to those who did not have the privilege of attending the college classes in home economics conducted by Miss McLege Moffitt, head of the department. The college put on the course in food conservation authorized by Mr. Hoover, thus fitting students for local leaders in this department of work.

    Dean Moffitt, Miss Coppedge and Miss Florence Baird have always ben eager to help in the activities of the town. Miss Ellen Coppedge has had charge of the junior Red Cross since the war and has kept it up to its one hundred per cent membership and efficiency standard.

    DRAFT LAW AND VIRGINIA ORGANIZATIONS

    Radford's attitude toward the draft had nothing to distinguish it from that of other Virginia communities. A few exemptions were asked because of dependents, and others failed to pass the physical examination. The attitude toward the draft was generally favorable. Montgomery County and the city of Radford together registered 1,689 men. It is said that, in comparison with other towns of its size, the city stood second in the State in the number of volunteers.

    Miss Agnes Miller and Miss Mary Ross signed up for the Navy. Miss Cecilia Turner, an army nurse, served in France.

    Mention was made in the pre-war section of this narrative of Company M, and also of the organization of a hospital unit. As reported by the Radford News of August 8, 1917, the officers of these two companies at that time were: Company M--James W. Wright, captain: Elliott H. Howe, first lieutenant; William P. Nye second lieutenant; Alfred R. Harvey, first sergeant ; George McC. Spangler, acting first sergeant, and sergeants. Joseph B. Ruffin, James R. Anderson, Rufus J. Bond, Charles A. Stump and Eugene Carper.

    Field Hospital Company-Dr. J. C. Bowman, major, commanding ; Dr. Guy B. Denit, lieutenant; Lieutenant Harper and Sergeants William E. Kemp, John J. Geisen, Selah A. Sharp, Templeton Morris, Saul Simon, and George E. Sullivan.

    Company M with full equipment went on guard duty on the Norfolk and Western April 12, 1917 from Pepper funnel to Seven Mile Ford. All bridges and tunnels were guarded and each squad had its own camp. Radford was headquarters. It was also battalion headquarters under Captain Bullitt. The company was later trained at Camp McClellan and served in France with the 116th Infantry.

    Radford had a company of Virginia State Volunteers known as "The Radford Home Guards." The history and roster of this company may be found in the Virginia War History Commission's Source Volume No. IV--'Virginia War Agencies, Selective Draft and Volunteers."

    MEN IN SERVICE

    The writer of this sketch has secured and sent to the office of the Virginia War History Commission sketches of the service of some of Radford's heroes who offered up their lives in the World War. Space will not permit the publication here of these personal histories but the names of these men who made the great sacrifice may be given.

    The first of Radford's men to be killed in France was Lieutenant Alfred Rorer Harvey of the 130th Infantry. He was killed by a sniper's bullet on August 22, 1918, while doing patrol duty in No Man's Land.

    Sergeant Jake Carper, 38th Infantry, was killed in action on October 11, 1918. His record shows that he participated in six separate engagements, several of them major offensives.

    Lieutenant Elliott H. Howe, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, was instantly killed while leading his company through Consenvoye Woods, north of Verdun, on October 11, 1918. Major Hierome L. Opie, his commanding officer, wrote a letter of commendation of Lieutenant Howe which may be found in the Virginia War History Commission's Source Volume I.

    William Thomas Johnson, 104th Sanitarv Train, 29th Division, after an honorable war career in France where he bore a part in actual fighting at the front, died of a long and lingering illness at Walter Reid Hospital.

    Captain George R. Venable, U. S. N ., died aboard the U . S. S. New Mexico. He was decorated by the King of Belgium with the Order of Leopold.

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITONS

    FINANCE

    According to Mr. Fred Harvey of the First National Bank of Radford, the city was able to meet its quota in the First Liberty Loan, although at that time people were uneducated to the need of private loans for financing the war. In the Second Liberty Loan the women took a hand. Mrs. John Hagan of Danville was appointed State chairman of the Woman's Liberty Loan Committee. Mrs. Mark Reid of Radford was appointed chairman for Southwest Virginia and an effort was made to organize a working committee in every town. Mrs. Reid was chairman for Radford and Montgomery County in the last three loan drives. The Radford News of October 31, 1917, carried the headline-"Radford Does Her Bond Share." The First National Bank sold $60,900 worth of bonds the Farmers and Merchants Bank over $12,000 worth, the Radford State Bank, $6,000 worth. These total nearly $80,000. In addition to this amount, however, Mr. Heald, whose head office is in Lynchburg, took $5,000 worth of bonds and the Radford railroad men subscribed through the Norfolk and Western offices. giving Roanoke the credit. It is said that the employees of the pipe and furnace works (V. I. C. C.) with head offices respectively at Lynchburg and Roanoke, also subscribed through headquarters. It is likely, therefore, that Radford really reached her quota of $104,000.[2]

    In the Third Loan, Radford oversubscribed her quota of $61,000.[3]

    The Fourth Liberty Loan campaign was a decided success also. The quota for the city was $131,000 and the amount subscribed $155,000.[4]

    The Victory Loan was oversubscribed, emphasizing the loyalty of those who had been called upon daily- for contributions to many forms of war-time endeavor.

    Mrs. Mark Reid, chairman of the Woman's Committee, had a splendid corps of workers. In the West Ward they were Miss Virginia Bailey, Mrs. A. V. Miles, Mrs. W. H. Painter, Mrs. William Ingles, Jr., Mrs. Lewis Ingles, Mrs. Roy Hurt. Mr. Henry Roberts and Mr. Hoge Brown. In the East Ward -Miss Eloise Harrison, chairman; Mrs. J. P. Whitt, Mrs. Walter Roberts, Jr., Miss Annie Kuhn Roberts, Miss Sallie Einstein, Miss Mary Louise Galway, Miss Aline Cassell, Miss Helen Jones, Mrs. J. P. McConnell, Miss E. F. Lawrence, Mrs. Harvey Barnett.

    The Montgomery County committee was enthusiastic and thoroughly interested through all the campaigns. They held all day picnics and secured splendid speakers at every gathering. Among the speakers in the interest of bond sales were: Captain Jerome Touzen of the French High Commission, Captain A. M. Dobie of General Cronkhite's staff, Rabbi E. N. Calisch, Edward F. Trafz, Senator E. Lee Trinkle, Hon. Thomas A. Muncy, Judge G. E. Cassell, Dr. J. P. McConnell, Prof. Joseph Avent, Prof. William E. Gilbert, R. J. Neel, and many others.

    A Liberty Train was brought to the city on October 11, 1918. It bore the following slogans: "If you can't fight, your money can," "Don't hold out on the boys, every dollar helps," "Our men have gone across to protect us, let's come across to protect them," "Fight the Hun over there by buying bonds over here." The train contained many field pieces and other war trophies, and the speaker was a soldier who told of the experiences overseas. A second train carrying an imitation Liberty Bell stopped on October 14, 1918, and judge Cassell who accompanied the train, spoke and introduced Dr. McConnell.[5]

    Mr. Ben Hagan, cashier of the Bank of Christiansburg, who was chairman for all the Liberty Loans for Montgomery County and the city of Radford, brought many attractions to stimulate the interest of the people, all of which proved a great impetus to the work and to the buying of bonds. The Liberty Loan figures for the county and city combined were:[6]

    Loan Maximum Apportionment Amount Subscribed Subscribers
    First Loan No record kept.
    Second Loan $337,250 $ 269,500 384
    Third Loan 205,100 257,050 868
    Fourth Loan 429,300 528,450 1,521
    Victory Loan 344,600 455,800 1,094

    $1,316,250 $1,510,800 3,867

    The War Savings Stamps sales were directed by Hon. R. L. Jordon. He was untiring in his efforts to bring the city tip to its apportionment. The Boy Scouts were active in these campaigns, as were also many other organizations.

    The latter part of the war the Radford State Bank had to close for lack of a cashier. The war was a great impetus to all business and helped the banks very materially. Mr. Ferd Harvey, cashier of the First National Bank, was chairman of the Men's Committee in the Liberty Loan campaigns. Mr. W. H. Galway, cashier of the Farmers and Merchants National Bank, was the first person in Radford to set his clock ahead when daylight saving was put into effect.

    FOOD CONSERVATION

    Secretary Hoover appointed Mrs. Mary Moffitt, chairman of Food Conservation for the city of Radford. Her committee was composed of the representative women of the town and as a result of their activities fully eighty per cent of the housewives of Radford pledged themselves to obey government regulations in the matter of food conservation. This committee distributed a great deal of literature and information on the subject of food substitutes. Mrs. Moffitt tried out in her own kitchen practically all the substitutes offered for wheat and the results were passed on to the women of the community.

    The people of the city were consistent in their observance of meatless and wheatless days. Although no estimate can be made of the amount of flour and meat saved in the town, we feel that it is safe to say that it was equal, in proportion to the population, of that conserved in any part of the nation.

    Ex-Governor J. Hoge Tyler was appointed Food Administrator for Montgomery County and the city of Radford. He served faithfully and well, although handicapped by bad health. There was no known violation of the sugar and wheat ruling, and beef was almost entirely eliminated from most tables for months. The following table shows the variation in cost of staple necessities:

    Category Before the War During the War After the War
    Onions 3 cents lb. 10c lb 5c lb.
    Apples $1.00 bu. $1.50 bu. $1.25 bu.
    Cabbage $1.00 per 100 $3.00 $3.00
    Eggs 30c. dozen 50c 40c
    Potatoes $1.00 per bu. $2.00 per bu $2.25
    Butter 30c. per lb. 50c .40c
    Tomatoes 8c. per can 20c per can 15c
    Beans 6c. to 8c. per lb 12c to 15 c 8 c. to 13c
    Bananas 6c. per lb. 15c per lb. 10c.
    Oranges 30c. per doz 60c 50c
    Boiling meat. l0c. per lb. 40c 25c
    Breakfast bacon 30c. per lb. 45c 45c
    Pure lard l0c. per lb. 40c 23c
    Flour (24 lbs.) $1.00 $2.00 $1.40
    Meal (24 lbs.) 75c. $1.00 85c
    Cheese 25c. 40c 32c
    Beef (on foot) about 8c. per lb 20c 10c
    Pork (on foot) about 7c. 20c 14c
    Lamb (on foot) about 8c. 20c 7c
    Hides 10c 20c 7c

    On April 3, 1918, Gov. Tyler issued the following orders "Householders are to use not exceeding one and one-half pounds of wheat per person per week. Public eating places and clubs are to observe two wheatless days per week-Monday and Wednesday as at present, and in addition thereto they are not to serve to any one guest at any one meal an aggregate of breadstuff, macaroni, crackers, pastry, pies, cakes, wheat, breakfast cereals, containing more than two ounces of wheat flour. No wheat products are to be used unless specially ordered. Public eating establishments are not to buy more than six pounds of wheat products for each ninety meals served, etc.

    "I have appointed the following speakers for Radford: Rev. H. B. Worley, director of speakers; Rev. M. A. Stevenson, Rev. W. J. Hubbard, Hon. R. L. Jordon, Dr. J. P. McConnell, Prof. W. E Gilbert. The three last-named gentlemen have promised to help all they can in the county. I have also appointed as local home directors and assistant speakers, Mrs. M. S. Moffitt and Mrs. Mark Reid.

    "Meatless days are discontinued for thirty days."

    Prof. W. E. Gilbert was appointed chairman of Montgomery County Agricultural Council of Safety on May 21, 1917. Gov. Stuart also appointed Mrs. Mark Reid to serve on this council. It was through Prof. Gilbert's influence that a carload of tin containers was secured for immediate use in the county.

    Mrs. Reid was appointed home economics director for the city of Radford. Mr. Hoover made this appointment on November 1, 1918. Mrs. Reid was also chairman of the Woman's division of the local branch of the National Council of Defense and held other offices pertaining to government work.

    LABOR AND HOUSING

    Labor conditions in Radford, while acute at times, were not serious as compared with other cities. The demand for labor could not be met because of the shortage brought about by the draft and the rush for higher wages offered at government plants. Those who were left made exorbitant charges for their services. The strike on the Norfolk and Western caused strife, turmoil and much hard feeling, though the railroad company handled the situation with the greatest efficiency.

    During the war there were houses and apartments to spare, but toward the end of the conflict and since, houses and rooms have been much in demand.

    INDUSTRY

    Radford Plant, Lynchburg Foundry Company

    The president of the Radford plant, Lynchburg Foundry Company, Mr. L. H. McWane, gives the following information regarding the war work of his organization. He explains that when the European War began in 1914 it precipitated one of the greatest depressions ever known in the iron and steel business of the country. "Conditions in the cast iron pipe trade were especially bad. The plants of the Lynchburg Foundry Company were compelled to operate on part time because prices had reached a point where profit was out of the question and the main concern of the officers of the company was to operate as many days per week as possible to keep our workmen from suffering. Realizing that municipalities would not be able to finance their improvement projects during the war, it was decided to change the character of our output. There was great demand for flanged material and the immediately took steps to increase this line of our business. We were offered large contracts for shrapnel, but as our facilities were not good for handling this work we decided to manufacture material for which we were better prepared and the flanged field offered great possibilities.

    "Along about this time work was started on a powder plant at Hopewell and we were able to get the contract for pipe material. The volume at first was small as it was not intended to build a large plant but as the European War progressed and the needs for power increased work was rushed with all haste. We were soon overwhelmed with orders and "speed" was the watchword. On one occasion some special castings were required to complete an installation and delivery was desired in ten days. After much figuring we advised our customer that it was impossible to deliver the material under two weeks. He immediately replied that we must get the word "impossible" out of our vocabulary, that nothing was impossible if one had the will to do the thing, and the needs of the situation required superhuman effort. Our men caught the idea. They worked nights and Sundays and the castings were shipped by express while still hot-but within the required time.

    "When the Hopewell plant was enlarged in 1916 to meet the increased demand for powder to be shipped to England, orders were given us for pipe and fittings in such volume that we had to take immediate steps for the installation of molding machines and other equipment for quantity production. Where two men had been making twenty fittings daily they were soon able to produce seventy. A night gang was put on in our machine shop and practically our entire organization worked overtime. Solid carloads of material were shipped by express. The Hopewell plant was completed ahead of schedule and deliveries of powder were made to the Allies at a time when the situation was desperate. General Hedlam of the British army is said to have remarked that the DuPont Company was entitled to the credit for saving the British Empire in 1915. If the DuPont Company saved the British Empire by furnishing powder at the crucial moment does it not follow that the Lynchburg Foundry Company had a part in making possible this accomplishment and that the employees of the Radford plant who labored incessantly day and night to make good were truly heroes in the strictest sense of the word?

    "In the construction of the Hopewell plant we furnished 10,308 tons of material or about 500 carloads, and we furnished it on time.

    "When the DuPont Company was engaged to construct the giant powder plant at Nashville, Tenn., the Lynchburg Foundry Company was called in on the job and given a contract for pipe and fittings totaling about a million dollars. It seemed impossible for our plant to handle this enormous order within the time allowed, but we knew our men and when it was put up to them they took hold with the same fighting spirit that manifested itself in the boys "over there" and the first unit of the new plant was started three months ahead of time. A large volume of work was required for the DuPonts at Carney's Point, N. J.; Barksdale, Wisconsin; Harrison, N. J.; Indian Head, Maryland, and Wilmington, Delaware, and at the time the Armistice was signed work had been started on a large T. N. T. plan at Ives Wisconsin, but this order was canceled.

    "Our activities were not confined to the powder mills. In the construction of the various cantonments we were called upon for large quantities of bell and spigot pipe and fittings for quick shipment and we supplied material for Camp Lee, Virginia; Camp Greene, Charlotte N. C.: Camp Meade, Md.; Camp Morrison, Virginia; Camp Abraham Eustis, Virginia; ; Langley Field, Virginia; Camp Sevier, S. C., and Camp Wadsworth, S. C. Other government orders consisted of work for Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland, the Navy Department and the Emergency Fleet Corporation.

    "The total volume of work that has been furnished by us exclusively for war purposes since 1915 aggregates $2,727,436.84, constituting a tonnage of 46,000 or about 3,000 minimum car loads.

    "During the various Liberty Loan campaigns the company made it a rule to invest every cent possible in bonds. An arrangement was made to handle them for our employees on the partial payment plan and no interest was charged. They bought very liberally of each loan and to date (Jan. 20, 1919) the company and its employees have subscribed for over $500,000 worth of these bonds. A War Savings Stamp Society had been formed and through this society our employees purchased $20,000 worth of these stamps. The company has given stamps as Christmas presents.

    "In the various war service campaigns the company and employees have subscribed approximately $15,000, divided among the Red Cross, the Y.M.C.A., United War Work and other mediums. There have been thirty-seven of the Radford employees in service. They are Fred Austin, Sol Akers, Dave Austin, Tom Austin, Robert, Albert and Charles Bell, Harold Bienkamper, Blaney Burks, Gilbert Bess, Charles Bowman, Lewis Clark, Jesse Clark, Hugh Dehart, Charles Farmer, Bernard Farmer, Thomas Hoffmaster, Fred Hornbarger, Robert Harvey, Roy Hurd, Arthur James, Ray Kirkner, Milton Kirkner, Harry Laughon, Ernest Long. James F. Miller, H. E. McWane, Forest Otey, Sam Palmer, Henry Rader, Clarence Ring. James Talbert, Mike Wilson, Jake Whitt, Fred Whitt, Russell Wayne, Houston Wilson, and Shep Wimms.

    "On October 1, 1918 the pipe works had an inspiring flag raising. The men piled themselves up on stacked pipes while the townspeople gathered about a small stand for the speakers, erected under a tree. Others drew up closely in their cars. On the platform were Fred McWane, Rev. H. B. Brown, Henry Roberts, Judge Cassell, Rev. M. A. Stevenson, Judge Gardner and Rev. J. H. Whitmore. The flag was raised by Mayor Delp. A special feature was the singing of the colored quartet."

    Radford Extract Works

    The principal product of this plant, which is owned and operated by John H. Heald & Co., Inc., of Lynchburg, is tanning extract used in the tanning of animal hides.

    Practically the entire European country was dependent upon the French for their supply of tanning materials, and when France entered the war the European source of supply was cut off and the Allied governments had to call upon the manufacturers of the United States. The output of our plant during the years 1917 and 1918 was approximately 30,000.000 pounds of extract per annum, this being furnished to tanners under direct contract with the United States and Allied governments to furnish leather for making shoes and other leather goods for their soldiers.

    The selective draft materially affected the organization, but despite the shortage of labor the plant was successful in n maintaining operation at full capacity during the entire war period. The extracts were manufactured from Chestnut Wood, Oak and Hemlock barks furnished by the farmers and others within a radius of sixty miles of Radford.

    Mr. E. E. Heald and Mr. Joe Wyatt of this company were prominent in all the activities of Radford.

    The Harrison Tie and Lumber Company

    This organization continued their activities during the war period. After the government took charge of the railroads they moved their offices to Roanoke and worked directly for the government, severing all connection with the various lumber companies that there should be no entanglements while serving their country. The company worked in what was called the Pocahontas regions, comprising the Norfolk & Western Railway, the Virginian and the Cumberland & Ohio. Mr. Turner and Mr. Myers of the office force were in the service.

    The Radford Ice Corporation

    Dr. John Geisen, one of the founders of the Radford Ice Corporation, was a member of the Radford Medical Corps. He has the following to say in regard to the work of the Radford Ice Corporation during the war: "This company contributed no great part to the winning of the war other than to maintain the business and operate it satisfactorily to tine owners and the public which it served with depleted forces. Its retail coal department was an authorized distributor for the Federal Fuel Administrator in Radford. Its soda water department co-operated in the saving of sugar by reducing the output of soft drinks to seventy-five per cent of the pre-war average. It aided the transportation of perishable foods by railway refrigerator car service by maintaining an icing station in Radford for initially icing and re-icing these cars. Several of its regular employees went into the service of the government anti the company managed to continue to operate without employing other men to take their places.

    THE RED CROSS

    On July 7, 1917, the Red Cross chapter was organized. I.. E. Heald was elected president; J. D. Bird, treasurer, and Miss Marie Louise Galway, secretary.[7] On December 17th a "County Fair" was a decided success, $115 being cleared. Miss Minnie Howe was in charge of the bazaar and deserves much credit for the way she managed it. Those in charge of the different booths were: Mesdames William Ingles, Jr., R. T. Edmondson, A. V. Miles, F. M. Combiths; Misses Virginia Bally and Anne Cassell, all of whom had their associates.[8] In March much wool was needed, and the chapter decided to put on a drive to raise money for this purpose. It was a splendid success.[9]

    Miss Pearl Truxell, school nurse, for the benefit of the Red Cross and from a health stand point, gave the little play "The Bluebird." There were two performances, one at the Colonial and one at Dreamland. The Four-Minute speakers took this opportunity to speak of other phases of war work.[10]

    October 3, 1917, Dr. J. P. McConnell had been appointed superintendent of the Red Cross work in Virginia west of Roanoke County. Prof. W. E. Gilbert was appointed as assistant superintendent of the western division of Virginia. Both Prof. Gilbert and Prof. Avent carried the Red Cross message to many counties.

    May, 1918, one of the greatest demonstrations of patriotism ever held in Radford was a gigantic parade participated in by practically every person in town. Prof. Joseph Avent received something of an ovation as chairmen of this great Red Cross and War Chest Fund drive.

    Among the speakers at the winding up of the drive were Hon. H. C. Tyler, Dr. McConnell, Rev. Mr. Brown, F. M. Jones, Mrs. William Ingles, Jr., Mrs., Walter Roberts, Jr., Mrs. Mark Reid, and A. Roberts. The goal had been set at $5,000, at the final count $15,000 had been raised.

    At the Red Cross annual meeting December, 1918, Rev. J. H. Whitmore was elected president; Mrs. George Lyle, vice-president; G. M. Roberts, treasurer, and Miss Emma Dodds, Secretary. Executive committee-Mrs. W. B. Fuqua, captain; J. G. Osborne, captain; Tom Roberts, Mrs. Fanning Miles, H. C. Tyler, Mrs. Joseph Avent, Dr. McConnell, Mrs. Bricker, and Mr. Luther Copenhaver.[11]

    The Red Cross drive for membership brought the roll up to one thousand. Thomas Jones was elected treasurer of the War Chest Fund, Prof. William E. Gilbert , treasurer of the Red Cross Chapter and Taylor Martin, Red Cross secretary.[12]

    Others who served as officers or heads of departments were Mrs. R. L. Jordon, Mrs. C. R. Epling, Mrs. F. M. Jones, Rev. M. A. Stevenson, Miss Mary W. Montague, Miss Elizabeth Ward. Prof. William Gilbert was treasurer for three year. He was succeeded by Clarence Hall who still holds that office.

    There were two workrooms, one in each ward. The normal school kindly gave a room for tile use of the workers, Min. Mary W. Montague was in charge of it. Mr. Lewis Harvey gave a room in the west ward of which Mrs. George W. Lyle was in charge. Chairmen of the knitting units were: Mrs. C. R. Epling, Mrs. W. B. Fuqua, Mrs. W. H. Painter, Mrs. L. Kearling, Mrs. G. T . Patterson, Mrs. I. J. Bradley, Mrs. Bryan (normal school), Mrs. L. O. Bullard, Mrs. R. Cox, Mrs. Hoge Brown, Mrs. Pamplin, Mrs. G. O. Bank, Mrs. Charles Roby, Miss Lottie Roberts and Mrs. James King.

    Knitting-Mrs. C. R. Epling, chairman-sweaters, 140; helmets, 19 ; socks, 800 pairs; shawls, 9; wristlets, 50 pairs; mufflers, 38; hot water bottle covers, 14, and wash cloths, 12.

    Sewing-Mrs. G. W. Lyle, chairman-refugee garments, 288; garments mended for soldiers at Camp Lee, 2,100; layettes composed of 800 articles, utility bags, 50; Christmas packages, 1.62; bed sheets, 309; pajamas, 56, and a number of night shirts.

    Home Service Committee, Mrs. L. P. Kearsley, chairman; Prof. William E. Gilbert, Miss Virginia Bailey, R. N., and Henry T. Roberts. These served several years. The committee spent about $2,800.00. Telegrams about $4.00. Twenty-five hundred dollars was spent in making public schools sanitary ; approved by headquarters.

    Surgical dressings-Miss Virginia Bailey, R. N., chairman-The Virginia Iron, Coal and Coke Co. and the Lynchburg Foundry[13] gave the long tables for the workers and a large enclosed closet for finished work. The following work was done: 80 gauze strips 6 by 3 yards; 80 gauze compresses 9 by 9 inches; 700 gauze compresses 4 by 4 inches; 6,000 gauze wipes 4 by 4 inches.

    William E. Gilbert, professor social science in Radford State Teachers College, made numerous addresses and organized chapters and branches in several nearby towns and counties. He assisted the chairman in junior Red Cross work also.

    There were three first-aid classes. Dr. W. B. Fuqua conducted one in the west ward in the fall of 1918. This was a large class, those receiving certificates were: Miss Anne Kenderdine, Ruth Nye, Ethel Haney, Mrs. Evelyn Lyle Carneal, Katherine Giesen, Mrs. Elizabeth Sembler and Virginia Bailey. The second class was discontinued on account of influenza. Dr. J. A. Noblin held a class in the east ward, beginning April 1, 1918. Those he instructed were: William Maginnis, Misses Mildred Pamplin, Louie Roberts, Annie K. Roberts, Wary Gladstone, Hazel Wynn, Mary Burgess, Lillian Simmons, Olive Smith, Mary NV. Montague, Mrs. Gordon `V. Roberts and Miss Pearl Truxell, school nurse.

    Dr. J. P. McConnell was appointed State chairman of the junior Red Cross and made frequent visits to Washington and conferred over the activities of this organization.

    During the fall of 1918 when influenza visited every home, Mrs. Mark Reid opened up the Old West End Hotel for an emergency hospital. Soldiers never fought more bravely on the battlefield than the women of Radioed. They were indefatigable in their efforts to aid the sick, the sorrowful and the poor. Those who had had the first-aid lessons were indispensible in nursing.

    There were many boxes sent to the Canteen in Roanoke. Coffee was served at the station in East Radford and to the soldiers on passing trains several times.

    The War Chest Fund was divided as follows: National Red Cross, 40 per cent: Local Red Cross, 40 per cent; Y.M.C.A.. 10 per cent, and Armenian and Syrian Relief, 10 per cent.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    At the time Company M and the Hospital Corps were in camp in the city, every home was open to the men, and all organizations did what they could for their comfort and happiness.

    The Boy Scouts under the able leadership of the Rev. H. A. Stevenson were always ready to answer any call. They helped in parades and campaigns of all kinds, and deserve much credit for their cheerfulness and their loyalty under all conditions.

    The Radford Chapter, U. D. C., and the New River Grays Chapter, U. D. C., contributed money, members and time to all relief work. The Armenian and Syrian Relief work has been carried on through all organizations, industries, and churches.

    During the influenza epidemic the people supplied the. emergency hospital with food and other necessities for weeks at a time. A Liberty Loan drive was on and an urgent call to rally to the War Savings Stamps campaign came at about the same time. Every individual rallied to the call.

    In December, 1914, the following acknowledgment of Belgian contributions appeared in the News:

    "N. & W. Railway Co.,
    "Roanoke, Va., Dec. 10, 1914.

    "MRS. WILLIAM INGLES,
    Radford, Va.

    MY DEAR MRS. INGLES:

    "I thank you very much for your letter of the 9th enclosing check for $44.60 for the Belgian Fund. It is very much appreciated and I think we are doing the work for a very worthy charity.

    "Very truly yours,
    WILLIAM S. BATTLE, JR.,
    Chairman Sixth District.

    The total amount donated was $511.10.

    In May, 1919, the Radford War Camp Community Service was organized with the following executive committee: G. L . Sullivan, chairman: N. C. Hankla, treasurer; H. C. Tyler. W. M. Delp, H. M. Brown, Dr. J. P. McConnell, J. B. Wyatt, F. E. Grayson, Mrs. W. R. Roberts, Mrs. Mark Reid. There was little that this committee could do in this community. It helped the soldiers secure back pay due them by the government, and it helped the boys in securing their liberty bonds and adjusting payments. Some of the men were helped financially. A large number of War Camp Community pins were furnished and also a directory of the Camp Circles in all leading cities.[14].

    At this period there was no branch of the Salvation Army in the city, but during 1918 the people conducted a campaign for funds for this organization. Judge G. E. Cassell was made chairman of the drive. The campaign proved very popular, thirteen hundred dollars being subscribed.

    COMMUNITY SINGS

    Singing in the City of Radford had a place among other war activities and was instrumental in arousing much enthusiasm. Frequent "Sings" were held at public halls, school clubs, movie houses and wherever public gatherings of any kind were held. At these assemblies national songs were sung, songs of home, and songs stressing patriotism, saving and giving. Singing was even engaged in on the occasion of patriotic parades, and when there was to be "rear-platform" speaking at the railroad station singing was included on the program. Many of the special songs for these patriotic rallies were written, both words and music, by Florence C. Baird. Some of these songs used in Radford and the surrounding section were "Stand Behind the Boys," "Kaiser Bill, We're After You." "Buy a Bond," "Help Your Uncle Sammie" and others. "Stand Behind the Boys" was written especially for girls' and women's clubs and was sung during the period when it became necessary to stimulate the drooping spirits of the home folks.

    Miss Baird visited remote rural sections to teach patriotic songs and even vent into places where the realization of war conditions had not penetrated. The R.O.T.C. at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute came in for a share of the "Sings" which Miss Baird instituted before there was a regular song leader at that place. Wherever there was a rally of any consequence in or around Radford, a "Sing" was held in connection with the exercises.

    Miss Baird frequently used a group of students from the State Teachers College to aid her in the singing when visiting near-by towns and in the rural communities. Each "Music Week" during the war period was observed by conducting a number of local "sings." A permanent interest in music seems to have resulted from these war-time songs and it is much easier to arouse interest in musical performances than formerly. "Music Week" is an established part of the annual plans and artist concerts are now possible in the little city.

    VIRGINIA MAY LODGE 38, A. F. AND A. M.

    This fraternity had in service in the World War: S. C. Burton, George W. Bond, H. R. French, William E. Kemp, C. D. Luca, H. L. Morehead, Saul Simon, L. W. Turner, R. E. Vaughan, J. C. Turner, E. R. Wall. Those that saw service overseas were: H. R. French, W. E. Kemp, C. D. Lucas, H. L. Morehead, Saul Simon, L. W. Turner, and R. E. Vaughan. All returned and were honorably discharged.

    The lodge bought $2,500.00 worth of Liberty Bonds and $500-00 worth of War Savings Stamps. Each member in service was issued a Grand Lodge certificate and was exempt from the payment of dues. Masonry in Radford is notably on the increase since the War. This is also true of other fraternities in the city.

    RADFORD WOMAN'S CLUB

    Mrs. W. H. Painter, the war-time secretary of the club, has furnished the following information regarding the war work of this organization.

    The first chairman of the Red Cross in Radford was a member of the Woman's Club as were the three members of the Red Cross knitting committee. Radford's first school nurse was secured by the club. She was Miss Pearl Truxell, head of the surgical dressings department of the Red Cross. Miss Truxell lost her life during the influenza epidemic, giving it as truly and as heroically as did the men on the battlefield. The club encouraged in its programs all patriotic work and gave at least one Red Cross program in its entirety.

    The junior superintendent interested the school children in growing vegetables and had an enthusiastic agricultural club. The club members were all food conservationists and had a committee to follow up the work of the pledge cards signed throughout the city. They each had backyard gardens, observed the government rules regarding sugar and flour substitutes, observed "meatless" and "wheatless" days, etc. When the Thrift program endorsed by national and State federated clubs was inaugurated by our government, Mrs. Mark Reid, then president of the Woman's Club, was made chairman of Thrift in Radford. She at once had a chairman and committee at work in her local club. During the succeeding year a part of the time of each meeting was given to the subject and sometimes the entire meeting resolved itself into a Thrift meeting. One tally on Thrift given by Mrs. Mary Moffitt, a member of the club, is worthy of special mention. Mrs. V. H. Painter, the club Thrift chairman, urged each member to make out a monthly budget and take out her tithe money first and let her savings come next. The following slogan was adopted:

    "Bite off more than you can chew, then chew it,
    Tackle more than you can do, then do it,
    Hitch your wagon to a star, keep your seat and there you are."

    As a result of the saving policy adopted by the club may be quoted the following article sent out to all Virginia papers by the publicity department of the War Loan Organization:

    "What is probably the thrift record for this section of the United States has been made by the Woman's Club of Radford. Replies to questionnaires sent out recently to club members in Virginia, Maryland. West Virginia and the Carolinas show that tile Radford Woman's Club walks off with the honors, having invested in twenty-one Treasury Savings certificates with a maturity value of $100.00 each, 444 War Savings Stamps, and 67 Thrift Stamps. The membership of the club is 40."

    The club held an automobile parade in the interest of the Second Liberty Loan and the amount of bonds purchased by Radford women in this loan had a value of $3,550. In the Third Loan the Woman's Club committee secured $33,950 worth of bonds-a little more than half the amount purchased by the city. The club also bought a bond.

    On December 19, 1921, the Woman's Club unveiled with appropriate ceremony the marble tablets and drinking fountains to the memory of Pearl Truxell, school nurse, who gave her life during the influenza epidemic in October, 1918. This was the second memorial to a nurse ever unveiled in the United States.

    NEGROES OF RADFORD IN THE WAR

    Charles Miller, Missouri Edwards, Mary Julia Jones and others gave valuable assistance during the war. The Rev. Charles Miller has given the writer his written views upon "the value of the war to the colored soldiers" which it is impossible to reproduce here. A few quotations from this paper, however, may be of interest. First he states that approximately one hundred colored men of Radford and immediate vicinity "went forth to serve the government, to face the enemy, to be baptized in the flames and smoke amid the din and roar of the sharp click of death-dealing rifle, mutilating balls and choking, stifling gas bombs, and to prove their value as American soldiers and good citizens." He claims for these men that "their loyalty and willingness was on a parity with any soldiers anywhere."

    Some of the benefits of the war to the colored race are summed up by Rev. Miller as follows:

    1. A knowledge of the power of organization and discipline.
    2. A higher regard for and a better understanding of the laws of health.
    3. A sense of the sacredness of American Citizenship and the responsibility belonging thereto. 4. A desire for a better education.

    In closing his paper this colored minister says that he knows of no place where there is less friction between the races than in the little city of Radford, attributing this to the "fair-minded, liberal-hearted white citizens." He asserts that "the war did not in any way disturb the peaceful relations existing between its here," and gives it as his opinion that whatever change in the relationship of the races may have taken place in other localities because of the war, "one lesson is apparent and has been made plain to us all. That is that the whites of this country are true to teaching, habit, custom, environment and tradition, none of which can be changed, overturned, uprooted, nor set aside in a day."

    POST WAR CONDITIONS

    Plans, all of which proved a failure, were made to welcome the boys home. They returned in small groups at different times and seemed averse to any demonstration whatsoever. Their wishes were respected and after three or four efforts to do them honor and to let them know- how proud Radford was of them they were accepted as quietly as though they were private citizens. Economically, Radford suffered. Prices continued high in proportion to salaries and wages and, while wages have continued to decrease, food and other merchandise seem to continue on the increase.

    Harvey-Howe Post of the American Legion was organized in Radford and the Woman's Auxiliary to the Legion was organized on May 12, 1923, under the leadership of Mrs. R. B. Adam, of Roanoke, district chairman. The following officers were elected: President, Miss Minnie Howe; first vice-president. Mrs. Frank Martin; second vice-president, Mrs. H. T. Bond secretary, Mrs. Ambrose Wilson; treasurer, Mrs. Robert S. Hopkins; chaplain, Mrs. A. S. Johnson; historian, Miss Elizabeth Brown; gold star mother, Mrs. Cora Buck.

    The auxiliary's activities have consisted in the sale of poppies, the presentation of a musical comedy for the benefit of the ex-service men, a social and picnic held jointly with the Legion Post and assistance given in Armistice Day celebration. They have contributed to the following causes: Christmas fund for disabled soldiers at Catawba, grave fund, first aid kit given to the community nurse. A number of articles made by the boys of the Davis clinic at Marion were placed on sale for the benefit of the boys. The chapter was represented at the annual State convention at Fredericksburg.

    NOTES:

    1. Radford News, November, 1924
    2. Radford News, October 31, 1917.
    3. Radford News, May 8, 1918.
    4. Radford News, October, 1918.
    5. Radford News, 1918.
    6. Report of Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
    7. Radford News, July 11, 1917.
    8. Radford News, May 1, 1918.
    9. Radford News, October 3, 1917.
    10. Radford News, May 8, 1918.
    11. Radford News, November 20, 1918.
    12. Radford News, December 25, 1918.
    13. Radford News, Red Cross .Record books and Workers.
    14. Information given by Prof. F. B. Fitzpatrick.
  • Roanoke City

    A Community History

    By ADRIAN DAVANT ANTRIM

    LOCATION AND RESOURCES

    Roanoke is located in a rich agricultural section and is an industrial center. In the territory adjacent to the city, agriculture has for some years been intensified and quite diversified because of the splendid market which the city of Roanoke offers. The leading agricultural activities are truck gardening, dairy- ing, fruit growing, canning, stock raising, and the growing of grain. Farms are usually well equipped with buildings, machinery and live stock.

    Prior to the entrance of the United States into the war and afterwards, agricultural activities were greatly increased because of the larger demand for food products and the higher prices obtainable.

    CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS

    The churches stimulated patriotic activities in every particular and especially by holding at various periods special services, displaying the United States flag and service flags. There were no pacifist clergymen in Roanoke. While deploring war, they preached sermons that led the citizens of the community to believe the end of the military necessity would be righteousness and a God-like peace. Church organizations entered whole-heartedlv with almost martial enthusiasm into plans for the entertainment of soldiers, such plans being many and varied in their nature and scope.

    The public schools played an important role in arousing the public conscience and promoting a united interest. Mr. D. E. McQuilken, Superintendent of Schools, and teachers of the entire system were untiring in their endeavors along patriotic lines. Each time the Red Cross work was presented there was a response from the schools of one hundred per cent enrollment. Despite the fact that the schools were closed twice during the influenza epidemic, membership fees from the school children in the Junior Red Cross amounted to $4.313.75. By completing 6,567 articles the schools rendered some wonderful and beneficial aid to the Red Cross. Another important piece of work was the making of packing boxes for the Senior Chapter by the manual training department of the. Junior High School. This department was kept open during summer vacation for the first time in order to continue this work, 40 boxes being reported. The schools supported twenty-six French orphans from the Junior Red Cross funds. The "fun books," which were a source of pleasure and amusement to many a heart-sick soldier boy, were made by the hundreds in the Roanoke schools.

    COLLEGES

    The faculty and students of Virginia College, a school for young women situated in Roanoke, gave much of their time even before America went into the conflict, in aiding French and English soldiers. For five years they supported three French orphans, while several members of the faculty adopted one or more Belgian soldiers, writing regularly to them, sending them knitted goods and Christmas boxes.

    Mrs. Gertrude Boatwright, vice-president of V irginia College. was president of the Woman's Branch of the Association of Commerce, chairman of Naval knitting unit and lieutenant of the Red Cross canteen committee. In her canteen work. Mrs. Boatwright donated postals and many delicacies to the men passing through the city. Many soldiers remember with delight her generous hospitality and her perfect confidence in their integrity as, while waiting between trains, she took them to her school and, after feasting them, permitted them to dance with the girls until train time.

    The faculty and students of the college knitted aver 500 garments and aided the city in the Liberty Bond drives, purchasing liberally themselves. Each week during the war the students practiced one day of self-denial, using the money thus saved to buy wool for the soldiers. Before the 318th Infantry from Camp Lee went overseas, about thirty of these boys who came to Roanoke to give a minstrel show ("A Night Attack") were entertained by Virginia College, the girls serving as ushers for the entertainment.

    The students and staff of Hollins College, located outside of Roanoke, responded as a whole to any demand made upon them. Under an instructor, several boxes of surgical dressings were made. They participated in Liberty Loan drives and bought War Savings Stamps liberally. They also tools part in a number of parades. Professor Estes Cocke waged a separate War Chest campaign and raised $10,000.

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Twenty-five hundred and ten Roanoke men registered in the draft, ages eighteen to thirty-one. There were two draft boards. Roy B. Smith was chairman of Board No. 1, and H. D. Guy, chairman of Board No. 2. Examining physicians were Dr. Leigh Buckner, Dr. E. C. Ambler, Dr. H. E. Jones and Dr. John O. Boyd. The lawyers of the city volunteered their services to these boards, rendering valuable assistance.

    The first contingent of drafted men left the city on September 5, 1917, and was composed of Hill Powers, Frederick C. James, Maces West, Hill Bowden and Cecil Morris.

    Recruiting stations were maintained in Roanoke by the Army, the Navy, and the Marine Corps. Many Roanokers went into the service through these branches. Between twenty-five hundred and thirty-two hundred men were enlisted.

    One little incident of interest that demonstrates the ability of the recruiting office to educate the people, pertains to a shoe merchant who wished to display a patriotic window while advertising his goods. He draped a flag upon the floor and placed the shoes very neatly upon it. Viewing it complacently and with satisfaction he went' home to rest. He was called out of bed about two A. M. by a recruiting officer who explained the disrespect to the flag, had him remove the shoes and showed hint the proper way in which, to handle the flag. The merchant was patriotic enough not to resent the lesson.

    The Second Virginia Infantry. National Guard, after service on the Mexican Border, came to Virginia, and for a few weeks of the summer of 1917 was stationed at the Fair Grounds in Roanoke. The regimental commander was Colonel Robert F. Leeds. In this regiment was a company of Roanokers. The officers of the company were: L. G. Figgat, captain; Charles F. Krouse, Vernon H. Speese. James C. Jessup and James H. Phillips, first lieutenants, and harry F. Powell, second lieutenant.

    On September 5, 1917, the company, along- with the rest of the regiment, left Roanoke for Camp McClellan, Anniston, Ala. Company F went to France, being one of the units of the 116th U. S. Infantry, 29th Division, and received honorable mention from General Pershing for its splendid service.

    The First Company of Coast Artillery, National Guard, was composed of Roanokers. Henry K. McHarg, Jr., captain Caesar Massei, first lieutenant, and Henry K. '1-ice, second lieutenant. The company, after doing guards duty in Roanoke, and guarding the railroad in the spring of 1917, entrained for Fort Monroe, NJ. It was then sent to Camp Mills, Mineola, L. L, N. Y., and became a part of the 117th Trains Headquarters and Military Police, 42nd Division. The unit vent to France in 1917. A "Mother's Club" was organized for this company which did a great work for them while they were overseas and gave them a big barbecue to celebrate their homecoming. Mrs. J. C. Cook was president of the club; Mrs. Geo. Markley, secretary, and Mrs. A. P. Repass, treasurer.

    The Fifth Company of Coast Artillery was organized in Roanoke with Marshall Milton, captain; Lawrence S. Woods, first lieutenant; J. C. Holmes, second lieutenant, and Carol McCredy, first sergeant. The unit went to Fortress Monroe in 1917 and in 1918 was assigned to duty in France as an aircraft unit. When this company was first organized they had no quarters. An appeal for homes was made in our papers and at least fifty homes responded and these men were scattered over the city for two weeks at the end of which time the old Stratford Hotel was given to them for headquarters.

    An earnest, orderly company of volunteers, thev had man-,friends. Just before they left for Fortress Monroe a beautiful ball was given them at Hotel Roanoke, with Miss Gertrude McConnell and Mrs. Adrian Davant Antriam as sponsors and most of the citizens as patrons. Mrs. Fred Foster, of Hotel Roanoke. was more than generous to all the soldiers, but with this company she was particularly so, sending them cigars, cigarettes, and many other luxuries as long as they could be sent.

    In France the Fifth Coast Artillery was changed to Battery B, 60th Artillery and they received, about the last of October, 1917, a citation for splendid work done in getting the battery into position over bad roads, under shell fire, thus assisting to get all traffic in that sector straightened out.

    The Eleventh Company of Coast Artillery-L. H. Justis, captain; Robert H. Cutshall, first lieutenant, and C. A. McHugh, Jr., second lieutenant, was organized in Roanoke in 1917. mustered into the service, sent to Fortress Monroe early in 1.918 and from there assigned to duty in Chester, Pa., where it remained throughout the war in very active home service.

    When the National Guard was called into service, Governor Westmoreland Davis through his Adjutant General Jo Lane Stern, issued a call for volunteers to guard the home State. Roanoke's response was one worthy of the highest commendation. Four companies composed of the finest type of citizenship, men who loved their fellowmen, and proved their love by service, were organized as follows:

    Company A-John C. Cooke, captain; C. W. Richardson, first lieutenant, and Charles E. Turner, second lieutenant.

    Company B-William Mounfield, captain; H. A. Davies, first lieutenant, and G. C. Friend, second lieutenant.

    Company C-Henry L. Francis, captain; Tai; yes «'. Hatcher, first lieutenant, and Thurston E. Frantz second lieutenant.

    Company D-R. F. Taylor, captain; B. M. Hartman, first lieutenant, and W. R. Engleby, second lieutenant.

    On October 23rd, 1917, these companies were mustered into service and authority given to establish Battalion Headquarters with R. Frank Taylor as Major; W. H. Howell Adjutant; Thomas W. Spindle, Quartermaster; Garland Calhoun, Sergeant Major; Gordon H. Baker, Quartermaster-Sergeant, and R. A. Sinclair, Color Sergeant. This was the "Jo Lane Stern Battalion."

    A strong citizens' committee headed by the mayor, Charles M. Broun, gave financial support to the extent of more than $20,000 far uniform equipment and the city- furnished quarters in the new capacious city auditorium where daily drills were held by some detachment and the battalion drilled weekly. From this command twenty men entered the United States service as commissioned officers and 120 as non-commissioned officers. The battalion was mustered out of service in January, 1920.

    The Women's Auxiliary to the Jo Lane Stern Battalion of Infantry, Virginia volunteers, was organized in October, 1917, for the purpose of rendering aid and encouragement to the men of the battalion in their social and military affairs, and to stimulate their activities generally. Mrs. R. Frank Taylor was president and Mrs. John C. Cook was secretary.

    The. auxiliary, with the aid of a contribution of twenty dollars from the Suffrage League of Roanoke, purchased material for a Virginia flag. This flag, even to the fringe, was made by hand by the members with the exception of the field, which was solidly and handsomely embroidered by a Miss Kessler, an invalid. The whole finished product was valued at more than one hundred dollars and was presented to the battalion by- the president of the auxiliary at a public entertainment ands drill held at the city auditorium.

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    In answer to the appeal for increased food production and conservation, through the Roanoke Association of Commerce, a woman's branch to the association was formed with Mrs. Gertrude Boatwright, president; Mrs. Adrian Davant Antriam, vice-president, and Mrs. C. C. Ellis, secretary. This organization brought to Roanoke experts in food conservation, and through its woman workers was instrumental in obtaining co-operation and a hearty willingness to save food at home, that our bays abroad might have a few luxuries. City and county schools served joyfully in this respect, making an impress on the people and paving the way for the Hooverism which quickly overtook us. The spirit which entered into this newly-created and much-needed service is not to be under estimated.

    The Food Administration for the City of Roanoke, during and after the World War was composed of S. D. Ferguson, Local Administrator, with the following staff: W. B. Lovvorn, Administrator of Flour, Meal and Feed; E. B. Fishburn, Administrator of Perishable Foods; J. A. Turner, Administrator of Ice, and A. M. Clay, Administrator of Publicity. This group of business men was most efficient and contributed good service to food conservation.

    In almost every instance where the laws were violated the Food Administrator found that it was done either through ignorance, or a desire for personal gain on the part of the tradesman. When the Food Administrator took up with these violators the question of complying with the law, it was found that they not onlv did what they could to correct the wrong but were much better American citizens than before.

    The farmers co-operated magnificiently with the government in obtaining maximum production and there was great increase in the production of live stock and cereals. Women worked valiantly in gardens and on farms, taking the places of their men.

    The industries of Roanoke adjusted themselves immediately to war conditions and various items were manufactured for the government, such as overalls, uniforms and structural steel.

    The men called into service naturally depleted the ranks of those engaged in agriculture and industry, but in nearly every case farmers and industrial concerns were able to fill tip the ranks and production increased rather than decreased. As commodity prices advanced under war conditions, the scale of wages for labor advanced accordingly.

    Most of Roanoke's population is native horn, the City of Roanoke and surrounding territory being approximately eighty per cent native white, eighteen and one-half per cent native negro and one and one-half per cent foreign born. The section did not lose many negro laborers because of the demand for labor in the North. This is probably due to the small percentage of negro residents.

    The foreign-born element is confined almost exclusively to the city. It is made up largely of Assyrians and Greeks, with a few Italians, Hungarians and Chinese.

    While there was some pro-German and anti-English feeling, it was scattered and non-assertive save in a few instances. One citizen, well-known for his German affiliations, was knocked down in a public place for treasonable utterances and was somewhat damaged. This incident, accompanied by dire threats against similar offenders, was broadcast and had a wholesome and quelling effect. Most of the foreign-born citizens demonstrated their patriotism through active participation in various war activities, giving of their money and tinge in war work. The Greeks and Assyrians were particularly active in organizing themselves for effective service and in giving to the Red Cross, to the War Chest, and in purchasing Liberty Bonds.

    The amount of subscriptions to the four liberty loans and the Victory Loan in Roanoke amounted to $12.897,800. This amount being $2,496,740 over the quota. W. C. Stephenson was director. Mrs. L. Franklin Moore had charge of the street groups for these drives and made an enviable record in this important work. Edward L. Stone was director of the war savings stamps and G. G. Gooch, Jr., deceased, was managing director. The schools and citizens after a little practice of thrift became enthusiastic and thousands of dollars were saved.

    THE RED CROSS

    Roanoke will ever cherish the memory of the Red Cross and its wonderful achievements at this period of her history. It was to a great extent through the Red Cross that there was revealed to us the appreciation of real values. The following digest will demonstrate the ability and concentration of Roanoke members.

    The Roanoke chapter was organized in July, 19'16, but only began work when diplomatic relations were broken off and the National Red Cross wired our chapter to secure headquarters, organize certain committees, and be prepared for work. The chapter secured headquarters in the Hammond Building on South Jefferson Street, and opened them, equipped for work, and organized on February 22, 1917. It was the first chapter in the State to open headquarters for work.

    The headquarters were in a large new building, conveniently and centrally located. The use of this building was given the Roanoke Red Cross free of charge for the entire period of the war and until the spring of 1919, by the Hammond Printing & Litho. Works. The electricity for lighting and for the electric motors and tile cutting machines was furnished without cost by the Roanoke Railway & Electric Co.

    Prior to securing the Hammond Building as headquarters for the Red Cross work, the home of Mrs. T. S. Davant was given over to the use of a committee of fifteen women who came daily to sew, and who, with the aid of five sewing machines, made numbers of articles.

    The officers of the Roanoke Chapter were Mrs. S. V'. Jamison, deceased, who, as organizer, served as chairman from the beginning. She brought to the Red Cross work a vision, sound judgment, and an enthusiasm which never failed. Mrs. Edward Stone was vice-chairman. Mrs. Stone managed and personally financed a large knitting unit during the entire period of the war. She was most active and successful in the sale of liberty bonds. Mrs. Paul Blackwell was the faithful and untiring secretary. Miss Pauline Massie was the treasurer, and was also a lieutenant of the canteen committee. John B. Newton was chairman of the finance committee, which was composed of L. E. Johnson, deceased, T. W. Goodwin, Edward L. Stone, C. E. Michael, A. J. Kennard, Joseph A. Turner, N. D. Maher, 1=I. C. Elliott and T. S. Davant, deceased.

    W. R. Moore, chairman of the Home Service and Civilian Relief Committee, brought to the work his executive ability being one of the State agents of the Equitable Insurance Company. His knowledge of insurance helped the soldiers and their families, and his interest and patriotism made him give much valuable time from his business to the work of this committee.

    Soon after the headquarters was opened, came the order for the first Red Cross War Fund drive, with Roanoke's quota of $50,000.00. We had not learned then to think in large figures and that amount was thought to be absurdly impossible. After consultation with the Finance Committee, it was decided to ask L. E. Johnson, the well-known president of the Norfolk and Western Railroad, to be chairman of the drive. Mr. Johnson, since his coming to Roanoke some twenty years ago, had always identified himself with Roanoke's best interests. He accepted the chairmanship and threw himself into the work with the utmost enthusiasm, with the result that Roanoke raised $110,000.00. We fairly gasped with surprise that it could be done. In connection with this campaign, Mr. John W. Waynick gave, through the Roanoke Red Cross Chapter, a Cadillac Ambulance, thoroughly equipped. This was turned over to the U. S. Army and sent by them to France.

    By the time another drive was necessary so many demands were taking the time of the business men that it was deemed wise to pool the interests of the various activities and organize a Community War Chest. Mr. L. E. Johnson was again made chairman, raising for the Red Cross the quota of $50,000.00 for the second National War Fund and giving to the Roanoke chapter $44,000.00 for its own use. T. W. Goodwin, a banker of Roanoke, was the efficient treasurer of both of these drives, all the work of collecting war funds being done from his office.

    The fact that the chapter had such generous funds to work with, enabled it to produce an unusually large number of supplies. In the sewing department, of which Mr. S. B. Cary was supervisor, the number of articles sent out including hospital linen, patients' garments, and refugee garments, was 48,036. The department was well organized with various committees, 12 sewing machines, two electric motors and electric cutting machines. Also much work was given out to be done at home and by the branches and auxiliaries.

    The knitting department showed wonderful results. Mrs. E. T. Burnett was the chairman and turned in a total of 38,253 knitted articles. There was devised for this department a rather unique system, the committee working through knitting unit each unit's chairman being held responsible for the work of her unit, as to production, quality and amount of wool received. There were 98 of these units. Miss Marion Maher, who was in the motor service in New York, also acted as chairman of the wool committee and later Miss Lila Jamison was in charge. It is interesting to note that the fire department knitted 3,135 pairs of socks.

    Mrs. Joseph E. Crawford, chairman of the hospital supplies and surgical dressings committee, carried on the work of both departments until they had grown so that it was necessary to have separate headquarters with a chairman for each department. She was untiring, most efficient, and of unusual executive ability. She gave up the greater part of her time to the work until instructions came that it was no longer needed. This committee made 241,319 dressings, and 2,500 influenza masks.

    Other chairmen who served faithfully and well were: Mrs. J. H. Whitner, chairman of extension committee; Mrs. R. Frank Taylor and Mrs. Elizabeth F. Sinclair, chairmen of comfort kits committee and Christmas boxes. Over 3,000 comfort kits were sent away. Much of this work was financed through the efforts of these two women. Mrs. John Miles was chairman of publicity; Mrs. James R. Schick and Mrs. J. M. Snyder, chairmen of the packing committee; Mrs. J. W. Preston, chairman of the reclamation committee, and also chairman of the motor service for the delivery of meals during the influenza epidemic. Mrs. Lawrence S. Davis was chairman of magazine distribution. Miss Lucinda Lee Terry was commander of the canteen committee.

    Early in the canteen work the Norfolk and Western built an artistic and convenient but in the corner of the Hotel Roanoke grounds to be used for canteen service. This was completely equipped by John B. Guernsey, light, heat, water and ice being furnished free by the Norfolk & Western Railroad as was the gas for cooking by the Roanoke Gas Light Co. As the interest in the work grew and its importance was recognized, many other conveniences were added by the Norfolk & Western and by interested individuals.

    From April 27, 1918, to October 31, 1919, when the Canteen Service was discontinued, 222,100 men were served. One important feature of the work consisted in the removal from trains of men taken ill or injured enroute and sending them to hospitals. When ready to leave the hospital they were taken to the trains and lunches provided for the journey.

    In addition to the lighter refreshments, 2,200 meals were served in the hut The Canteen was recognized as an order station which could procure anything on less than an hour's notice. The workers served as early as 6 A. M., and as late as 2 A. M., when called upon. The Roanoke canteen was on the list at headquarters as a transfer station, with ambulance, doctors and hospital service. The volunteer work of Mrs. E. V. Gookin as purchasing agent is to be highly, commended.

    The people of Salem were most generous in their contributions of food and money. A committee from the Salem chapter served with the Roanoke Canteen Committee on certain days of the week. There was a total of fifty-eight auxiliaries and branches of Roanoke Chapter, A. R. C. The branches and auxiliaries were a valuable force in the life and work of the chapter. Through them the interest was made widespread, the work was broadened, and the output increased.

    The Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. both played a very active part in promoting the work of the Red Cross in Roanoke and due acknowledgment is hereby made to the splendid services rendered by these two organizations.

    Some of those who received the Red Cross Service Medal for a maximum number of hours devoted to the work were: Mesdames S. W. Jamison, Ernest B. Fishburn, Byrd Newton, Mamie Lee Jeffrey, A. R. Bowdre, «'. D. Maher, George MacBain E. V. Gookin, Paul A. Blackwell and J. E. Crawford; Misses Lila Jamison, Lila Terry, Lucinda Lee Terry, Marion Maher. and Pauline Massie.

    NEGRO WAR WORK

    The history of Roanoke's work during the World War would not be complete without mention of the part played by the colored citizens, numbering about 10,000. It has been impossible to secure accurate records of their achievements or the names of those serving in the various departments, for tile reason that, in most cases, what the colored citizens did was not recorded separately from the work of the white citizens, but was considered a part of the work at large. In the purchase of bonds, War Savings Stamps, etc., the men who were the most liberal contributors were those in the railway shops and the records do not show any distinction between white and colored workers. The same condition exists with reference to the work done by the colored women, it having been considered a part of the work of Roanoke women irrespective of color or race. It is well known, however, that during the dark days of the war, while the world waited for the outcome of the conflict beyond the seas, there were none more loyal and true that the Roanoke negroes.

    The negro churches and schools were the centers of activities pertaining to the war, both in the holding of religious services and in the conducting of patriotic meetings. Too much cannot be said in praise of the negro ministers and teachers as leaders of their people during those days of war. The ministers, led by Dr. L. L. Downing, Rev. E. E. Hicks, Rev. «`. W. Hicks, Rev. J. R. Lauderback and others, devoted much time to speech making at public meetings and in holding numerous shop meetings. All of the colored ministers rendered counsel and advice to their people and urged them to be loyal and faithful to the country under whose flag they lived. The colored schools did some splendid work, buying $989.60 worth of war stamps and making numerous articles for the Red Cross. The teachers were active in the purchase of Liberty bonds. The only male teacher connected with the colored schools served overseas. The three schools, Harrison, Gregory and Gainsborough, supported a French war orphan each for two years.

    POST WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    Early in April, 1919, C. Francis Cocke, a young lawyer of Roanoke, in response to a telegram from Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., agreed to accept the chairmanship for the State of Virginia to see that temporary local legion posts were organized throughout the State with a view to electing delegates to represent Virginia at the National Caucus to be held in St. Louis, where the American Legion was launched as a national organization. At this convention Mr. Cocke was elected permanent chairman of Virginia, which position he held until the first State convention was held in Roanoke in October, 1919. He was the first commander of the Roanoke Post No. 3. The auxiliary to Post 3 is an active unit, assisting them in all their work, especially in rehabilitation.

    Roanoke also has a Foreign War Veterans post, a Disabled War Veterans' post, a Veterans' War bureau, a Red Cross relief office, a Vocational Training office and a Salvation Army-all very active.

    The return of the soldier was eagerly awaited by the people at home and everything possible was done for his reception and comfort. In practically every case his position was held for him and on his return he was able to pick up his vocation or business where he laid it down on entering the war.

    Roanoke had a great celebration of the Armistice and extended a warm and hearty welcome to the soldier on his home-coming.

    The city has just completed a beautiful concrete bridge across Roanoke River at 13th Street, which is dedicated to those who passed beyond the Great River in the war, and the bridge is officially named "Memorial Bridge."

    Argonne Circle a lovely spot in the southwest residential section of the city, has been dedicated to the soldiers and a very fitting monument has been presented by the Margaret Lynn Lewis Chapter, D. A. R.

    Roanoke gave to each returning soldier a Roanoke City Medal. As quickly as possible after the Armistice, Roanoke converted all war agencies into institutions for peace and the best efforts of the entire community have been devoted to the establishment of peace conditions and the adjustment necessary in passing from war-time activities to those of peace.

    After the war was over the Attorney General asked the local Food Administrator to appoint a Fair Price Committee whose duty is was to check prices of various commodities. Mrs. E. Z. White was the leading spirit of this committee, rendering willing and capable aid wherever needed.

    The Veterans' Bureau, opened in Roanoke under the auspices of the Federal Government, has done a great deal toward the vocational training and education of the ex-soldiers.


    NOTE.-It has been difficult to secure facts relating to Roanoke's war-time activities because few records were kept. Due to this lack of records we have probably omitted, unintentionally, the names of men and women who were particularly active during the war period. The committee desires to pay generous tribute to all who participated in Roanoke's many activities. They were all inspired by a single purpose-to help bring about a lasting peace for democratic people.

  • Scott County

    A Community History

    By ROBERT MILFORD ADDINGTON

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    Scott County is one of the extreme southwest counties of Virginia. It is traversed by a number of narrow, trough-like valleys extending northeast and southwest. These valleys are separated by Little Pine, Clinch, Stone and Powell's Mountains, and Copper and Moccasin Ridges.

    The valleys are drained by the north fork of Holston and Clinch Rivers, and Moccasin and Copper Creeks and their tributaries. The county area of about 528 square miles is divided into thousands of small farms upon which are located most of the homes of its 24,826 people. These people, for the most part, earn their living in agricultural pursuits, and were thus engaged when the war of 1917 came on to disturb "the even tenor of their-way" by upsetting many of the old economic and social usages to which they had been long accustomed.

    The people of Scott County, who, in August, 1914, read the news items from overseas, stating that Germany had declared war against France, and had violated the neutrality of Belgium, little thought that the war thus begun would ever assume such proportions as to have any direct personal interest to them. The probability of the United States becoming involved in a war so far away seemed too remote to be considered. Some sympathy was felt for Belgium because her rights had been so ruthlessly trampled upon, and some admiration was felt also for the plucky little nation that so bravely fought to protect her sovereignty and turn back her brutal despoiler. Aside from these feelings of sympathy and admiration, the average Scott Countian had little or no interest in the war at this time. By and by, as the war dragged on year after year and nation after nation became involved in it, as Germany's submarine policy, like a giant octopus, reached out to destroy the commerce and lives of neutral and enemy nations alike, the sense of justice and fair play, characteristic of Scott County people, was powerfully appealed to. The apathetic interest in matters pertaining to the war, which had prevailed in its earlier stages, at length began to quicken. This increased interest was to he measured in part by the avidity with which all classes of the people now began to read newspapers and periodicals. Those who were not already subscribers to some newspaper subscribed, and many of those who were already receiving papers, subscribed for others. In this way the county, to an extent never before known, was transformed into a newspaper-reading public. This ever-increasing newspaper audience was daily becoming more and more responsive to the teachings and leadership of the press. Pathetic incidents, such as the execution of Edith Cavell, the drowning of Leon C. Thrasher, the first American to fall victim to Germany's submarines, and especially the sinking of the Lusitania with its precious cargo of more than a thousand human lives, including one hundred Americans, were placed upon the throbbing heart of the county. Yet in spite of these incidents and the sympathy which their recital called forth, there was a deep-seated aversion on the part of the majority of Scott County people to entering this war. However, it was not possible to behold such a struggle as that daily being presented to them in the public press without taking sides. Public opinion was divided, but divided into very unequal parts. The majority sympathized with the Allies. A few-a very few-sympathized with Germany-and this number was mostly made up of those who were unable to forget the circumstances of our Revolutionary War with England.

    Such editorial utterances as the following appeared in the Gate City Herald:

    "Gentlemen, you may take sides with Germany- it gives you pleasure to do so. As for us, we are Americans and stand for America. Long live the Stars and Stripes."[1]

    "Talk for Germany- and abuse the French all you please, then tell us, please, how it is that German spies are prowling through this country and French spies have never done so."[2]

    The recital of the cruel incidents of the war-and the newspapers were rather full of such things-instead of provoking belligerent thoughts in the minds of the people, tended to increase the aversion to war already existing. Many thought. or at least hoped, that the necessity for war could be removed by diplomatic agencies: that all differences could be composed by some favorable agreement, peaceably arrived at.

    On account of our relations with Mexico, the newspapers, in the early days of the war, had much to say about preparedness, but the people of the county manifested little interest in the subject. For the most part they regarded the agitation for preparedness as propaganda disseminated by the manufacturers of munitions of war and by military men.

    On April 6, 1917, Congress voted to declare war against Germany. This declaration was followed closely by the announcement that the military forces of the United States would be composed of men chosen by selective draft, and June 5, 1917, was named as the day on which the drafting would begin.. The tone of the newspapers changed almost overnight. They now set for themselves the task of changing and shaping public opinion in conformity with the course determined upon by the President and Congress. Only momentarily was there pause and inertia, not to say uncertainty, as to the unanimity with which public opinion would sustain the action of the President and Congress. However, in the short space of sixty days Scott County public opinion was changed from strong opposition to the war to active and hearty co-operation in carrying it on.

    CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS

    The Christian people of the county, without regard to denominational preferences, sincerely believed that the United States had entered the war for just, unselfish and humanitarian reasons. Hence the churches, without hesitation, assisted in the various drives made in the interest of Belgian Relief, the Red Cross, the Y.M.C.A. and the W. C. T. U. Special services for soldiers were held in the churches. In the newspaper accounts of church services during the war period such texts as these are found: "The War at the End of Three Years," "Bolsheviki," and "Our Daily Bread" (a sermon on the Conservation of food).

    The schools and churches of the county actively participated in the various campaigns or drives launched in the interest of war work. School children gave to Belgian Relief and Junior Red Cross funds. All public exercises, even school commencements, were decidedly patriotic in tone. "Duty and Patriotism" was the subject of the literary address in one of the high schools. The subject, "Resolved, That selective conscription is the most effective and the most satisfactory means of raising an army to satisfy any demands of our country during the present war," was publicly debated at the commencement exercises of Shoemaker High School, 1917.

    The Scott County Teachers' Association, at its annual meeting in 1917, discussed military training, Red Cross work and food conservation.

    School children constituted no small part of the audiences in the various war works campaigns. Shoemaker High School students often came in a body to the court house on occasions of public speaking.

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY MATTERS

    The first draft day passed without an unfavorable incident anywhere, and Scott County, together with the rest of the country, was in the World War.

    Under date of May 19, 1917, C. W. Dougherty, sheriff, was notified by Governor Stuart that he had been appointed a member of the Board of Registration for Scott County. He was directed to appoint registrars at each voting precinct in the county, and to wire the names of the persons so appointed on May 25th.[3]

    The registrars at the various voting precincts of the county were as follows: France, J. A. Ford; Rye Cove, J. H. Johnson; Duffield, M. S. Jennings; Clinchport, W. A. Pierson; Pattonsville, Charlie H. Neely; Rollers, T. M. Darnell; Jennings, H. H. Reynolds; Powers, T. J. Freeman; Estillville, Robert Benton; Winingers, W. T. Shelton; Big Cut, J. I?. Metcalfe; Smiths, F. G. Pannell; Stony Point, U. S. McMurray ; Hiltons, C. J. Hilton; Nickelsville, N. T. Moor; Addington, J. H. Redwine; Stoney Creek, J. M. Harris; Peters, W. H. Nash; Osbornes Ford, Esau Huneycutt; Hoges Store, F. B. Horne.[4]

    At the same time the notice of registration was given, a call was made for a meeting of all patriotic citizens of the county. This meeting was to be held at the court house on June 2, 1917, just two days prior to the draft. The call was signed by J. F. Sergent, J. H. Johnson, Sam'l Haynes, J. H. Peters and A. W. Stair, committee.[5]

    "Saturday (June 2) patriotism rode on the crest of the wave in Gate City. The people came out from all sections of the county and demonstrated that mountaineers are still lovers of liberty and of their country."[6]

    Patriotic addresses were delivered by Rev. C. R. Cruikshank and Rev. G. A. Crowder, E. T. Carter, J. H. Peters and Prof. P. T. Fugate. Patriotic airs were rendered by the Kingsport Band. This meeting was considered a success because it angered well for the draft.[7]

    There were 1,756 white men in the county who registered for the first draft and 41 colored men, making a total of 1,797. The number of white registrants by precincts were as follows: Stony Creek, 192; Peters, 79; Estillville, 221; Big Cut, 88; Winingers, 61 ; Hoges Store, 42; Osborns Ford, 109; Hiltons, 43; Smiths, 60; Stony Point, 67; Addington, 68; Nickelsville, 157; Jennings, 60; Pattonsville, 77; Powers, 57; Rollers, 73; Clinchport, 81; Duffield, 51; Frances, 59; Rye Cove, 94; registered by the board, 17. Colored registrants by precincts were Stoney Creek, 9; Estillville, 18; Big Cut, 4; Osborns Ford, 7; Pattonsville, 1 ; Powers, 1; Rollers, 1.[8]

    The draft was the chief topic of interest to the people of the county during the summer of 1917. Few, indeed, were the families that were not affected by it. Like the Destroying Angel that passed over Egypt, it came into the homes of the county and set apart the strongest and most promising for the god of war. Many were the speculations as to the kind of offering fate or chance would bring to the young man of military age. Both the draftees and their anxious friends tried to remove the uncertainty and solve the mystery that hung over it all. Anything was better than suspense. To the untraveled drafted man a trip overseas was an adventure that admitted of many dangers. Therefore, service in this country was sought in preference to service in the trenches. Most of the volunteering was done in the hope that a choice might be had as to the kind of service.

    All persons drawn in the first draft were called by the local board for physical examination on August 6, 7 and 8, 1917. The order numbers of those included in this call ran from 1 to 365, inclusive. Emmett McClellan, of Wayland, Virginia, held order number 1.[9]

    On August 21, 1917, the second contingent of drafted men was called to appear before the local board for physical examination. The order numbers of these men ran from 366 to 764, inclusive.[10]

    The local examining board was composed of Dr. C. R. Fugate, physician; C. W. Dougherty, sheriff, and J. F. Richmond, county clerk.[11]

    Of the 400 young men first called before the board 57 failed to pass and 343 were pronounced sufficiently robust to endure the hardships and fatigues of army life. Of the number that passed, 268 claimed exemption, the greater part of them doing so because of the fact that they had families dependent upon them. A few made the plea of dependent parents; 75 did not apply for exemption. Those claiming exemption were given ten days in which to file certificates supporting their claims.[12]

    "Whatever some may think about it, the Herald is convinced that our Local Exemption Board has striven to discharge its duty with the utmost fairness to all. It has had a big task, one that would sorely test the patience of any group of men. Besides, the board had specific instructions by which to be guided, and little was left optional with it. Our country had to meet grave conditions and the board was appointed to meet these conditions here. If you have been disposed to criticize any act of the board, pause and reflect, put yourself in the place of the men who have gone so patiently through the stupendous task, then we think you will be less critical. The board deserves our gratitude for the manner in which it has discharged its ditty, and is discharging it.[13]

    The first contingent of soldiers sent from Scott County to Camp Lee were as follows: Daniel Rhoton, Clinchport ; Hugh Summers, Bellamy ; Benjamin Rhoton Clinchport ; An-10S Ervin, Clinchport; Preston Wm. Elliott, Mack; Win. Pressley Elliott, Nickelsville : Ballard Chandler, Fairview; Hubert Adolphus Quillin, Gate City; John Henry Berry, Riggs: Lucian Horton Wininger, Yuma; Joe Wolfe Jessee, Nickelsville.[14]

    The local board placed Hubert A. Quillin in charge of this group. The day of entraining was made an occasion for a patriotic celebration. Stores, offices and business houses were closed, court adjourned, and a great crowd assembled at the station to bid the boys good-bye.

    The ladies of the W.C.T.U. presented each of the young men with a bouquet of flowers and a khaki bag or comfort kit, each containing a New Testament, a pair of scissors and other articles useful in camp life.[15]

    On Sunday, September 16, 1917, all the churches of Gate City united in services held for the benefit of the young men who were to go to Camp Lee on the 19th of September. The sermon was preached by the Rev. Samuel Wolfe, of Knoxville, Tenn., from the text, "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends."[16]

    On Wednesday, September 19, 1917, the local board sent a second contingent of 72 men to Camp Lee. Hundreds of friends and relatives of the men gathered at the station. The local band rendered patriotic airs. The people, though serious, restrained their emotions that the young soldiers might take their departure in a cheerful frame of mind. Charles Clinton Pendleton was put in charge of the soldiers, with J. D. Carter, Jr., and Robert McConnell as assistants. Two extra passenger coaches in which the young soldiers were to be carried to Bristol were brought to Gate City on the day preceding. Little school girls from the Shoemaker High School presented each young man with a beautiful bunch of flowers. The W. C. T. U. of Gate City and Nickelsville presented each of the soldiers with comfort kits.[17]

    "Last Tuesday the following men went to Camp Lee, having by some means been prevented from going with the others on Saturday before: Conley Arwood, Isaac Gilliam, Patton Peters, Conley Wise. Scott now has 157 men in Camp Lee. The remaining men who should have gone with the last contingent were prevented from doing so by illness. They have all made satisfactory explanations to the Exemption Board and expressed a willingness to go as soon as they are able. This makes a fine showing for Scott County."[18]

    On October 29th the first contingent of colored soldiers were sent to Camp Lee. On the Friday night preceding a banquet and rally for the colored people was held at the Prospect colored school house. Patriotic addresses were made by E. T. Carter and others. On the day of entrainment the W. C. T. U. presented each colored soldier with a comfort kit similar to those presented to the white soldiers.

    On Saturday, November 3, 1917, nine more men were sent to the training camp at Petersburg. This made a total of 178 men from the county, and teas only two short of the county's quota. A few days later two more men were sent to camp, thus completing quota up to date.[l9]

    On December 15, 1917, the Local Exemption Board began to make preparation for the second draft of soldiers from the county. A number of questionnaires were mailed out daily, and the registrants were warned of the penalty attached to a failure to fill them out. About 1,250 questionnaires were sent out. The board was assisted in this work by E. L. Taylor, Roie M. Dougherty, Richmond Bond and Edgar Counts.[20]

    All drafted men who were in need of dental work and unable to pay for it, could get a certain class of work done by applying in writing to any of the following dentists of Gate City Drs. James Semones, W. H. Perry, E. A, Hoge [21]

    The 1918 January term of court continued only one day. It was adjourned "till court in course" on account of drafting soldiers. [22]

    Under date of March 21, 1918, the Local Exemption Board issued warning to those who had been given deferred classification on account of dependents, that unless they actually supported their dependents, recommendation to change them to class one would be made to the District Board.[23]

    The second installment of colored soldiers was sent to Camp Lee on April 26, 1918.[24]

    On June 5, 1918, 174 white men and one colored man registered as having become 21 years of age since the first registration.[25] On June 20, 1918, six white and two colored registrants were added to the above number.[26] Thirty-three young men were registered on August 24, 1918.[27]

    The following citizens volunteered to act as registrars anti assistants in enrolling the names of those required to register under the new draft law. The first named at each precinct was the chief registrar: Addington, John Henry Redwine and Frank Hilton; Nickelsville, R. M. Daugherty, S. E. Wampler, James A. Bond and Ernest C. Grigsby; Osbornes Ford, Dr. N. W. Stallard W. H. Loudy and Hobart Stallard Hoges Store, H. B. Blackwell, A. W. Peters and Charles H. Fraley; Big Cut, J. E. Metcalf and A. T. Peters; Winingers. T. C. Rogers and T. P. Shelton; Estillville, C. W. Dougherty. F. E. Stewart, I. P. Kane and J. H. Peters; Peters, R. L. Webb and Roy Gillenwater; Stoney Creek, J. M. Harris and W. B. Sanders; Frances, John L. Pendleton and J. A. Ford; Clinchport, H. C. Kidd and J. A. L. Perkins; Rye Cove, J. H. Johnson and C. D. Stone; Duffield, W. B. Horton and J. C. Parrish; Pattonsville, J. D. Carter and Charles Neeley ; Jennings, H. H. Reynolds and E. L. Taylor; Flat Rock, A. J. Wolfe and Farley Palmer; Fairview, T. M. Darnell and Eugene Darnell; Hiltons D. B. S. Stone and Bryan Hilton; Stone), Point, U. S. McMurray and I. W. Larkey; Smiths, C. L. Miller and Garnet Shelley.

    This registration enrolled 2,532 men for military service in the county. Nearly one-third of this number were between the ages of 18 and 21.[28]

    According to the muster roll in the clerk's office, Scott County had 693 men in the various branches of the service.

    In the reports of the local board, the words "delinquent" and "deserter" were written after less than a dozen names, and most of these persons later placed themselves in charge of the board and were sent to camp without arrest.

    The call for the county's quota of men to entrain October 7, 1918, to October 11, 1918, was cancelled until a later date because an epidemic of influenza was raging in the camps. This call was renewed for November 15th, but before that tune arrived the Armistice had been signed, thus cancelling the call a second time.

    Company H, Second Virginia Infantry, was stationed at Clinchport for a few months following the outbreak of the war. Nineteen Scott County soldiers were members of this Company. The company entrained for Roanoke for mobilization in the army on August 16, 1917. [29]

    The following list of soldiers wounded in the World War was compiled from the Gate City Herald: John Wolfe Maces Springs; Samuel Falin, Gate City; Stephen J. Dougherty, Nickelsville; Charles Preston Fleenor, Benhams; Craig Dixon, Hiltons; Garland Whited, Gate City, ; Alfred L. Chapman, Snowflake; Charles H. Greear, Wood; Charles W. Harris, Nickelsville ; Grower L. Carter, Duffield ; Thomas E. Starnes, Rill; Oscar Lee Fleenor, Gate City; Kelly Fugate, shell shocked, Nickelsville ; Horton Winegar, Yuma; Corporal Samuel Thomas Haynes, Yuma; William E. Hillman, Nickelsville ; Willie Powers Clinchport; Conley B. Ringley, Hiltons; Samuel P. Castle, Nickelsville.

    The following is Scott County's gold star list:

    Stanley McMurray, pneumonia, camp in Colorado.
    Charles Sanders, pneumonia, Camp Upton, Georgia.
    Arthur Price, influenza, Camp Gordon Georgia.
    Samuel D. Lane, pneumonia, Springfield, Mass.
    Wilburn P. Neeley, pneumonia, Camp Humphries, Va.
    Joe Wolfe Jessee, killed in action, August 8, 1918.
    Malcolm Palmer, died of disease, French hospital.
    Elbert Maddux, accidentally killed, Camp McClellan.
    William T. Coley, died of disease, October 9, 1918.
    Ernest A. Fletcher, died of wound, October 18, 1918.
    Isaac Gilliam, accident, January 31, 1919.
    Connie Lambert, killed in action, October 20, 1918.
    Hiram Lane, killed in action, October 2, 1918.
    John W. Meade, died of disease, October 18, 1919.
    Conley Wise, died of disease, January 26, 1918.
    Clarence Sherman, died of disease, October 6, 1918.
    George Dewey Artrip, September 30, 1918, navy.
    Charles Claren Fletcher, October 7, 1918, navy.
    Joseph Stephen Taylor, killed in action July 19 1918.
    Clayton Hammonds, killed in action July 15, 1918.

    Clayton Hammonds was the first Scott County soldier to be killed in the war with Germany. It is an interesting fact that his great-grandfather, John Wolfe, was a German, born and reared to young manhood in the Valley of the Rhine. The names of two Scott County soldiers appear on the Distinguished Service list of Virginia. They are Isaac Estep, of Clinchport, and John Samuel Hartsook, of Nickelsville. Isaac Estep was awarded a Distinguished Service Cross and John Samuel Hartsook received the French Croix de Guerre. The citations accompanying these awards may be found in "Virginians of Distinguished Service in they World War,' source volume I of the Virginia `War History Commission's publications.

    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    LIBERTY LOANS AND WAR SAVINGS STAMPS

    On May 31, 1917, J. H. Peters, cashier of the People's National Bank, was appointed sub-chairman for Scott Count. "to perfect a plan of campaign for the sale of Liberty Bonds. Mr. Peters named N. M. Horton, of the First National Bank, J. L. Q. Moore, of the Farmers and Merchants Bank; W. 1' C. Blackwell, of the Bank of Dungannon: R. L. McConnell, of the Farmers' Exchange Bank, and J. H. Peters to receive e subscriptions for Liberty Bonds. D. C. Sloan made the largest subscription, $10,000, and Mrs. J. B. Craft was the first lady of the county to buy a Liberty Bond.

    The Liberty Loan campaigns did not meet with generous response in Scott County. The total quota assigned was $953,200, and the amount subscribed in all drives totaled only $323,750.[30] Lack of interest is the reason assigned for this half-hearted response.

    A Victory Loan rally day was arranged for May 7, 1918. There was a parade including old Confederate soldiers and veterans of the World War at 11 in the morning, followed by an automobile parade, including a Red Cross float. Hon. Preston W. Campbell addressed the soldiers at the court house, and after dinner an address was made by Chaplain John L. Weber, of Camp Jackson, S. C., followed by a moving picture, "The Price of Peace," and music by a band.[31]

    Below is given the amount of Liberty Loan subscriptions handled by the banks in the county: Bank of Dungannon, $10,900; First National Bank, $45,000; Farmers and Merchants' Bank, $15,450; the People's National Bank, $70,000; total, including items not here given, $118,150.

    The amounts of allotments and sales by districts in the county in the June, 1918, drive are as follows: Dekalb District was allotted $12,000 and paid $13,120; Estillville District was allotted $25,000 and paid $28,000; Floyd District was allotted $10.000 and paid $10,000; Powell District was allotted $12,000 and paid $13,700; Fulkerson District was allotted $10,000 and paid $8,800; Johnson District was allotted $14,000 and paid $11,450, and Taylor District was allotted 17,000 and paid $11,225.[32]

    The most intensive of all the drives was made for the sale of War Savings Stamps during the Fourth Liberty Loan campaign. Rev. J. B. Craft was director and Professor A. W. Stair was his assistant. The following men had charge in the various Magisterial districts: Dekalb District, W. S. Cox and H. C. L. Richmond; Eastville District, S. W. Coleman and Professor A. W. Stair; Floyd District, L. P. Fraley and J. F. Sergeant ; Fulkerson District, J. P. Corns and W. H. Nickels; Powell District, J. H. Catron and J. D. Carter; Taylor District, E. T. Carter and S. Claude Bond.

    Hon. L. P. Summers and Judges W. E. Burns, of Russell County, and Preston W. Campbell, of Washington County, made speeches in the county in this campaign.

    The county's quota was $500,000.

    The committee in charge made a list of about two hundred citizens who seemed to be able to invest as much as $1,000 in War Savings Stamps. A letter, signed by the committee, was sent to each person on the list. The letter read, in part, as follows:

    "To purchase War Savings Stamps is no sacrifice on your part, but it shows your manhood, your patriotism and your willingness to help. Do not hesitate. For the sake of all we hold dear, for the sake of our county, which is yet far behind most of the counties in our section, respond at once. Sign your pledge card for the sum you have been assessed. Should you not have the money at the time your card is due, borrow it. Thousands are doing this everywhere. Let us have your help and encouragement and we will remain in the field with you until the last dollar has been raised."

    This letter was signed by W. D. Smith, chairman: W. J. Rollins, M. B. Compton, W. F. C. Blackwell, E. T. Sproles. W. W. Ramey, secretary. The committee was designated as "The Committee of One-Thousand-Dollar Subscriptions."

    At the first public meeting in this campaign held at the court house, $40,000 was pledged. Twenty--six one-thousand-dollars men were in the meeting. Floyd District was the first to "go over the top" with its quota of $40,000. The total amount of subscriptions in this drive was about $550,000.

    FOOD AND FUEL CONSERVATION

    On May 3, 1917, a company of "voluntary and disinterested citizens" issued a proclamation setting forth the importance of "increasing and conserving the food supplies" and calling upon the "people of this county to meet us at the court house in Gate City next Saturday, May 5, at 1 o'clock P. M. to effect a county" organization." The proclamation urged all farmer and farmers' wives, all school teachers, school boards. and all county and other officers, also all citizens interested in helping Scott County" feed itself, to be present. The proclamation was signed by A. W. Hedrick. county agent; J. H. McConnell, mayor; J. W. Carter, N. M. Horton, W. S. Pendleton, J. H. Peters, John H. Johnson, C. M. Quillin, I. P. bane, W. . D. Smith, B. M. Francisco, T. R. Wolfe.[33]

    In response to the above call the farmers of the county met and effected an organization by electing Rev. T. R. Wolfe. chairman, and J. W. Carter, secretary. Meetings for the purpose of organizing local clubs were arranged throughout the county. Pledge cards were distributed for the signatures of those who handled food in the homes.

    Mr. A. W. Johnson was appointed Food Administrator for the county and enforced the regulations concerning flour substitutes, conservation of sugar, etc. On and after March 11, 1918, merchants were required to sell an equal amount of flour substitutes with each pound of flour. In September, 3918, the fifty-fifty rule as to flour was abrogated and "Victory mixed flour," a combination of eighty-twenty, was used instead. The millers' certificates were rescinded and the new regulations permitted families to have sixty days' rations instead of thirty.[34]

    On September 12, 1918, the Food Administrator addressed an open letter to the merchants of the county asking them to send in the twenty five-pound certificates for sugar. He also stated in this letter that he often had letters of four to six pages, adding, "ten words gets as much sugar as ten pages."[35]

    A joint meeting of the threshermen and threshing committee of Scott County, held at Gate City on Wednesday, July 3, 1918, adopted the following resolutions:

    "l. Be it resolved, That we, the owners and operators of threshing machines in Scott County, realizing the great demand for wheat at this time, will use the utmost care for its conservation.

    "2. Resolved, That there be no threshing done in this county before the 15th day of July, 1918, and then only when the wheat is thoroughly dry.

    "3. Resolved, That every owner and operator of threshing machines have his machine in good repair before starting- to thresh, and that it be kept in good repair.

    "4. Resolved, That in view of the fact that we agree to thresh only when the wheat or other grain is thoroughly dry, we, the threshing committee, do insist that the farmers take every precaution in stacking and saving their grain.

    "5. Resolved, That the price for threshing shall be seven bushels.

    "6. Resolved, That any violator of the above resolutions will not be considered a member of the Scott County Threshing Committee."

    The resolutions were signed by A. W. Johnson, Food Administrator; A. C. Starnes, R. A. Smith William Spivey, J. A. Hurt, J. F. Meade, Clint Robertson C. L. Wade, R. Moscow Addington, W. T. Larkin, W. L. Osborne, J. W. Home, J. S. Culbertson, S. C. Dougherty, J. W. Frazier, N. C. Davidson, Judge Mullins, R. V. Trent, C. C. Carter, Will Tavlor, AV. H. MItchell. The names of five additional men who left before the meeting adjourned should have appeared in the above list."[36]

    The Fuel Administrators for the county were John H. Johnson, chairman; J. W. Carter, secretary, and R. R. Kane.

    It is remarkable how uncomplainingly the people suffered the restrictions to be thrown about them by the government as to the use of flour, sugar, coal, wood, gas, and even daylight.

    Farm products brought very high prices and this tact greatly increased the price of real estate during the war and immediately following its close. There was often an increase of more than 100 per cent over the former prices of land.

    The local Council of Safety sought to enroll all citizens who were capable and willing to work in the shipyards of other places where the government might need them. The Council further sought to enroll all those who might have oats, corn and potatoes to spare. The members of the Council were A. J. Wolfe, W. J. Rollins and J. F. Sutton.[37]

    The local paper on May 3, 1917, had the following to say:

    "You do not see many farmers idling about town these days. The farmers are discharging their duties like the truest and best of soldiers. They realize that they have to feed themselves and their families anal they rest of the world and are buckling like horses to the task. Don't waste your time urging farmers to produce big crops; get out, everybody who can, and help them. By so doing you will be wielding the most effective weapon against the high cost of living."

    Strangers whose behavior was in any way unusual were apt to be looked upon as German spies. This attitude of suspicion toward those whose business was unknown almost rid the county of tramps and hobos during the period of the war.

    There was no organized labor in the county during the war except perhaps the local workers on the railways traversing the county.

    THE RED CROSS

    A mass-meeting was called for Tuesday, June 26, 1917, at the court house. The object of this meeting was for the purpose of inaugurating a campaign in Gate City and Scott County in the interest of Red Cross work and also in the interest of "Armenian and Syrian Relief."[38]

    The Red Cross campaign was discussed at the Southern Methodist Church, Sunday, June 24, 1917, and "by a standing note in the congregation the conviction was shown to be that the people of Gate City and Scott County should get busy at once and do their part along with the rest of the country in this great humanitarian cause."[39]

    A committee composed of Ezra T. Carter, J. W. Carter and Mrs. E. Thompson Carter was appointed to inaugurate a campaign for Red Cross funds.[40]

    At a mass-meeting held at the court house, June 16, 1917, the following organization was effected: Executive committee-Ezra T. Carter, chairman; J. W. Carter, treasurer; John Henry Johnson, Secretary. Ways and means committee-Mrs. S. H. Bond, Mrs. E. G. Quillin and Miss Esther Kane. Publicity committee-Mrs. E. Thompson Carter, Mrs. Ed. Whited and Mrs. J. F. Richmond.

    Through the Gate City postoffice many contributions were made to the Red Cross.[41]

    The Scott County Red Cross issued the "Scott County Cook Book," made up of recipes for cooking furnished by whomsoever was interested enough to furnish a recipe. The proceeds of the sale of this book were paid to the local chapter of the Red Cross.

    August 3. 1917, was named as the date on which all members of the local Red Cross and all other persons interested in such work were requested to meet at the court house for the purpose of effecting a larger organization. This organization immediately launched a drive for membership. Red Cross booths were placed in Nickel's Department Store, M. J. McConnell & Son's store, and the Gate City Pharmacy. In addition to this, several young ladies solicited members on the streets and in the different stores. The young ladies most active in this work were: Janie Richmond, Lillian Wood, Maxie King, Kathryn Kane, Reba Barker, Mae Boatright, Amelia Richmond, Georgia Whited, Lake Dougherty, Sudie McConnell and Mary Davidson.

    The officers and members of committees of the Scott County Chapter, American Red Cross, Potomac Division, were as follows:

    Officers-T. R. Wolfe, president; Dr. J. M. Dougherty, vice-president; John Henry Johnson, secretary, and Leona Jordan, assistant secretary.

    Committee on organization and development-H. C. L. Richmond, chairman; E. T. Carter, I. P. Kane, W. D. Smith, Jr. Publicity and entertainment-C. M. Herron, chairman; Fay Palmer, Emily Richmond, Anna Ward. Woman s work-- Mrs. E. T. Carter, chairman; Mrs. P. H. Nickels, Mrs. C. M. Perry. Hospital garments-Mrs. E. Thompson Carter. chairman ; Pearl Hash, Mamie Richmond, Mrs. W. M. Winegar, Surgical dressings-Mrs. E. M. Corns, Mrs. H. S. Kane, Mrs. J. W. Carter, Mrs. Henry Jennings. Knitting-Mrs. N. M. Horton, chairman; Mrs. J. A. Counts, Mrs. U. E. Barker. Purchasing supplies-Mrs. J. B. Gilley, chairman; Mrs. L. M. Smythe, Nell Counts. Shipping-E. G. Quillin, chairman ; Mrs. A. W. Stair, Mrs. D. A. Sergent. Civilian relief -- J. H. Peters, chairman; D. C. Sloan C. M. Quillin, Maxie King and Grace Stair. Membership-Eliza Wininger, Maxie Kind- and Grace Stair. Junior Red Cross in schools-Professor A. W. Stair, chairman.

    Growing out of and subsidiary to this county organization were the magisterial district organizations, which were as follows:

    Dekalb District-J. M. Harris, chairman ; Geo. E. Carter, Geo. C. Bevins A. J. Greear, Professor A. Alley, S. P. Harris, r Harris, William Franklin, W. L. Johnson, Mrs. P. E. Carter. Sadie Cox, Mary Baker and Mrs. W. H. -McConnell. Floyd District--Dr. N. W. Stallard, chairman ; W. F. C. Blackwell. l.. G. Osborne, B. T. Culbertson, C. K. Fraley, W. J. Done. Mrs. A. J. Wolfe, Mrs. Barney Hagan, Mrs. U-. H. Loud . Mrs. P. M. Dingus, Mrs. J. H. Bickley. Powell District -T. R. Hurst, chairman; Rev. C. P. Rogers, Jas. H. Ervin. T. M. Darnell, E. H. Jennings, E. N. Watson, Ira P. Robinett. J. Henderson Wolfe, Mrs. J. W. Stephenson, Fannie M. Wolfe, Mrs. E. G. Parrish and Eugenia Darnell, Taylor District J. L. Q. Moore, chairman; M. W. Quillin, J. C. Parrish, J. M. Tomlinson, S. P. Spangler, W. J. Rollins H. V. Gillenwaters, B. F. Johnson, C. S. Pendleton, Professor W. P. Kennedy, Mrs. H. H. Necessary, Sadie Cox, Mattie Taylor. Johnson District - Jas. A. Bond, chairman; J. M. Darter, Dr. J. M. Dougherty R. L. McConnell, H. F. Addington, C. M. Perry, Rev. C. H. Gibson, Rev. F. R. Snavely , Mrs. Alfred Dougherty, Corrie Quillin and Cleo Wampler. Fulkerson District-Rev. J. W. Grace, chairman; John L. Darnell, H. J. Gardner, Dr. Sylvester Gardner, W. H. Hensley, Rev. J. W. Pullon, Emmett Pannell, Professor J. H. Hilton, Professor R. M. Addington, S. G. Owen, Effie Ehelley, Mrs. C. O. Johnson. Estillville District-C. W. Kels, chairman - W. A, Wininger, J, Q, Shelton, J. W. Carter, D. C. Sloan. C. M. Herron, J. F. Sergent, John T. Carter, Mrs. W. D. Smith, A. R. Jennings, Mrs. F. E. Stewart, Mrs. J. W. Whited.

    Generous rivalry among the various districts was encouraged. An intensive speaking campaign was inaugurated, embracing speech-making in the school buildings at Fort Blackmore, Dungannon, Nickelsville, Hiltons Speers Ferry, Alley Valley, Clinchport, Mannvilie, Laurel Hill, Cowans Branch, Flat Rock and Pattonsville.

    The Red Cross campaign was opened at Gate City by Frank Hall Ray, of Boston. Clad in the garments of a comrade killed in battle and displaying the scant remnant of a sleeve shot away when that comrade lost an arm, Mr. Hall earnestly implored his audience to "stand behind the tired man at Washington with deep lines of care in his splendid face."

    The Scott County Fair Association in 1918 turned over to the county chapter of the Red Cross a building on the Fair Grounds, to be known as the Red Cross Building. This building was used as a reception room in which various articles made by the chapter and its auxiliaries were exhibited. An active canvass for membership was conducted during the fair.

    Professor A. W. Stair organized the schools of the county and the Junior Red Cross Auxiliaries for the purpose of gathering walnut and hickory nut hulls, peach and prune seeds, to be used in manufacturing antidotes for poisonous gases.

    Miss Mary S. Sanders, a graduate nurse, was employed by the local Red Cross to give her time and attention to the sick with influenza "while the epidemic continues."

    The Red Cross prepared and sent many boxes of needed articles to the boys overseas.

    Many Junior Red Cross Chapters were organized in the schools of the county. A school which raised an amount of money equal to twenty-five cents per pupil was eligible to membership in the junior Association. Hundreds of school children contributed to Red Cross funds, but data as to how many schools qualified for membership in the junior Association is not available.

    In one report, Mrs. E. T. Carter, chairman woman's work, stated that 32 sweaters, 13 pairs socks, 1 pair wristlets, 10 wash cloths, 31 hospital bed shirts, 20 pairs pajamas, 7 pairs bed socks, 35 pairs pillows and 150 property bags had been sent to division headquarters, Washington, D. C. In another report she stated that 310 garments for the French and Belgian Relief and 96 hospital bed shirts had been forwarded to division headquarters. These reports indicate the range and character of the work done by the women of the chapter. In addition to this work, hundreds of women also contributed in money to the Red Cross fund.

    In 1917 the county's Red Cross quota was $2,190, and up until November 19, 1917, only $1,200 had been collected. :fit this time few Scott County boys had gone overseas, and the interest of the people in Red Cross work was not so easily appealed to. When many had gone overseas conditions changed and contributions were more liberal.

    The Red Cross amounts as contributed by magisterial districts were as follows:


    District Contribution
    Estillville District $2,278.55
    Taylor District 623.25
    Floyd District 606.50
    Johnson District 354.30
    Powell District 334.33
    Dekalb District 247.90
    Fulkerson District 150.25
    Total $4,605.10

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    The M. E. Church, South, appointed the following committee to solicit funds for the Armenian and Syrian sufferer: J. P. Corns, J. B. Quillin, Mrs. C. R. Cruikshanks, Mrs. H. S. Kane and Mrs. C. W. Dougherty. This committee was approved by the other churches. Mr. Corns, Mr. Quillin and Mrs. Cruikshanks were chosen to act as a permanent committee of relief "to the starving multitudes in the Holy Land."[42]

    The Gate City Herald solicited contributions for a fund to be used in the relief of the suffering people abroad. Hundreds of school children contributed to the fund, mostly pennies and nickels. The amount contributed was $155.63.

    THE WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION

    The W. C. T. U. was an organization already functioning in the county at the time war was declared against Germany. It was thus an easy matter to direct the energies of the organization to war work. September 22, 1917, the W. C. T. U. gave an entertainment at Nickelsville, the proceeds of which were used in furnishing the Scott County soldiers with comfort bags. It became the fixed purpose of the organization to furnish each soldier with one of these bags, and on January 4, 1918, a meeting was called in order to provide money for this purpose. It may be added in this connection that the schools of the county assisted in collecting funds for the comfort kits.

    The W. C. T. U. engaged in collecting old rubber, boots, shoes, auto inner tubes, jar rubbers, in fact, any material which could be salvaged and used in war work enterprises. Under the auspices of the W. C. T. LT., April 24, 1918, was known as "rubber day." It was further urged that the value of all "April Sunday eggs" be contributed to the W. C. T. U. to be used in its war work funds.

    YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

    Late in the year 1917 a campaign was launched to arouse interest in the Young Men's Christian Association. Hon. W. C. McCarthy, on November 13, 1917, addressed an audience at the court house in the interest of this organization. Mr. McCarthy had been in Europe and had seen actual conditions there. Thus he was enabled, to give graphic first-hand pictures of the needs of the boys in the trenches. E. T. Carter was made chairman and Sam'l Haynes, editor of the Gate City Herald, secretary, of the Y.M.C.A. in Scott County-. At the close of Mr. McCarthy's address more than $700 was contributed to the Y.M.C.A. fund. In the same campaign Nickelsville contributed $46.50; Rye Cove, $107; Clinchport. $136; Manville, $48; Dungannon, $160; Prospect colored school, $10.30, making a total of $1,200.

    "The Red Cross Society, the Young Men's Christian Association and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union are organizations that are doing all in their power to comfort, relieve and help the soldiers. They are helping them at every stage from the doors of their homes to the trenches and prisons of Europe. Let's help these organizations in every way in our power."[43]

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS

    The first issue of the local paper after the Armistice carried the following head lines: "Peace Terms Signed; Hostilities Cease Monday, November 11, at 6 A. M.; The Great World War Comes to a Close."

    In another column the following news item appeared:

    "The first intimation we had here that peace had been made came from the Kingsport whistles at daylight Monday. Soon our church bells were imitating old Liberty bell, guns were being fired, children were marching the streets waving flags, and everybody was wildly rejoicing. It was a great day in America."[44]

    The signing of the Armistice put an end to the drafting In a short time the Local Exemption Board received the following telegram from Adjutant General Stern:

    "Do not entrain any more men or call any more for entrainment on any call already issued. Men already on the way to camps will be returned to local board."

    The soldiers of the county, on being discharged, returned to their homes one by one or in small groups. Mention of their return was seldom made in the local paper.

    NOTES:

    1. Editorial paragraph, Gate City Herald, February 15, 1917.
    2. Editorial paragraph, Gate City Herald, April 19, 1917.
    3. Gate City Herald, May 24, 1917.
    4. Gate City Herald, May 31, 1917.
    5. Gate City Herald, May 24, 1917.
    6. Gate City Herald, June 7, 1917.
    7. Gate City Herald, June 7, 1917.
    8. Gate City Herald, June 14 1917.
    9. Gate City Herald, August 9, 1917.
    10. Gate City Herald, August 23,
    11. Gate City Herald, August 9, 1917.
    12. Gate City Herald.
    13. Gate City Herald, September 6, 1917.
    14. Gate City Herald, September 6, 1917.
    15. Gate City Herald, September 13, 1917.
    16. Gate City Herald, September 20, 1917.
    17. Gate City Herald, September 27, 1917.
    18. Gate City Herald, October 18, 1917.
    19. Gate City Herald.
    20. Gate City Herald, No. 821.
    21. Gate City Herald, April 18, 1917.
    22. Gate City Herald, January 3, 1917.
    23. Gate City Herald, March 21, 1918.
    24. Gate City Herald April 25, 1918.
    25. Gate City Herald, June 13, 1918.
    26. Gate City Herald, June 20, 1918.
    27. Gate City Herald, September, 1918
    28. Gate City Herald, September 19, 1918.
    29. Gate City Herald, August 23, 1917.
    30. Report of Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
    31. Gate City Herald No. 840.
    32. Gate City Herald, July 18, 1918.
    33. Gate City Herald, May 3, 1917.
    34. Gate City Herald, September 5 1918.
    35. Gate City Herald, September 12, 1918.
    36. Gate City Herald, July 11, 1918.
    37. Gate City Herald, February 21, 1918.
    38. Gate City Herald No. 794.
    39. Gate City Herald.
    40. Gate City Herald No. 794.
    41. Gate City Herald No. 795.
    42. Gate City Herald No. 794.
    43. Editorial, Gate City Herald, November 22, 1917.
    44. Gate City Herald, November 14, 1918.
  • Shenandoah County

    A Community History

    LOCATION, NATURAL FEATURES AND RESOURCES

    Shenandoah County was formed from Frederick in 1772 and named Dunmore in honor of the last Colonial Governor of Virginia. In October, 1777, after Lord Dunmore had taken a decided stand against the colonists, Virginians were no longer willing that the county should hear his name, and the name was changed to Shenandoah, after the river which flows through it. The river had been called Shenandoah, "Daughter of the Stars," by the Indians. The county lies in northern Virginia, in the Shenandoah Valley group. separated from West Virginia by the Shenandoah mountains, with the Massanutten mountains on the eastern border. The area is 486 square miles and the population 20,808.

    The surface is rolling and mountainous. About two-thirds of the area is cleared and cultivated. The soil is mostly disintegrated limestone, very strong and durable. The Valley lands are of great beauty and fertility. The county ranks among the best grain counties of the State, especially wheat, which is sold principally in the state of flour and has a high reputation. Corn, oats, rye, barley and hay in large quantities are produced. The maximum yield in production of wheat for the State was attained in this county-sixty-three bushels per acre on a field of nine acres. There are magnificent grazing facilities in the uplands, and stock raising is the next and probably equally important industry. Improved grades of cattle, sheep, horses a hogs are found. This is the third county in production of poultry products.

    Fruit growing is an important industry, and many sections are becoming vast orchards of apples of the best quality, commanding the highest prices.

    Branches of the Southern Railway and Baltimore and Ohio railroads connect all sections, and together with excellent hard surface highways, furnish ample transportation. The North Fork of the Shenandoah traverses the county its entire length, supplying good water power for manufacturing.

    Woodstock, the county seat, near the center of the county on the Southern Railway Manassas Branch, is an attractive town in the midst of a fine farming and fruit section, two banks serving the business interests of a prosperous community. Banks are also located at New Market, Strasburg, Mount Jackson and Edinburg. Orkney Springs is a place of much resort for health and pleasure seekers.

    An annual fair is held at Woodstock. Thrifty, intelligent people have made the county and entire section one of national fame.

    CHURCHES IN WAR TIME

    The churches in Shenandoah County were loyal to all patriotic duties during the World War. The Church of the Brethren, which has a comparatively large membership in this county, was opposed to war and sent no men into active service. It aided, however, in all sorts of relief work. The churches displayed service flags and national colors; sponsored food and fuel conservation; encouraged the purchase of Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps; preached patriotism and subscription to the Belgian, Armenian and Jewish Relief, and entertained soldiers extensively.

    The three Churches of the Brethren reporting generally patriotic activities were the Church of the Brethren of Maurertown, pastor, Rev. E. B. Shaver; Round Hill Church, pastor, Rev. George A. Copp; Flat Rock Church, pastor, Rev. D. P. Wise.[1]

    The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) of Edinburg, Rev. J. A. Hopkins, pastor, had five members of the congregation and two members of the Sunday school in service: R. Burton Mitchell, Joseph Russel Sibert, Floyd Spencer Sweeney, Arthur B. Christian, Harry M. Jennings, John A. Jennings, John A. Saum.[2]

    Mt. Calvary Church of the Mount Jackson Lutheran pastorate, Rev. Paul L. Roper, pastor, reported three of its members in service: William C. Lonas, Alfred H. Lonas and Robert Bird.[3]

    The Patmos and Mt. Zion congregations at Woodstock had six men in the army: Charles E. Heiohman, Robert L. Clem, Howard F. Clem, Eugene G. Clem, Charles W. Kibler and Earl W. Jackson.[4]

    The Mill Creek charge (Reformed Church in United States) included Grace Reformed Church at Rinkerton, St. John's Reformed Church at Hudson's Cross Roads, Christ Reformed Church at Conicville and Emanuel Reformed Church at Mt. Jackson. The minister, Rev. Benjamin K. Hay, entered Y.M.C.A. work and went overseas. The following members of the several congregations were in service: Taylor S. Funkhouser, Harry Rinker, Mark Dellinger, Earl Sager, Gryan H. Sager, Signor H. Dellinger, J. Monroe Wolfe and Ralph E. Wolfe.[5]

    SCHOOLS IN WAR TIME

    The schools in Shenandoah County were moderately active during the war. Of the twenty-two reporting,[6] ten either did no war work or kept no records. The other twelve, with the instructors furnishing information, were as follows: Edinburg High, Milton Hollingsworth; Fort Valley Graded and High School, Daniel O'Flaherty; Strasburg High, Arthur G. Ramey; Strasburg Graded School, Lucy F. Ludmire; Hamburg Graded, C. W. Hepuer; Lebanon Church School, Margarette Snarr; Co- lumbia Furnace, John G. Cook; Forestville, D. M. Zirkle, Soliloquy, Benjamin T. Good; State Hill, John H. Andrews; Coal Mine (near Lebanon Church), Mrs. A. B. Home; Little Creek, J. T. Spitler.

    Most of the schools slightly modified the teaching of history so as to include current events, instruction in war progress, conduct and aims. The significance of various government activities was explained. An attempt was made to instill patriotism by teaching the lives of great American patriots. Pupils learned to sing national anthems, to take part in flag drills and to salute the flag. In many schools patriotic addresses were delivered. The schools sold approximately $7,000 worth of Thrift Stamps, had something over 400 pupils in the Junior Red Cross, made comfort kits for soldiers, encouraged and aided in food conservation.

    Edinburg High School pupils made jellies, raised vegetables and chickens for the school fair, and gave all receipts to the Red Cross. They conserved approximately $350.00 worth of food stuff, used 100 pupils in raising about $800.00 in Liberty Bond subscriptions; gave $100 worth of magazines to soldiers.

    Forestville School had ten Victory Boys, eight Victory Girls, twenty-seven members of the Red Cross.

    State Hill School raised about $125.00 for the Red Cross, $800.00 for the Y.M.C.A. and about $2,500 for Armenian and Syrian Relief.

    THE DRAFT AND MEN IN SERVICE

    Shenandoah County had no National Guard, Virginia Volunteers or Home Guard Units.

    Men who registered for the draft numbered 3,939; 421 of whom were called and accepted at camp.[7] All soldiers in the draft from this county were white. The cost of drafting the first 151 of the men was $2.34 each, against $8.67, the average cost per man for the State.[8]

    The following men from Shenandoah County are included in Virginia's Distinguished Service list: Rear Admiral DeWitt Coffman, Distinguished Service Cross (Navy); First Lieutenant Carl Burdette Maphis, cited by commander-in-chief; Private Joseph S. Rhodes, cited by commanding officer, U. S. Marine Corps; Major Carl William Shaffer, cited by commander-in-chief, cited by commanding officer, U. S. Marine Corps, cited by division commander, French Croix de Guerre, Belgian Order of Leopold; Lieutenant Frank C. Stoneburner, French Croix de Guerre.[9]

    LIBERTY LOANS

    Shenandoah County's subscriptions to the Liberty Loan campaigns were as follows: Second Loan quota, $345,650; amount subscribed, $243,800; number subscribers, 437. Third Loan quota, $189,700; amount subscribed, $232,600; number subscribers, 990. Fourth Loan quota, $440,000; amount subscribed, $323,550; number subscribers, 936. Victory Loan quota, $300,200; amount subscribed, $337,200; number subscribers, 847.

    RED CROSS

    Shenandoah County Chapter of the American Red Cross was originally an auxiliary founded in April, 1917. It became a chapter in July, 1917, with the following officers: Judge E. D. Newman, chairman; Mrs. E. L. Wunder, vice-chairman; Miss Louise Jacobs, secretary; Milton Coffman, treasurer; Rev. J. R. Jacobs, chairman of home service. Officers in 1920 were: M. L. Walton, chairman; Miss Gertrude Pence, secretary; Allen K. Albert, Treasurer; Miss Nan Williams, vice-chairman; Phillip Williams, home service chairman. Mrs. W. H. Wunder was secretary in 1918-1919, and N. H. Corman, chairman of home service in 1918-1919. The following, in addition to the officers above, were members of the executive committee: Rev. J. A. McMurray, Rev. S. K. Cockrell, R. L. Wright, C. M. Shannon.

    There had been 7,073 members of the Shenandoah County Chapter from its organization until the date of the report (1920) at which time there were 1,044 members. The chapter had jurisdiction over the entire county.

    The work of the chapter is as follows: 1,221 finished garments; 9,742 bandages; 169 pillows; 700 sweaters; 127 pairs of socks; 27 pairs of wristlets; 35 mufflers; 22 helmets, 2 afghans; equipment for Camp Lee hospital consisting of cots, pillows, sheets, blankets, pillow cases, towels, bath towels hot-water bottles bed shirts and pajamas. Over 3,000 pounds of second-hand clothing were sent to Belgium. The chapter sent 130 filled kits to a hospital in France; 60 property bags; 15 barrels of jellies, preserves, and canned fruit; 500 trench candles. During the influenza epidemic in Woodstock, the ladies' branch supplied eighty-three people with eggs, milk and beef broth from one to eight days.

    Those workers in Shenandoah Chapter who received special Red Cross badges for eight hundred or more house service are: Miss Frances Wilder, Miss Nan Williams, Miss Mollie Lantz, Miss Emma Lantz, Mrs. Ada Zirkle, Mrs. C. H. Fadeley, Mrs. E. L. Wunder, Mrs. Daniel Lichliter, Mrs. James H. Smoot. Names of active workers other than those given above were: Judge E. D. Newman, Miss Kate Coffman, Rev. J. A. McMurray, Mrs. S. G. Good, Rev. M. S. Taylor, Mrs. C. C. Henkle, Miss Katherine Snyder, Miss Arline Walker, Miss Margaret Davis, Mrs. H. H. Ramey.

    Successive chairmen of the home service committee were Rev. J. R. Jacobs, Professor N. H. Connan, Clayton E. Williams, Phillip Williams. Work of the home service department is as follows: Adjustments of allotments and allowances, $315.00; bonus checks applied for and received, $120.00; Liberty Bonds, $100.00; insurance of deceased applied for, $20,000.00; matters other than war risk insurance bureau, $50.00. Total, $20,585.00.

    Four permits for training under Federal Board for Vocational Education were applied for and received, two travel pay applications and two applications for clothes and equipment, 117 families or individuals were dealt with, services rendered to 84 and information given to 12.

    The Shenandoah Chapter conducted a survey of nursing resources in the whole county with the purpose of listing all trained and practical nurses.

    The Second War Fund drive in May, 1918, raised $7,296.03. Membership drives of December, 1917; December, 1918, and November, 1919, raised $3,383, $2,646 and $1,044, respectively. Total amount of cash paid out was $7,794.78, and the balance on hand March 1, 1920, was $485.33.

    Red Cross workers of the Shenandoah Chapter who went overseas were: Rev. John Jacobs (Y.M.C.A.), Rev. B. K. Hay (Y.M.C.A.), Rev. Charles Brandt (Army), Rev. Malcom S. Taylor (chaplain), Rev. R. C. Meeks (Y.M.C.A.).

    Shenandoah Chapter had nine branches: Woodstock, Strasburg, New Market, Maurertown, Edinburg, Fort Valley, Mt. Jackson, Toms Brook, Forestville.

    Miss Charlotte 'McMurray and Miss Nannie Smith were in charge of the Junior Red Cross work rooms. The Juniors raised $242.62.

    Officers of the New Market Branch were as follows: on May 12, 1917, the date of organization, Mrs. Katherine Foster, chairman; Mrs. S. G. Good, vice-chairman; Mrs. Abbie Henkle, treasurer; Miss Lizzie Williamson, secretary. Officers at the time the report was made (1920?) were C. N. Hoover, chairman; Miss Pearle Strickley, secretary; Ben White, treasurer; Mrs. C. E. Clinedinst, vice-chairman. On the original excutive committee there were, in addition to those names given above, Mrs. J. M. Grim, and H. M. Kagey. Total membership of the New Market branch was 450. The branch had jurisdiction over the Lee District, eastern part, from the mountain to top of the hill west of Quicksburg.

    The home service committee was as follows: J. E. Biedler, Abbie Henkle, Frank Good, W. M. Arion, Dr. W. C. Shirley, Mrs. C. N. Hoover, Miss Annie McCarthy, Miss Annie Price, Mrs. Elmer Rice. This group assisted three families during the influenza epidemic and spent $32.00

    Three Red Cross drives--December 1917; December, 1918, and November 1919, netted $270.00; $211.00 and $34.00 respectively. Total cash paid out: $1,391.23. Balance to date (1920?) $406.99.

    The Strasburg branch had the following officers: R. L. Wright, chairman, Miss Mary Fletcher, secretary; Mrs. Samuel L. Burgess, treasurer, Mrs. H. H. Ramey, vice-chairman. The officers in 1920 were: A. C. Machir, treasurer. Mrs. J. A. Williams and Mrs. Walter Stickley were also members of the executive committee. The branch was organized January 26, 1918. Total membership, 1,523. The jurisdiction of the Strasburg branch was over the Davis District of Shenandoah County.

    Junior Red Cross work in the Strasburg branch enlisted all the students in the Strasburg school. Officers were Miss Frances Jenkins, chairman; Miss Eleanor Balthis, vice-chairman; Joseph Everely, secretary; Richard L. Wright, Jr., treasurer. Membership dues amounted to $97.00. The children took part in Liberty Loan parades; made thirty comfort kits, scrapbooks and post card books; gathered tinfoil, and knitted wash cloths and wool scarfs.

    The workroom of the Strasburg branch was under the direction of Mrs. Beulah Hurn, Mrs. Armentrout, Mrs. J. A. Williams and Mrs. Douglas Spangler. Workers who received special Red Cross badges for eight hundred or more hours work were: Mrs. H. H. Ramey, Miss Mary Fletcher, Mrs. Armentrout, Mrs. S. L. Burgess. The home service committee was as follows: George A. Ebersole, chairman; Mrs. D. F. Spangler, Mrs. H. F. Woolf, S. L. Burgess. This committee assisted six families and spent $193.50. Total contributions to the branch during Red Cross drives were $1,001.52. Four membership drives netted $750, $486, $211 and $76.00 severally. Total receipts were $2,784.87, disbursements, $2,307.47; balance $477.40[10]

    +++++

    YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION

    Although there was no regular Y.W.C.A. in Shenandoah County, the women undertook two drives for funds for that organization. The personnel of the committee was as follows: Town Chairman--Mt. Jackson, Miss Frances Snyder; Toms Brook, Mrs. Earl Miley; Strasburg, Miss Frances Jenkins; New Market, Mrs., J. E. Biedler; Saumsville, Mrs. Hester Spiker; Maurertown, Mrs. Silas Sager; Powell's Fort, Miss Eunice Boyer; Cedar Creek, Miss Fannie Wilde.

    In Woodstock the following were energetic workers: Mesdames J. C. Paxton, W. H. Wunder, F. H. Riddleberger, Misses Margaret Davis, Charlotte McMurray and Mary Wunder. In the first of the two drives $580.00 was raised. The second drive in March, 1919, was similar to the first, except that Mrs. C. M. Shannon took Miss Snyder's place as chairman of Mr. Jackson. Mabel Lee Walton was county chairman and Miss Arline Walker was treasurer.[11]

    Notes:

    1. See Reports of the Churches, V. W. H. C. Files
    2. Report of Edinburg Christian Church, V. W. H.C. Files
    3. Report of Mount Jackson Lutheran Pastorage, V. W.H.C. Files
    4. See Report of Patmos and Mt. Zion Congregations by O. C. Propst, V. W. H. C. Files
    5. See Report of Mill Creek Charge, V. W. H.C. Files
    6. See Schools' questionnaires, Shenandoah County, V. W. H.C. Files
    7. Adjutant General's Report for 1918, Part II, p. 50
    8. Adjutant General's Report for 1917, p. 25
    9. See Source Volume I for texts of citations.
    10. The foregoing account is adapted from material in three reports: Shenandoah County, Strasburg Branch, and New Market Branch, V. W. H.C. files
    11. Report of Y. W. C. A. work, V. W. H. C. files.
  • Staunton and Augusta County

    A Community History

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    Augusta County is situated in the Shenandoah Valley, one hundred and forty miles from Richmond. It is bounded on the east by the Blue Ridge and on the west by the Shenandoah Mountains. The inhabitants are mostly Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, farmers, fairly well educated, industrious and generally solid American citizens. Wheat, hay, corn and apples are the chief crops. Cattle-raising is likewise a popular and profitable business in the county.

    Between 1914 and 1917 the price of land, as well as that of farm products, advanced rapidly, and financial prosperity was never so commonplace. The people generally were typical of Virginia in loyalty to President Wilson and to the various relief fund drives for stricken French and Belgian people. A successful effort was made in 1917 and 1918 to raise large crops. The result in volume and value exceeded all previous records.

    In 1910 Augusta County had a population of 32,445; in 1920 there were 34,671 residents in the county. Staunton, the county seat, had 10,604 inhabitants in 1910 and 10,623 in 1920. Thus we see that the population was relatively stable during the war years. In Staunton about one hundred of the population were Germans by birth. Prior to the entry of the United States into the war, all of these, with very few exceptions, ,were pro-German in sentiment. After April 6, 1917, it is believed their sympathies remained unchanged, although their influence was negligible.[1]

    CHURCHES

    There were sixteen churches in Staunton: twelve for white people and four for colored people. All denominations Cooperated during the war. Two of the city's pastors chaplains in the army. Another was an overseas Y.M.C.A. secretary. Congregations were active in all patriotic work; Liberty Bonds, War Savings Stamps, food conservation, Red Cross, Y.M.C.A., Salvation Army and Knights of Columbus. Service flags were displayed in all the churches, and they held regular prayer services for the Allied armies.[2]

    Generally speaking, the churches of Augusta County gave the same loyal response to war-time calls as did those of the city of Staunton.

    The Rocky Spring Presbyterian Church, Rev. T. H. Daffin, pastor, had nine men in the army-C. T. Montgomery, Emory Harrison, George Wiseman, R. E. L. Wiseman, J. C. Montgomery, T. M. McCjentis Montgomery, Fletcher Cole, Jack Clifton and Howard Lockridge. Miss Juliette M. Montgomery was a graduate nurse with the McGuire Unit, Base Hospital No. 43[3].

    The Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church of Waynesboro, Rev. E. L. Ritchie, pastor, had eight men in service, Seven in the army and one in the navy. They were: Army--Ernest M. East, Gerald Myers, Everette R. Moyer, John Hundley, Irving E. Moyer, Paul Davis, Lacy P. Reed; Navy- Garnett Myers.[4]

    Bethel Presbyterian Church had fourteen men in service, twelve in the army and two in the navy. They were: Army C. R. Ambler, J. W. Collison, Samuel Halterman, Roy R. Miller, Charles Lee Miller, R. V. McClure, John Larew; navy J. W. Hogshead, J. M. Wright.[5]

    Basic Methodist Church had twenty-five members in service, twenty-four in the army and one in the navy. They were: Army--M. V. Griffith, R. B. Padgett, Lacy Yeago, Meredith McCue, Harvey Pleasants, Floyd Wright, Russel Barker, Emmett Adkins, Philip Bean, Walter S. Thomas, J. Robert Swank, J. Roland Myers, LeRoy C. Harman, Cecil Bean, R. M. Miller, W. L. Griffith, Roy Heatwole, Francis Harris, Henry Morris, ClinWon Morris, Aby S. Guyer, Rufus Tillman, Eugene Hensley, Harry A. Sandridge; Navy~Albert McCue.[6]

    The Finley Memorial Presbyterian Church, Rev. H. M. Wilson, pastor, had three men in service. Army-Fred F. McLaughlin, J. Brown Hicks; navy-Charlie P. Hodge.[7]

    Rev. L. Hammond, pastor of churches at New Hope, Pleasant Grove and Crimora, reported three men in service from New Hope: Robert W. Dickenson, Whitney Bauserman and Russell Bauserman; from Pleasant Grove, Clarence Cleveland, and from Crimora, Dorsey Walters.[8]

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES STUART HALL

    Stuart Hall, a school for girls in Staunton, reported the following war work:

    1916-1917-Boxes valued at $200.00 sent to Belgium and France. Money for hospital work in France, $110.00.

    1917-1918-Student Friendship, war service, $479.00; Red Cross drive, $250.00; Red Cross contribution, $191.79; articles made in Red Cross rooms, 4,784 gauzes, 148 bandages, 56 sweaters, 50 pairs socks, 6 pairs bed socks, 10 pairs wristlets, 1 scarf, 24 helmets, 24 small bags, 1 knitted quilt, 5 surgical shirts.

    1918-1919-United War Work campaign, 8958.00; Armenian fund, $135.00.

    STAUNTON MILITARY ACADEMY

    The Staunton Military Academy reports the following war work:

    Y.M.C.A. campaign, $1,150; United War Work campaign, $1,400; Red Cross stamps and contributions, $500; Armenian Relief, $200; French orphans, $150; help to individuals in service, $75; faculty and cadets Liberty Bonds, $30,000; total, $33,475.

    There were 456 men in service from the Academy, 199 of whom were commissioned officers. Commissioned graduates numbered 110. The following men received military distinction: Obadiah P. Armstrong, War Cross; Captain Roy Bryant, French Croix de Guerre; Lieutenant-Colonel B. R. Legge, Legion of Honor; Second Lieutenant W. W. Treadway, cited for conspicuous gallantry; John Henry Lott, Distinguished Service Cross; Captain Wilbur M. Phelps, War Cross.

    The following sometime students at the Staunton Military Academy were either killed in action or died while in service: Lieutenant Clifford Alexander, Sergeant Charles Adams, Private A. M. C. Berrie, Sergeant Robert S. Burleigh, Captain Phelps Collins, Private Harold Davidson, Lieutenant W. L. Deetjen, Lieutenant John Jacob Fisher, Lieutenant Edwin S. Gard, Boatswain's Mate Alvin F. Hann, Lieutenant John F. Hauser, Private Beaufort Hoen, Private Daniel L. Jones, Private Claude E. Mieusset, Sergeant Robert McGuffin, Lieutenant (Jr. Grade) Jack S. Spaven, Lieutenant W. G. Thomas, Lieutenant W. W. Treadway, Corporal Herbert L. Winslow. Lieutenant Arch Chilton, Lieutenant Llewellyn R. Davies, Private Harold Davidson, Major Oliver F. Spencer, Corporal W. E. Hayne, Jr.

    MARY BALDWIN SEMINARY

    Mary Baldwin Seminary for Girls in Staunton has countributed a full record of war activities as follows:

    The Red Cross-In the fall of 1917 a school auxiliary of the American Red Cross was organized under the school committee of Staunton, Virginia, Chapter. Materials were bought for the making of towels, napkins, wash cloths, ambulance pillows, hot-water bag covers and bed socks. Later in the year ten complete layettes were completed, these articles being chosen because the sewing had to be chiefly done by hand. The workers, grouped according to the articles they were making, met Saturday afternoons for two hours in certain classrooms. Members of the faculty cut out and supervised the work. The art studio was transformed into a surgical dressings room. During the session of 1917-1918 the auxiliary raised $212.52. Of this amount $25.00 was spent for surgical gauze, $115.71 for other materials, and the balance, $71.81, was handed over to the Staunton Chapter. The auxiliary was reorganized in the fall of 1918, but no sewing was attempted. Dues to the amount of $94.30 were handed over to the school committee of the Staunton Chapter.

    The Franco-Serbian Field Hospital-In April, 1916, Miss Julia T. Sabine, who had been engaged in relief work in Serbia, gave an illustrated lecture on Serbia in the interests of the Franco-Serbian Field Hospital. The girls were interested and raised for that hospital $100.00, their first war contribution of money.

    The Fatherless Children of France-In the spring of the school became interested in the fatherless children France, and adopted an orphan, paying $36.50, with $10 additional for a birthday present. A year later this subscription was renewed and a second child was adopted, making tI sum paid in 1919 amount to $83.00.

    The Domestic Arts Classes-In November and December, 1914, the domestic arts classes made up in children's garments about one hundred yards of outing flannel. These garments were made in response to the first calls of the Belgian Relief Committee. In November and December, 1917, the domestic arts classes made up five dozen hospital shirts for the local Red Cross committee.

    The British War Relief Association-In the spring of 1917 Miss Elsie McKenzie, a Canadian nurse and representantive of the British War Relief Association, gave a lecture describing conditions she had recently seen in England and France. After her lecture the school sent ot the British War Relief Association $108.59, of which $50.00 was used for Armenian and $59.59 for Belgian orphans.

    The Y.W.C.A.--The United War Work campaign aroused interested among the students of the Mary Baldwin Seminary. The cause was presented to the entire school by the cabinet of the Y.W.C.A. The sum of $2,100 was raised in less than three weeks. Wide publicity was given through the posters furnished by headquarters and also through those made by some of the art students.

    Every student organization gave gladly and liberally. The Cotillion Club gave up one dance in order to devote the funds to this cause. One of the literary societies gave the money set aside for pins in addition to personal subscriptions. The Dramatic Club "exhausted" its treasury. No parties or feasts were given, and many students learned in some measure the meaning of sacrificial giving. Members of the Y.W.C.A. bought two Victory Bonds of $100.00 each.

    The Armenian and Syrian Relief Fund-The amount contributed to the Armenian and Syrian Relief Fund in January, 1919, amounted to $500.

    The Jewish Relief Fund met with a ready response from the Seminary, $375 being contributed.

    The Serbian Hospital-Money was secured for the establishment of a cot in a Serbian hospital in memory of Miss Nannie W. Garrett, a faithful and efficient nurse for over ten years at Mary Baldwin.

    Faculty and Alumni-In all these campaigns the members of the faculty made their contributions through the school. Several teachers resigned to take active part in war work. The art teacher, Mrs. Charles G. Sawtelle, entered foreign service; Miss Alice Dean Spalding, the teacher of expression, was connected with the shipbuilding plant at Hog Island; Miss Mildred Reed Peery was useful in Y. W. C. A. work.[9]

    RED CROSS WORK OF. THE SCHOOLS

    According to the "History of Augusta County Chapter, American Red Cross" (p.32 in V. W. H. C. files), the Staunton schools which aided in the Red Cross work were as follows: The Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind, Mary Baldwin Seminary, Stuart Hall, Staunton High School, Staunton Grammar School. The detailed report is as follows:

    School for Deaf and Blind-Hospital supplies, 71; gauze dressings, 1,340; bandages, 512; infant's garments, 431; knitted garments, 59.

    Mary Baldwin Seminary-Hospital supplies, 124; gauze dressings, 681; infant's garments, 320; knitted garments 1.

    Stuart Hall-Hospital supplies, 81; gauze dressings, 4,629; bandages. 163; knitted garments, 98.

    Staunton High School--Hospital supplies, 368; bandages 26, infants' garments, 49; knitted garments, 3.

    Staunton Grammar School--Hospital supplies, 76; infants' garments, 30; knitted garments, 3.

    Total-Hospital supplies, 720; gauze dressings, 6,713; bandages, 701; infants' garments, 830; knitted garments, 164.

    Total articles contributed by Staunton schools, 9,128.

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Staunton and Augusta County had five companies in the National Guard. Headquarters Company, Supply Company, Company I and Company K, all of the First Virginia Infantry, and a machine-gun company of the Second Virginia Infantry. The Headquarters Company, commanded by Captain Charles M. East, was called July 25,1917, and was mustered into Federal service on August 3, 1917. The Supply Company, commanded by Captain W. E. Tribbett and Second Lieutenant A. B. Carter, was called July 25, 1917, and mustered in August 2, 1917. Company I was called July 25, 1917, and mustered in August 3, 1917. The officers were as follows: Captain H. L. Opie, First Lieutenant R. H. Catlett, Second Lieutenant Charles P. Serrett. Company K was called July 25, 1917, and mustered in August 1, 1917. Its officers were as follows: Captain William V. Smiley, First Lieutenant Elliotte V. Peaco, Second Lieutenant George B. Fretwell. Machine Gun Company was called March 25, 1917, and was mustered in April 2, 1917. Its officers were Captain Joshua P. Ast, First Lieutenant A. A. Grove, Second Lieutenant Ewart Johnston, Second Lieutenant C. B. Board. Captain Joseph P. Ast was the only man in the company from Staunton. The Headquarters, Supply and Machine Gun companies all went on October 4, 1917, into the 116th Infantry Companies I and K were distributed between Company of the 116th Infantry and Company D of the 110th Machine Gun Battalion. Company D of the 110th Machine Gun Battalion later became Comany D of the 112th Machine Gun Battalion.[10]

    Staunton organized a Home Guard company in July, 1917. By July 25, 1917, the company numbered thirty-five members, but the following year a company of Virginia Volunteers was mustered in at Staunton and the Home Guards were no longer needed.[11]

    Mr. F. H. Sibert, of Fordwick, in Augusta County, made an earnest attempt to organize a Home Guard company but failed.[12] The Virginia Volunteer organization in August County was known as the Valley Riflemen. They were mustered into service by Major LeMasurier on August 26, 1918, after one hundred and fifty-fourt men had signed the application and twenty-three men over the age of forty-five had pledged themselves to become contributing members at $10 a year.[13]

    In the draft, 7,879 men registered in Staunton and Augusta County. Of this number 1,025 were drafted and sent to camp.[14] Augusta County was credited with 242 enlistments.

    Eleven men from Staunton are included in Virginia's Distinguished Service list: Richard P. Bell Order of University Palms, Arms, City of Lampes; Sergeant Robert A Chermside French Croix de Guerre; Captain Charles J Churchman Silver Star Citation, French Croix de Guerre Colonel Harry N Cootes, Distinguished Service Medal cited by division commander; Captain W. W. Green, cited by commander in chief commended by battalion commander commended by infantry commander, Silver Star Citation Corporal Edward R Kivlighan, French Croix de Guerre, Second Division Citation; Whitten E. Norris, French Croix de Guerre; Major H. L. Opie, Distinguished Service Cross, French Croix de Guerre, French Legion of Honor; Major W. M. Phelps, cited by division commander, French Croix de Guerre with Palm, Silver Star Citation, recommended for Distinguished Service Cross; Second Lieutenant Archibald G. Robertson, Distinguished Service Cross, French Croix de Guerre; Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. Williams, cited by commander-in-chief, Belgian Order of the Crown.

    Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 1912-1920, [sic] was born in Staunton December 28, 1856, and was, of course, the most distinguished Virginian of the period.

    Augusta County, exclusive of Staunton, has seven names on the Distinguished Service list. They are: James M. Bear, cited by commander-in-chief; Edgar A. Bocock, cited by commander-in- chief; Captain J. N. Green, Distinguished Service Cross, commended by commanding officer of sanitary section, French Croix de Guerre; James H. Rowan, French Croix de Guerre; Captain R. P. Rowan, Distinguished Service Cross; Corporal Cecil F. Swats, cited by division commander; James M. Zirkle, Distinguished Service Cross and French Croix de Guerre.[15] The following men from Staunton were killed or died in service: Gordon Argenbright, Charlie W. Brown (colored), Fred L. Brubeck, Carl W. Dudley, George C. Dunlop, Wilham Roy Hevener, Rohert E. L. Michie, J. W. Shaver.[16]

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    Results of the sale of Liberty Bonds in Augusta County and Staunton were as follows: Second Loan-Quota, $931,000; subscribed, $815,000; number subscribing, 2,274. Third Loan-Quota, $518,300; subscribed, $808,750; number subscribing, 2,754. Fourth Loan-Quota, $1,110,600; subscribed, $1,288,650; number subscribing, 4,156. Victory Loan-Quota, $793,500; subscribed, $1,060,300; number subscribing, 2,423. Total quota, $3,353,400; subscribed, $3,973,250; number subscribing, 11,607

    The Boy Scouts of Staunton were active in encouraging the purchase of war securities. After Scoutmaster Rev. W. G. McDowell went to war, Scout activities were directed by Miss Eleanor White and Assistant Scoutmaster James M. Southard, Jr. The Boy Scouts sold $446,650 worth of Liberty Bonds and $5,000 worth of War Savings Stamps; they helped the Red Cross, the United War Work campaign and the War Camp Community Service.[17]

    Augusta County is wholly agricultural. When the government called for increase in food production, the farmers of Augusta County responded (1918) with a wheat crop (sown in the fall of 1917) of about two million bushels. This figure may be appreciated when we note that the wheat crop of 1917 was about a quarter of a million bushels. In spite of the increase, other crops were normal. In 1919 the wheat crop was expected to total two and one-half million bushels, but unfavorable weather conditions diminished the potential crop about 25 per cent. During the war period there was also an improvement in the quality of live stock in the county. In addition to farming, the people of Augusta County found time to aid in the work of the Red Cros$4A(e Food Administration, Liberty Loan committees, Y.M.C.A., etc.[18]

    During the war the matter of health in Augusta County, and more particularly among the school children of the county, was under the supervision of Miss Clorine Benton, R. N., the Augusta County school nurse. During the time from September 1, 1917, to September 1, 1919, she visited schools and homes in an attempt to improve health conditions and thus better to equip the county for its strenuous war duties.[19]

    The work of the Augusta County agricultural agent was also of importance during the war. He visited schools and farms, attended conferences, distributed bulletins and circulars and wrote letters--all in an effort to increase local crops and live stock production. Much work was done through boys' and girls' agricultural clubs.[20]

    RED CROSS

    The first Red Cross work in Augusta County was begun April 6, 1917, under the direction of Dr. Wilbur M. Phelps and Dr. A. L. Tynes, both of Staunton. This first effort resulted in the forming of two classes in first aid. On May 11th a meeting was called and a chapter in the American Red Cross was organized. Officers were as follows: Mrs. Franklin Hanger, chairman; Dr. Kenneth Bradford, vice-chairman; Miss Hallie M. Henkel, secretary; L. G. Strauss, treasurer. The chairman of the executive board was Albert Shultz, and the members were Mrs. Jacob Yost, Mrs. J. A. Alexander, Abe Walters, Mrs. George Sprinkel and Rev. H. B. Cross. Under the supervision of this chapter there were six branches and thirty auxiliaries. The branches had a prescribed jurisdiction and were located as follows: Deerfield Valley, Fordwick, Mt. Solon, Stuarts Draft, Waynesboro and Weyers Cave. The auxiliaries were without a definite jurisdiction and did work only as assigned by the chapter. They were as follows: Art Study Club, Augusta (colored), Beverley Manor Chapter, D. A. R., Burketown, Churchville, Central Methodist Church, Endeavor, Fort Defiance, Greenville, Hebron Church, Justice, Loyal Service, Loyalty, Middle River, Middlebrook, Mt. Zion (colored), Mountain View, Newport, Patriotic Service, Spottswood, United Daughters of the Confederacy, Union, Willing Workers, and War Workers.

    All supplies of the Augusta Chapter were handled, all inspection, packing and shipping done, through the workroom in Staunton from June 1, 1917, until November 11, 1918. Workroom officials were as follows: Mrs Franklin Hanger, chairman; Miss Martha V. Bell, workroom secretary; Mrs. Josephine Kyle, Supervisor of surgical dressings; Mrs. Jacob Hevener and Miss Gay Trout, Supervisors of hospital garments; Mrs. Stuart Robertson, supervisor of knitted garments; Mrs. S. D. Gochenour, chairman of purchasing committee.

    The following is an account of the work done through the Augusta County Red Cross workroom: Hospital garments and supplies, 8,333; refugee garments, 5,214; knitted garments, 3,854; surgical dressings, 161,841; Christmas parcels, 218; regulation boxes shipped, 99; front line parcel boxes, 25; cash contributions, $1,948.74

    The Red Cross work of the schools was treated in the schools section of this sketch.

    The Canteen of the Augusta County Red Cross Chapter was organized in August, 1918, with thirty-five members. By September the number had increased to seventy-five. Under the direction of A. E. Miller, Clark Worthington and Abe Walters, a hut was built at the railroad station from which free canteen service was given upon the arrival of regular trains, and all troop trains passing through Staunton between 7 in the morning and 10 at night. Jane Coiston Howard was chairman of the canteen. Mrs. Robert R. Heydenreich was commander, and the following ladies were captains: Mrs. Hume Sprinkle, Mrs. James H. Powell, Mrs. Heiskel Argenbright, Mrs. Herbert McK. Smith; Mrs. Max Mercerrean, Mrs. Henderson Bell, Jr., and Mrs. E. W. Randolph.

    The Canteen report from September, 1918, to September, 1919, is as follows: Number of men served, 56,515; coffee, orangeade, ginger ale, sandwiches, cigarettes, chocolate, apples, oranges, candy, cake, pies, peanuts, magazines, postal cards, supplied; special dinners at Christmas; approximate cost of service, $3,100; donations and money earned by Canteen, $1,550.

    In two war drives held by the Red Cross-June 18 to 25, 1917, and May 20 to 28, 1918-a total of $17,540.17 was raised. A total membership of 6,650 was recorded on January 1, 1919. Five first aid classes were taught by Doctors Bradford, Tynes, Phelps and Spencer. The chapter collected 11,700 pounds of clothing for the Belgian Relief Commission. Sixteen French orphans were cared for by branches and auxiliaries. The following workers received badges for continuous service of 800 hours: Mrs. Franklin Hanger, Miss Martha V. Bell, Miss Hallie Henkle, Miss Gay Trout.

    In addition, the Augusta County Red Cross packed Christmas boxes, financed the local United States Employment Bureau for three months, contributed funds, supplies, and cooperated with two emergency hospitals and other agencies during the influenza epidemic.

    The Home Service section of the Augusta County Red Cross was headed by W. H. Hall, chairman, and Miss Fannie Strauss, executive secretary.[1]

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    At the beginning of the war period the Y.M.C.A. had been organized in Staunton for thirty-five years. Since there was no camp near Staunton, the Y.M.C.A. did not have any particular camp service duties. It invited all service men to use its departments free of charge. The building of the Y.M.C.A. Was always at the disposal of the Red Cross and other war work organizations. The quota for war work for the Staunton Y.M.C.A. was $30,000. Approximately 5,000 subscribers contributed $29,174.78. The following men served on war work campaign committees for the Y.M.C.A.: Hon. J. A. Glasgow, Charles Catlett, J. J. Prufer, S. I. Davis, F. A. Lasley, K. H. Knorr, C. K. Hoge, P. D. Edwards, S. M. Donald, H. B. Sproul, James C. Foster, A. E. Miller, C. W. Brown, P. G Stratton, C. P. Rigler, George Powell, Col. S. B. Allen, H. C. Gibson, W. W. Pratt, Percy Willson, J. H. Bryan, W. W. King, H. B. Handley, R. W. Hammerslough. There were nine men and one woman from Staunton who entered the service of the Y.M.C.A. for war work. S. M. Donald served on the Y.M.C.A. war work recruiting committee,[2] and Rev. W. E. Abrams and Jacob Hevener were among those who went overseas in Y.M.C.A. work.[3]

    While Companies I and K of the First Virginia Infantry (afterwards the 116th Infantry) were stationed in Staunton, the Friendship Circle-a club for working girls-invited the soldiers to come to the circle's rooms Monday, Wednesday and Saturday evenings from 7:30 to 11 P. M. Refreshments were served. An average of 30 girls and 50 men attended each evening.[4]

    The Beverly Manor Chapter, D. A. R., was organized as a Red Cross auxiliary, subscribed $30.00 to Red Cross hospitals abroad, contributed $5.00 to the Camp Community fund, $50.00 to the purchase of a Liberty Bond, $52.00 to the National Society for the purchase of Liberty Bonds, sponsored lectures on war topics, participated in Victory parade, contributed $150.00 to the Belgian Relief in November, 1914, raised $100.00 towards the erection of a monument to the soldiers, adopted a French war orphan.[5]

    The local executive committee of the Staunton War Camp Community Service was composed of the following: Edward Woodward, Abe Walters, Mrs. W. W. King, Mrs. Hume Sprinkle, Mrs. R. R. Heydenreich, Miss Mary Osborne Templeton, Rev. J. J. Gravatt, Jr., J. H. C. Grasty, J. H. Bryan, Michael Kivlighan. Entertainment was under the direction of Miss Templeton; refreshments, Mrs. H. Sprinkle; chaperonage, Mrs. S.D. Timberlake, Jr.; employment, Mrs. Kivlighan; readjustment, Rev. J. J. Gravatt, Jr. Under the direction of the W. C. C. S., James H. Rubush organized an out-of-doors community chorus and held "sings" once a week. The Travelers' Aid and information department was in charge of Mrs. O. W. Robertson and operated in one booth at the station. Four workers were employer in this department.[6]

    The Community Welfare League worked in cooperation with all the war work organizations and did considerable service for the citizens of Staunton and Augusta County. The following is an account of various activities in 1917 and 1918: New cases, 1917, 654; 1918, 589; old cases, 1917.470; 1918, 299; visits by visiting nurse, 1917, 1,783; 1918, 2,455; letters to out-of-town inquirers, 1917, 248; 1918, 383; employment secured, 1917, 67; 1918, 39; medical aid, 1917, 30; 1918, 30; legal aid, 1917, 77; 1918, 286; receipts, 1917, $3,355.32; 1918, $3,427.43; disbursements, 1917, $2,769.30; 1918, $2,563.71.[7]

    The J. E. B. Stuart Chapter, U. D. C., operated a Red Cross auxiliary after June, 1917. The members sold $147,000 worth of Liberty Bonds and bought $10,000 worth. Mrs. A. M. Howison was assistant commandant to the canteen work, and many members assisted her. The chapter participated in all the patriotic parades.[8]

    In November, 1918, in connection with the general campaign for the United War Work fund, the "Victory Boys" campaign resulted in an enrollment of 1,223 members and subscriptions to the amount of $3,930.62.[9]

    At the same time (November, 1918) the "Victory Girls" campaign in Staunton and Augusta County, exclusive of Stuart Hall and Mary Baldwin Seminary (of which every student was enrolled as a "Victory Girl"), enrolled 278 girls.[10]

    The following war activities were engaged in by the Tuesday Club of Augusta County: Entertainment for benefit of Red Cross at home and abroad, proceeds $165.00; contribution of $20.00 to the United War Work campaign; silver offering taken at each meeting for the Y.M.C.A.; French war orphan adopted and refugee garments made; lectures on patriotic subjects; contribution of $50.00 to the Armenian fund.[11]

    Staunton and Augusta Count were asked to contribute $9,153.00 to the Armenian-Syrian Relief fund. Through the efforts of E. C. Harrison, Rev. Murray D. Mitchell and Charles K. Hoge, sufficient publicity was given to the drive to raise $23,787.03. The churches were particularly energetic and generous.[12]

    In May, 1919, Dr. Rosalie Morton appealed to the women of Staunton for funds with which to aid in building a hospital in Serbia. About $730.00 was raised: $300.00 from Trinity Church, $200.00 from the First Presbyterian Church, $100.00 from the Second Presbyterian Church, $100.00 from the Emmanuel Church.[13]

    Alexander F. Robertson was local representative of the Virginia Commission on Belgian Relief and was appointed November 12, 1914. He estimated that the clothing, flour, apples, canned goods, etc., shipped from Staunton to Norfolk for exportation were worth approximately $2,500. In his report no figures are given for relief work done after December 15, 1914.[14]

    Seventy-six French war orphans were adopted (at $36.50 per year each) by various organizations and individuals in Staunton and Augusta County. Staunton cared for fourteen and the remainder were cared for by citizens of the county. Mrs. J. F. F. Cassell was chairman of the committee on the adoption of French orphans.[15]

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    Staunton experienced no difficulty in receiving the returned soldier. For the service man, the first few months of readjustment were difficult and he did not find employment readily. The city was largely sustained by the rich agricultural county surrounding it. In the few manufacturing plants in Staunton there was only an occasional vacancy. Those soldiers who had been farmers and wished to return to farming, quickly found employment with increased wages. They were the first to get placed and by the summer of 1919 they were settled in permanent jobs and were contented. Many of those who had gone from the city and county had become, through training, skilled mechanics. Some of these found employment in their trades, others with automobile agencies, while a large proportion were lured to distant cities where their skill commanded higher wages. By the winter and spring of 1920 all of Augusta's ex-service men were at work and, for the most part, contented.

    The Clemmer-McGiffin Post, No.13, of the American Legion, was organized September 12, 1919, and comfortable quarters were secured.

    Staunton was quiet and undisturbed during the period of readiustment. Generally, economic conditions in Staunton were about the same as in other Virginia cities. The city experienced no difficulties comparable to those of the manufacturing centers in eastern Virginia.[16]

    According to the 1920 United States census, Staunton had a population of 10,623 and Augusta County 34,671.

    NOTES:

    1. Adapted from Augusta County and Staunton by Alexander F. Robertson, V. W.H.C. Files
    2. Staunton Churches, by Murray D. Mitchell.
    3. Report of Rocky Springs Presbyterian Church, V.W.H.C.
    4. Report of Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church, V.W.H.C. files
    5. Report of Bethel Presbyterian Church, V. W. H. C. Files
    6. Report of Basic M.E. Church by M. L. Fearnow, V. W.H. C. Files
    7. Report of Finley Memorial Church V. W. H. C. Files
    8. See L. Hammond to C. R. Keiley, V. W. H. C. Files
    9. Report of Mary Baldwin Seminary, by Marianna P. Higgins, V. W.H.C. files
    10. Adjutant General's report for 1919
    11. Source Volume IV, Va, War Hist. Com., p. 359
    12. Ibid, p. 362.
    13. Ibid., p. 294
    14. Adjutant General's report for 1918, p. 48
    15. Source Volume I, and Supplement to Soruce Volume V, V. W. H. C. Files
    16. See War Department Casualty lists, V. W. H. C. Files
    17. See Scout Officials' Questionnaire, by J. J. Gravett, Jr., V. W. H. C. Files
    18. See Activities of Farmers of Augusta County, 1917 to 1919, by P. C. Manley, V. W. H. C. Files
    19. See Report of Augusta County School Nurse, by Clorine Benton, V. W. H. C. Files
    20. Report of County Agent, V. W. H. C. Files.

    Notes Red Cross:

    1. For a full and detailed account of the activities of the Augusta and Staunton Red Cross work, see History of Augusta County Chapter, A. R. C. 1917-1918, V. W. H. C. Files
    2. The Y.M.C.A. Of Staunton, Va. by R. W. Hammerslough, V. W. H. C. Files
    3. See personal sketch of each in V. W. H. C. Files
    4. See Report of Friendship Circle, by Sarah J. Robertson, V. W. H. C. Files
    5. See Report of Beverly Manor Chapter, D. A. R., by Charlotte R. Taylor, V. W. H. C. Files
    6. See Questionnaire War Camp Community Service, V. W. H. C. Files
    7. For full account see History of Community Welfare League of Staunton and Augusta County, V. W. H. C. Files
    8. Report of the J. E. B. Stuart Chapter, U. D. C. V. W. H. C. Files
    9. Report of Victory Boys' Campaign Committee, by Taylor McCoy, V. W. H. C. Files
    10. Report of Victory Girls' Campaign by Sarah T. Robinson, V. W. H. C. Files
    11. Report of Tuesday Club of Augusta County, V. W. H. C. Files
    12. Report of Armenian-Syrian Relief, by Mrs. E. C. Harrison V. W. H. C. Files
    13. Report of Serbian Relief, by Margaret B. Robertson, V. W. H. C. Files
    14. Report of Belgian Relief, V. W. H. C. Files
    15. Report of Committee on Adoption of Fatherless Childress of France, V. W. H. C. Files
    16. Post-war—The Returned Soldier, by Peyton Cochran, V. W. H. C. Files
  • Warren County

    A Community History

    LOCATION, NATURAL FEATURES AND RESOURCES

    Warren County was formed from Frederick and Shenandoah in 1837 and is one of eleven counties named for American patriots. General Joseph Warren, a talented physician of Massachusetts, energetic in the cause of the colonists, gave the county its name. He was the virtual leader in his colony in 1774. By his orders Paul Revere set forth on the famous midnight ride to Lexington. Warren fought at Lexington and fell at Bunker Hill, where a monument stands to his memory. This is a Shenandoah Valley county containing 226 square miles and a population of 8,802.

    Lying on the western slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains, the surface is rolling and mountainous in some portions. Agriculture is the chief occupation. Corn, wheat, oats, hay, livestock, poultry and fruits flourish. No county in the State has superior advantages for live stock and grain crops. An abundance of natural blue grass grows luxuriantly. The various clovers and timothy are found on nearly every farm. Considerable attention is given to poultry raising. One of the largest duck farms in the country is in Warren County. Both climate and soil are well adapted to fruit growing. Sheep are found on most of the farms and nowhere are conditions more favorable. There are numbers of purebred herds of all the leading breeds of swine. Local lime plants make lime available at minimum cost. The manufacture of timber is an industry of some importance, there being a number of saw mills in the county.

    This county and Clarke are renowned for fine horses. A great number are sold on eastern city markets. Some of the greatest racing studs in the world are owned and used by horse breeders in these counties. Railroad transportation is excellent, the Shenandoah Valley Division of the Norfolk and Western and the Manassas Division of the Southern Railway traverse the county. Improved State Highway Route 37, from the coast via Fredericksburg and Culpeper to Winchester passes through this county.

    Front Royal, at the junction of the two railroads and on State highway connecting with cardinal points, is the county seat, an attractive, progressive town, with various industries, in the heart of one of the finest farming sections of the State. Close to the town is the Federal Government Remount Station and Cavalry Horse Training and Breeding Station. Near Front Royal preparations are now being made to operate some old copper mines. Randolph-Macon Academy is located here also the Front Royal College and a well equipped accredited high school. North of Front Royal, and nearby, is the town of Riverton. Here are commercial lime plants and near is the largest duck farm in the east.[1]

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    When the war began in Europe there were traces of anti-British feeling in Warren County, but after the sinking of the Lusitania the sentiment became pro-Ally and increased in intensity. Interest in education was general and growing. A number of new high schools had been established in the county, and one private school was being conducted. All of these were operating successfully before the war. There was cordial co-operation among the churches in all good work. The cities and factories attracted farm labor during this period to a large extent, but the farmers responded to the call for increased production.

    There is no doubt that attempts were made to spread German propaganda among the negroes of the county, but they failed to produce any effect, as the negroes were loyal and gave little attention to rumors.

    War relief work began in Warren in 1914 and continued until 1919. Women took the lead in this relief work, making and shipping supplies across the Atlantic.

    The local militia, known then as Company D, Second Virginia Infantry, went to the Mexican front in 1916, with about 75 men. Their absence from the county was very noticeable and it required the assistance of women and girls to replace them. After service of about eight months, the company was ordered home on account of our strained relations with Germany and was mustered out February 28, 1917, and recalled to the colors in April.[2]

    THE DRAFT AND MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS

    Company D was mustered into Federal service on March 31, 1917, at Front Royal, with the following officers: Captain Samuel G. Waller, First Lieutenant Harold R. Dinges and Second Lieutenant William D. Leach.[3] Company D later became a part of the 116th Infantry, Twenty-ninth Division, and the overseas experiences of this regiment may be found in Source Volume V of this series. Warren County had no Home Guard or Virginia Volunteer Companies.

    There were 1,710 men who registered in this county, and of these 168 (126 white and 42 colored) were accepted at camp.[4.] The per capita cost of the first draft was $10.78 as against $8.67 average for the State.[5] Professor Charles L. Melton states in his paper on Warren County that sixty-five men and seven officers went from the county in the National Guard, and 227 selectmen and seven officers.

    The following received special distinction: Miss Anne Lougheed Carson, British Royal Red Cross; Lieutenant Maurice F. DeBarneville, cited by division commander, cited by commander- in-chief, French Order of Agricultural Merit; Sergeant Lee Murray, cited by division commander; Captain James N. C. Richards (deceased), cited by division commander.[6]

    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    The sale of Liberty Bonds in Warren County was as follows: Second Loan quota, $117,900; amount subscribed, $27,750;. number subscribing, 343. Third Loan quota, $67,500; amount subscribed, $110,250; number subscribing, 649. Fourth Loan quota, $161,000; amount subscribed, $172,650; number subscribing, 758. Victory Loan quota, $100,800; amount subscribed, $125,400; number subscribing, 521. Total quota for the four loans, $447,200; amount subscribed, $436, 050; number subscribing, 2,271.[7]

    This county is largely agricultural, but there are numerous flourishing industries, especially about Front Royal and Riverton. During the war the lime works of the county were speeded up and furnished thousands of tons of lime to the DuPont powder factories; the Old Virginia Orchard Preserving plant furnished the government with jams; the Locust Pin Company manufactured pins for both telephone and telegraph lines. The lime works and the locust pin and handle factories received certificates of merit from the government for services rendered. The farmers of the county responded to the call for increased production, and the local banks attributed the $486,000 which the county paid for war bonds to the extra value of the farm yield.[8]

    THE RED CROSS

    The Warren County Chapter of the American Red Cross was organized in May, 1917. Mrs. Florence Millar was the first chairman, Mrs. James Chalmers was the second, and E. S. West, treasurer. Officers in December, 1919, were B. J. Hilledge, chairman; S. G. Coe, vice-chairman; Mrs. W. L. Jones, secretary; Captain S. R. Millar, treasurer. Members of the executive committee, other than those named above, were Rev. J. H. Smith, Mrs. C. L. Melton, Miss Margaret Grayson, Mrs. W. Burtsfield, Mrs. L. Rudicille, and Miss B. B. Beaty. In December, 1919, there were 559 members and the total number of members from time of organization was 2,046.

    The chapter maintained three workrooms under the direction of Mrs. Tackett, Miss Jennie Moore and Mrs. Algernon Brown. The following auxiliaries were formed: Success, organized January 9, 1918, Mrs. Jack Brown, chairman; Bentonville, organized February 18, 1918, Mrs. R. C. Weaver, chairman; Bethel, organized April 10, 1918, Mrs. Herbert Smith, chairman; Waterlick, organized June 15, 1918, Mrs. Mitchell, chairman; Long Meadow, organized July 18, 1918, Mrs. Charles Kearns, chairman.

    The chapter made 3,848 garments, 508 knitted articles, 100 comfort kits and 100 property bags.

    The home service committee, Rev. J. H. Smith and Miss Margaret Grayson, assisted 2,122 families and spent $3,803.94. The home service committee conducted eight tuberculosis clinics, three adenoids and tonsils clinics, one baby welfare clinic, and cared for 400 persons during the influenza epidemic.

    The chapter raised $379 in the 1917 Red Cross drive, and $3,000 in the 1918 drive. Membership drives resulted in 1,060 members in 1918, 1,217 members in 1919, and 559 members in 1920.

    The Junior Red Cross had 1,026 members in 1919, and 847 in 1920. Randolph-Macon Academy and the Front Royal High School organized Junior Red Cross Auxiliaries in March, 1918. There were eleven auxiliaries: Linden, Emory, Limeton, Milldale, Rockland, Woodberry, Waterlick, Burntown, Acorn Hill and Harmoney Hollow.

    The following members of the local chapter went overseas: Misses Anne Carson, Belle Carson, Ruth Ford as nurses, and Dr. Giles Cook and C. W. Carson.

    In addition to tile work mentioned above, the Warren County Chapter made 38,242 surgical dressings and packed 50 Christmas boxes.[9]

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    In Warren County there were no Y.M.C.A., Knights of Columbus or Salvation Army organizations. When the call came, however, for funds for the United War Work campaign, the following committee was organized: B. J. Hilledge, chairman; E. S. West, secretary and treasurer. They, with the aid of A. P. Ferguson, Mrs. A. L. Warthern, Mrs. C. A. Stokes, Miss Annie Compton and others, raised $1,538.35 for this cause.

    Belgian Relief work was done through the Red Cross Chapter. Miss Margaret Grayson and Lester Evans succeeded in having twenty-one French war orphans adopted for a year. The Near East relief work was under the direction of E. S. West and $410.97 was collected. The churches aided in this work. Jewish Welfare work was managed by Miss Rachel Sager, who, with the help of others, raised $540 for this cause. About 200 books were solicited by school children and shipped to the American Library Association headquarters. Armenian and Syrian relief funds were solicited by Rev. J. A. Moncure.

    The Masonic Lodge bought $5,740 worth of Liberty Bonds, the Odd Fellows Lodge bought $150 worth of bonds, the Eastern Star bought War Savings Stamps and contributed to the Near East Relief fund, the Junior Order of American Mechanics bought $350 worth of bonds.

    The colored people were loyal and contributed their share to the war work of the county. The children joined the Junior Red Cross, the teachers sold Red Cross Christmas Seals, and a number of colored people bought bonds. Their Red Cross work was reported in connection with that of the local chapter. They were not slackers in any way.[10]

    NOTES:

    1. See Virginia, published by Department of Agriculture and Immigration, pp.230, 232.
    2. See Warren County, by Charles L. Melton, V. W. H. C.
    3. Adjutant General's Report for 1919, p.202.
    4. Adjutant General's Report for 1918, Part II, p. 50.
    5. Adjutant General's Report for 1917, p.25.
    6. For texts of citations see Source Volume I and Supplement to Source Vol. V
    7. Figures taken from report of Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
    8. See Warren County, by Charles L. Melton, V. W. H. C. files.
    9. This account of Red Cross work is taken from a report by Clara M. Jones, V. W. H. C. Files
    10. Information given under War Work section has been taken from unsigned statements and reports sent in by the Warren County
  • Washington County

    A Community History

    By Mrs. Alexander Stuart

    INTRODUCTION

    Washington County is agricultural in its interest and there are very few factories or other industries in the county. There is a large plaster mill at Plasterco, an extract plant and lumber mill at Damascus, a large lumber plant at Konnarock, and other smaller mills in the county, hut in the main the business of Washington County is farming and stock raising. The young men who did most of the work on the farms were called to the army and their places were taken by others, unaccustomed to such work, but who were able to carry it on by use of improved machinery and so kept the crop production normal. Owing to the strict observance of the conservation law, under judge John J. Stuart, local Food Administrator for Washington County. as much food was available for government use as if there had been no labor shortage. The conditions produced by increased use of modern machinery on farms still exist, making crop production in the county greater than before the war.

    There were no aliens in Washington County at the time of the war, no race problems ot moment with the negroes and there has been no appreciable decrease in the negro population since the war. There was no pro-German nor anti-English sentiment, or, if any, so little as to be neglible, and there were verv few avowed pacifists. In fact, the population of Washington County was practically united in patriotism, and in a desire to exert every effort to aid the government and stand by the soldiers.

    THE CHURCHES

    The Churches of the county were a help and inspiration throughout the war. Every patriotic effort had not only their sanction, but their active co-operation. All the churches in Abingdon and many elsewhere in the county had service flags and an honor roll of members serving in the army, for whom earnest prayer was made. The first Red Cross drive was inaugurated by a union service in the Methodist Church at which a representative of each organization of each church presented a purse with a liberal contribution to open the subscription. Frequent religious services were held during the war, and the day of fasting and prayer proclaimed by the President was observed in Abingdon by all-day services, closing the day with a vesper service at Martha Washington Chapel. The ministers of the county were active in all war work and encouraged their people by their interest and labors. Contributions were made through the Sunday Schools to the Near East Relief, exact figures for which cannot be obtained. Two French orphans were supported by the teachers of the Methodist Sunday School and one of the classes at Abingdon. The auxiliaries of the Episcopal and Presbyterian Churches made comfort bags, refugee garments and other supplies for use in hospitals. The contributions of the churches were many and varied, but at this date they cannot be given statistically; only the spirit of the churches can be recorded as helpful and patriotic.

    On the day of the burial of the "Unknown Soldier" a very solemn union service was held in the Methodist Church at Abingdon. The American Legion, all ex-service men and the Auxiliary to the Legion attended in a body, and the church was filled to overflowing by the other citizens of the town. After the service, the Auxiliary to the Legion served dinner in the annex, to the soldiers of the county.

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    The children in the public schools were organized in Junior Red Cross work, and were taught the meaning of patriotism by talks, songs and concrete examples of helpful work.

    Through the schools and Sunday schools the children were trained to love their country and to desire to do something to help its cause. In addition to work done for the Red Cross, some of the grades at William King High School supported French orphans. All credit is due the teachers of the public schools, who added this work of training the children to their schedules which were already heavy.

    There are three colleges in the county-Emory and Henry College for boys, located at Emory; Martha Washington, and Stonewall Jackson Colleges for girls, located at Abingdon.

    All of these colleges did excellent war work and were full of the spirit of patriotism and service. Owing to the fact that the presidents and personnel of the faculties of all three colleges have changed since the war, exact records canot be gotten of the work done, so it will have to be given in a general way.

    STONEWALL JACKSON COLLEGE

    This college was recovering from a disastrous fire which destroyed all the school buildings just before the war and the rebuilding was not completed. In spite of this handicap work for the Red Cross was organized in the school under the direction of Miss Carrie Timberlake, who, assisted by Miss Bayless, another member of the faculty, made many garments for the Washington County Red Cross Chapter and did other work at headquarters. Mrs. Dobyns, wife of the president, was a member of the executive committee of the chapter.

    An entertainment was given by Dr. Fisher and his Glee Club, the proceeds of which were given to the Red Cross, but the record of the exact amount cannot be obtained. The college made good response to the roll calls and to the various drives. The members of the faculty bought War Savings Stamps, and one girl organized a War Savings Club on her return to her home, which bought $1,100.00 worth of stamps. Miss Timberlake supported a French child. Much of the work of the college was unrecorded, so full justice cannot be done to it.

    MARTHA WASHINGTON COLLEGE

    The faculty and student body of this college were active in war work, contributing both money and labor to the Red Cross and the other activities of the war period. They made a donation of $100.00 to the Red Cross for supplies, to be used for surgical dressings, and the proceeds of all entertainments were given to some phase of war work.

    Miss Lida McCormick, aunt of Prof. Chas. Parks, of the music faculty, taught the .girls to knit and did a large amount of knitting herself, making dozens of sweaters and innumerable pairs of socks. The contribution of knitted articles from Martha Washington to the Red Cross was a considerable factor in its report. Mrs. M. S. Brady, a member of the faculty and a member of the executive committee, of the Red Cross, worked at headquarters in the surgical dressings room did a great deal of knitting and assisted Miss McCormick in teaching the girls to knit. The president, Dr. S. D. Long, and his wife co-operated in all the war work undertaken by the girls. They had a son, James Long, in the army. He served with a hospital unit in France.

    The Comte de Chambrun visited the college when he made a tour of this country and planted a tree on the campus. Many patriotic meetings were held in the chapel of the chapel of the college, which inspired the girls to greater efforts in their work. The response to Red Cross roll calls was always good, being at times 100 per cent. Contributions to the various drives were liberal, but exact figures cannot be secured. Two sororities supported a French child each. The members of the faculty and many of the girls made considerable investments in Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps. The spirit and record of the college were excellent throughout the war, and it is to be regretted that fuller records are not now available.

    Prof. Charles Parks volunteered for service in the in the Y.M.C. A. and received a leave of absence from the college.

    He was detailed as one of a party of twenty-five for work with the British troops in Mesopotamia, worked in British "Y" huts in and near London and in the aviation camp at Netherwallop, Hants, near Winchester. After two weeks at Bangalore, India, he was assigned to the Soldiers' Club at Madras.

    NOTES FROM WASHINGTON COUNTY JOURNAL

    Students of Martha Washington and Stonewall Jackson Colleges Show Proper Spirit

    The Martha Washington students are rising with the of true womanliness to meet the call of the hour-which is sacrifice. By eliminating many things that they have heretofore thought to be necessities in college life, they have contributed to the college Y. W. C. A. War Fund $1,282. addition to this, they are supporting for the year five little French children at the cost of $36.00 for each. This excellent work is made possible by the senior class giving up their college annual, by girls foregoing candy, ice cream, trips, expensive dress accessories, special entertainments and many other acts of self-denial that are left for each girl to work out for herself. These young women are determined to show themselves worthy daughters of a country whose sons are laying their all upon her altars. Stonewall Jackson College has done no less nobly according to the number of pupils. By the same methods of self-denial, these young women have contributed $256.70.

    October, 1917.

    The Patriotic Tea Room of Martha Washington College will be open to the public on Monday from 4 to 7:45 P.M. Entertain your friends there. This Saturday there will be an unusually attractive menu. The proceeds go alternately to the Red Cross and War Relief Funds.

    December 21, 1917.

    Before leaving for the Christmas holidays, the girls of the domestic science class at Martha Washington College, under the direction of Miss Beach, made a large quantity of beautiful candy which they turned over to the Red Cross Chapter to send to the Washington County boys at Carri secretary of the chapter sent it to Captain Adams, knowing that many of the boys were in his command, and she received an enthusiastic letter of thanks from him.

    EMORY AND HENRY COLLEGE

    Emory and Henry College entered heartily into the activities of the war. The college community was organized for the purpose of promoting the work of the Red Cross, War Savings Stamps, Liberty Bonds, etc. Mrs. Mattie Bishop Price served as president of the Red Cross and the organization is reported to have raised approximately $300.00. This organization was also instrumental in setting a flag pole on the campus in front of the administration building.

    One very interesting feature in connection with the work of the college is the fine showing it made in the drive for the sale of Victory Bonds. In this particular drive Emory and Henry College was the sixth college in the United States in total amount of sales, or, in other words, only five colleges in the United States sold a larger amount of Victory Bonds than Emory and Henry.

    The same patriotic spirit which impelled Major William E. Jones, a professor in the college, and almost the entire student body to enter the Confederate Army in 1861 prevailed on the graduating class of 1917, since almost the entire class went immediately into the service. More than one hundred graduates of the college were in the war service. Of this number, approximately ten served as commissioned officers, Major William A Stuart, of Abingdon, . and Lieutenants T. T. and Bolling H. Handy being among the number. Lieutenant Handy was afterwards promoted to captain, and won the Distinguished Service Cross and the French Croix de Guerre.

    There were 183 students of the college members of the S. A. T. C during the war, and 104 members of the R. O. T.C. after the war.

    On April 22, 1918, Count Charles de Chambrun, great-great-grandson of Lafayette, in company with Congressman C. Bascom Slemp, and in the presence of the members of the faculty and student body and members of the community, planted a tree on the campus of Emory and Henry.

    Six Emory and Henry graduates and former students lost their lives during the war. Three were killed in action and three died in the service. Harry Clay Williams, of Pearisburg, Va., a graduate of the class of 1910; John M. Paxton, then of Wise, Va., and Edgar Albert, of Lebanon, Va., were the three killed in action. Earl C. Lane, M. M. Armbrister, and Tate I. Bruce died in service.

    John Moore Paxton was a student at Emory and Henry College and in his senior year when America entered the World War. On April 5, 1917, the student body held a patriotic meeting, and the next day John Paxton and John David Orr, a freshman, went to Abingdon to the recruiting officer and enlisted. These were the first two boys to volunteer from Emory and Henry College. John Paxton was sent to Columbus, Ohio. Two months later he was sent to Gettysburg as a private 1st class, in the infantry, where he acted as corporal and taught a night school. September 5, 1917, he was sent to Camp Upton, made first sergeant Company A, 305th Infantry. January 5, 1918, he entered officers' training camp, from which he received a commission as second lieutenant March 25th, standing' thirty-fourth in a class of 500. He sailed for France April 16, 1918, with the 77th Division. June 1st he was transferred to the 28th Division, Company H, 109th Infantry. On September 3rd he was struck by shrapnel and his thigh was crushed. He was hurried to an evacuation hospital and sent from there to Paris on September 12th to Hospital No.3, where he died October 13, 1918. He was buried in the American Military Cemetery at Suresnes.

    A beautiful memorial gateway, built out of Tennessee marble, a memorial to Harry Clay Williams, now graces the main entrance to the college campus.

    THE DRAFT A ThD MEN IN SERVICE

    The Draft Board for Washington County was composed of P. J. Davenport, clerk of the county,
    John E. Miller, sheriff of the county,
    Dr. Geo. E. Wiley, examining physician.

    More than 2,000 young men were in the service from Washington County. This includes those who were in the draft and also the volunteers who enlisted through the recruiting station in Abingdon and those who were in the Reserve Officers' Training camps.

    NOTES FROM WASHINGTON COUNTY JOURNAL

    "Registration Day, June 5, 1917."

    "Washington County Offers 2,363 of Its Young Men for Service August 10, 1917."

    Out of one hundred and fifteen men called for examination in the selective draft before the board for Washington County and city of Bristol on August 8th, only sixteen have been rejected on account of physical disabilities. "Black Jack" Hall, colored, living at Fractionville, on the outskirts of Abingdon, was the first man who refused to claim exemption. Hall passed a fine physical examination, and upon being asked if he wanted to claim exemption, simply stated, "No, I want to go!"

    The second one hundred and fifteen men were called August 10th, and they will be called in additional hundreds every day until the quota from Washington County and the city of Bristol has been reached.

    August 24, 1917.

    Washington County Board finds 236 men fit for war service. This number has been secured in the examination of 632 men. To fill the full quota of Washington County and city of Bristol, at least 300 more men will be called.

    September 5, 1917.

    Fourteen men left Wednesday morning for Petersburg, which completed the first five per cent of the Washington County quota. The Exemption Board has issued a call for a hundred men to report for examination September 10th.

    When the fourteen young men left for Petersburg, each one was given a comfort bag by the ladies of the Episcopal Church, and each a box of lunch by the Red Cross. Mrs. A. L. Barrow was at the train representing the ladies of the Episcopal Church, and Mrs. W. E. Mingea and Mrs. Alexandder Stuart were there representing the Red Cross. A box of lunch will be prepared for each soldier leaving, and the Red Cross will call on all the ladies of the town to help in the preparation of these boxes.

    September 22, 1917.

    The second quota of young men, numbering 114, left today for Camp Lee.

    October 10, 1917.

    Twenty-one young men left this morning for Camp Lee.

    October 27,1917.

    Forty colored men left for Camp Lee today.

    November 15, 1917.

    One hundred young men leave tomorrow. On Friday evening at the Opera House, a large assemblage of the ladies and gentlemen of the town and county gathered to bid farewell to the last contingent of this county's quota for the war. The Opera House was decorated with many flags, and appropriate exercises were held. The meeting was presided over by Mayor George F. Grant, and suitable addresses made. Music of a patriotic character was furnished, by the Stonewall College Orchestra, and Miss Senab Bryant, of Martha Washington College, and Mrs. P. J. Davenport sang inspiring solos. At the conclusion of the exercises, the local chapter of the Red Cross delivered to each soldier a comfort bag.

    HOME GUARD

    The Home Guard was organized October 25, 1917. Captain R. R. Campbell; first lieutenant, R. H. Gist; second lieutenant, Conley Ireson.

    The Home Guard was disbanded June 28, 1921, and the National Guard was organized June 30, 1921. Captain, R. R. Campbell; first lieutenant, Ernest Grubb.

    DISTINGUISHED SERVICE

    The following men from the county are named in Virginia's Distinguished Service list

    Captain Tom Troy Handy, Emory, Va.--D. S. C. French Croix de Guerre, with Gilt Star.
    Thomas T. Price, Abingdon, Va.-D. S. C.
    Robert W. Pendleton, Glade Springs, Va., -cited by commander-in-chief.

    KILLED IN ACTION

    Hubert Hagy, Abingdon; Reece Maiden, Marion Starks, Liew Scott Dixon, William Ramey, Elbert J. Honaker, and Major McKinley Thompson ("Major" not a title, but a name.)

    SERVICE FLAG

    A community service flag was presented to the town of Abingdon by the ladies of the town. The local paper stated that this was the first community service flag presented to a town or city in the South. It was made by Misses Florence Clark, Lizzie Kreger, Eleanor Potts, Carolyn Rector, Ethel Snodgrass and June Smith from funds contributed by the National Service League. The flag had eighty-three blue stars and two gold ones. Judge P. W. Campbell presented the flag for the ladies, and it was accepted by Mayor George F. Grant. The exercises took place at the County Courthouse.

    ECONOMIC

    LIBERTY LOAN AND WAR SAVINGS STAMPS STATISTICS

    Loan Maximum Apportionment Amount Subscribed Subscribers
    Second Liberty Loan $363,300 $335,700 1,142
    Third Liberty Loan 295,800 435,800 2,303
    Fourth Liberty Loan 632,000 695,150 2,702
    Victory Liberty Loan 493,000 576,850 2,151
    Total for all Liberty Loans
    exclusive of the First*.
    $1,784,100 $2,043,500 8,292

    War Savings Stamps were bought to the amount of $34,736.24.

    THE RED CROSS

    This chapter was first organized April 10,1917, as a branch of the Bristol, Va.-Tenn., Chapter, A. R. C., but was made a separate chapter by order of national organization June 26, 1917, with the name of the Abingdon, Va., Chapter and jurisdiction over the neighboring towns of Meadow View, Damascus, and Green Springs. In June, 1918, the chapter was given jurisdiction over Washington County, except for a five-mile strip east of the V. & S. W. Railroad, and the name was changed to Washington County, Va., Chapter. The chapter immediately organized the towns under its jurisdiction and added other branches as soon as it could obtain jurisdiction over the entire county.

    It organized eleven branches and auxiliaries in the county and received five by transfer from the Bristol, Va.-Tenn., Chapter. The branches were Meadow View, Green Spring, Damascus, Blackwell, Hayters Gap, Wesley Chapel, Shortsville, Wyndale, Greendale, Alum Wells, Cave City Auxiliary, Bethel, Glade Spring, Emory, Konnarock, and Cleveland.

    The number of members when organized was 562; the Christmas roll call, 1917, totaled 821; Christmas roll call, 1918, 2,017; Christmas roll call, 1919, 1,000.

    The officers of the Washington County, Va., Chapter, A. R. C., were Chairman, Mrs. W. E. Mingea, April 10, 1917 to date; vice-chairman, Mrs. A. L., Morgan, April 10, 1917 to July 11, 1918; vice-chairman, Mrs. Jno. H. Hassinger, July 11, 1918, to date; treasurer, Mr. W. S. Dodd, cashier, First National Bank, Abingdon, Va., April 10, 1917, to March 31, 1918; treasurer, Mr. Fred L. Davis, assistant cashier Peoples National Bank, Abingdon; Va.; treasurer, Mr. J. W. Bell, July 11, 1918, to date; secretary, Mrs. Alexauder Stuart, April 10, 1917, to date; executive secretary, Miss Eva Kahle, October, 1918, to date.

    The following were chairmen of committees Hospital supplies, Miss Annie C. White, April 10, 1917, to date; surgical dressings, Miss Eva Kable, June 26, 1917, to date; membership, Mrs. A. L. Morgan, April 10, 1917, to June 26, 1917; membership, Miss Estelle Penn, June 26, 1917, to December 1, 1918; membership, Mr. Geo. Penn, Jr., December 1, 1918, to date; packing and shipping, Miss Elizabeth Booker, April 10, 1917, to June 26, 1917; packing and shipping, Mrs. R. G. Rogers, June 26, 1917, to date; inspection, Mrs. T. J. Clark, June 26, 1917, to date; canteen, Mrs. Fred T. Davis, April 10, 1917, to June 26, 1917; canteen, Mrs. R. S. Gill, June 26, 1917, to date; junior auxiliaries, Mrs. Jno. H. Hassinger, June 26, 1917, to date; comfort bags, Mrs. R. R. Campbell, June 26, 1917, to date; knitting, Mrs. T. H. Mason, April 10, 1917, to December, 1917; knitting, Mrs. R. L. Gist, December, 1917, to October, 1918; instruction, Mrs. J. H. Hassinger, April 10, 1,917, to July 11, 1918; first-aid classes, three classes held by Dr. G. V. Litchfield; publicity, Mr. R. L. Gist, April 10, 1917, to date; refugee work, Miss Margaret Preston, July 11, 1918, to date; development of branches, Mr. H. E. Widener, July 11, 1918, to date; finance, Mr. J., W. Bell, July 11, 1918., home service, Mr. W. W. Webb, June 26, 1917, to date.

    The executive committee consisted of the officers of the chapters, chairmen of committees, chairmen of branches, and the following additional members: Mrs. Brady, Martha Washington College; Mrs. Dobyns', Stonewall Jackson College; Mr. S. J. Latture, Dr. Phil Smith, Dr. Geo. V. Litchfield.

    Officers of Meadow View Branch: Chairman, Miss Vivian Aston, July, 1917, to October, 1918; chairman, Mrs. W. H. Aston, October, 1918, to date; treasurer, Mr. A. W. Aston, July, 1917, to date; secretary, Miss Rhea Hendreth, July, 1917, to date.

    Damascus: Chairman, Mrs. F. G. Clements, July, 1917, to April, 1918; chairman, Mrs. S. C. Legard, April, 1918, to date; secretary-treasurer, Miss Lillian Mock, July, 1917, to date.

    Green Spring: Chairman, Mrs. G. C. Aven, July, 1917, to 1918; chairman, Miss Maggie Lee Carpenter, June, 1918, to date; treasurer, Mr. G. G. Preston, July, 1917, to date; secretary, Mrs. G. G. Preston, July, 1917, to date.

    Wyndale Branch: Rev. J. E. Guthrie, December, 1917, to date; vice-chairman, Mrs. Jno. Miller, December, 1917, to date; treasurer, Mr. G. I. Miller, December. 1917. to date; secretary, Mrs. B. E. Aker, December, 1917, to date.

    Greendale Branch: Chairman, Miss Katherine Stuart, February, 1918, to January 31, 1919; chairman, Mrs. Chas. Cunningham, January, 1919, to date: vice-chairman, Mrs. Chas. Hagy, January, 1918, to date; treasurer, Mrs. Chas. Hagy, February, 1918, to date; secretary, Mrs. Elizabeth Whiteaker, February, 1918, to January, 1919; secretary, Mrs. Arthur Butt, January, 1919, to date.

    Cave City Auxiliary (colored): Chairman Mrs. Mary Gray, December, 1917, to November, 1918; chairman, Arthur Williams, November, 1918, to date; vice-chairman; Miss Roeny Taylor, December, 1917, to November, 1918 treasurer, Mrs. H. H. Longley, December, 1917 to November, 1918; treasurer, Mrs. Ruby Cunningham, November 1918, to date; secretary, R. B. Goode, November, 1918 to date.

    Hayter's Gap Branch: Chairman, Mr. W. E. Johnson, June 15, 1918, to date; treasurer, Miss Pearl Sisk, June 15, 1918, to date; secretary, Miss Mabel Litton, June 15, 1918 to date.

    Alum Wells Branch: Chairman, Mrs. C. M. Fleenor, May 15, 1918, to date; treasurer. Mr. J. C. Dixon, May 15, 1918, to date; secretary, Mrs. O. B. Hamilton, May 15, 1918, to date.

    Blackwell Branch: Chairman, Mrs. James Scott, June 16, 1918, to date; treasurer, Mr. G. W. Herndon, June 16, 1918, to date; secretary, Mrs. P. H. Lambert, June 16, 1918 to October 1918; secretary, Miss Gay L. Scott, October, 1918 to date.

    Bethel Branch: Chairman, Mrs. D. A. Duff, June 15, 1918, to date; treasurer, Miss Myra Shearer, June 15, 1918 to date, secretary, Mrs. B. G. Berry, June 15, 1918, to date.

    Wesley Chapel Branch: Chairman, Miss Rachel Bailey, July, 1918, to date; treasurer, Miss Sarah Dunn, July 1918, to date; secretary, Miss Mary Cuddy, July 1918 to date.

    Shortsville Branch: Chairman, Rev. E. C. Buck, July 1918, to date; vice-chairman, Mrs. E. W. Lester, July 1918, to date, treasurer, Mr. R. L. Talbert, July, 1918, to date; secretary. Mrs. Walter Grubb, July, 1918, to date.

    Glade Spring Branch (by transfer): Chairman, Miss Edna Jones, July, 1918, to date; treasurer, Mr. S. W. Keys and B. H. Morris, July 1918, to date; secretary Mrs. H. B. Dunn, July 1918, to date.

    Emory (by transfer): Chairman, Mrs. Mattie B. Price, July 1918, to date; vice-chairman, Mrs. Jas. S. Miller, July 1918 to date; treasurer, Prof. A. G. Sanders, July 1918, to date; sectary, Miss Jessie Yost, July, 1918, to date.

    Blacksburg-Auxiliary to Emory (Colored).

    Konnarock (by transfer) : Chairman, Mrs. L. C. Hassinger, July, 1918, to date.

    Cleveland (by transfer) : Chairman, Miss Hannah Thomas, July, 1918, to date; secretary-treasurer, Miss Julia Keyes, July 1918, to date.

    In regard to the personnel of chapter and branches it may be said that the officers and committee chairmen are all representative people in their communities, and are people who have always been interested in any work for public welfare.

    Committees were formed and they functioned as directed by division headquarters, the only special committee being that on comfort bags which committee saw that each soldier going from Washington County was provided with a comfort bag when leaving. The chapter also gave 194 sweaters to soldiers leaving from Washington County and the City of Bristol. The Damascus branch supplied its own soldiers with sweaters in addition to the sweaters sent to chapter headquarters and already reported.

    Owing to the troop trains making no stops in Abingdon, the work of the Canteen Committee consisted in providing soldiers leaving for camps with lunches, sending preserves, jellies, jams, etc. to the camps, and conducting pantry sales, etc. for raising funds for chapter use. The committee also furnishing food for the community kitchen at Damascus during the influenza epidemic.

    The membership numbered 2,017, and three work rooms were maintained. Two rooms at Abingdon in the Federal Court House were given for the use of the chapter with lights, heat and janitor furnished through the kindness of Judge H. C. McDowell. One room was at Damascus, and all the surgical dressings were made in these rooms at Abingdon and Damascus. All the branches did their full share of the work.

    The following supplies were sent to Bush Terminal and Potomac Division: Hospital supplies and refugee garments, 10,536; Surgical dressings, 31.906; Knitted articles, sweaters, socks, etc., 4,340; Victrola records, 6, and comfort bags, 2,160. Each comfort bag contained housewife, button bag, tooth brush, tube of tooth paste. cake of soap, tablet, pencil, several post cards and a copy of the Gospel of St John.

    In addition to the bags sent to the Potomac Division, each soldier leaving Washington County was given one.

    The supplies sent to Camp Lee included one emergency cot and equipmnet, and box of hospital supplies, articles included 90; repaired socks, 1,793 pairs; sweaters for Washington County soldiers at Camp Lee, 25; jars of preserves and jam, 123; sweaters given to Washington County soldiers, 194; to Company 10, C. A. C., sweaters, 27; sent to Battleship "Virginia," knitted articles, 75; given to Washington County soldiers, comfort bags, 648; lunches to Washington County soldiers, 372; Belgian relief quilts, 31; clothing, Belgian relief, 2,300 lbs.; Christmas boxes sent to soldiers, 1917, 140; Christmas boxes sent to A.E.F. through chapter, 1918, 250; Christmas boxes sent through Roanoke Chapter, 1918, 100.

    The chapter was financed chiefly through monthly contributions from individuals. There was only one salaried officer, an executive secretary, who served on a salary for only six months of the time. The following money was raised: Drive of 1917, $1,000.00; drive of 1918, $5,905.88; drive, of 1919, $800.00 total amount collected by chapter, $11,950.90; total amount expended by chapter, $11,036.29; remaining in treasury, $914.61.

    This is not a complete report, as some of the branch treasurers failed to make regular financial reports and therefore have not received credit for all that was actually expended by them.

    The chapter gave to the George Ben Johnston Memorial Hospital: Scrap books, 31; wash rags, 32; gauze rolls, 50; operating gowns, 1; bed pads, 36; canton flannel night gowns, 3; pajama coats, 2; pajama sets, 3; foot warmers, 1 pair; canton flannel night shirts, 25; twill night shirts, 95; wool for knitting, 1 crate; sweaters, 3; helmets, 2; pairs of socks, 12 ; scarf, 1; comfort bags, 50 and Gospels of St. John, 50.

    During the influenza epidemic conditions in Abingdon were never such as to require the work of a community assistance was given Damascus by sending bread there daily long as need of it existed. After the war, during as influenza epidemic in Abingdon, Damascus did the same community kitchen at Abingdon.

    The Canteen Committee served cakes and pies to fifty members of the Artillery Recruiting Company encamped in town and the Comfort Bag Committee gave these soldiers fifty comfort bags.

    When news of the signing of the Armistice reached Abingdon a religious service of thanksgiving was held on the lawn at "Mont Calm," home of Mrs. W. E. Mingea, chapter chairman. An address was made by Mr. Otis Meade, rector Christ Episcopal Church, Roanoke, Scripture reading by Mr. Taylor, of the Baptist Church of Abingdon, and prayer by Dr. J. R. Brown of the Methodist Church, of Abingdon. Hymns of thanksgiving and patriotic songs were sung by a choir -of Red Cross members.

    There were a number of distinguished speakers in Abingdon during the war, all of whom were entertained by the chapter president, Mrs. W. E. Mingea, at her home.

    The Fourth of July, 1919, was observed as Welcome Home Day for the soldiers and sailors of Washington County, and the chapter and its branches had the pleasure of participating largely in this. A bountiful lunch was provided by the contributions of the members of the chapter and branches and arranged and served to the soldiers and hundreds of visitors by the Canteen Committee.

    The chapter was represented in the parade by a beautiful float and handsomely decorated car, both of which received prizes.

    The chairman of the home service department was Mr. W. W. Webb. This department expended $87.20. The chairman has been most efficient. Owing to his promptness in investigating cases, securing adjustment of claims, etc., it has not been not been necessary for the department to expend very much money, assistance being given until such time as claims were settled.

    JUNIOR RED CROSS AUXILIARIES

    Number of schools organized, 8; amount of money raised, $191.66; amount of money expended, $171.66; balance on hand $20.00.

    Work of Juniors: Gun wipes, cotton quilts, scrap books, knitted ambulance covers, and layettes.

    Those receiving service badges for 800 hours or more work were:

    Abingdon branch: Mrs. J. H. Hassinger, Mrs. W. H. Smith, Mrs. R. H. Gist, Mrs. W E Mingea, Jr., Mrs. R. T. Stephenson, Miss Susie Phipps, Miss Janie Penn, Mrs. James Collier, Mrs. J. W. Bell, Mrs. Jack Clark, Mrs. R. G. Rogers, Mrs. Fred Davis, Miss Annie White, Mrs. E. F. Kable, Mrs. R. S. Gill, Mrs. M. H. Honaker, Mrs. R. B Vance, Miss Madge White, Mrs. S. S. Ballance, Mrs. Jeff Clark, Mrs. R. R. Campbell, Mrs. Alexander Stuart, Mrs. W. E. Mingea, Mrs. Geo. E Penn, Mrs. Frank Hutton, Miss Nancy Booker, Miss Margaret Preston, Mr. H. E. Widener, Mr. F. L. Davis, Mr. D. A. Preston, Mrs. W. W. Webb, Dr. G. V. Litchfield, Miss Gay White, and Miss. Eva Kable.

    Glade Spring: Mrs. Lou Buchanan, Miss Bertha Carmack, Mrs. M. M. Morriss, Mrs. Olivia Thurman, Miss Laura Groseclose, Mrs. Groseclose, Miss Marnie Widener, Mrs. Maggie Wright, Mrs. A. L. Painter, and Mrs. Fount Barker.

    Green Spring: Mrs. C. F. Keller, Mrs. Belle McCauley, Mrs. W. T. McConnell, Miss Maggie Lee Carpenter, Mrs. John Lowry, Mr. John Lowry, Mrs. Franke Parke, Mrs. Grover Aven, and Mrs. Geo. G. Preston.

    Those receiving service badges for 400 hours or more were:

    Glade Springs: Mrs. Brack Clark, Mrs. M. K. Kelly, Miss Nancy Smith, Mrs. J. M. McKee, Mrs. Juin S. Kelley, Miss May Correll, Mrs. W. L. Dunn, Mrs. Martin Rosenbaum, Miss Viola Clark, Mrs. W. H. Buchanan, Mrs. C. W. Gilmer, Mrs. M. L. Allison, Miss Lena Beattie, Mrs. Harry Dunn, Mrs. Harvey Robinson, Miss Annie Wilson, Miss Annie Vaughn, Mrs. Ray Clark, Mrs. Claud Clark, Mrs. W. R. Preston, and Mrs. White Ryburn.

    There were fine and devoted workers in other branches, but owing to their making no claims for badges their names do not appear on this list. This is especially true of the Damascus branch, which did the largest amount of work of any branch except Abingdon, but whose members did not send in their names for badges.

    After the war, the Red Cross established a public health branch program which is functioning most efficiently in Abingdon and vicinity under Mrs. L. M. Home, Red Cross nurse. Mrs. Horne, then Miss Lou Martin, served overseas during the war. Miss Carico, another Red Cross nurse, has been at the head of the public health work at Clinchburg, Washington County. There have been practical nurses at Konnarock and Damascus employed by the company or community to look after public health work at these places.

    The chapter has also subscribed its quota to national calls, such as the Japanese Relief.

    The following figures show the amounts subscribed to this fund: From Abingdon, $65.50; Glade Spring, $69.25; Damascus, $25.00; Konnarock, $25.00; Meadow View, $25.00; Wesley Chapel, $10.00; total, $219.75.

    The report gives no details since 1920, but the chapter has continued active, having the regular roll call each year and through its nursing committee having the responsibility of the public health work.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    THE SOCIETY OF THE FATHERLESS CHILDREN OF FRANCE

    In the State of Virginia three committees were formed by this Society and the one at Abingdon, Washington County, Virginia, had all of Southwest Virginia and part of Southern Virginia as its territory, Its officers were:

    1916-1917-Mrs. Alexander Stuart, chairman, Mrs. J. W. Bell, treasurer.
    1917-1918-Mrs. Alexander Stuart, chairman, Mrs. W. E. Mingea, Jr., treasurer.

    Chairmen of sub-committees formed were as follows: Meadow View, Washington County, Mrs. C. W. Roberts; Damascus, Washington County, Mrs. T. Blackadder; Bristol, Virginia Mrs. Kate Wheeler; Pulaski County, Mrs. Joseph Eckman; Tazewell County, Miss Jessie O'Keefe; Wythe County, Mrs. James Kelly; Wise County, Mrs. H. H. Alexander, and Martinsville, Virginia, Miss Maria Pennill.

    The total number of children supported through the Abingdon committee and its sub-committees was 212; total number of children supported by Washington County, 67.

    The following Washington County citizens supported French children:

    Abingdon: Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Bell, Miss Rachel Bell, Mrs. Alexander Stuart, Mr. S. J. Latture, Dr. G. V. Litchfield, Miss Carrie Timberlake, Stonewall Jackson College; Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Mingea, Miss Lelia Smith Cocke, Mrs. A. L. Morgan, Mrs. John O. Booker, Mrs. John H. Hassinger, Mr. Emory Widener, Miss Janie Penn, Miss Nannie Booker, Mr. and Mrs. P. J. Davenport, Misses Annie and Madge White, Dr. W. A. Maiden, Mr. Hugh Potts, Misses Ellen, Margaret and Gilbert Preston, Mrs. C. F. Cocke, The Abingdon Committee (7), The S. A. S. Sorority, Martha Washington College; The D. B. T. Sorority, Martha Washington College; Sunday-school teachers, M. E. Church, South: Mr. Geo. Penn, Jr's. S. S. Class, M. E. Church, South; Odd Fellows Lodge, William King High School Senior Class, The Booklovers Club. The Masonic Lodge-total number supported, 38.

    Meadow View: Mr. R. J. Smyth, Mr. George Stuart, Mr. and Mrs. V. Kendrick, Mr. W. M. Maiden, Miss Mary Aston, Miss Mary Wiley, Prof. J. W. Cole, Mr. and Mrs. D G. Ritchie, Mr. A. W. Aston, Mrs. W. H. Aston, Junior Missionary Society M. E. Church, South; Juvenile Missionary Society M. E. Church, South; Young Ladies' Missionary Society M. E. Church, South-total number supported, 13.

    Damascus: Mrs. C. A. Backer, Mrs. F. G. Clements, Mr. J. L. Meade, Dr. Chas. Clendenen-total numbered supported, 4.

    Konnarock: Mrs. L. H. Barnes, Mrs. Luther Hassinger, Mrs. Umbarger, Christian Association, The High School, Baraca S. S. Class, Laviel Sunday school-total number supported, 7.

    Emory: Dr. H. M. Henry and Prof. A. G. Sanders, Junior Red Cross-total number supported, 2.

    Green Spring: Mrs. G. C. Aven, Mrs. John Parks-total number supported, 2.

    Greendale: Rebecca Lodge, one.

    Glade Spring: Miss Mary Home, one.

    Others subscribing through Abingdon Washington County Committee: Mr. Hugh McNutt, Nashville, Tenn.; Mr. Fred Peoples, Memphis, Tenn.; French Class, Randolph-Macon College, Lynchburg, Va.; Randolph-Macon College, Lynchburg, Va.; Miss R. Hammerton, Randolph-Macon College. Lynchburg, Va.; Y. W. C. A., Randolph-Macon College, Lynchburg, Va. Mrs. L. G. Bell, Lynchburg, Va.; Powhatan Chapter, U.D.C., Powhatan, Va.; Miss Frances Stausberry, Norfolk, Va.; Mr. and Mrs. F. M. Lee, Alpoca, W. Ya.; Miss Gladys Berry, Johnson City, Tenn.; Mr. B. Sprinkle, Saltville, Va.; Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Ashe, Roanes, Va.-Total number supported, 15.

    CONCLUSION

    Washington County contributed liberally to the Red Cross the Near East Relief, the Society for the Fatherless Children of France, the Y.M.C.A., the Salvation Army, and a carload of clothing was sent to Belgium.

    This is a brief and incomplete report of the work of Washington County during the war. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining statistics and records at this date, full justice cannot be done the patriotism or activity of the county.

  • Williamsburg and James City County

    A Community History

    By MABEL BRADFORD FRIEND

    LOCATION AND EARLY HISTORY

    James City County lies in the peninsula between the York and James Rivers. It is bounded on the west by the Chickahominy River, which separates it from Charles City and New Kent Counties, and on the east are the counties of York and Warwick.

    The dimensions of the county are: Extreme length, 25 miles; extreme width, 12 miles, with an area of 164 square miles. The county is traversed by a central watershed of about 100 feet elevation and five or six miles in width, gradually sloping to approximately sea level in the northwest and south. The central watershed is traversed by- the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad and the State highway, and it, with a strip of land between Williamsburg and Jamestown Island, contains the bulk of the population. The lowlands in the northwest and south have a few very fine, large farms and extensive tracts of timber land. The population here is very scattered and the roads are poor and practically impassible in bad weather. The chief agricultural products are potatoes, wheat corn and dairy products. The population of the county at the beginning of the war was about 5,338, of which 2,617 were white and 2,721 colored.[1]

    In the county are located two of the most historic spots, not only in Virginia but in the United States. The first of these is Jamestown, where the first permanent colony of English-speaking people landed on our shores, May 13, 1607, and where the Anglo-Saxon church was firmly planted in the Western Hemisphere. Here, upon the landing of the colonists, the first act was to worship God. They, had no church, but they hung "an old saile" between two or three trees to shelter them from the weather and nailed a sapling between two trees for a communion rail. There gathered and knelt the 105 souls to give thanks to God for their escape from the perils of their voyage. The Rev. Robert Hunt conducted the service.[2] Jamestown Island today is a very lovely spot. A large portion of the island is under the care of the A. P. V. A., and many ancient landmarks have been preserved by this society, among them being the tower of the old church, the Indian mounds, and the foundation of the old State House. The memorials erected are very beautiful, including the Memorial Church, the bronze statues of John Smith and Pocahontas, and the lovely memorial shrine to Robert Hunt, the first minister of Jamestown, presented by the Colonial Dames of America in Virginia. A comfortable hostess house containing a museum is also one of the attractions of the Island.

    The second historic point is Williamsburg, the county seat, the Colonial Capitol, known in those days as "Middle Plantation," because of its location on a ridge between the James and York Rivers. It was here, after the burning of the State House at Jamestown, that the seat of government was established in 1698, the action being confirmed by Governor Nicholson in 1699.

    In Williamsburg many historical buildings of the past still stand, among them the College of William and Mary, the second oldest institution of learning in this country, a college boasting a Royal Charter and more priorities than any other college in the country. From the "Priorities Tablet" on the wall of the main building of the college one may read as follows

    Chartered February 8, 1693, by King William
    and Queen Mary

    First college in the United States in its antecedents, which go back to the college proposed at Henrico (1619). Second to Harvard University in actual operation.

    First American college to receive its charter from the Crown under the Seal of the Privy Council, 1693. Thence it was known as "their Magesties" Royal College of William and Mary."

    First and only American college to receive a Coat-of-Arms from the College of Heralds, 1694.

    First college in the United States to have a full faculty, consisting of a president, six professors, an usher, and a writing master, 1729.

    First college to confer medallic prizes; the gold medals donated by Lord Botetourt in 1771.

    First college to establish an inter-collegiate fraternity, the Phi Beta Kappa, December 5, 1776.

    First college to have the elective system of study, 1779.

    First college to have the Honor System, 1779.

    First college to become a university, 1779.

    First college to have a school of Modern Languages, 1779.

    First college to have a school of Municipal and Constitutional Law, 1779.

    First college to teach Political Economy, 1784.

    First college to have a school of Modern History, 1803.

    Just down the Duke of Gloucester Street a short distance from the college gate stands old Bruton Parish Church, spoken of by a Bishop as "perhaps the noblest monument of religion in America."

    "Great men whose names adorn the pages of history-presidents, governors, statesmen and warriors, have thronged her sacred courts. Independence, fathered by her sons, born under her eaves, first proclaimed by her bell, became the foundation of our national government. Her solemn memories and venerable traditions inspire our patriotism and testify to the faith of our fathers."[3]

    Bruton Parish Church is the oldest Episcopal church in continuous use in America. Parish work was begun in 1632, the first brick church was built in 1683, and the present church in 1710. The church was beautifully restored to her former glory in 1905, and one may see upon its ancient walls today most interesting bronze tablets to the memory of noted colonists. The, Royal Governor's pew with chair and canopy, the high pulpit and sounding board, the clerk's desk and old gallery where the college students sat (locked in) during the service, beautiful stained glass windows and lovely aisles paved with marble, below which are tombs, and dignified high backed pews, all adorn this hallowed sanctuary. The church also possesses many valued treasures, among them three sets of Communion Silver, one of the original old Jamestown service, the Jamestown Baptismal Font, the Parish Register of 1662, the Old Colonial Prayer Book and the King Edward Bible and Lectern presented by President Roosevelt. The original wall, built in 1752, still encloses the lovely old church yard in which one may stroll and read many quaint inscriptions upon the ancient graves.

    Hastening on down the Duke of Gloucester Street, one passes the old Palace Green, upon the north end of which once stood the Royal Governor's Palace in all its splendor, and facing the Palace Green on the west side is the site of the First Theatre in America, the Powder Horn built in 1714, the Court Green and the original Court House, the site of the Old Raleigh Tavern and the State Prison built in 1701.

    Many lovely old colonial homes still stand, among them the Wyth House, Peyton Randolph House, the Blair House, restored; Bassett Hall, Tazewell Hall, Paradise House and Audry House.

    This, in the spring of 1917, when the black clouds hung heavy, and the rumbling sounds of war were sounded in our midst, was the setting for the "Augean task" the war had thrust upon us.

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    As early as the fall of 1914, much interest was manifested by our citizens in the European situation. The local paper, the "Virginia Gazette" (the first paper published south of the Potomac by Wm. Parks, in 1736), was wide-awake to the war news of the day- and carried many fine editorials on the war situation in Europe. Interesting letters were received from the war zone by some of the Scotch and English citizens residing in the county, and the mails at this time brought from the battlefront sad news to the relatives who had loved ones in the service. Naturally, the sympathy of the county was with the Allies, as there were very few Germans residing in the county. From the time the European war started, the citizens of Williamsburg and the county manifested their sympathy with the Allies, and responded to all calls as the following reports will show.

    The war-time history of James City County is perhaps as interesting as that of any other county in the State of Virginia. Its geographical position and unsurpassed historical back ground, its memories and traditions of the past centuries, all tended to inspire loyalty and patriotism, and when the time came for service to be rendered to the government the citizens of this county stood ready, whether duty lay in doing the thing nearest at hand, in going out into the fields of industry, or in going overseas to fight for freedom.

    The first citizen to leave Williamsburg was Miss Harriet Hankies, daughter of Mrs. Harriet Hankies and the late Dr. G. A. Hankies. Miss Hankies sailed September 5th, 1914, for Europe, and served as a Red Cross nurse in Germany near the German-Russian battle line in Poland. Next went two wellknown men, James Watts, nephew of Mr. George Robb of Delks Farm, James City County, who had been a popular visitor from Scotland, and C. `V. Bruton, whose old home was in England.

    For sixteen months prior to our entry into the war, a group of women had allied themselves with the committee of the central branch of the War Relief Association at Richmond, and had worked industriously with this committee.

    March 26th, 1917, a mass meeting was held in the old Court House in Williamsburg and resolutions were passed "unanimously endorsing the government in the crisis" we were then facing. G. A. Dovell presided and resolutions were adopted approving of the action of President Wilson in his attitude toward Germany and pledging the administration the support of this city. The resolutions were offered by Dr. Lyon G. Tyler. President of William and Mary, and son of John Tyler, tenth President of the United States. When Dr. Tyler read his resolutions they were given warm approval, and when a standing vote was called for by the chair every man and woman in the room arose, and "a wave of enthusiasm swept the crowd like magic.[4]

    In the "Flat Hat," (the official college organ), of April 3rd, 1917, an account is given of a mass meeting of faculty and students of William and Mary College, and of resolutions passed, expressing their hearty approval of the course taken by President Wilson, and pledging their loyal support to the government.[5]

    The women of the town and county gathered at the Court House April 2, 1917, and organized a branch of the "'National League for Woman's Service," this being the first organized women's work in the county.[6]

    Stimulated by these patriotic meetings everybody- was thoroughly alive to the necessity of war preparations in our midst, and from this time on to the end of the war self sacrifice and devotion to the cause never ceased.

    CHURCHES

    The churches of the town and county occupied a conspicuous place in the history of this period, their congregation taking a most active part in all war work, contributing generously of their means, and laboring faithfully for the cause. Patriotic sermons were preached by the ministers of all the churches, and officers and soldiers from nearby camps were welcomed at all the services. Many courtesies were shown them by pastors and members of the congregations. Numerous homes were thrown open to the men in the service and much hospitality was accorded them.

    On June 3, 1917, a big mass meeting was held at the Methodist Church, Williamsburg, Virginia, the committee in charge being Rev. J. R. Laughton, W. C. Johnson and B. Frank Wolf. The whole town turned out for this meeting, patriotic speeches were made and a fine musical program was rendered.[7] After serving his church and the community faithfully, Rev. J. R. Laughton left for Camp Lee early in October to accept a chaplaincy in the army. May, 1918, the Baptist Church of Williamsburg held a special service. At this time the flag of the United States and a service flag were unfurled.[8] The women of the church organized a Red Cross Auxiliary and pledged themselves to knit and sew for this organization.

    Bruton Parish Church gave generously to every call, participated in Liberty Bond drives and the sale and purchase of War Savings Stamps. The national colors and the service flag of the parish were kept constantly in the church. Prayers for the soldiers and sailors, and other appropriate devotions were constantly offered. The church continued its activities to the end of the war, and the old bell in the church tower, the first in America to celebrate civil independence (May 15th, 1776), proclaimed the Armistice. The following members of Bruton Parish Church were in the National Service:[9] Samuel H. Hubbard, 2nd Lieut. Infantry, died of wounds received in action; J. L. Hall, Jr., Lieut. Commander, United States Navy; C. M. Hall, 1st Lieut., U. S. A. Artillery; J. F. Hall, 2nd Lieut., U. S. M. C.; T. H. Geddy, Pvt., U. S. A. Hospital Corps; Geo. Ben Geddy, C. P O, U. S N., (Aviator); Vernon Geddy, 2nd Lieut., C. A. C.; J. S. Watts, Scottish Forces, 1st Lieut., Gordon Highlanders; C. W. Bruton, Lieut., English Army; E. D. Jones, Capt., U. S. Revenue Cutter Service; J. C. Reeve, Pvt., U. S. A., Ordnance Dept.; Bothurst D. Peachy, Junior Lieut., U. S. M. C. (Aviation); George Lane, R. O. T. C. (C. A. C.) ; John Warburton, Seaman, U. S. N.; Merritt W Foster, U. S. N., Yeoman; A. W. Collis, Pvt., U. S. A.; George Durfey, Lieut., Engineer Corps; James Driver, Capt., U S. A.; Ashton Dovell, R. O. T. C., U. S. A. Artillery; Leonard Maynard, 1st Lieut., U. S. A., Infantry; Miss Harriett Hankins, U. S. A., Hospital Corps; Rich Henley, S. A. T. C.; Turner Henley, S. A. T. C.; Carlisle Johnston, S. A. T. C.; Charles E. Friend, Jr., S. A. T. C., and Van F. Garrett, S. A. T. C.

    At the close of the war the children of Bruton Parish Church went without their usual Christmas tree and sweets in order that the money might be turned over to a fund for the suffering children of Europe.

    SCHOOLS

    The schools in the town and county rendered valuable service, not only in a material way but in a patriotic spirit. The Junior Red Cross workers made property bags and scrap books, assisted in Red Cross drives and held bazaars for its benefit. The teachers and pupils of all the schools did splendid work when the Thrift Stamps were put on sale, the principal of the Williamsburg school, H. W. Vaden, turning loose "one hundred agents" in the town at one time. This proved a most successful campaign, the results being 3,500 stamps sold by the High School and 1,550 by the Model School.[10]

    The children signed up to do home gardening and also to work in the school gardens. Patriotic meetings were held in the Williamsburg, Five Forks, Toana, Norge and Grove Schools, all doing their bit and laboring under great difficulties at times, owing to the shortage of teachers, many of whom left to accept government positions and to work in munition plants. The effect of the war upon the classroom was rather negligible, unless it was in the history classes, as pupils seemed, along with their war program, to be able to carry on their regular school schedule and make the grades necessary for their promotions.

    The College of William and Mary has always been known in its patriotism. In the trying time from 1763 to 1781 took an important part in every movement looking history for her alumni toward the advancement of the Cause of Independence. Some of the alumni who played leading parts in the struggle were Richard Bland who, in 1764, declared that England and America were co-ordinate kingdoms under a common crown; Dabney Carr, student in 1762, patron of the resolutions in 1775 for Committees of Correspondence, the first step towards united action on the part of the colonies; Peyton Randolph, first president of the Continental Congress; Carter Henry Harrison, author of the resolutions of Cumberland County, 1776, the first positive instructions for continental independence; Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence; and George Wythe, teacher and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. When Cornwallis passed through Williamsburg on his way to Yorktown, he occupied the President's house and used it as his headquarters. All the students left the college and joined the Continental Army. After the battle of Yorktown, the college was used as a hospital for the French troops.

    Again in 1861 the college practically closed its doors and all the students and professors went to war.

    In 1917 history but repeated itself. The invasion of Belgium, the sinking of the Lusitania, the murder of Edith Cavell, and other Prussian atrocities stirred the hearts of professors and students. War was in the very air of the old college. Students were already drilling under some of their own number who had previously attended military schools. On the fifth of April, the day before America entered the war, President Lyon G. Tyler called the faculty in special session to take steps to secure a trained military director for the students. In a few days, he secured the services of Captain J. B. Puller, who had for some years been in command of the Richmond Light Infantry, Blues, one of the most famous battalions in the country. When Captain Puller entered the regular service the college employed S. M. Taylor, a graduate of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, who drilled the William and Mary Battalion for nine months, then entered the army, and died a soldier's death.

    The sixth of April, 1917, was a memorable day at William and Mary. It looked as if war were at her doors and not three thousand miles away. Some of the older students began to leave immediately, and many of the alumni rushed to the training camps as soon as they were opened. Early in April the faculty rearranged the schedule of lectures, so that everything should give place to the military program. The college at some hours looked like a military barracks. The lecture rooms rang with patriotic outbursts. No such scenes had been known in the college since the spring of 1861.

    The war reduced the enrollment about one-half. After the S. A. T. C. was established, the numbers increased considerably but were again reduced after the disbandment of the S. A. T. C. in December, 1918. Substitutes were appointed for several professors who volunteered, so that the academic work was not seriously interrupted. Changes in the curriculum were made to meet the wishes of the educational committee of the War Department. European history was taught in such a way as to show both the remote and the nearer causes of the war and to prove to young men that their country had risen in her strength "to make the world safe for Democracy." French was taught in such a way as to help the prospective soldier to render service in France. Mathematics, physics and chemistry were taught from a military point of view. Prospective soldiers were shown how to write letters to their commanding officers according to military usage. Patriotic poetry was read in the literature classes. These and other courses aroused emotions of patriotism among both students and professors to an exaggerated degree. It was a glory to be alive and to breathe such an atmosphere of Americanism.

    William and Mary's record in the World War is indeed creditable. The faculty record shows that Professor Donald W. Davis entered the service as lieutenant of infamy and served at the front. Professor Ernest J. Oglesby rendered service as a camp instructor in mathematics and retired as a major. Professor H. E. Bennett went abroad in Y.M.C.A. work. Samuel H. Hubbard, assistant instructor and athletic director, became a lieutenant and lost his life soon after reaching France.

    The usual interest in Red Cross, Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps drives was shown by the college professors and every effort was made at the college to co-operate fully with the Federal government.

    The number of alumni and students reported as having entered the army was 354. Of this number there were two colonels of infantry-C. Maury Cralle and John Womack Wright and two colonels in the medical corps-William E. Vose and W. D. Webb. There were three lieutenant colonels, seven majors, 55 captains, 48 first lieutenants, 39 second lieutenants, 56 noncommissioned officers, 162 privates and 22 in the aviation service. The record shows that 132 served abroad. In the Navy of the United States the total number in service was 85. Of this number there mere three lieutenant-commanders, one captain, four senior lieutenants, eight junior lieutenants, ten ensigns, nine petty officers and fifty enlisted men.

    In view of the fact that the proportion of William and Mary men overseas engaged in active warfare was small, the number of killed and wounded was comparatively large. The following alumni of William and Mary gave their lives for their country:

    Edward Scott Burford, Waugh, Va.; C. M. Barber, Greensville, N. C.; James Frederic Carr, Hampton, Va.; George Clopton, Toano, Va.: Ray mond Richard Collins, Cobbs Creels. Va.; William Hatcher Croswell, Gloucester Point, Va.; Dave M. DeCotshe, Bonkins, Va.; Edward Graham Field, Gloucester, Va.; Robert Carter Garland, Warsaw Va.; William Daniel Garland, Warsaw. Va.; Dr. Edward LeBaron Goodwin, Ashland, Va.; Samuel Hildreth Hubbard, Jr., Forest Depot, Va.,; Nathaniel Hull Jennings, Toano, Va.; E. J. Lewis, Williamsburg, Va.; Richard Perkins, Newport News, Va.; James Neville Richards, Riverton, Va.: Jesse Fielding Smith, Criglersville, Va.; Vernon Lee Somers, Mearsville, Va. ; Harry Tucker Swecker, Monterey, Va. ; Bittle Winfred Woods, Pearisburg, Va.; F. L. White, Pulaski, Va.; Dr. W. H. Whitehead, Lowesville, Va., and C. R. Woltz.

    Colonel J. W. Wright served on General Pershing's staff in France. A former student of William and Mary, John Newport Greene, of Staunton, Va., is on the records of the Adjutant General's office as the first man to receive the Distinguished Service Medal. This was awarded to him on March 18, 1918. In January, 1917, he went to France and served six months with the Norton-Harjes Field Ambulance Service. In September he was commissioned second lieutenant in the field artillery, U. S. A . After six days training in an artillery school he went to the front. In December he was one of the forty-seven men General Pershing recommended for promotion and received his first lieutenancy. On March 1st, while he was on duty in a dugout near Toul, he was struck by a hand granade on the leg and was called upon by one of the enemy to surrender, but he shot the German with his pistol and drove off a number of others in the hostile attacking party. For this brave conduct he received the French Croix de Guerre and the Distinguished Service Cross.

    During the summer of 1918 there was a feeling of uncertainty regarding the future of the college. Although the War Department was advising young men to retrain in college until called to service, the desire to serve their country was proving to be the stronger call and it seemed doubtful that there would be enough students to justify the colleges in maintaining the regular curriculum.

    The War Department recognized the danger in having the educational system disorganized when there eras so great a demand for college trained men from whom to draw the necessary officer material. In order to assure this supply of educated officers and at the same time save the colleges of the country, it was decided to utilize the educational system in winning the war by establishing the students army training corps. This decision was made in midsummer, 1918. The President and the Registrar hurried to Washington and called upon the proper officers in the War Department and offered the services of this college for the training of one of the units. On August 17611 definite assurance was given that a unit would be established: at William and Mary. Efforts were then made to acquaint the public with this fact and to enroll enough students to meet the minimum requirements for the unit. A call then came for representatives from all institutions having a unit of the Student: Army Training Corps to meet at Plattsburg, New York. o._ September 1st, to discuss plans and receive instructions about the working of the unit. The President and Registrar attended this conference for three days and heard the plans discussed by representatives from the War Department, the Committee on Education and Special Training and from various branches of the service.

    On September 13th, Major William P. Stone, U. S. A., retired, arrived and assumed charge of the preliminary arrangements for the unit. The physical equipment of the college was ample to accommodate the corps and it was, therefore, not necessary- to erect new buildings or make any extensive changes.

    College opened for the session on September 19th. As soon as the students arrived an epidemic of influenza broke out and for a period of about ten days it was practically impossible to do any class work. Seventy of the students and several of the faculty suffered from the epidemic, but, while many of the number were very sick, there were no fatalities. Several, however were compelled to withdraw from college on account of ill effects from the disease.

    October 1st was the date set for inducting students into the unit, that being the date upon which the government assumed responsibility- of the men. Major Stone, commanding officer, was transferred to another unit at this time and Lieutenant D. B. Van Dusen, 36th U. S. Infantry, was placed in command. He was assisted by Lieutenant S. R. Hetzer, drill master : Lieutenant D. Van Oppen, supply- officer, and Lieutenant Wesley Taylor, personnel officer. The college rapidly assumed a military aspect. Students went back and forth to lectures in military formation and bugle calls were the regular order. Military training greatly interfered at first with class work. Save for the thirty-five non-S. A. T. C. men and the twenty-five women, there was little regular class work during October. During November attendance at class improved. After the Armistice, all was uncertainty again until definite orders were received to disband all S. A. T. C. units by December 15th. Demobilization was completed here on December 8th. The closing feature was a grand military ball lasting two nights. It was not until January that the officers in charge received instructions to report elsewhere and all signs of the strenuous military life of the fall months entirely- disappeared. It is not altogether fair to pass judgment on military training in college as seen during the S. A. T. C. period. There were so many things to be done to put the college upon a military basis that we are apt to be biased on account of the many interruptions and the decided change from the life to which we had become accustomed. While appreciating the earnest efforts on the part of the officers in charge and acknowledging the benefit of discipline. there were few regrets when the time came for a return to the quiet academic life to which we had been accustomed.[*]

    VOLUNTEERING AND THE DRAFT

    James City County had no military organization previous to, or during the war period, except the "S. A. T. C.," organized at the College of William and Mary, but by April 1, 1917, the enlistment officers visited Williamsburg and on April 26, 1917, 700 marines visited the town camped on the college campus and were entertained by the college. Flags fluttered from nearly every house, a big ball was given by the townspeople and when the marines with a 16-piece hand paraded through the town the wildest enthusiasm was displayed by all who had gathered to witness this unusual sight. In a short time many of the town and county boys were making efforts (some ineffectually, on account of short height and underweight) to enlist. T. Peachy Spencer was the first Williamsburg boy to offer for service.[11]

    Barton I. Jenson, recruiting sergeant, U. S. M. C., Norge, Va., was busy issuing calls for the enlistment of men. Dr. J. M, Henderson, mayor of Williamsburg, appointed a committee to work among the young men of the town in all effort to interest them in the Navy. Each edition of the local papers gave many names of those leaving for the Officers Training Camp at Fort Myer, and of others enlisting in the Navy. The names of the first two county boys to volunteer for service in the Navy were B. L. Leverson and Joe Connoughton of Norge. Va.[12]

    Luther Wrentmore Kelly, of Williamsburg, first lieutenant, sec. 567, ambulance service, served admirably and courageously in the ambulance service and for his bravery was presented with the "French Croix de Guerre " with two palms and silver star.[13]

    By the latter part of Allay the military registrars were appointed and June 5, 1917, was set as the date for registration. The board named by the Governor consisted of T. H. Geddy, clerk; L. P. Trice, sheriff, and Dr. H. U. Stephenson and the following registrars were appointed : For the city of Williamsburg, H. D. Cole; for James City County and Jamestown Earl Riggle and Richard Houge ; for Powhatan District No. 1, W. W. Ware; No. 2, L. T. Hankins, and Stonehouse District, Nat H. Jennings.

    From day to day the board met and worked faithfully and efficiently over this task of registration exemption, etc. Of the 405 who registered 181 were white, 221 colored, and three were aliens.[14] Few asked for exemption, and these requests were mostly on account of dependent families. There was much misunderstanding and many difficult problems to be solved for the drafted man, but with patience and intelligence the board always tried to help in an understanding way, and the draft in the county was about as satisfactory as anywhere in the State.

    In the first draft, there were seventy-four men called from Williamsburg and the county,[15] and the total number drafted was 197 men.

    ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    LIBERTY LOANS AND WAR SAVINGS STAMPS

    The first Liberty Loan campaign was on by May 31, 1937. This drive went through successfully, the banks aiding in every way possible. One woman, a citizen of Williamsburg, bought $1,000 worth of bonds and Bruton Parish Endowment Fund, Inc., purchased $2,225 worth, thus leaving only a few bonds to be disposed of as the total amount subscribed was $3,300.

    The Second Liberty Loan was on by October 18, 1917, and the third drive by April 18, 1918, with the following committees industriously striving to make this Third Loan the largest yet subscribed. T. H. Geddy, chairman; R. L. Spencer, W. A. Bozarth, F. R. Savage, J W. Moore, Littleton Fitzgerald, B. F. Wolf, A. Brooks. C. E. Friend, Dr. G. W. Brown, C. C. Hall, J. B C. Spencer. L. W. Lane, Jr., J. B. Jackson, F. A. Wheeles, R. B. Watts. Frank Armstead, Chas. K. Waters, Dr. W. H. Keeble and Frank Taub. of Williamsburg, and from James City County, R. P. Cocke, E. M. Slauson, W. O. Strong, J. B. Vaiden C. L. Burleson, C. C Branch, L. P. Trice, W. H. Porter, J. H. Manning and Geo. A. Marston. From Stone House District: Dr. A. M. Snead,, D. Warren Marston, W. C. Jensen, L. C. Phillips, and E. S. Meanley. Publicity and Speakers' Committee: Rev. E. Ruffin Jones, Dr. James Wilson, G. A. Dovell, R. M. Crawford, N. L. Henley, Rev. John Moncure, Rev. J. H. Holloway, Rev. F. D. Thomas and W. C. Johnston.[16]

    Rev. E. Ruffin Jones acted as chairman of the Four-Minute Men,[17] and this committee never lost an opportunity to speak at public gatherings. The movies, chautauqua and patriotic meetings affording them always an interested audience.

    The results of the five loans for Williamsburg and the county were as follows:[18]


    Loan Maximum Apportionment Amount Subscribed Subscribers
    First Loan - $3,300[19] -
    Second Loan $97,600 38,000 100
    Third Loan 62,000 228,250 3,801
    Fourth Loan 140,000 136,850 557
    Victory Loan 121,700 129,450 279
    Total $421,300 $536,150 4,737

    The War Savings Stamps campaign in Williamsburg and the county was also successful, the city subscribing over $40,000[20] and the county making a large contribution. One of the largest pledges was made by the Jamestown Community League for $3,120.00. Aside from this, the school children of this district purchased $356.00 worth of stamps during the school year. The people of Delks, a very small settlement, purchased $500.00 worth of stamps. The churches bought War Savings Stamps. and aided in selling them and the postoffice and rural mail carriers rendered valuable service during the campaign. Colonel Winder L. Lane, chairman of the work in Williamsburg, was succeeded by Rev. E. Ruffin Jones, and Walker W. Ware was chairman for the county.

    FARMING AND AGRICULTURE

    Early in 1917 the farmers were planting not only large acreages of potatoes and truck products, but corn and wheat as well. Young and old, both men and women, were busy with the crops. The following report of E. M. Slauson, county farm agent, tells of the means adopted to increase production and also the effect of labor shortage. "One of the outstanding things that the farmers did in this county during the war was to change their type of farming and grow wheat to feed the Allies. As we were in close proximity to the numerous soldiers' camps and other war activities, practically all of the farm labor left the farms and, as a result, the farmers were obliged to discard their farm machinery in part and substitute tractors and tractor implements at a much greater cost. In this way they were able to increase production far above normal.

    The supply of milk, on account of the urgent demand for this product in the camps, was greatly- increased during the war. Dairy herds were also increased and a number of herds newly established. Truck crops were all increased to a considerable extent during this time and the yields were far above the average. This was accomplished by the farmers working from 14 to 16 hours a day.

    A Ford tractor was sent to James City County from the Department of Agriculture. This was most helpful, and by purchasing, through the War Industrial Board, nitrate of soda in carload lots. County Agent Slauson was enabled to sell some of this commodity to farmers at cost.[21]

    In the towns those who had garden space cultivated it. Williamsburg was especially fortunate in having William and Mary students volunteer their services to help take care of gardens. The Woman's Club offered prizes to stimulate interest in gardens, and thousands of jars of fruit and vegetables, aside from those put up by the Girls' Canning Clubs, were canned by the thrifty housewives. Canning demonstrations were put on by the home demonstration agent, Mrs. Julia B. McCoy, at Williamsburg, Toano, Norge, Five Forks, and Grove. Also Victory bread demonstrations were helpful to the housewives, as "wheatless" and "meatless" days were being observed in almost every home. Dr. H. L. Stephenson, of Toano, Va., was appointed county food commissioner[22] and was constantly on the lookout for hoarding and profiteering. There were reports of irregularities in food prices, maximum prices being charged for poor grades of food-stuffs.[23]

    By November 22, 1917, the fuel situation was critical; later came the sugar famine, followed by a flour shortage. Restrictions on sugar were most rigid, only two pounds a week being allowed to a family. This worked quite a hardship on the larger families, but there were few complaints, and, by substituting and the elimination of waste, the county was able to carry on its conservation program in a most creditable way. April 1, 1918, the daylight saving law was being observed and this very materially aided both the gardener and the farmer."[24]

    INDUSTRY

    In the fall of 1915 a rumor to the effect that the DuPonts were trying to purchase Jamestown for the purpose of erecting a black powder plant thereon caused much excitement. Nothing further was heard from this rumor but early in 1916 the curiosity of the people was aroused to a high pitch when a corps of engineers arrived to make a survey of near-by farm land. This land had recently been gone over by Northern capitalists who had placed options on large tracts of land facing the York River.

    Another Hopewell was duly expected to spring up in our midst.[25] By spring a credited report went out that the DuPont Powder Company would erect on the York River a large black powder plant. Another report was to the effect that a steam and electric railway was to be built between Williamsburg and this plant.[26] By this tithe real estate men from all over the county began to pour into the town of Williamsburg. The town was on a boom, options were taken on nearly every other piece of property in the town, and suburban sites were being laid out and big land sales were on.

    Along with the confirmation of the establishment of a dynamite plant, came an authorized report from the C. & O. Railway Company that they would build a spur track from Williamsburg to the York River site, the C. & O. depot to be used for the DuPont station.[27]

    By late spring Williamsburg became the most advertised town in the State of Virginia. The Virginia Gazette of April 27, 1916, says, "There is hardly a hamlet in the State that does not know where Williamsburg is and what it is noted for historically and commercially."

    On June 1, 1916, the new branch line of the C. & O. Railroad to the DuPont plant was formally opened, an employment department established, the construction work started, and in the fall of 1916, the first unit of the plant at Penniman was completed.[28]

    Naturally, the high wages paid at the plant affected labor in this community. The farmers were greatly handicapped in putting in their crops owing to the exodus of farm labor to the munition plants. Rents, owing to the demands for housing the many newcomers employed at Penniman, began to soar, food prices to rise, and even though it meant prosperity for some, Williamsburg residents began to feel quite anxious over the situation. The atmosphere was rapidly changing, and we realized quite keenly that we were entering the field of industry.

    In the beginning it was reported from the publicity department of the DuPont Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware, that there would possibly be about 200 men employed at the new powder plant. As early as July, 1916, the Williamsburg Chamber of Commerce requested the C. & O. Railway Company to put on a regular passenger train between the city and Penn 'man. By the fall of 1918, Penniman was a town of about fifteen thousand inhabitants, the plant large enough to take care of about ten thousand employees, and there were three passenger trains a day each way between Williamsburg and Penniman. Even though every facility was provided at Penniman to take care of the people employed, many resided in Williamsburg and hundreds of Williamsburg people worked at the munition plant. While the history of Penniman belongs to that of a sister county, it would be impossible not to refer to it in connection with the war-time activities of James City County, as Williamsburg was the base of supplies for the shell manufacturing town and its railroad station the junction for all Penniman travel.

    So congested was the travel at this junction that one found it exceedingly difficult at times to board the trains for Richmond, or Norfolk, as trains were crowded before reaching this point. Yet, through all these difficulties of transportation, the overworked but patient employees, with inadequate facilities for handling both passengers and freight, rendered most valuable service. From fifty to one hundred cars of freight a day were handled at this junction.

    RED CROSS

    The formal installation of Bruton Chapter, American Red Cross, took place in the Court House at Williamsburg, July 27, 1917. A large and enthusiastic gathering was present to take part in these exercises, and the Hon. Robert Beverly Munford of Richmond, presided. He gave a most interesting history of this organization.[29]

    The jurisdiction of the chapter was over James City and York counties, and the initial membership was eighty-two. The chapter began work with a bank account of $136.00, which had been collected and turned over to them by the National League for Woman's Service. The following officers and committees began immediate work: J. B. C. Spencer, chairman; Mrs. A. M. Snead, vicechairman; Mrs. V. P. Clarke, secretary; Littleton Fitzgerald, treasurer; Rev. John Moncure, Miss Elizabeth Marston, Toano ; Mrs. Julia B. McCoy, Jamestown; Mrs. C. E. Friend, chairman for Home Service; Mrs. G. G. Hankins, chairman for Garments and Supplies; H. W. Vaden, chairman of junior Red Cross; Rev. E. Ruffin Jones, chairman of Finance Committee ; Mrs. II. E. Bennett, chairman of Knitting Committee; Mrs. E. W. Warburton, chairman o f Hospital Garments; Mrs. N. L. Henley, chairman of Refugee Garments; Miss Julia Armstead, chairman of Comfort Kits Committee; Mrs. Virginia Graves, Sewing; Mrs. J. A. Cooper, Cutting Garments. Mr. Littleton Fitzgerald served as treasurer until April, 1918, when his resignation was accepted and he was succeeded by W, A, Bozarth. Mrs. W. P. Clarke, secretary, resigned March 1, 1918, and was succeeded by Mrs. R. B. Watts. --Mrs. G. G. Hankins , chairman of Garments and Supplies, was later appointed director of Women's Work and was succeeded by Mrs. L. W. Lane Jr. Mrs. C. E. Friend, chairman Home Service, was succeeded by :Miss Edith Smith. Mrs. H. E. Bennett chairman Knitting Committee, was succeeded by Mrs. C. E. Hubbard.

    One branch was organized at Grove, with the following officers: Mrs. T. H . Stryker, chairman; Mrs. A. G. Harwood, secretary ; Miss Helen Crafford. chairman of junior Red Cross. Three auxiliaries were organized as follows: Bruton Parish Auxiliary, Methodist Ladies' Auxiliary, Baptist Ladies' Auxiliary.

    Junior Red Cross work was organized in five schools, and Mrs. Julia B. McCoy, home demonstration agent, was director of this work in the county.[30]

    The Home Service Committee rendered valuable service in an advisory capacity and also furnished financial aid in the way of temporary loans, etc. Letters were written to soldiers and families of soldiers and allotments secured for wives and dependents. Seventy-five families were assisted and $250.00 spent by this committee.[31] The committee was as follows: Mrs. C. E. Friend, chairman succeeded in August, 1918 by Miss Edith Smith; Mrs. R. B. Watts, secretary; Rev. J. H. Holloway, N. L. Henley, T. H. Geddy, Mrs. Lyon G. Tyler, N. L. Henley, bliss Emily Christian, Mrs. Sidney Smith, Yorktown; Miss Mary Farthing, Lightfoot; Mrs. Julia B. McCoy, Jamestown; Miss Helen Crafford, Lee Hall; Rev. A. J. Renforth, Grafton; Miss Emily Hall, trained worker, and Ann Harris (colored).[32]

    The Canteen Committee of the National League for Woman's Service sewed for the Red Cross during the period of the war. This committee gave excellent service whenever called upon. They were especially active when the Red Cross entertained five hundred Marines who were visiting Williamsburg while on shore leave. The reception was held in the library building at the College of William and Mary, and proved a very delightful break in the "war strain" for both visitors and townspeople. The officers and chairman of this committee were: Mrs. R. XI. Crawford, chairman; Miss Edith Smith, Miss Elizabeth Morecock and Mrs. C. E. Friend. The chapter maintained headquarters at the Parish House of Bruton Parish Church, Williamsburg, and members of the several auxiliaries took turns in caring for the work rooms each day of the week.

    Mrs. Emily B. Lane, director of Women's Work, with a splendidly organized group of workers, and through the cooperation of Grove Branch, the auxiliaries, and junior Red Cross chapter, was enabled to accomplish the following work: Hospital garments and supplies, 1,000; refugee garments, 1,000; knitted garments, 250, and emergency cots equipped, 5.[33] Two of these cots were from Williamsburg, two from Five Forks and one from Grove Branch, Grove, Va. Three campaigns for worn clothing were conducted and 3,590 pounds of clothing in excellent condition were secured. In 1917 the chapter sent one hundred and twenty-five Christmas boxes to the soldiers stationed at Camp Lee.

    When the "Christmas Membership Drive" of 1917 was put on, 223 names were added to the chapter roll and by 1918 the membership was 595.

    The "Second War Fund" drive was put on May 20-27 and Rev. John Moncure with the aid of a most efficient committee raised the sum of $5,639.99.[34]

    June, 1918, the chapter was divided by division headquarters, the two chapters to be known as James City County Chapter, and York County Chapter.

    James City County Chapter continued its good work and during the epidemic of influenza, when there were no nurses and only three doctors left in the county, some of its members rendered valuable service by doing voluntary nursing at the College of William and Mary and throughout the county.

    Upon hearing that the soldier students of the Balloon School at a nearby camp were forced to use an old barn for a hospital and that the ill patients had no suitable hospital garments, the chapter immediately turned over to them one hundred suits of pajamas which had just been completed in their workrooms. An interesting piece of work was that done by the patients at the Eastern State Hospital. The ladies under the direction of Miss Rosa Emory, devoted much time to the making of hospital shirts for the Red Cross. The interest and thoughtful sympathy of these invalids was most highly appreciated by the chapter.

    The chapter made a nursing survey in the county during the epidemic of influenza.[35] It had the honor of having three of its members in active service, Miss Harriet Hankins in foreign service and Misses Lula and Edna Brooks stationed at Camp Jackson, S. C.

    Grove Branch was most active, and kept the whole neighborhood busy helping to raise money, which it most liberally contributed to all branches of chapter work.

    The Junior Red Cross did fine work in the making of property bags, sheets, pillow cases, scrapbooks and in the collection of magazines and books for the soldiers. They collected tin foil, nut shells, fruit stones, etc., gave lawn parties and bazaars [36] and raised enough money to support a French orphan.

    Mr. Frank Wolf, proprietor of the Palace Theatre, kindly gave the use of the house, so the chapter might present free the movie, "Actual Life of Red Cross Worker at the Front."[37] This same courtesy was again extended when the masons gave a delightful entertainment for the benefit of the chapter.

    Such, in brief, is the history of the James City County Chapter, American Red Cross. May it continue and carry on its peace-time program in the same spirit it manifested during those trying years of war-a spirit of usefulness and brotherly love toward its fellowmen.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    Back in the fall of 1914 the citizens of Williamsburg began to do war relief work. A movement for the relief of the Belgians was begun in the town by the Business Men's Bible Class. Governor Stuart appointed Norvell L. Henley, chairman of this work, and those of the first committee were as follows: The pastors of all the churches (including the colored pastors), Preston Cocke, E. W. Warburton, Frank Armstead, J. B. C. Spencer and J. W. Lane, Jr., of the Bible Class, and T. H. Geddy, R. I. Hunter, Mrs. G. W. Brown, Mrs. H. E. Bennett, Misses Janette Kelly, Ann T. Chapman, Lucy Vaiden and Edith Smith of the town. Entertainments were given and the town canvassed to raise funds and so generous was the response that when the Virginia ship left the port of Norfolk, December 17, 1914, loaded with flour and useful valuable articles for the starving Belgians, Williamsburg had made her contribution of $241.70 to this most worthy cause.[38]

    In December, 1915, Mr. Henry Sydnor Harrison, who had just returned from service in France, accepted an invitation, extended by the Woman's Club of Williamsburg, to speak on the war situation in Europe.[39] After his stirring and enlightening address, the "War Relief Association of Williamsburg" was organized with two general divisions; clothing and surgical dressings. The following officers were elected: Dr. H. E. Bennett, president; vice-presidents, Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, N. L. Henley, J. B. C. Spencer, Geo. P. Coleman, W. A. Bozarth, C. W. Bruton, Dr. G. W. Brown and R. L. Spencer; Miss Katharine Geddy, secretary; F. R. Savage, treasurer. Finance Committee: pastors of churches and Mrs. Van. F. Garrett, Mrs. L. W. Lane, Jr., and H. E. Jones. Hospital Supplies Miss Ann T. Chapman. Clothing; Mrs. L. G. Tyler. Packing and Transportation: Mrs. E. W. Warburton. Publicity: W. C. Johnson. Five Forks Committee: Mrs. C. F. Ayers and Mrs. A. F. Hope. Magruder Committee: D. A. Powers and E. R. Addington.[40]

    The Woman's Club had charge of the buying and making of the clothing for the suffering people of Europe and more than $500.00 was expended for this purpose in the course of a few months. Aside from this work the club encouraged home gardening, thrift and food conservation, and contributed liberally to the Soldiers' Library Fund, and Red Cross Christmas boxes. Classes in first aid, with Dr. D. J. King, as instructor, were organized and a fully equipped emergency cot was presented to the Red Cross Chapter by this organization.[41]

    The Educational and Civic Association, as an association, and through its individual members, was active in every department of war work. It contributed financially to the "Service League Camp Library Fund" and collected books for same, sent magazines to the munition plant at Penniman, and to various nearby camps and clubs for soldiers, sold War Savings Stamps and "Smilage Books," and held monthly meetings for speakers sent out by the government to make addresses on war topics. They also considered the subject of thrift, economy and conservation, throughout the period of the war. One of the finest pieces of work done by this organization was accomplished through its educational committee when, by valiant work, it helped to rid the city of Williamsburg of a menacing element, and succeeded in starting a "Red Circle Club" which proved a great comfort to the enlisted men during the trying period of demobilization. Mrs. Viola Ware, a most gracious hostess of this club, through her efficiency and sympathetic understanding made it a real home for the many service men who visited the club.[42]

    Before the beginning of 1916 persons interested in the work of the American Fund for French wounded planned to organize a branch in Williamsburg, but hearing that the War Relief Association of Virginia was being organized decided as their chief interest was centered in the making of surgical dressings, to ally themselves with the committee of the central branch in Richmond. Some of the shipments were made direct to New York headquarters, three boxes were sent to the Red Cross hospital in Florence, Italy (a project supported by English and American residents of that city) and the remainder of the dressings were sent directly to Richmond headquarters and were sent abroad through their surgical dressings committee. The work throughout the three years was tinder the able direction of Miss Ann T. Chapman, assisted by Miss Edith Smith and Mrs. R. M. Crawford. Funds were supplied by the Daughters of the Confederacy and the Williamsburg War Relief Association, the school children, camp fire girls, the women's organizations of the different churches and many individuals working in their own homes. One of the most interested persons in this work was Mrs. Harriet Richardson, who was quite an old lady of Williamsburg. She made most of the thousands of tampons sent during the entire three years, and contributed to nearly every shipment made during that period. After the local Red Cross chapter was formed no effort was made to raise money or to compete in any way with the work done by the chapter, but shipments were continued until December, 1918, and the number of dressings were as follows: 1916, 10,614; 1917, 7,976; 1918, 17,106; total, 35,696.[43]

    NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMAN'S SERVICE

    In the historic old Court House at Williamsburg, a branch of the National League for Woman's Service was organized April 2, 1917, with the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Equal Suffrage League, Educational and Civic Association and Woman's Club of Williamsburg, and the Jamestown Community League and Norge Demonstration Club enrolled as organizations, and more than one hundred women registered individually for special service in the different branches of work offered by this organization. Headquarters were secured in the Parish House of Bruton Parish Church and immediate work was begun for the American Red Cross Military Hospital. From the time the workrooms were opened until this branch of the work was turned over to the local Red Cross chapter. 144 garments were made, 60 pairs of socks and 24 pairs of bedroom slippers provided. Feathers were collected by the women of the county and 100 pillows and 100 pillow cases made, and 119 articles of clothing were shipped to Red Cross headquarters.

    A large amount of money was collected for the "Comfort Kit Fund," a part of this being given by the colored people of Williamsburg, and every drafted man from the county was supplied with a well-equipped kit upon his departure for camp. The league contributed to the American Red Cross Christmas Package Fund, and to the War Library Fund. It also adopted a French war orphan who was well cared for for several years.

    On July 1, 1917, a house-to-house canvass for Red Cross memberships was made and $110.00 collected in Williamsburg. This was the beginnig of the work for a local chapter of the "A. R. C." The women of the Service League collected the money, transacted all the business, entertained the representative sent from Red Cross Headquarters to help complete the work, secured the charter and turned over to the newly elected treasurer of Bruton Chapter, A. R. C., $136.00 in membership fees.

    When the local Red Cross chapter began active work the sewing committee of the league offered, as a unit, to sew for the chapter. Their services were most gladly accepted as they were familiar with the work and were fully equipped to continue it.

    The local chairman of the Service League acted as temporary chairman for James City County during the Food Conservation Campaign, July 10-11. The entire county was well canvassed and very few women refused to sign the pledge cards. (In the city of Williamsburg only three white and ten colored women refused).

    During the fall canned goods, dried fruits, etc., were collected and 418 containers from the home demonstration clubs, girls' canning clubs and women of the Service League were turned in to the James City demonstration agent for the "A. R. C.," and seven dozen cans were shipped to Service League Headquarters at Richmond, to be sent to the Convalescent Hospital at Camp Lee.

    Through the courtesy of Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, president of William and Mary College, the gymnasium was secured during the summer months and the building opened for the week ends to the visiting service men. As many as twenty-five men sometimes took advantage of this hospitality. A very interesting piece of work was done by the canteen committee of this organization. The committee met all truck trains passing through the county and distributed chocolates and cigarettes among the men and officers, provided ice water and lemonade and furnished all sorts of supplies and information to the soldiers.

    During the summer, tea was served on the college campus to the men in service. This work was begun by Mrs. Lyon G. Tyler. In the beginning our guests numbered two, but before the summer was over we had anywhere from thirty to more than a hundred. A special fund was provided by the organizations and members enrolled in the Service League for this entertainment, but so generous were the hostesses and their committees and all the people of Williamsburg and the county that very little of it was spent for this purpose. The reputation of the "Sunday Afternoon Teas" in Williamsburg spread far and wide. Some men enjoyed it so much that they walked from Camp Eustis and back to spend an hour on the Campus of old William and Mary College. Many cards were received by members of the committee from boys who had been transferred to other camps, or who had gone overseas, telling how they missed that one delightful break in the monotony of the week's work in camp. After college opened in the fall this work was discontinued and after the signing of the Armistice the work of the Service League teas finished, it being an organization for the duration of the war only.

    The co-operation of the enrolled organizations and individuals was splendid, the untiring interest of our county home demonstration agent Mrs. Julia B. McCoy, helped us over many hard places, and the courtesy extended by the editor of our home paper, Mr. W. C. Johnson, in keeping our work before the public, was most encouraging. The funds necessary to carry on the work were, with the exception of the money raised on two tag days, were contributed by organizations and individuals, the public always responding generously when asked to contributed to any work undertaken. The Patriotic Committee endeavored to keep flags flying from the school houses and all public buildings, requested that our national hymns be sung on all public occasions, and held special services with prayer for those who had gone from our midst and prayers asking Divine guidance to do our part with unselfish patriotism. The following officers and chairmen of the committees carried on the active work of the organization: Mrs. C. E. Friend, chairman; Mrs. Van S. Garrett, first vice-chairman; Miss Elizabeth Morecock, second vice-chairman; Mrs. Leslie Hall, recording secretary; Mrs. M. T. Shipman, corresponding secretary, and Mrs. H. E. Bennett, treasurer, (succeeded by Mrs. J. A. Cooper).

    The Consulting Board, composed of members representing all organizations, included: Mrs. R. M. Crawford, Educational and Civic Association; Mrs. Lyon G. Tyler, Equal Suffrage League; Mrs. Van S. Garrett, Woman's Club; Mrs. M. T. Shipman, U. D C.; Miss Mary Farthing, Norge Demonstration Club; Mrs. Julia B. McCoy, Jamestown Community League; Mrs. C. H. Shield, Sub-Chairman, Yorktown League; I. Social and Welfare, Mrs. H. E. Bennett; 11. Commissariat, Mrs. R. M. Crawford; III. Agricultural, Mrs. W. O. Strong; IV. Patriotic, Mrs. Foster. (These four committees combined later on.) V. Medical and Nursing, Mrs. G. Peyton Nelson; VI. Motor Driving, Mrs. George Hankins; VII. General Service, Mrs. E. W. Warburton; VIII. Ways and Means, Mrs. Lyon Tyler; IX. Comfort Kits. Mrs. Fred Wheelis; X. French War Orphan, Mrs. George Coleman.[44] Mrs. C. E. Friend was local chairman.

    FRENCH WAR ORPHAN REPORT, BY AIRS. GEO. P. COLEMAN.

    The War Orphans of France, cared for by citizens of Williamsburg during the war, were of all kinds and from various parts of the country. Some of us had little personal communication with our proteges and some had the all too common experience of greed, not to be wondered at or criticized, when the conditions under which the children and their widowed mothers were existing are taken into consideration, but there were many of us who had much real pleasure and satisfaction from the ties which were formed between ourselves and the families of our fallen allies. Two little sisters called Drcau from St. Thois in Brittany were supported by two of our citizens who had a very warm feeling for the pretty little maids in their quaint peasant dresses whose serious little faces looked out from the photographs which were sent to their benefactors.

    The Women's Service League had a very interesting charge in the person of Doxine Hudry, who was eager and willing to answer letters, and to ask questions concerning the unknown friends from whom she was receiving assistance. Doxine, with her mother and two younger sisters, was left to wrest a living from a tiny farm among the mountains of Savoie, when her father was killed in Belgium early in the war, and her letters, though ignorant and ill-written. gave us a spirited picture of life in the little community, near the village of St. Martin de Belleville. Doxine was the only child in the neighborhood with American godmothers, and evidently took great pride in the fact, and the arrival of presents which we sent her from time to time as well as our regular contribution of money, was evidently a matter of great discussion and some envy among the other children in school. Doxine's mother also wrote to us, and told us how thankful she was to be able, through our help, to keep Doxine in school. The mother was evidently better educated than it was possible for her children to be, and when she died of influenza in 1920, the lack of her assistance in Doxine's letters could be very plainly seen.

    We continued our help to Doxine and her sisters, even after she reached the age at which the regular assistance of the society for the aid of the French war orphans ceased. At last, just when we were finding it difficult to keep up our contributions, as our league dissolved with the close of the war, our orphan wrote to ask our permission to marry a young man whom she represented as everything the most exacting godmother could wish. Doxine was then seventeen. We gave her our blessing, and a little silver vase as a memento of her Virginian friends, with quite a tidy little sum of money for her trousseau, and were all earnestly invited to come to the wedding. So that story ended as stories should. We continued to hear from her for a year or so, and our last gift to her was a little blanket and a rubber doll.

    Another fatherless child who found a kind godmother in Williamsburg was little Henriette Pourchier in Nice. I acted as secretary to the friend who had adopted her, and corresponded with her for several years. This child was a peculiarly- interesting little person, and we became intimately acquainted with her mother, grandmother and brother Pierre, through her naive little letters. Before the father's death, they lived on a farm, but after she was widowed Madaine Pourchier got work in a hotel in Nice, while the old Grandeinere kept a tiny home for the children. They are people of some refinement, and little Henriette is being carefully educated. Her letters were delightful, quaint, old fashioned and genuine. She told of her school life, and of her summer holidays, when she was sent to some farm in the Maritime Alps, as a change from the enervating Riviera summer heat, where she tended goats on the hillside. and grew brown and strong, "but always so small, it seems I cannot grow big!" She described every detail and every- thrill connected with the celebration of her First Communion, aid vividly pictured the flowers and sunshine of the Meditterranean. So much interested did we all become in her that, in 1924, being in the south of France, my daughter and I made an expedition to the old part of Nice, where, among crooked streets and high old houses, crowded flower markets and dark old churches, we found our friend's little French god-daughter. She and her grandmother, a most sweet and dignified old lady, were in a tiny bare little flat with clean red-tiled floor, and a few pieces of heavy, plain furniture, where they gave us the warmest welcome. Henriette's godmother in Williamsburg had sent, by me, a small sum of money for the child, so, another day, we returned to Nice to take Henriette shopping. That was a redletter-day for us all. Madame Pourchier, the mother, got away that afternoon, from her work at the hotel, and event with us. Little Henriette was quite impressed by the size of the sum we had to spend. The franc was very low at that time, and the number one got for an American dollar was appalling. We wished her to spend it frivolously, misled by our besetting American misconception that expensive pleasure makes happiness, but little Henriette's grave brown eyes had seen too much scarcity to relish extravagance, and I fancy thrifty Madame Pourchier had instructed her privately. The child solemnly expressed a wish to buy a tablecloth and napkins for her "hope chest," and we sallied forth into the early winter twilight, amidst the most gorgeous display of shops, arrayed for Christmas, and, steeling ourselves against the. lure of toys, confections and fripperies of every kind, we selected a beautiful strong little linen cloth and napkins, which will probably figure at the wedding feasts of Henriette's grandchildren. My daughter. who could not bear the contrast between this sober purchase and Henriette's youth, now bore her off into one of the most brilliant departments of the big store, in which we were, and urged her to choose another gift for herself, but, even then, the child chose a work box, but with such a radiant face, that there could be no doubt of her eagerness. And it was a gorgeous work box, with fascinating tools for embroidery and lace-making, the use of which Henriette seemed thoroughly to understand.

    We had tea at a confectioner's before parting, and Henriette did justice to the inimitable French pastries with a zest no light-hearted American child could surpass, and when we left her in the station, our last glimpse was of a very happy little figure clasping her two precious packages closely in her arms. And so there are growing to manhood and womanhood in France, from the northern coast to the shores of the Mediterranean, hearts that will carry the name of Williamsburg very deeply- imprinted, as a bright and blessed memory from a dark and sorrowful time.

    Two elderly men in small businesses adopted a French war orphan together. There were seven French orphans adopted by citizens of the county.

    ARMENIAN AND SYRIAN RELIEF

    The Armenian and Syrian Relief work was done through the churches, and in 1920 the organized work of the "Near East Relief" was begun in the county, the quota being $660. Mrs. R. B. Watts served as chairman the first year, and the Educational and Civic Association handled the work for the following three years, with Mrs. C. E. Friend as chairman. From 1923 to the present time Rev. E. Ruffin Jones has had charge of the work.

    The result of the work for the first four years was as follows:

    1920, $825.06; 1921, $1,374.42; 1922, $1,091.42; 1923, $593.00. Credited for clothing: 1922, $358.00; 1923, $98.00.[45]

    Mr. Clarence Jennings, of Toano, acted as sub-chairman for the county and was untiring in his efforts to interest churches, organizations and individuals in this work, to which they responded most liberally.

    WOMEN'S WORK

    The one thing of supreme importance in the minds of the women was that the war must be won. The men at the front would do their part and the women must "stand by." Women gave of their time, strength and means, and did splendid work in the sales of Liberty Bonds and War Savings Stamps, and were liberal subscribers to both. They knitted incessantly, and were reluctant to lay aside the knitting needles for even the shortest time. In the work of agriculture, food control and economy, and in every sphere of work, the women of the county co-operated nobly. From the city of Williamsburg each morning went a large group of women to work in the munition plant at Penniman, Virginia. Among them were women who never before had worked for pay, but who accepted the same long hours of the line and the tedious hours of the office, the same pay and conditions of those who had always been accustomed to industrial life. It has been said that on "Peacock Hill," one of the most delightful old neighborhoods of the town, when the 7 A. M. whistle blew the front door of practically every house on the Hill was heard to "open and slam shut simultaneously," for out or these homes went daily one or more workers to board the 7:10 A. M. train for the munition plant, and many of them were women. Numerous individuals labored unselfishly and whole-heartedly, and the spirit they created among their fellow workers was contagious and far-reaching.

    Mrs. Lois Greenman, along with many other loyal services rendered, celebrated her seventy-sixth birthday in a most unique manner. She turned over to the local Y.M.C.A. treasurer $76.00, a dollar for each year of her life. This was a most unusual birthday celebration, a "thank offering for peace.

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    The Sunday following the signing of the Armistice the Williamsburg churches united in a service to give thanks for peace and victory. All the choirs of the city joined in rendering a splendid and appropriate musical program, and Dr. J. Leslie Hall was the speaker of the evening. Besides the rector and Dr. Hall, Rev. J. H. Holloway, of the Methodist Church, assisted in the service. Never before did the churches of the city join with so much earnestness and sympathy as upon this memorable occasion.[46]

    In March, 1919, the Woman's Club, with very impressive ceremonies, planted eleven trees on the Palace Green to memory of the men of Williamsburg and the county who lost their lives in the service during the war.[47] Dr. James S. Wilson, of the College of William and Mary, was the main speaker, and his memorial address was considered one of the finest ever heard in this part of the country.

    It was later learned that five names were to be added to the list of men who died in the service. These included, however, several names of men whose association had been with Williamsburg but whose homes were located in nearby sections of the adjoining county. Armistice Day, 1925, five additional trees were planted by Peninsula Post, No. 39, of the American Legion. Following is a list of those for whom memorial trees were planted:

    George I. Clopton, Diascond, Va. killed in action June, 1918.

    Nathaniel Hall Jennings, Toano, Va. Killed in action October, 1918.

    Walter Menzel, Toano, Va. Killed in action July, 1918.

    Irving Opheim, Norge, Va. Killed in action November, 1918.

    Benjamin Laurence Leverson, Norge, Va.

    Joseph Connaughton, Norge, Va.

    Enos D. Lewis, York County. Died in France, 1918.

    Ernest L. Lewis, York County. Killed in action, 1918.

    James Tudor, near Williamsburg. Killed in action, 1918.

    Bledsoe Hooper, Williamsburg, Va.

    Frank Hazelwood, Toano, Va.

    Madsen Thonesen, Lightfoot, Va. Died in camp, 1918.

    John Wesley Cox.

    George E. Hicks.

    Earl Allison Thomas, Magruder, Va.

    Percy Lewis Witchley. Died in Camp Lee, Va.[48]

    A bronze marker bearing names and records of these men will be placed on the Palace Green just as soon as full and authentic data can be collected, the funds for same having already been provided by the Woman's Club.

    The American Legion organized in September, 1919, the first steps having been taken at a "Labor Day" celebration at Norge, Va., and in due time the charter of Williamsburg Post, No. 39, was secured. The first meeting was held in the court house at Williamsburg, and the following officers were elected: Ashton Dovell, post commander; Barton I. Jensen, vice-commander; B. D. Peachy, adjutant; M. W. Foster, finance officer; Ira D. Meanly, sergeant-at-arms. In the latter part of the year Williamsburg Post, No. 39, was combined with Peninsula Post, No. 29, and became known as Peninsula Post, No. 39. The post is considering several forms of memorials for the men from this county who died in their country's service, among them the restoration of the first "House of Burgesses" in Williamsburg. On November 11, 1923, with impressive exercises held in the chapel of the College of William and Mary, Post No. 90 was merged with the local post, thus increasing the membership as well as the interest in the activities of the post.[49]

    At the close of the war, when it was decided to appoint a War History Commission for Virginia the names of James City County citizens were found among those who served on this commission. Among them are Dr. J. A. C. Chandler, president of the College of William and Mary; Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, president emeritus of the College of William and Mary; Dr. James Wilson, professor of history of the College of William and Mary (during and previous to the war).

    Late in the fall of 1918 the nearby munition plant began gradually to decrease its activities, and by March 1, 1919, there was quite an exodus of population from Williamsburg and the county, though housing conditions were still congested. During the erection of Camp Eustis, and for some time after its completion, Williamsburg was headquarters for the engineers in charge and the army officers on duty at the camp. Not until Camp Eustis became Fort Eustis were sufficient quarters provided to take care of these officers.

    Many pleasant and lasting friendships were made during this period, and it proved a most enlightening experience for both civilians and those of the army, as each, by his personal and social contact, caught the viewpoint of the other, and by the comparison of the high cost of living in civil life with the cost at an army post, one was enabled to realize the value of government control of prices.

    A little later, housing conditions improved and the shortage was relieved by some building and the purchase of "ready cut" houses sold at Penniman, Va., when the plant was salvaged. These houses were knocked down and moved great distances on trucks and barges to many different localities, a number of them being most attractively re-erected in Williamsburg and the county. The labor situation remained a problem, the shortage was acute, labor was restless, and the high war wages had unfitted industrial and farm labor and especially domestic labor, for post war conditions. The breaking up of nearby camps did not affect this community to any great extent.

    The pendulum of social life by degrees swung back to normal, for, during the war period all social activities had practically ceased.

    In reply to the question, "just what did the efforts and services of those at home mean to those at the front, the answer can be found in the following paragraph from a service man's letter. "There were. of course, many attentions and comforts provided at every stopping place for troops in this country, and in a different way supplied to troops abroad, reminding us constantly of the thought and support of the folks at home. I am reminded in this connection of the action of a little French girl of about four years, whom I met walking one day in the field near Beaune. This was March of 1919. As a brother officer and I were walking along conversing together one Sunday afternoon, we passed this little girl with her parents and just after we had passed I felt something touch my hand and looked down to find that she had given me a little flower which she had just plucked. She shyly went away, but you may be sure that action meant very much to us, "just a flower" given by a tiny girl!

    Aside from the co-operation of churches, college, schools, organizations and individuals, the fact that the editor of the home paper was always optimistic, never allowing discouragement to creep into his editorials and always asking for the co-operation of the community, was of tremendous value in helping to carry on the war work, and the fine spirit of the letters from the boys "over there," with so little complaint of hardships, letters cheerful and full of enthusiasm and patriotism, "full of the glory and spirit of a righteous war," all tended to weld into one well-assembled piece of human endeavor James City County's contribution to the part her state played in helping this country in a mighty task, that "righteousness might prevail."

    NOTES:

    1. Report of Dr. J. H. Crouch, Director of County Health Work.
    2. Jamestown Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities-1901.
    3. From a late sketch of the Church by the rector, Rev. E. Ruffin Jones.
    4. Virginia Gazette, March 29, 1917.
    5. Virginia Gazette, April 5, 1917.
    6. Virginia Gazette, April 12, 1917.
    7. Virginia Gazette, May 31, 1917.
    8. Virginia Gazette, May 23, 1918.
    9. Report of Rev. E. Ruffin Jones, Rector Bruton Parish Church.
    10. Virginia Gazette, April 4, 1918.
    11. Virginia Gazette, May 3, 1917.
    12. Virginia Gazette, June 7, 1917.
    13. Virginians of Distinguished Service—Davis.
    14. Virginia Gazette, June 7, 1917.
    15. Virginia Gazette, August 2, 1917.
    16. Virginia Gazette, April 18, 1918.
    17. Report of E. Ruffin Jones.
    18. Report of Federal Reserve Bank, Richmond, Va.
    19. Virginia Gazette, July 5, 191_
    20. Report of Rev. E. Ruffin Jones.
    21. Virginia Gazette, January 24, 1918.
    22. Virginia Gazette, March 28, 1918.
    23. Virginia Gazette, September 5, 1918.
    24. Virginia Gazette, November 22, 1918.
    25. Virginia Gazette, February 3, 1916.
    26. Virginia Gazette, March 2, 1916.
    27. Virginia Gazette, March 2, 1916.
    28. Virginia Gazette, October 26, 1916.
    29. Virginia Gazette, August 30, 1917.
    30. History Committee's Report.
    31. War History Report.
    32. Virginia Gazette, June 20, 1918.
    33. History Committee's Report, Mrs. Emily B Lane, Chairman.
    34. History Committee's Report.
    35. Virginia Gazette, December 26th.
    36. Virginia Gazette, December 5, 1918.
    37. Virginia Gazette, January 7 1918.
    38. Virginia Gazette, October 10, 1914.
    39. From a report of Woman's Club.
    40. Virginia Gazette, January 27, 1916.
    41. From Report of Woman's Club.
    42. Report of Miss Ann T. Chapinan, Secretary, Educational and Civic Association.
    43. From a report of bliss Ann T. Chapnian, Surgical Dressings Committee.
    44. Report of Mrs. C. E. Friend.
    45. Report of Educational and Civic Association.
    46. Virginia Gazette, November 21, 1918.
    47. Report of Woman's Club.
    48. Report of Dr. Donald Davis, member of American Legion.
    49. Page 64, History of the American Legion, Williamsburg, Va.
    50. *Report of Dr. James Wilson, kindly given by Mr. H. L. Bridges, Registrar of The College of William and Mary.

    Note: There are possible endnote numbering errors.

  • Winchester and Frederick County

    A Community History

    Edited by C. Vernon Eddy

    INTRODUCTION

    The original draft of this war history of the city of Winchester and the county of Frederick was by Frank H. Krebs, of Winchester. This draft was revised and rewritten by Oren F. Morton, who was living in Winchester when the history was undertaken. The source material was also, in part, collected by Mr. Morton.

    Very much of the material for this history was derived from the files of the Evening Star of Winchester. No other newspaper was thus used. The editorial management of the Star is, therefore, a leading authority. So far as certain articles appear anonymously, it is because the revisor is unable to locate the exact authority.

    C. VERNON EDDY
    MISS AUGUSTA F. CONRAD
    MRS. ALFRED WRIGHT
    War History Commission of Winchester and Frederick County

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS

    This city and county is replete with historical traditions. Its background furnishes a splendid setting for the heroic deeds of its men and women. The county in which James Wood, Thomas Lord Fairfax, General Daniel Morgan and George Washington lived and served their country, the scene later of the famous Valley campaign in the Civil War, could not help but be loyal in any national crisis.

    Company I, composed of Winchester and Frederick County men, was recalled from the Mexican Border and mustered out of service the last of February, 1917. At nine o'clock on the morning of March 26, the whistle of the Virginia Woolen Company sounded the signal-the call to the colors, and the company was once more mustered into service. This company was commanded by Captain Robert Y. Conrad, "Captain Bob" as his men lovingly called him.[1]

    While Captain Robert Y. Conrad was commanding his company on the Mexican Border he wrote from Brownsville, Texas, on the inadequacy of the National Guard in the event of real war, declaring that compulsory military training was the only way out. The burden must rest equally and equitably on all classes of the people. His remarks at that time attracted much attention. It is interesting to note that in less than six months America was in the war and compulsory military training had been put in effect through the operation of the selective draft.

    The people of Frederick County and the city of Winchester were not long in taking steps to back up Congress and the President in their attitude toward the World War. A mass meeting of citizens gathered on the night of March 13, 1917, and the audience was addressed by Captain Conrad, Hon. R. Gray Williams, Judge T. W. Harrison, Major B. M. Roszel and the Rev. J. H. Lacy. The policies of the President were indorsed.

    As was the case with most other parts of the country, Winchester and Frederick County had their share of rumors regarding the, presence of German spies within the community. Some of these alleged spies were detained, but always succeeded in proving their innocence. It was rumored that a prominent fruit grower in the county who was a German had installed a high-powered wireless outfit, capable of sending messages direct to Germany, in the chimney of his house. There were those who alleged that they had seen the equipment in his chimney. It was also declared that this man had plans of Harper's Ferry and its railroad tunnels, an important artery of freight traffic to the East. All of these rumors proved false, but suspicion was so strong that the German and his wife sold out and removed from this section, the wife returning to her old home in Germany before the ports of that country were closed.

    F. A. Beck, a prominent apple buyer and the operator of a large bakery in Winchester, affirmed his own loyalty and that of his sons through the columns of the local newspaper. However, under the regulations for the identification of enemy aliens he was photographed and his finger prints taken. Later on, two of the sons of Mr. Beck enlisted and served in the American Army.

    In contrast to this loyalty, it cannot be, denied that there were a number of people in the community who were either outwardly pro-German in their sympathies, or pacifists or obstructionists. There were the usual number of people who sought to evade military service under any one or more of a number of pleas, and there were still others who were perfectly willing that the war should be fought by the sons of other men, and who balked when it came to sending their own offspring to the service of their country. Some of this disloyalty reached into the churches of the community. There is the story of a prominent minister who resigned his charge after a quarrel with members of his congregation, because the organist insisted upon playing patriotic airs on the organ before and during the Sunday services.

    While these reactionaries existed in the community, they were, in a small minority and could do little or no harm to the cause at large. They are being remembered for their attitude during the war.

    CHURCHES

    The war activities of the churches of Winchester were carried on through a well-organized plan of team work. Few records have been preserved in regard to their separate efforts. The strain of war work was tense, and after the Armistice it would seem there was a tacit decision to retire war memories to the background, and it has proven exceedingly difficult to secure authoritative data. All the congregations were active, though the record as here presented is fragmentary.

    The churches showed their active interest in the war by their service flags, by touching exercises accompanying the raising and lowering of these flags, by letters to the boys in camp, by sending Christmas boxes under the direction of Mrs. M. M. Lynch and her workers, and in many other ways. In compliance with a proclamation of President Wilson, union services of all the churches in WInchester were held October 28, 1917, in which prayer was offered for the success of the Allied arms.

    A beautiful service flag was placed in the Church of the Sacred Heart (Catholic) in May, 1918, with special religious services conducted by the priest, the Rev. John McVerry. Special services were held on the first Friday of each month to pray for the boys in the service. There were thirty-three stars in the flag. The following boys were overseas in the service from this church: Thomas A. Fenton, Bernard F. Groves, Denis M. Kaine, Annie N. McFadden (nurse), John R. McFadden, Earle Noonan, Mahlon Noonan, Daniel C. O'Leary, Harry L. Reardon, Leo Russell, John A. Stuart, Bernard Sullivan Donald Weems, E. V. Weems. A number of the ladies of the congregation took an active part in Red Cross work, in knitting and surgical dressings, and had charge of boxes and comfort kits sent from the Sunday school. The children assisted in knitting and making outfits for the children in Europe, and also in sending Christmas boxes overseas.

    The Christian church had a service flag of eight stars. Special services were held to put across the various war relief campaigns and there were six special services of prayer and devotion. There was co-operation with other church units.

    The Reformed Church had the following members in service: Alfred Curtis, Marion Goss, William Goss, Allen Gray (aviator), Clarence Peffer and Frank Shirley.

    The pastor of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1920 had been a supply sergeant in the 313th Cavalry at Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont, from May to July, 1918 ; a student at the Chaplain's Training School at Camp Taylor, Louisville, Kentucky, in July and August of the same year, and chaplain in the 151st Depot Brigade at Camp Devens, Ayer, Massachusetts, from August to December.

    There were 57 stars on the service flag of Christ Episcopal Church-53 for soldiers, one for a sailor and three for nurses. There was not a gold star among them. Nearly all members in the service went overseas and made splendid records. The head nurse of Winchester Memorial Hospital, Miss Angelica Didier, served overseas; the assistant head nurse, Miss Anne Carson, was decorated by the British Red Cross for her valuable work; Miss Helen Day, from the same hospital, served overseas and was decorated by our government. All of these were members of Christ Church. Miss Kate Harrison, another member, was also a nurse in France.

    The Rev. W. D. Smith, D. D., rector of Christ Church, was head of one of the Liberty Loan drives and made such a success that he was asked to be chairman of the Red Cross and to head the Contribution Committee for the War Chest. In October he sailed for France, reaching there after the Armistice. So he worked in the camps, holding a series of services and returned to Winchester in June, 1919.

    The women of this church did splendid work. The surgical dressings work was started by Episcopalians in the house of Mrs. Holmes Conrad. Later when it was merged into the Red Cross, a room in the parish house of Christ Church was used. Mrs. Hunter McGuire was put in charge. Most of the heads of the war work in Winchester were Episcopalians. The directors of the War Savings Stamps, Rev. W. D. Smith and Miss Augusta Conrad, were Episcopalians.

    Mr. Gray Williams, an Episcopalian and lawyer, gave up a great part of his time to help in the drives. The Boy Scouts, with an Episcopalian at their head, Marshall Baker, did splendid work. The head of the draft board, Mr. S. R. Fay, was a member of Christ Church and served faithfully, declining to accept pay. The woman's committee of several of the Liberty Loans was in charge of members of Christ Church. The head of the nurses of the Red Cross has been and still is under Mrs. H. Douglas Fuller, a member of this church. Another member, Miss Caroline Hunter, gave lessons in surgical dressings to women of Winchester. Mr. Harry Byrd was fuel administrator for the State of Virginia.

    SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

    "After our entrance into the war a number of the teachers and the high school boys who were old enough entered military training schools, or spent the summer at a training camp, in order to be ready for active service when the call should come. The public schools of the county felt severely the drawing of the teachers into government service and for positions of trust at Washington and elsewhere. The problem of keeping the schools supplied with teachers became a serious one. The superintendent of schools, Leslie D. Kline, was chosen by the government for a position of high honor and responsibility, but continued at his post in Frederick County, feeling it his most patriotic duty to stay by the schools."[2]

    The school children took an interested part in the War Saving; and Thrift Stamps campaigns in which they showed keen rivalry. Throughout Frederick County many schools gave entertainments and thus raised large sums of money for supplies. In Winchester a course of lectures was given under the auspices of the high school, the aim of the lectures being a better understanding of the problems abroad and America's need for service. The proceeds were turned over to the Red Cross to keep men in the service well and to care for them in case of illness.

    In the fall of 1918, the schools in the county opened late and the town schools were adjourned for nearly a month in order that the boys and girls might help harvest the apple crop. This saved many thousands of dollars to the county.

    The work of the school children in the junior Red Cross is given in the Red Cross section of this narrative.

    The daily flag salute, the drills and the patriotic music of the schools had an echo in the home and on the street. The school children were fitting comrades for their brothers in arms, and were the loyal "second line of defense."

    On April 2, 1917, two corps of Winchester High School cadets, over the age of fifteen years, went into training under the direction of the principal, Hugh S. Duffey. The purpose was to make themselves the nucleus of a Home Guard. The history of the Home Guard is included elsewhere in this narrative.

    SHENANDOAH VALLEY ACADEMY

    Few, if any, of the educational institutions in America had a more creditable record in the World War than the Shenandoah Valley Academy of Winchester. Of the entire personnel of the Academy subject to war service every single student was in some branch of the service. An editorial in the Winchester Star makes the following comment:

    "During the eleven years the Shenandoah Valley Academy has been under the management of Major B. M. Roszel, the school has had 408 registered cadets, excepting eight who cannot be located. Of the total registered cadets, as above, the following were either not eligible for war service or could not properly be charged to the Academy: foreign born, 11; died, 6; expelled, 9; physically disqualified, 13; at Academy less than one year, 16; too young to serve, 175; total, 230. The difference between 230 and the total number of students is 178, and that number entered the military service-one hundred per cent patriotism!. Of the 178 entering the military service, six were commissioned as captains, 37 as lieutenants, 19 as non-commissioned officers and 116 as privates. Nine were decorated by the Allied governments for bravery. Of the faculty, 16 were eligible for service, and 16 entered the service. One hundred per cent Americans of both student body and factulty at the most crucial test in the history of the United States!. A remarkable record which should be most gratifying, not only to Major Roszel, but to the whole community. Nothing could more fully demonstrate the high standards and ideals of the institution."

    DRAFT LAW AND MILITARY ORGANIZATION'S

    Out of a total population of 19,000 in county and city, nearly five per cent was contributed to the actual fighting forces, either through voluntary enlistment or by the selective draft. In proportion to the number of men in the military service, the city of Winchester and the county of Frederick had more commissioned officers than any other area in Virginia-a high testimonial to the patriotism and efficiency of our citizens.

    The registration board for Winchester was appointed in April, 1917, and was composed of the following members: Dr. J. F. Ward, J. Brad Beverley, J. L. Maphis, Joseph B. Newlin, and Dr. P. W. Boyd.

    The registration board of Frederick County was named at the same time, and consisted of Luther Pannett, Philip H. Gold, and Dr. Charles R. Anderson. Later on (June 21, 1917) the two boards were consolidated with jurisdiction over both Winchester and Frederick County, and consisted of Luther Pannett, sheriff, chairman; Logan R. Fay and Dr. P. W. Boyd. These men had entire charge of the draft for the two communities during the war, until Dr. Boyd resigned to enter she service. Dr. E. C.. Stuart was selected to take his place and served for the remainder of the period. Miss Maude J. Brown acted as chief clerk.

    No more loyal, devoted and patriotic service could have been performed by any body of men than was r rendered by the local draft board of Winchester and Frederick County. When a draftee was exempted or placed in deferred classification by this board, it was understood beyond a doubt than he had proven a clear title to such exemption o? deferred classification. It is not too much to say that the unusually large percentage of men taken in the draft from Winchester and Frederick and the small percentage of those exempted were due to the efforts, vigilance and patriotism of Chairman Pannett and Secretary Fay. The chairman and the secretary were the recipients of numerous letters of commendation from the officials of the War Department and the officials of the State Draft Board for their highly efficient work. During the entire time the United States was in the war, these men gave practically all of their time to the work of the board. They had their headquarters at first in the County Clerk's office and later at the City Hall.

    Up to the time that he entered the service, T. Russell Cather, afterward Lieutenant Cather, served as counsel for the draft board, and when he entered the service John Steck was appointed in his place. All the members of the Winchester bar served on the legal advisory board and assisted in filling up the questionnaires and in giving such legal advice as the board and the registrants required.

    As has been said, Winchester and Frederick County had an unusually large number of men who, by reason of their eminent fitness for positions of responsibility and leadership received commissions in the Army and Navy. Among those receiving commissions were: Charles R. Anderson, W. Alexander Baker, Robert T. Barton, Philip B. Boyd, Claude R. Cammer, Thomas R. Cather, C Weeden Cochran, George B. Conrad, Robert Y. Conrad, Andrew B. Drum, Benjamin B. Dutton, George H. Grimm, Harry H. Lynch, Louis McC. Nulton, W. -NTelson Page, Charles A. Robinson, Brantz M. Roszel, George B. Roszel, William D. Smith, Louis E. Snapp, Donald M. Weems, and Philip Williams.

    Few people, not even the soldiers themselves, performed more heroic service and made more personal sacrifice than the nurses, whether they served overseas, on the battle fronts, or at home in the camps or in the home communities and in local hospitals. Among this heroic band were several women who claim either Winchester or Frederick County as thcir birthplace, and -who still call these localities "home."

    Winchester Memorial Hospital had at least the following nurses in active service: Miss Anne L. Carson, Miss Angelina P. Didier, and Miss Helen M. Day. Miss Day was with the United States Army Base Hospital 45, St. Luke's Unit, and was stationed at Toul, France, from the summer of 1918 to the spring of 1919. Other nurses going out from the community were Miss Katherine Y. Harrison. who nursed in France and Belgium, Miss Stella V. Hicks, Base Hospital 41, and Miss Anne E. McFadden who was attached to Base Hospital No. 1 in Brest, France.

    COMPANY I OF WINCHESTER

    Company I was among the first military organizations of the State National Guard to be sent into Mexico and to perform duty on the border. The men had scarcely returned to their homes here when, on March 25, 1917, they were again called into the service of the United States as the initial step on the road to France.

    The company was formed by the consolidation of Companies B and I of the Second Virginia National Guard, into Company I, 116th Infantry, with the additional of 23 enlisted men transferred from the Fourth Virginia National Guard. This consolidation was completed on October 4, 1917, at Camp McClellan, with the following officers: Robert Y. Conrad, captain; Harold R. Dinges, Herbert D. May, Harry A. Macon, first lieutenants; George H. Grimm, Joseph W. Bennett, second lieutenants. The company was organized at its full war strength of 251 enlisted men. Eight months of hard training followed, at the end of which time the company was considered one of the best disciplined and physically fit units in the regiment. It embarked for overseas service on the U. S. S. Finland, June 15, 1918.

    Company I took part in the following battles: Malbrouck Hill, Molleville Farm, Attack on Bois d'Ormont, Grande Montaigne, Capture of Etraye Ridge, Attack on Bois Bellau. The following members of the company were killed in action or died of wounds: Captain Robert Y. Conrad, Sergeant Milford J. Bolner, Sergeant James F. Hinton, Earle D. Airhart, Clifford Gray, Charles W. Findley, Adam J. Gretchman, Walter Hitchcock, Walter K. Kupthal, Robert L. Lafferty, Floyd Lucas, Edgar Southerland, James Wilbourn, Robert P. Wilson, Clyde H. Burton, Clarence Derflinger, Howard Jackson, Roscoe C. Peck, and Raymond S. Shonk.[3]

    The following members of Company I were decorated: Captain Robert Y. Conrad, Sergeant Louis Snapp, Corporal Isaac F. Allemong, Corporal Joseph Reid, Private Jesse Fry, Private Isaac Ingrain. All of these, with the exception of Isaac Ingrain, were Winchester and Frederick County men and their awards are given in the Distinguished Service list a little further on in this narrative. Private Ingrain received a Distinguished Service Cross.

    Captain Harold R. Dinges who became commanding officer of the company after Captain Robert Y. Conrad died from wounds received in action on October 8, 1918, wrote a narrative covering the career of the company. This narrative discloses some interesting facts. It shows that the company was a part of the Third Battalion, commanded by Major H. L. Opie and known as "The Fighting Third"; that when the company was brought to full war strength it was exclusively Virginian; that the company went into action several mornings without breakfast, and was under fire for twelve days in succession, suffering severe losses but keeping up a splendid morale. As a history of the Third Battalion, 116th Infantry, is given in Volume V, "Virginia Military Organizations in the World War," no detailed account of Company I is given here.

    HOME GUARD

    The Home Guard of Winchester was organized March 29, 1917. Robert T. Barton was elected captain, L. Marshall Baker, first lieutenant, and Carlin Gray, second lieutenant. There were forty enrolled privates at the time of organization, but this number was finally increased to 100. When Captain Barton went to military camp, Logan R. Fay, who was a member of the draft board, was elected to take his place. On several occasions the services of these men were utilized to quell local disturbances. When the Virginia Volunteers were organized the Home Guards joined theta and were equipped with rifles.

    Middletown quickly followed Winchester in the organization of Home Guards, a company at that place being formed on August 29, 1917. W. E. Coffman was captain, R. R. Tolbert, first lieutenant, and George G. Keith, second lieutenant.

    The history and roster of the Winchester State Volunteers known as the "Winchester State Guards" will be found in Volume IV of the Virginia War History Commission publications, "Virginia War Agencies, Selective Draft and Volunteers."

    DISTINGUISHED SERVICE LIST

    The following service men from Winchester and Frederick County are recorded in the Virginia War History Commission's Source Volume I, as having received military distinction: Corporal Isaac F. Allemong, Distinguished Service Cross and French Croix de Guerre; Henry Southworth Baker, Jr., cited by Division Commander; Captain Thomas Bolling Byrd, cited by Division Commander and Silver Star citation; Lieutenant Commander Richard Evelyn Byrd, Jr., commended by Secretary of the Navy; First Lieutenant Claude R. Cammer, cited by Division Commander and by Brigade Commander; Capt. Robert Young Conrad (deceased), Distinguished Service Cross; Evan Creswell, cited by Division Commander; First Lieutenant Harold H. Dinges, cited by Division Commander and Silver Star citation; First Lieutenant Benjamin Bland Dutton, cited by Brigade Commander; Sergeant Jesse A. Fry, Silver Star Citation, French Croix de Guerre; Captain Edward Johnston, Distinguished Service Cross; Captain Louis McCoy Nulton, Navy Cross; Sergeant Joseph William Reid (deceased), Distinguished Service Cross and Italian War Cross; John Ritter, cited by Brigade Commander; Claude Hoyt Ryan, Navy Cross; Sergeant Louis Edward Snapp (deceased), French Croix de Guerre; Sergeant Charles F. Carbaugh, French Croix de Guerre.

    The Winchester Star, which is quoted frequently in these pages, states that Corporal Fred M. Affleck, of Winchester, was awarded the French Croix de Guerre. Miss Anne L. Carson, who was awarded the British Royal Red Cross, is recorded in "Virginians of Distinguished Service" as a native of Warren County. She is now Mrs. Benjamin B. Dutton, Jr., of `Winchester. The writer has information to the effect that Lieutenant Commander Richard Evelyn Byrd, Jr., in addition to his commendation by the Navy, was decorated by several European governments for his exploits in long-distance flying.

    More or less complete records of a number of Winchester and Frederick County men who seemed to stand out above their fellows in point of Service have been included in the original draft of this history furnished the Virginia War History- Commission. Space will not permit of these records being included in this sketch, but they cover Dr. Charles B. Anderson, Captain W. Alexander Baker, Captain Robert T. Barton, Dr. Philip W. Boyd, Sergeant Leslie M. Brown, Dr. H. V. Canter, Lieutenant Thomas Russell Cather, Lieutenant Eugene E. Chiles, Major C. Weeden Cochran, Major Bryan Conrad, Lieutenant George Bryan Conrad, Captain Andrew B. Drum, Dr. Benjamin B. Dutton, Captain George H. Grimm, Lieutenant Matthew Harrison, Rear Admiral Louis McCoy Nulton, Edward C. Oldham. Lieutenant W. Nelson Page, Mayor Brantz Mayer Roszel, Captain George Bosley Roszel, Claude H. Ryan, U. S. N., Chaplain William D. Smith, Lieutenant Philip Williams, Captain Thomas Cover Barton. A very complete and detailed record of Captain Robert Y. Conrad's service and death is also given.

    GOLD STAR LIST

    The following is the list of Winchester and Frederick County men who lost their lives in the World War as furnished by the Adjutant General's office at Richmond, Virginia. This list is probably incomplete, since there are at least several persons who died or were killed in action whose names do not appear. The list is as follows: Captain Robert Y. Conrad, Sergeant Milford J. Bolner, Sergeant James F. Hinton, Corporal Miles D. Sanger , Corporal Richard C. Stewart, and Privates Thomas Adams, Clifton W. Anderson, Clifton C. Baker, Vernon Bowers, Isaac Byrd Dix, Silas E. Fauver, Benjamin Ford, George Barrow Grim, Smith Luttrell, Charles H. Orndorff, Raymond E. Shenk, Joseph Wiggenton, Walter G. Wingfield, Carson Wisecarver, Thurman C. Fletcher.

    The following colored men died in service: Solomon Johnson, Clifton A. Nelson, Charles Scott and Joseph Willis.

    So far as is known the only man from Winchester and Frederick County who died in the service of the United States Navy was Samuel Dean Baker, of Cross Junction.

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    FINANCE

    The First Liberty Loan was taken wholly by the Handley Board of Trustees; the Second was managed by the banks quota, $425,000; the Third was conducted by Rev. W. D. Smith, quota $785,000, raised $815,000; the Fourth was conducted by H. B. McCormac, quota $896,000, raised $1,006,000 ; the Fifth was conducted by Arthur Fields. In all the five Liberty Loans Winchester and Frederick County oversubscribed their quotas by many thousands of dollars and they contributed much more than their quotas to every activity calling for money and supplies. The total population of the two communities is but 19,344 (Census of 1920), yet they subscribed for more than $5,000,000 in Liberty Bonds.

    The information given above does not agree in any particular with the report of the Federal Reserve Bank for Frederick County. The report referred to is as follows: No report for the First Loan; Second Loan, quota, $745,000, subscribed, $708,600 ; Third Loan, quota, $418,300, subscribed, $449,750 ; Fourth Loan, quota, $983,700 subscribed, 976,700; Victory Loan, quota, $708,300, subscribed, $776,500; total apportionment for the last four loans, $2,855,800, total subscribed for the last four loans, $2,911,500. It is suggested that all subscriptions were not taken through local banks, which may account for the discrepancy.

    The following incident of the Liberty Loan campaign in the county had a decided influence in completing the quotas for the county. Erasmus Baker, an aged resident of the mountain section of Frederick County, had managed to scrape together and save during a lifetime of seventy-four years about $3,000 in money. He was unlettered, but patriotic. He was told in his little mountain home of the German menace, and of the needs of America for money to prosecute the war. Mr. Baker was not a believer in banks, so he kept his money hidden in a shoe. On a cold day the aged mountaineer walked over the rough roads of that section of the county to Winchester, a distance of over fifteen miles, and invested his $3,000 in Liberty Bonds. This act served as an inspiration to many at a time when the sale of bonds was lagging.

    W. D. Smith was chairman of the War Savings Stamps campaign. The school children, as has been said, had a large part in this work. In Winchester over $2,500 was raised, while in the county the total was brought to more than $4,000.[*]

    The city of Winchester and its vicinity were peculiarly fortunate in securing the ablest speakers sent from abroad to boost the Liberty Loans. In large measure this was due to the fact that the Handley Foundation had at its disposal a large fund set aside for educational purposes, one of which is to pay public speakers to talk on educational topics. It appealed to our people to be able to hear at first hand the experiences of distinguished soldiers who had been at the fighting front. The two communities had a rare opportunity offered them and they responded by their unstinted subscriptions and contributions. The Handley Foundation itself subscribed to over half a million dollars in Liberty Bonds and has them now among its investments.

    When it was seen at the beginning of the war that some systematic plan would have to be adopted to prevent overlapping of effort in the various directions which presented themselves, the people of Winchester and Frederick decided that this could best be accomplished through a general fund covering all war relief work, the Red Cross included. The Winchester and Frederick County War Chest was the outcome of this plan, and the Rev. W. 11. Smith was unanimously chosen as chairman. The drive was agitated in June, 1918, and later in the season it was carried to success. Mr. Smith aimed to raise a total of $25,000 by voluntary contributions, and succeeded in raising nearly $60,000, the fund being in charge of Mr. H. B. McCormac. Under any other circumstance than a World War the raising of this sutra would have staggered the most patriotic and philanthropic citizens. This War Chest money was expended for the Red Cross, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Knights of Columbus, and other worthy objects.

    FOOD PRODUCTION AND FOOD AND FUEL CONSERVATION

    Food production was increased fully 50 per cent and eggs and poultry 100 per cent. There were food demonstrations at all fairs, and undernourished children were looked after. There was a twenty-five per cent increase in milk and a fifty per cent increase in milk products. War gardens were universal and the increase in output was 100 per cent. There were gardens where none were ever before known. Mill hands worked vacant lots. The impetus continued two or three years. In 1918 there was co-operative harvesting. Fertilizers were purchased by the car lot and tested here. There were co-operative shipments and there was much purchasing in large quantities. The testing of seeds was extensively practiced. There were several labor surveys, the labor bureau being conducted by Charles Connor. The census for this survey was taken by women. Trucks were much used. Women and girls did as much work on the farms as did the men. Men went to work who had never worked before when confronted with the alternative of "work or go to jail." School boys worked on the farms.

    The flower garden became a potato patch; crops were planted and harvested in greater abundance than ever before. Food conservation occupied a large portion of time and thought. Public meetings were held, much publicity was given by means of the local newspaper, a house-to-house canvass was made under the leadership of Mrs. Robert T. Barton, who was chairman of food conservation. Mrs. Lucien Lupton was secretary.

    During the autumn of 1918 the apple crop in Frederick County its most valuable asset, was in great danger of being an entire loss because of the scarcity of labor. The action of the school children in this connection has already been stated in treating the schools section. In addition to the work of the school children, hundreds of women, representing all classes of society, volunteered to help save the apples. They donned knickers and went to work in the orchards, asking no quarter and no consideration of their sex, but every morning at daylight they went into the orchards in frost and wet and worked throughout the day, just the same as the men. At many places pretentious quarters had been erected for them. Here they slept and ate, but every detail of military discipline was enforced with regard to their daily life, and every safeguard and protection were thrown. around them. From September 11 till November 24, 1918, there: was an orchard unit of 43 girls and two cooks; another of 75 soldiers. In the barracks there were no fatalities from influenza. Women were paid 25 cents an hour for 10 hours a day in the orchard-the same as men-and they did excellent work. There were 25 girls from outside of the community in the industrial army, some of them coming from New England. One of the girls was from Honduras. Another was the daughter of a major general, and still another was the daughter of an attache at Vienna. The apple crop was saved.

    Mrs. F. L. Harris was director of canning clubs.

    The conservation of fuel was carefully observed. Offices were closed one day each week, stores closed at an early hour, electric lights were restricted, unnecessary rooms were unheated. Winchester reminded one of the old-time village with beams of light straggling through occasional windows.

    THE BOY SCOUTS

    April 6, 1917, the Boy Scouts of Winchester held a meeting at the home of the Rev. W. D. Smith, rector of the Episcopal Church and president of the local Scouts, and formed plans to offer their services to the mayor. Scoutmaster L. Marshall Baker presided. Five days later, one hundred Scouts marched to the City Hall plaza and formally dedicated their services to the town and to the nation. The mayor accepted their offer. The report of the Winchester Boy Scouts to May 20, 1919, is as follows : Bonds sold, $455,800; members given emblems by Treasury Department, 32; every Scout sold Thrift Stamps; every boy gave $5 in the Victory' Boys Campaign; a troop War Savings Bank was organized: to the Red Cross was given over $2,000; to the Y.M.C.A. over $1,000; fruit pits were collected and clothing for the Belgians; in the Army and Navy were eight Scouts and three of them were given commissions.

    The Boy Scouts were so effective in soliciting for the Third Liberty Loan as to rank first in Virginia, and thereby win the President's flag for the State of Virginia. Their workers were always present at the appointments for public speaking throughout the county, and canvassed the crowd on each occasion.

    INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC

    The latter half of the year, 1918, was a black one indeed for the community as for the nation at large. The appalling influenza epidemic was at its height and an unusual circumstance associated the fatalities in this vicinity with those in the camps. The farmers, and particularly the fruit growers, appealed to the Federal authorities for assistance in gathering the enormous crops that year. They argued that their sons and their employees had been called away from them by the draft, and that the crops threatened to rot in the fields and orchards for lack of necessary help to harvest them. Accordingly, the War Department sent several hundred soldiers from the training camps to assist our people to harvest their crops. Even before they arrived, some of these soldiers were suffering with influenza and nearly all the others were stricken with the malady shortly after they were assigned to the farmers and fruit growers. Many deaths occurred among them. One of the selective draft men who died here was an Eskimo, conscripted from the northernmost part of Alaska.

    To add to the general seriousness of the situation, many of the trained nurses connected with the Winchester Memorial Hospital had enlisted in the army for hospital work overseas, while voluntary enlistments in the same branch of the fighting forces had called away nearly every doctor and surgeon in the city. To relieve the condition many volunteers qualified as practical nurses, while the old family doctor, fast becoming extinct, and the country physician, had their services and skill commandeered for the relief of the sufferers. At one time there were only three. physicians in Winchester, a town of 7,000 people, while in the county the proportion of doctors to population was even less.

    All churches, theaters, moving picture halls, and other public places were closed, while the assembling of people in public was strictly forbidden. This was going on while people were on rations of food, fuel, lights and other necessities, the partaking of a luxury being regarded as little short of traitorous.

    During the single month of October Miss Mary K. Strickler, the district nurse, with two or three helpers for only two weeks, had charge of 428 patients, 410 of whom had influenza. Many of these cases were very severe, although but five of the patients died. Mrs. H. D. Fuller was chairman of this work. She performed a heroic service, giving practically her entire time to it and doing the undesirable work in connection with the care of the sick. In some families seven or eight were ill with the influenza at one time, none being able to assist the others. Miss Strickler resigned in December, 1919, to become county school nurse, and was succeeded by Miss Gertrude Higgens.

    PATRIOTISM

    Significant of the reality of a united North and South, National Memorial Day, May 30, 1918, was attended by a large throng of people in which the children and the grandchildren of those who wore the gray in 1861-1865 participated. One week later, June 6, came Confederate Memorial Day, the most important occasion in the local calendar. Scores of people whose sympathies were with the North then participated in paying a tribute to the dead soldiers of the South. Returning the tribute, the Confederates, for the first time in local history, placed the Stars and Stripes upon the North's great monument to the Unknown and Unrecorded dead in Stonewall Cemetery.

    June 14, 1918, Flag Day was appropriately observed by the Winchester Lodge of Elks, a large number of other citizens participating. America was now in the war, and patriotism was at fever pitch, the outlook for a successful issue with Germany was at that time, however, depressing. There were special days for prayer and fasting, for patriotic speeches, for appeals to the purse, the energies and the sacrifices of all the people, to the end that the war might be won speedily. These special days were frequent and fervent.

    The Fourth of July of the wine year was an occasion for a great outburst of patriotism in Winchester, and on the Sunday nearest the Fourth, Angelus bells were rung in every church in the town, and citizens offered prayer for "our soldiers and sailors and the nation, and lead us to victory."

    "America" was rendered on church chimes and church organs and was played by the bands and sung by the people everywhere assembled. Flags floated from all public buildings and from places of historic interest in and around the city, while many business places were decorated with the Stars and Stripes, kept floating throughout the period of the war. Three-minute speakers appealed nightly in the moving picture houses and theaters, and in the open air for subscriptions to Liberty Loans, and other war causes.

    THE RED CROSS

    Before America entered the war the women of Winchester and Frederick County were busily knitting under two committees, one for the army, under the direction of Mrs. Holmes Conrad, Mrs. Julian F. Ward, and Mrs. R. T. Barton, and the other for the navy, under the direction of Mrs. Herbert S. Larrick. After the Red Cross was formed these two organizations became the knitting unit of that organization. Over 8,000 garments were made.

    On September 27, 1917, a meeting was held in Winchester preliminary to the organization of a Red Cross chapter. Mr. Lynde acted as chairman of the meeting and Mr. C. Vernon Eddy was secretary. Team captains were appointed for the county and town to solicit contributions, their goal being the raising of $10.000 payable in monthly installments.

    A permanent organization was effected and the following officers were elected : Chairman, Rev. Dr. William D. Smith; vice-chairman, R. Gray Williams; secretary, C. Vernon Eddy; treasurer, J. C. McCarthy.

    The money goal was quickly oversubscribed.

    On May 28, 1918, the officers were re-elected, with the exception of Mr. McCarthy who had permanently left town. Mr. John M. Snyder was selected in his place and served throughout the war period. The executive committee was as follows: L. Marshall Baker, P. H. Gold, H. B. McCormac, Harry F. Byrd, R. L. Gray, W. J. Whitlock, Mrs. R. T. Barton, Mrs. Carroll Carver, Mrs. H. H. McGuire, Mrs. Walker McC. Bond, Mrs. W. E. Cooper, Mrs. J. M. Steck.

    At a largely attended meeting in November the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Chairman, W. R. Talbot; vice-chairman, R. Gray Williams; secretary, C. Vernon Eddy; treasurer, Philip H. Gold.

    The city executive committee members were: R. T. Barton, Philip Williams, L. Marshall Baker, Harry F. Byrd, Leslie D. Kline, Robert L. Gray, Mrs. H. B. McCormac, Mrs. J. M. Snyder, Mrs. J. C. Cather, Mrs. M. M. Lynch, Mrs. R. T. Barton, Mrs. W. McC. Bond, Mrs. Carroll Carver, Mrs. H. D. Fuller, Mrs. Virginia Lines, Mrs. H. H. McGuire, Miss Lucy Kurtz, and Miss Lucy Russell.

    County executive committee: J. W. Richards, Mrs. Hunter Stine, Mrs. Alfred Wright, Mrs. Ada Shryock, Mrs. Clark Whitacre, Mrs. Howard Gri Crim, Mrs. W. C. Crim Mrs. B. F. Kern, Mrs. Luther Brill, Mrs. Edith Pannett, Mrs. S. F. Rhodes, Mrs. J. W. Herrell, Mrs. T. D. Wright, and Miss Beal Garvin. Mrs. A. D. Griffith was executive secretary during this term.

    From the report of Mrs. Bond on the Red Cross in Frederick County and the city of Winchester, are taken the following data:

    A wool auxiliary was appointed, consisting of Mrs. Walker McC. Bond, Mrs. Robert T. Barton, and Mrs. Carroll C. Carver. They were instructed to purchase yarn and to obtain volunteer knitters to provide sweaters, socks, and scarves for the local soldiers. The knitting auxiliary became an amalgamation of the Red Cross committee on wool, the army knitting committee, and the Navy League Branch official representatives.

    From September 16, 1917, to September 2, 1918, a total of 3,266 articles were made by 600 women; 1,740 people came to get yarn, and at least one more trip was made to return the finished article, so a conservative estimate was 3,480 visits to headquarters in the Professional Building on West Water Street. Dr. Walter D. Myers, the owner of the building, donated an office for the headquarters, and Mrs. Bond was in charge of the work until she resigned to give all her time to home service work. From September 2, 1918, to December 1, 1918, there were made 871 articles. The Navy League had a grand total of 393 articles before their amalgamation with the Red Cross. Therefore the grand total to December 1 was 4,539 articles, with the work of the Army Committee making over 5,000 knitted articles sent from our chapter to the boys. From October, 1918, to October, 1919, 280 knitted garments were sent to refugee women and children.

    During this entire time, Miss Mamie Spellman was in active charge of the headquarters, her working hours being usually from eight in the morning until a late hour every day. She devoted practically her entire time to the work, handing out the yarn, checking it, keeping the accounts straight, and receiving back the finished garment and rechecking it, besides acting as a bureau of general information upon many subjects.

    The surgical dressings workers, under the direction of Mrs. H. H. McGuire, made 187,000 dressings during the year 1918. The Winchester branch, with a membership of 250 women, completed 164,000 of these; Middletown with 30 women, made 500 dressings; Stephens City with 20 women, made 11,000. The $150 worth of unused material on hand December 6, 1918. was turned over to Winchester Memorial Hospital with the understanding that should any wounded men from Winchester or Frederick County require any surgical dressings, they could obtain these from the hospital free of charge.

    Mrs. S. L. Lupton, supervisor of the hospital supply section, reported for 1917-1918 that the section was organized in November, 1917, and was invited by Mrs. George W. Kurtz to establish a workroom in her house on South Main Street. Three cutting units and one sewing unit worked regularly during the winter and spring. Twenty-seven cutters prepared material, besides the cutting done at the Lewis Jones Knitting Factory. Two sewing machines were hired, and by November 1, 1918, 4,625 articles were completed, more than half being made in the county. There were sewing auxiliaries at Pleasant Valley, Middletown, Clearbrook, Nineveh, Grimes, Welltown, and White Hall. For the soldiers 570 comfort kits were furnished, and 185,000 surgical dressings made. The sum of $63,424.83 in War Savings Stamps was raised in Winchester, and $22,424.97 in Frederick County. The United Welfare Campaign brought in $14,880.

    The work for refugees was under the direction of Mrs. S. L. Lupton. After the Armistice the work was continued for the refugees under the direction of Miss Lucy Kurtz. During the war Mrs. John M. Snyder sent out to refugee children 456 garments.

    During 1917 and 1918, 496 comfort kits and 34 bags, 530 in all were given to soldiers and sailors, and 256 Christmas boxes were sent to our men, Mrs. M. M. Lynch having charge of this work.

    In June, 1918, the home service section was organized. From June to September, 1918, 412 families had received calls, giving service of some kind, and 322 calls giving information alone-a total of 774. During 1918 an average of 350 to 400 calls were made each month by volunteer workers until the arrival of the executive secretary who handled this work through her office.

    A home service course was given to women representing sixteen sections of the county, by Mrs. W. McC. Bond, a graduate of the Summer School for Social Work in Richmond. This work was carried on during November and December. Mrs. H. Clay DeGrange was the first chairman of the home service section. She was succeeded by Mrs. Philip Williams, with Mrs. Mason Snapp as assistant for Winchester and Mrs. Alfred Wright for the county. The executive secretary of the Red Cross now handles all the work, and her office thus becomes a clearing house for all Red Cross and welfare work in the community. In February, 1919, the Potomac Division of the American Red Cross gave authority to extend the work to civilian cases.

    A rest room was maintained by the executive committee for returned soldiers, during 1918, in the City Hall. This rest room has now become the secretary's office.

    In March, 1918, it was decided to set aside $2,500 for a nurse's fund to assist with the city nurse's work, and to support a county school nurse, her work to commence September 1, 1918. Miss Ruth Easley served until her health failed, when she was succeeded by Miss Mary K. Strickler.

    During a part of the war period Miss B. C. Sheckells was executive secretary but she soon resigned and Miss Anna F. Haines was her successor. She resigned to go to Russia for relief work for the Society of Friends. Miss Stowers is the present executive secretary.

    Red Cross certificates were awarded to the following:

    Mrs. M. S. Appleby, Miss Minnie C. Baker, Mrs. W. K. Baker, Mrs. Robert T. Barton, Mrs. J. B. Beverley, Mrs. P. W. Boyd, Mrs. H. R. Bryarly, Mrs. C. L. Carver, Mrs. John C. Cather, Mrs. T. R. Cather, Miss Augusta Conrad, Miss Carter B. Conrad, Mrs. Holmes Conrad, Mrs. William H. Crim, Mrs. John W. Darlington, Mrs. H. Clay DeGrange, Mrs. Jennie DeHaven, Miss Edith Dinges, Miss Edna M. Dinges, Mrs. R. B. Emmert, Mrs. H. D. Fuller, Mrs. P. H. Gold, Miss Jennie M. Green. Mrs. M. B. Richards, Mrs. R. B. Slomaker, Mrs. J. M. Snyder, Mrs. J. M. Steck, Mrs. Hunter Stine, Mrs. Julian F. Ward, Mrs. Martin Wisecarver, Mrs. F. L. Harris, Miss Mabel Haynes, Mrs. J. E. Herrell, Miss Annie Hollingsworth, Mrs. A. T. Jones, Mrs. H. R. Kern, Mrs. John A. Kiger, Miss Lucy G. Kurtz, Mrs. H. S. Larrick, Mrs. Virginia Lines, Miss Carrie B. Lupton, Mrs. S. Lucien L upton, Mrs. M. M. Lynch, Mrs. H. B. McCormac, Miss Charlotte McCormick, Mrs. H. H. McGuire, Mrs. C. F. Massey, Mrs. Leota Moore, Miss Mary V. Muse, Miss Frances P. Page, Mrs. S. F. Rhodes, Mrs. Warren Rice, Mrs. J. A. Richards, Miss Irene Slonaker, Miss Caroline Smith, Miss Mamie Spellman, Miss Alva Steele, Mrs. James Taylor, Mrs. Briscoe Williams, and Mrs. Alfred Wright.

    SURGICAL DRESSINGS COMMITTEE

    April 2, 1917, the National Surgical Dressings Committee was organized with Mrs. Hunter H. McGuire at the head, Miss Frances Page, treasurer, and Miss Augusta Conrad, secretary. Mrs. Holmes Conrad gave the use of a room in her house, and in that room for a year, one hundred women worked faithfully to aid the suffering boys in France. On the executive committee were Mrs. R. E. Byrd, Mrs. W. A. Baker, Mrs. James Easthom Mrs. M. M. Lynch, and Mrs. C. Vernon Eddy. On the packing and inspection committee were Mrs. John Meade Snyder, Mrs. Alexander Barrie, and Miss Lucy Kurtz.

    The following had charge of units: Mrs. C. Vernon Eddy, Miss Lucy Kurtz, Mrs. John M. Snyder, Mrs. William E. Cooper, Mrs. Martin Wisecarver, Miss Nan Maynard, Mrs. R. E. Byrd, Mrs. Philip W. Boyd, Mrs. Harry Lupton, Mrs. W. A. Baker, Mrs. Roland Bryarly, Mrs. H. B. McCormac, Miss Carter Conrad, Miss Augusta Conrad, and Miss Gertrude Schneider.

    Twice a month a committee inspected the dressings, packed them, and sent them to Richmond, Virginia. In November it was decided to organize a Red Cross chapter, so Miss Caroline S. Hunter was asked to come up from Washington and give a course in surgical dressings. The following are those who took and successfully passed the examinations and then became instructors in the Red Cross: Mrs. John M. Snyder, Mrs. Martin Wisecarver, Miss Gertrude Schneider, Mrs. Harry Lupton, Miss Carter Conrad, Miss Augusta Conrad, Miss Hilda Dean, Mrs. Carroll Carver, Miss Lucy Kurtz, Mrs. R. E. Byrd, Mrs. P. W. Boyd, Mrs. H. B. McCormac, Mrs. Warren Rice, Miss Minnie Baker, Miss Rena Keckley, Mrs. H. H. McGuire, Miss Lizzie Jones, Miss .______. Rawson, Mrs. Harry K. Russell, Mrs. _____ Appleby, Mrs. Robert M. Ward, Miss _____ Warren, Miss Frances Page, Mrs. M. M. Lynch, Misses Slonaker, Mrs. ._____ Eastham, Mrs. _____ Sreck, Mrs. L. E. Rice, Mrs. Lewis Hyde, Mrs. J. Horace Lacy, Mrs. Henry R. Bryarly, Miss Lucy Russell, Mrs. R. E. Griffith, Miss Charlotte McCormick, Miss Jacquelin Smith, Miss Gertrude Wheat, Mrs. W. D. Smith, Mrs. Fred L. Glaize, and Miss Bessie Conrad.

    Early in the following spring the parish house of Christ Church was used by the surgical dressings units. The headquarters for the sweaters, socks, helmets, etc., was in the office building of Dr. Walter D. Myers, who kindly gave the rooms. Work began in the surgical dressings rooms every morning at ten o'clock and continued until six in the afternoon. There was one night unit composed of girls who worked all day. Mrs. McGuire has charge of all surgical dressings made in the county, so she went to Stephens City, Kernstown, and every other place where this work was done, and gave instructions. All work was inspected in Winchester, so every week the work would be brought to the parish house, where it was inspected, packed, and sent to Washington. This work was continued until early in 1919, when the rooms were closed. The knitting and making of garments were continued well into the spring.[**]

    A first aid class was organized with Dr. Walter Cox as instructor, and Dr. B. B. Dutton, examiner. The following took the class: Mrs. Lewis Hyde, Miss Mary Lynch, Miss Augusta Conrad, Miss Jacquelin Smith, Miss Katherine Kern, Mrs. W. Nelson Page, Miss Frances Page, and Mrs. P. W. Boyd.

    Colored people who did good work in this department were Bettie Jackson, Emma Parks Robinson, and Amanda Gilbert.

    HOSPITAL GARMENT WORK

    The report in this department is as follows:

    As soon as the Red Cross was organized in Winchester, every branch of war relief work was started. Mrs. Lucien Lupton was appointed director of all hospital garment work in Winchester and Frederick County. Under her very efficient direction a splendid organization was established.

    Mrs. Philip W. Boyd and Mrs. Herbert Larrick were in charge of all hospital garments made in Winchester. From this unit work was distributed throughout the town to those who could not attend the sewing room. Mr. and Mrs. Lucien Lupton entered generously and patriotically into this work and offered their spacious home on Stewart Street for cutting and packing purposes. At their residence all cutting was done and all work sent out to the country units.

    Mrs. Boyd and Mrs. Larrick had charge of all cutting, and were ably assisted by Miss Nan Leafe, Mrs. Bruce Slonaker, Mrs. John Snyder, Mrs. Lucien Lupton, and Mrs. Harry Lupton.

    When first organized, in the early fall of 1917, the sewing unit met in the parish room of Christ Episcopal Church Mrs. J. B. Beverley, Mrs. Frank Crawford, Mrs. Horace Browne, Mr. Lewis Rice, and Mr. R. M. Swimley loaned sewing machines. At every meeting these seven machines were kept busy, and many were sewing by hand. The sewing was continued here until the weather became very cold, and the parish room was needed for the surgical dressings units.

    From the Episcopal Church the sewing unit moved to the parlor of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Lucien Lupton gave a stove and fuel to heat the room. During the winter of 19171918 the weather was the most severe ever recorded here. The sewing was carried on under many difficulties. Yet the faithful were never frozen nor snowed in, but pressed on with untiring energy to continue the cutting and sewing. Meanwhile the work had grown tremendously. Units were formed throughout the county. Mrs. A. S. Jett had charge of a unit at Nineveh. Mrs. Samuel Rhodes and Miss Edna Dinges were in charge of a large unit at Middletown. Miss Carrie Lupton had charge of a unit at Clearbrook. All over the county were women sewing, faithfully and diligently.

    All cutting was done in Winchester, and a large force of efficient cutters were now trained. They were: Mrs. Philip Boyd, Mrs. Herbert Larrick, Mrs. George Brown Mrs. Hunter Grein, Mrs. Camillus Grien, Mrs. John Sloat Mrs. Robert Barton, Mrs. John Campbell, Mrs. Pansy Shepherd, Mrs. Charles A. Lepton, Mrs. John W. Larrick, Sr., Mrs. Bessie McCann, Mrs. M. B. Richards' Mrs. Harry Miller Mrs. Bruce Slonaker, Miss Mary Slagle, Miss Jennie Green, Miss Katie Miller, Miss Lilly Baker, Miss Minnie Baker, Miss Gertrude Barton, Miss Nan Leafe, Miss Irene Slonaker, Miss Lucy Kurtz, and Mrs. Russell Cather.

    Mrs. John Snyder was instructor of all garments. man of the packing committee.

    The hardships of war and weather seemed to pursue the sewers. During a very heavy snow in March, 1918, the church began leaking, and the ceiling of the church parlor fell, making it impossible to use the room until repairs were made. Captain George W. Kurtz, the veteran soldier and patriot, offered his house for our sewing. Mrs. Kurtz and Miss Kurtz cleared their two spacious parlors at 21 South Main Street, and the sewing unit was moved from the Presbyterian Church to the hertz residence. This was permanent headquarters thereafter for all cutting and sewing.

    The organization of the hospital garment work was splendid. Cut garments were in reach of every woman in Winchester and Frederick County. Space forbids giving the names of all the sewers. But it will always be a pleasure to know that the women were eager for their opportunity to aid our soldiers. Thousands of hospital garments were beautifully made and sent abroad. The work at no time lagged or lacked a patriotic interest.

    After the Armistice was signed sewing was continued for our soldiers in hospitals. Soon after this, Mrs. Lucien Lepton had to give up the work, due to a physical breakdown, and was succeeded by Miss Lucy Kurtz. Miss Kurtz had been one of the faithful workers, and she was well fitted to carry on the work so splendidly organized. After war work was over, Miss Kurtz did splendid work directing the sewing done for refugees.

    JUNIOR RED CROSS

    The Junior Red Cross in town and county responded to the call of President Wilson for the aid of even the youngest of "our boys." Schools were organized by the chapter school committee of the Red Cross; the first year 1,981 young people became juniors; the second year over 2,000, and each junior became a health crusader, a soldier for health and health habits. In 1920 there were 4,000 young people of Winchester and Frederick County who were juniors, a 100 per cent enrollment of the schools.

    Entertainments were given, window exhibits were arranged, posters were made, floats were gotten up for parades; a bird's eye view of all Red Cross work for juniors was given in an exhibit made by the High School pupils of Winchester. This exhibit was later shown by request of the National Red Cross at the National Educational Association meetings held in Cleveland, Ohio, in February, 1920, and in June of that year at Portland, Maine. A portion of the exhibit was used in an Anti-Tuberclosis Conference at Philadelphia, and later at Washington, D. C.

    In the parade on Armistice Day the juniors furnished five floats.

    The Juniors of the High School bear the name of Winchester's two nurses from Memorial Hospital who were overseas; Angelica Didier and Ann Carson. They have chosen as their inspiration, "wee Miss Bobbie," the daughter of Captain Robert Y. Conrad.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    WINCHESTER BRANCH OF THE NAVY LEAGUE

    The women of Winchester and Frederick were anxious to aid in every branch of war relief work. Very soon after the national surgical dressings units were organized, Mrs. Herbert S. Larrick, sister of Captain Louis McC. Nulton, United States Navy, presented to the women the need of having a branch of the Navy League in Winchester. This appeal interested every one, and in May, 1917, a formal organization of the Navy League was made, with Mrs. Herbert Larrick as executive chairman and secretary, and Mrs. T. Russell Cather as treasurer. The following ladies formed the executive committee: Mrs. Herbert S. Larrick Mrs. T. Russell Cather Miss Augusta Conrad, Mrs. Virginia Sines, Mrs. Walker McC. Bond, Miss Lucy Russell, and Mrs. John M. Steck.

    The object of the organization was to furnish yarn, and knit sweaters mufflers, wristlets, and helmets for the American seamen. When the United States suddenly entered the war, our seamen's regulation clothing was not adequate for the rigorous cold and exposure of mine-laying in the North Sea and in other cold regions. The volunteer work done by the women of the Navy League met this emergency. Men and women joined in a membership fee of $3 per annum, and also gave much additional money for the purchase of yarn.

    Mr. R. Gray Williams gave the use of rooms at 21 West Piccadilly Street. This place was opened every morning as headquarters, and from here yarn was distributed, instructions given, and knit articles returned, packed, and shipped. The executive committee was untiring in its work of organization. All during the summer of 1917 the work progressed increasingly, hundreds of completed articles were shipped to headquarters in Washington, D. C., and from there sent to the seamen. High ranking officers in the Navy volunteered their appreciation of the Winchester branch for the splendid assistance they were giving the seamen. Every boy enlisting in the Navy from Winchester and Frederick was given a knitted outfit.

    On Tune 6, Confederate Memorial Day, a "Tag day" was held in order to raise money for yarn for the Navy League, and material for surgical dressings. The spirit of patriotism again prevailed, and many were glad to be tagged with the United States flag. There was raised in this way $150.

    In the early fall of 1917 the Red Cross was formally organized here, and the Navy League was merged into that as the knitting unit of the Red Cross. In this way more money could be obtained for yarn, and knitted garments were then needed for men in both army, and navy. The headquarters were then moved in September to the Professional Building on West Water Street, which Dr. Myers had loaned to the Red Cross.

    Here the knitting unit of the Red Cross did its splendid work, Mrs. Bond and Miss Lucy Russell being in charge, with Mrs. Herbert Larrick in charge of buying yarn. The knitting started by the Navy League was carried on with increasing patriotism and labor.

    Over 2,000 pounds of yarns were made tip in the winter of 1917-1918. The following is a list of charter members of the Navy Lea League, who made it possible to form an organization and order yarn at once: Mrs. J. B. Ames, Mrs. W. A. Baker, Miss Lilly Baker, Mrs. Walker McC. Bond, Mrs. R. E. Byrd, Jr., Miss Mary S. Buchanan, Harry Flood Byrd, Stewart Bell, W. Alexander Baker, Mrs. R. E. Byrd, Mrs. Mary Campbell, Mrs. T. R. Cather, Mrs. Holmes Conrad, Miss Carter Conrad, Hopewell Friends' Association, Mrs. Harry R. Kern, Mrs. Herbert S. Larrick, Mrs. M. M. Lynch, Mrs. S. Lucien Lupton, Mrs. Virginia Lines, Mrs. C. F. Massey, Mrs. Hunter H. McGuire, Mrs. W. W. McClaine, Mrs. H. B. McCormac, Mrs. J. A. Richard, Mrs. John DI. Steck Mrs. John Meade Snyder, W. Roy Stephenson, John M. Steck, Miss Clara Wood, Mrs. George L. Washington, Miss Julia Wright, Mrs. Robert M. Ward, Mrs. E. V. Weems Mrs. P. W. Boyd, and Miss Nena Shepherd. All paid the membership fee of $3, many paying additional amounts to buy a larger amount of yarn. All during the summer of 1917 men, women, and children contributed freely to the yarn fund. and the women gave freely of their time, money and labor.

    BELGIAN RELIEF

    In 1914 articles of clothing and food were collected for the Belgian Relief by Miss Mary Spottswood Buchanan and Mrs. Elizabeth Conrad Smith. In 1915 Miss Bessie Conrad was made chairman of the War Relief Association of Winchester. Those who gave willingly of their time to this work were the following : Mrs. W. A. Baker, Miss Lilly Baker, Miss Sophye Baker, Mrs. R. T. Barton, Miss Gertrude Barton, Mrs. Alexander Barrie, Mrs. R. E. Byrd, Mrs. Robert A. Beverley, Airs. Horace Brown, Misses Boyd, Mrs. William Cornwell, Miss Susan Colston, Mrs. Holmes Conrad, Miss Carter Conrad, Miss Lilly Crum, Miss Ida Crum, Mrs. Emma Eastham, Mrs. James Grammer, Mrs. John M. Snyder, Mrs. P. W. Boyd, Jr., and Mrs. Lucien Carr.

    Mrs. John Meade Snyder made a great many dresses for Belgian children out of men's shirts. She had several displays advertised to show what could be done with men's shirts that had worn out, neckbands, arm-cuffs, etc.

    WOMEN'S SERVICE LEAGUE

    March 23, 1918, the women of Virginia organized under the title of the Virginia Branch of the National League for Women's Service, the subchairman for the city of Winchester and the counties of Frederick and Clarke being Mrs. Robert Y. Conrad. Mrs. H. D. Fuller was special assistant to Mrs. Conrad for city and county work.

    WAR RELIEF ASSOCIATION

    April 5, 1917, Mrs. Hunter H. McGuire was appointed by the State Association as chairman of the Winchester branch of the War Relief Association of Virginia. Miss Augusta Conrad was made secretary and Miss Frances Page, treasurer. The executive committee consisted of Mrs. R. E. Byrd, Mrs. W. W. Lynch, Mrs. W. A, Baker, Mrs. C. Vernon Eddy and Mrs. Eastham. The committee on inspection and packing was made up of Mrs. John M. Snyder, Mrs. Alexander Barrie and Miss Lucy Kurtz. Mrs. Holmes Conrad gave the use of two rooms in her house and the association met in four groups each week, with a general meeting the first Wednesday in each month. A class in instruction on making bandages and hospital supplies was conducted by Miss Carrie Hunter.

    MISCELLANEOUS ORGANIZATIONS

    Among the organizations in Winchester during the period of the war, besides those mentioned elsewhere in this sketch were the Y. M: C. A., Mrs. R. T. Barton, chairman; Hebrew Relief Society, Sender Feinberg, chairman; Our Boys in France Tobacco Fund, Miss Augusta Conrad, chairman; Toilet Articles for Recruits, Mrs. M. M. Lynch, chairman ; Library Fund, Miss Carter Conrad, treasurer; Miss Lilly Baker, Mrs. Robert T. Barton, and C. Vernon Eddy. Mr. Eddy started the soldiers' library in Winchester.

    The Winchester Memorial Hospital was early designated as an army hospital, and hither were taken all, or nearly all, the soldiers who were stricken with influenza after having come to Frederick to gather the apple crop. Its president, Dr. Hunter H. McGuire, together with his father, Dr. William P. McGuire, and Dr. E. C. Stuart, formed the Volunteer Medical Service Corps of Winchester and Frederick County. They had charge of the medical examination of all drafted men.

    The lodges, secret organizations, fire companies and various other societies were active in helping the various phases of war relief work that were undertaken.

    Frederick County's quota for library work among the soldiers was $500.00 and it was raised.

    All girls of the schools of county and town were asked to become Victory Girls under the leadership of Miss Elizabeth Kern. They willingly responded. The sum of $500 was raised by their personal work. The Camp Fire Girls were active under the same leadership, contributing floats and music in parades, and responding cheerfully to every call. The Boy Scouts were always available for each duty that came along. Their good turns were most numerous, their patriotism ideal. They furnished transportation and interest at meetings innumerable. Their membership doubled.

    CIVILIAN ACTIVITIES IN GENERAL

    Harry Flood By rd, of Winchester, was named Fuel Administrator for Virginia and it was due to his wise administration of that important office that all essential industries were kept going and the suffering of the citizens of the State by reason of restrictions placed upon coal was reduced to a minimum.

    Richard Evelyn Byrd was United States District Attorney for Virginia throughout the war period and headed the executive committee of the Virginia Council of Defense, while Mrs. R. E. Byrd was actively engaged in Red Cross work in Richmond, Virginia, and Washington, D. C.

    In addition to numerous local activities Mrs F. L. Harris was chairman of a Bankers' Conference held at Richmond, when Winchester and Frederick County ranked ninth in the State with respect to the amount of Liberty Bonds placed during the sale. She was a member of the Playground and Recreation Association of America, an organization born of the War Camp Community Service.

    Personal histories, enumerating the various activities of a few of the most untiring workers of the community, have been furnished the War History Commission and will be found on file in the Commission office in Richmond. It is regretted that space will not permit us to include these personal histories here. They contain much fuller records of those just mentioned and similarly full reports of the work accomplished by Mrs. Philip W. Boyd, Harry Flood Byrd, Mrs. Holmes Conrad, Miss Carter B. Conrad Miss Augusta F. Conrad, Miss Mabel K. Haynes, Miss Lucy Fitzhugh Kurtz, Mrs. C. C. McGuire, and Miss; Lucy Russell.

    The war acted as a magnet to draw out much dormant talent and prepare it for post war activities. One great result of the pre-war and war-time periods was the development of women as speakers. The schoolhouses became centers from which men and women, informed by local people as well as by speakers from a distance, went forth as intelligence messengers of service.

    POST-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    POST-WAR EDITORIALS FROM WINCHESTER STAR

    The German people have not changed. It is as if a n-tan changed his coat, and claimed that the new coat made him a new man. -Nov. 12. 1918.

    Victory boys and Victory girls organized in the present United War Work drive to give a chance to those between twelve and twenty-one. The boys are to earn what they subscribe. H. S. Duffey has charge of the boys and asks the aid of the teachers. Drive closed on the 18th. Hiss Elizabeth Kern has charge of the girls. A $5 subscription will provide for the entertainment and welfare of one soldier five weeks.-Nov. 13.

    What is pledged to War Chest if paid promptly and regularly will make another appeal needless.-Nov. 14.

    Charity must not stop.-Nov. 16.

    Captain Louis N. Nulton is in command of the Pennsylvania, which takes the President to France.-Nov. 19.

    Registrants summoned before the 16th and not coming are to be courtmartialed.-Nov. 19.

    False rumor that Company I was wiped all out.-Nov. 23.

    Winchester ministers pass a resolution that a memorial be built to the killed. Nov. 26.

    Thomas W. Marple, slacker, gets 90 days.-Nov. 28.

    Major C. E. King, of the British Army, tells a soldier's story of the Red Cross on the battlefield.-Dec. 9.

    Mrs. H. H. McGuire says Winchester and Frederick have shipped 185,000 surgical dressings, 21,000 coming from the county.-Dec. 11.

    22 out of 77 schools in Frederick organized as junior Red Cross auxiliaries.Dec. 12.

    Frequent news as to the killed, wounded, and missing.-Dec. 12.

    57 marriage licenses in Winchester, 1918, against 87 in 1917.-Jan. 2, 1919.

    C. F. Carbaugh has Croix de Guerre.-Jan. 3.

    Selfishness is the national sin of Germany.

    A rest room is suggested.-Jan. 29.

    Patriotic speeches on Rouss birthday (Feb. 11).

    Thomas Skeyhill, Australian soldier and poet, is to speak February 17 on "The Humor and Poetry of the War."

    Home demonstration service may be discontinued.-Feb. 18.

    NOTES:

    1. From the pre-war narrative written by Mrs. Walker McC. Bond.
    2. From a report by Mrs. Walker McC. Bond.
    3. The above record of Company I was taken from a history of the company by Sergeant Crowell R. Boyce and covers the period from October 4, 1917, to December 25, 1918.
    4. * In the Red Cross report it is stated that $63,424.83 in War Savings Stamps was raised in Winchester and $22,424.97 in the county.

      ** See also report of this committee in Red Cross report.

  • Wise County

    A Community History

    By MRS. R. TATE IRVINE

    LOCATION AND EARLY HISTORY

    Wise County, in the heart of the Cumberland Mountains in the far southwest part of Virginia, was organized on February 16. 1856. The county was named for Henry A. Wise, governor of Virginia from 1856 to 1860. The county was backward in its development and did not get a fair start in the economic race until 1890. Prior to that time it was without railroads and it has no navigable streams. Its surface is rough and poorly adapted to agriculture. Its chief product is coal and there was no way of developing this until the building of the railroads in 1890. Regular transportation over the Norfolk & Western and the Louisville and Nashville was begun early in that year. Tile South Atlantic and Ohio, now the Southern Railway, also completed a line from Bristol to Big Stone Gap in 1890. The coming of these railroads was really the commercial birth of the county. Mines were rapidly opened and in a few years the coal industry was rivaling the old mining fields of other parts of the country.

    The story of industry in Wise County is the story of coal and coke. At the tune of the formation of the county-more than one hundred years after the first recorded visit of a white man, but little was known of the vast natural resources hidden by nature within its hills, although the mountains of Southwestern Virginia were known to contain deposits of coal in 1750 when Dr. Thomas Walker and Christopher Gist (1751-52) explored portions of territory now included in the bounds of Wise County. There are 451 square miles of coal-bearing land in the county and approximately 45 square miles of non coal-bearing land. This wealth of mineral resources far surpasses that of any other county in Virginia. From a few thousand tons of coal produced in 1892, the coal industry in the county reached a peak in 1920 of more than six million tons. This encompasses the story of the development of a great natural resource which played an important part in Virginia's contribution to the winning of the World War.

    The site of Norton was known as Prince's Flat prior to 1891 when the town was named for the Norton family of Louisville, Kentucky. who were largely interested in the, Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Coeburn, another town in Wise County, was named for W. W. Coe, chief engineer of the Norfolk and Western Railway and Judge William E. Burns, stockholders in the new town site. Big Stone Gap took its name from the gap cut by Powells River in Stone Mountain at the town site. Its location is one of the most attractive in the Appalachian Mountains. It has always been the chief residence town of the county.

    PRE-WAR CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES

    The white population of the county is predominantly native American, but there were many settlements of foreigners in the pre-war period near several of the larger coal mines. One-sixth of the entire population was employed in the coal mining industry and an equal number was dependent on allied industries for support. Of the remainder of the population the great majority were engaged in farming, fruit growing and stock raising. In 1890 the population was 9,346 ; in 1900, 19,653 ; and in 1910, 34,163.

    The demand for coal and coke was h4 throughout 1916 and consumers called for the maximum on all contracts. In the last six months of the year the demand was considerably in excess of the supply. Labor was short at nearly all mines during the entire year and from June to the end of the year the supply of cars was inadequate. Late in 1915 a new coal pier was put in operation at Charleston, S. C., and the demand for bunker coal by ship owners trading between the Gulf ports and South America and Europe added to the ordinary demands upon Wise County for high grade fuel.

    About the middle of the year 1916, as a result of increased industrial demands, the price of coal and coke increased materially. Production during the year was 5,228,900 tons of coal, exceeding the production for 1915 by over one million tons.

    There was little expressed pro-German feeling in the county. What there was of pacifism among well-meaning citizens soon gave way to the hope that militarism might be obliterated once and for all. Argument concerning preparedness finally became affirmative, and the liberal responses to appeals for war funds later, proved the decided preparedness sentiment of the majority of our citizens.

    CHURCHES

    The churches of Wise County were ready and willing at all times to respond to the call of duty and in many ways rendered valuable service to the community and the nation during the war. The pastors preached in favor of various relief funds, and food conservation, and urged the people to buy Liberty Bonds. The people were exhorted to pray for the success of the Allies.

    In Big Stone Gap the Episcopal Church adopted two French orphans, contributed to the Y.M.C.A. drive, and co-operated with the Red Cross and other activities of the community. They had a service flag including a star for their young rector, Jeff Alfriend.

    The Southern Methodist Church adopted French orphans, sent a large box of clothes and $105.00 to Armenian and Syrian relief, and co-operated with the Red Cross. Their service flag contained twenty-two stars.

    The Christian Church co-operated with the Red Cross.

    The pastor of the Presbyterian Church gave almost his entire time to work among the sick and suffering of the community. Especial attention was given to the soldiers' families in need of distress. This church co-operated with the Red Cross.

    The First Baptist Church adopted two French orphans, furnished materials, and made twenty-four infants' layettes consisting of 768 pieces which were sent to France. They contributed to the Y.M.C.A. drive. The ladies of the church at their weekly meetings made garments for Red Cross organization consisting of petticoats, bags, napkins, dresses, flannel shirts, outing sacksabout 200 pieces. They contributed to the Near East Relief.

    The churches at Coeburn were active in all drives, sales, etc. The Coeburn Baptist Church reports that they had fifteen members in the service, none of whom were lost.

    The Wise churches were always open to the chairmen of the various committees and many of our own prominent speakers, as well as others from a distance, were heard. four-minute speeches on subjects uppermost in our minds and hearts were made at the services. Most of the churches dedicated service flags upon which, from time to time, gold stars were placed by those with aching hearts. At Christmas time a committee from the churches had charge of packing and mailing packages to the boys overseas.

    In Norton the Methodist Church bought a $50 bond, bought and sold War Savings Stamps, supported a French orphan for several years. They had twenty-six stars on their service flag.

    The Presbyterian Church had a service flag holding sixteen stars. The Sunday school sold War Savings Stamps.

    The Episcopal Church was closed for some time on account of its rector having entered war service. The membership assumed its full part in Red Cross and other activities.

    The Baptist Church had nineteen stars on a, service flag, and contributed to all the war activities.

    SCHOOLS

    Much of the war-time propaganda was carried on in this county by a system of skillful advertising through the schools. Lessons on the causes of the war, German Kultur, and German aggression and lust for world power were taught by loyal and devoted teachers. The bright sensitive minds of the children quickly grasped the significance of these lessons, carried them home, and disseminated their knowledge among the older members of the family. The various drives for the sale of Liberty Bonds, the raising of funds for the Red Cross and Young Men's Christian Association were launched largely through the schools. War Savings societies were organized, thrift and food conservation were systematically taught to the children who in turn taught their parents at home. In one of the schools the children pooled their savings and bought more than two hundred dollars' worth of Liberty bonds. Individual pupils bought War Savings Stamps or "Baby Bonds" as they were called. They collected magazines and books and sent them to the soldiers in hospitals and the large training camps. Eggs were collected and sent to disabled soldiers at Walter Reed Hospital under the able supervision of Miss Ethel Van Gorder, teacher in Big Stone Gap School; and many cheerful letters were written by tiny hands to be read "somewhere" in France.

    In more than one instance the pupils of a school adopted French or Belgian orphans and sent their money for the support of these children. This meant giving up pennies, nickels and dimes which ordinarily would have gone for chewing gum, candy and the movies. It can truly be said that no sacrifice was ever made more cheerfully than that made by the school children during the World War.

    THE DRAFT AND MILITARY MATTERS

    A great many of the young men of Wise County volunteered as soon as war was declared and before the draft was set in motion. They were taken into the then existing regiments and many of them made enviable records as soldiers. When the draft became effective it met with ready response from the young men of the county, all of whom seemed eager to get into some branch of the service that would insure them activity at the front. It is not known that any of the youth of this county tried to evade the draft.

    There were many hundreds of skilled mining men, dig tiers, machinists, motormen, etc., who were exempted from the draft in order to keep the mines as fully equipped with efficient laborers as practicable. Very few young men, however, were willing to accept this exemption. For this reason, it was very difficult to keep up the necessary supplies of men to properly work the mines. This work was chiefly done by older men who were beyond the draft age and such foreigners of neutral nations as could be secured.

    The registration under the selective draft in Wise County was the largest of any county in the State. The number was exceeded only by the several larger cities. The total number registered in the county for active service was 10,333. Of this number 5,600 were registered in the last draft, September 12, 1918, and were too late to be called for active service. Of the 4,733 who were registered during the first two draft calls, 1,307 were accepted at camp, 981 were accepted into general service, 251 were disqualified, and 2,140 were deferred on account of dependency, and for agricultural and industrial services. Of the 1,307 who were accepted at camp, 1.012 were white and 295 colored. In addition to those so inducted there were those who volunteered and were already in service, and those who entered through other draft boards, of whom it is impossible to determine the number.

    The members of the Wise County selective board who had charge of this important work of the draft, were R. S. Graham, chairman, who served from July, 1917, to August, 1918, then entered military service as captain and was succeeded by T. V. Brennan; G. D. Kilgore, who served from July, 1917, to Dec. 31, 1917, and was then released for military service and was succeeded by Howard C. Miller; William S. Keister, M. D., who served from July, 1917, to Dec. 31, 1917, was then released for military service and was succeeded by George H. Esser. C. M. Fulton, of Wise, was chief clerk, and the headquarters of the board was at the government postoffice building at Norton. C. R. McCorkle, of Wise, was the government appeal agent.

    The legal advisory board of Wise County was composed of R. A. Avres, chairman; R. R. Parker, and O. M. Vicars.

    The medical advisory board of seven doctors of the district of Lee, Scott and Wise, embraced: C. B. Bowyer, of Stonega, chairman; J. A. Gilmer, M. D., W. A. Baker, M. D., and D. F. Orr, D. D. S.

    Records of the following service men from Wise County are included in the Virginia War History Commission's Distinguished Service volume:

    Corporal Frank Allman, Distinguished Service Cross; Captain James G. Bentley, cited by division commander; Chester Cain, cited by commander in chief; Corporal Grant Kennedy, Distinguished Service Cross; Milan Yeary, recommended for Distinguished Service Cross; Major Rice M. Youell, Distinguished Service Cross, French Croix de Guerre, French Legion of Honor.

    Of those who entered the war, forty-two never came back. A grateful county, through its fair association, has erected at the Court house an enduring memorial in marble bearing the following inscription:

    "Dedicated by the Wise County Fair Association to the memory of these brave boys who gave their lives in the service of their country in the war with Germany: Lt. Vivian K. Mouser, Lt. Oscar M. Taylor, Sgt. Tate I. Bruce, Sgt. Fred B. Schultz, Sgt. Harry L. White, Corpl. Win. N. Berry, Corpl. Rufus 1T. Durham, Corpl. Walker C. Meade, Corpl. Ralph C. Moneyhun, Ph. Mate Wm. J. Kilgore, Jr., Emmett T. Buchanan, Frank Cain, Thomas B. Church, Riley C. Collier, Moscow Collins, James R. Creech, Worley Creech, Leonard Crouse, John Funk. Samuel Green, Benjamin H. Hall, Arvil E. Johnson, Harris Kennedy, Henry H. Meade, Joseph Mills, Robert F. McReynolds, Charles Neely, Charles B. Powers, Alonzo Proffitt, Wm. W. Richardson, James C. Robinett, Wm. H. Salyers, James R. Smith, Bruce Stanley, Clarence V. Stidham, Edward Stidham, Henry N. Tate, John Wells, J. Oscar Willis, Vilas Wilson, Frederick Grinds (colored), Carlos Warner (colored).

    NATIONAL GUARD

    For several years prior to the entrance of the United States into the World War, Wise County had maintained a company of the National Guard known as Company "H" of the Second Virginia Regiment. Hon. J. F. Bullitt was the captain and the company had its headquarters at Big Stone Gap. It was at all times efficient, alert and well disciplined. It was ordered on two separate occasions to the Mexcian Border, and in 1916 spent several months there.

    When we entered the World War this company was promptly recruited to its full strength. Before it was sent to Camp McClellan for training it was ordered out to guard the railroads at several important points. One of these was the Natural Tunnel on the Southern Railway between Big Stone Gap and Bristol. Other points were along the L. & N. going west and the N. & W. going east, particularly at several tunnels and long and high trestles on the latter road. It was believed that an agent of Germany with some dynamite could, in a few minutes' time, create such destruction as to block the transportation of coal for several weeks or months. If the Germans had such plans they were frustrated, so far as Wise County was concerned, by the vigilant watchfulness of Company "H" which remained on guard duty at these points for many months.

    During the recruiting period the company was stationed at Camp McClellan, Anniston, Alabama, and there it was broken up and its members transferred to other companies and to other regiments. When the company was mustered into Federal service its officers were: Captain (afterwards major) J. F. Bullitt, First Lieutenant D. W. G. Painter, and Second Lieutenant G. G. McFerran.

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS

    FINANCE

    The county went far over the top in all of the Liberty Loan drives, and the Victory drive. C. S. Carter was the county chairman in these drives, and R. B. Alsover, vice-chairman. M. M. Long was local chairman at St. Paul, J. P. Lay at Coeburn, and H. G. Gilmer at Norton. In all these drives the women gave splendid help and they were organized in each part of the county. At Big Stone Gap Mrs. L. O. Pettit was chairman of the Women's Club, with Mrs. H. A. W. Skeen as treasurer. At Coeburn Mrs. G. E. Heuser was chairman, with Mrs. G. W. Tompkins, treasurer. At St. Paul Mrs. J. E. Greear was chairman, with Mrs. Guy Pugh, treasurer. At Wise Mrs. T. G. Alderson was chairman, with Mrs. N. F. Hix, treasurer. At Norton Mrs. W. W. Kemp was chairman, with Mrs. T. P. Ford, treasurer.

    In the First Liberty Loan, the amount asked of Wise County was quickly oversubscribed several of the communities having made up their proportion the first day. In the Second Liberty Loan Wise County was allotter $391,720. It subscribed $509,150. This loan, like some of the others, was put up to the batiks. The First National Bank of Appalchia, was assessed $86,380. It sold bonds to the amount of $165,000. The First National Bank of Norton was assessed $86,100. It sold $123,600. The National Bank of Norton was assessed $29,540. It sold $100,000. Other banks in the county did their parts proportionately.

    In the Third Liberty Loan, the amount allotted to Wise County was $248,954. It subscribed $487,000. In this campaign the Woman's Liberty Loan committee of the town of Wise secured $112,000.

    In the Fourth Liberty Loan, Wise County, with a population of 38,000 and total banking resources of $3,546,000, was assessed $532,000. On October 23, 191_8, the official report of Chairman C. S. Carter showed that the county had raised $904,550.

    In the Victory Loan of April, 1919, Wise County was asked for only $393,700. On April 30th the county reported that with Coeburn and St. Paul still to hear from, the amount asked for had been oversubscribed by $80,300. In this campaign Big Stone Gap's quota was doubled the first day. Norton's quota was $100,000 and it subscribed $155,000. Appalachia's quota was $112,000 and it subscribed $205,000.[*]

    The county was thoroughly organized and practically one hundred per cent of the citizens devoted their energies to obtaining this splendid result. Nothing was left undone to arouse interest and enthusiasm. Although far removed from the centers of activity and without the inspiration derived from crowded soldier trains or the tramp of mobilized troops or the sound of martial music, Wise County, remote in her mountain section, felt the urge of war and responded with a zeal that was truly commendable.

    Numerous patriotic meetings and flag raisings were held in the county. "Bomber" McGinnis, a wounded officer, returning from the front, accompanied by Col. W. M. Myers, of Richmond, spoke throughout the county. A flag raising was held at Big Stone Gap on Sunday, June 3, 1917, and two thousand people were in attendance. Patriotic addresses were made by General R. A. Ayres, Hon. R. T. Irvine and Rev. Roy E. Early. A flag, ten by eighteen feet, was raised while Ray's concert band of fifteen pieces played. John Fox, Jr., the popular novelist, made addresses at public meetings over the county and gave readings from some of his books. On other occasions Major Bartle from Norton brought a troup of soldiers and gave drills. A special trophy train was sent from Richmond, carrying several cars with speakers and guns, gas masks, trench mortars, and a floating mine, hand grenades, different makes of machine guns, and other relics from the battlefields of France. This train visited all the important points in the county and aroused tremendous enthusiasm. Dances and card parties were given by society to raise money for the various relief organizations. Coin receptacles were placed in all places of business for the same purpose.

    In the War Savings Stamps campaign, $800,000 was allotted to Wise County and it subscribed over $1,000,000. Henry G. Gilmer was chairman of this campaign. In connection with it a club known as "The Limit Club" was formed with R. B. Alsover as chairman, the purpose of the club being to secure individual subscription of $1,000 each. Three hundred and ninety-one members of the club subscribes' $391,000. This was mentioned in the public press at the time as one of the largest "Limit Clubs" in the country and perhaps the largest in the South. The campaign among the school children of the county for. the sale of Thrift Stamps resulted in the sale of $53,000 worth.

    Although the county was young and there were few wealthy citizens in it, the men and women subscribed and paid for four and one-half million dollars' worth of war securities. So far as is known, there were no slackers. The Boy Scouts at one of their posts took $2,400 worth of Liberty Bonds.

    INDUSTRY

    The Virginia Coal Operators' Association was organized at Norton on August 2, 1917. Fourteen of the principal mining companies of this and adjoining counties were represented among the charter members. Mr. Otis Mouser was elected president, R. I. Cawthorne, vice-president, and H. W. Gilliam actin-, secretary. The directors of the association were Otis Mouser, Lee Long, Douglas Patterson, J. C. Creveling, D. Terpstra, R. I. Cawthorne and A. W. Wagner. On December 15, 1917 , Mr. G. D. Kilgore was made secretary of the association and by appointment of the United States Fuel Administrator, became district representative in charge of production and distribution of all coal and coke produced in Southwest Virginia. The task was a monumental one, but it was splendidly accomplished. The association later joined the National Coal Association, and C. E. Bockus, president of the Clinchfield Coal Corporation; was elected to the directorate of the National Association.

    The Wise County operators heartily co-operated with the government in every way during the war, accepting the prices fixed by the government on coal and coke and stretching every nerve to increase production. In this way the railroads and factories were able to increase their output of war material. To offset the labor shortage occasioned by a great number of the young men entering military service, the association attempted to secure the services of Mexicans, Portugese and Spanish, in addition to negroes from the Southern States. Mr. G. D. Kilgore, secretary-- treasurer of the association, was appointed by Hon. II. A. Garfield, United States Fuel Administrator, as production manager for Virginia and he rendered exceptionally fruitful services in speeding up the production of coal and coke from this field.

    The iron furnace at Big Stone Gap belonging to the Intermont Coal & Iron Corporation, of which R. T. Irvine was president and Dr. J. W. Kelly, secretary-treasurer, likewise produced to capacity during the war. It manufactured a high grade of iron which was sold largely in Ohio and Michigan and other States which were engaged in manufacturing war supplies.

    The Union Tanning Company had two plants at Dig Stone Gap, one a tannery, the other a tannic extract plant, which operated to the limit during the war period, though seriously handicapped by labor shortage. The Clinch River Tannery Company, located at St. Paul on the Clinch River, likewise turned out its maximum output during the war. There were a few smaller plants in the county, all of which did everything in their power to increase production.

    The three trunk line railroad systems of the county, the Norfolk & Western, the Louisville & Nashville and the Southern, also a local railroad, the Interstate, realized the importance of uninterrupted transportation and they all whipped up their schedules and increased the efficiency of their services in every possible way.

    Mines in Wise County operated about ninety-five per cent full time with almost no loss because of car shortage. Assuming 304 working days in the year the record of an average of 295 days worked by the mines shows conclusively that the coal industry in Wise County was quickly organized and efficiently operated upon a war basis. The draft took hundreds of the younger men from the mines, but these men were replaced by older men drawn from the nonproductive mountain farms, and from the non-essential industries in near-by States.

    A h4 demand, taxing the coal industry to the utmost, prevailed throughout the year 1918. In the first half of the year both car and labor shortage contributed to the lack of full-time operation. In the last quarter of the year, the epidemic of influenza caused a considerable cessation of operation and hundreds of miners' homes were invaded by this malady, resulting in a great number of deaths of mine workers and members of their families.

    In spite of the labor shortage, the coal mines were operated overtime, some of them running night shifts. The science of coal mining was greatly advanced so that, since the war, with not more than three-fourths of the mines running that were operated before the war, more coal is mined than before. During the war it required the straining of every energy to produce and ship twelve million tons per week. At this time, with from one-fourth to one-third of the mines inactive, it is difficult to limit production to twelve million tons. This refers only to regularly established mines and not to so-called ,vagon-mines, of which, during the war, there were a large number. These are mines that are not laid out and mined in a scientific and systematic way. but almost any farmer can take a pick and shovel and go into a hillside on a coal seam and fill his wagon with coal and load into a flat car at the nearest railroad switch. While this is an unscientific and wasteful -way of operating, yet in a tune Of stress like the war period a large amount of coal could be, and was, mined in this way. A gentleman who drove during the last year of the war through the county from St. Paul to Big Stone Gap, along the turnpike, counted in sight of the road, 36 wagon-mines in operation. There were doubtless several times that many not in sight of the road.

    Wise County has, fit for active work, something over 4.000 coke ovens, all of the bee hive type. During the war these ovens were run to capacity. They burned all the dine, night and day, and Sunday too. The coals of Wise County are exceptionally pure and make a very fine quality of coke, and in spite of the handicap of maximum freight rates, the coke made by these ovens during the war was shipped to all parts of the United States and a great deal to Canada.

    AGRICULTURE, FOOD, PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION

    Considering the fact that W ise County has 451 square miles of coal-bearing land and only 45 square miles of non-coal-bearing land, its accomplishments agriculturally were not in keeping with its industrial achievements during the World War. To a large extent the women and children helped in raising food products of all kinds and every available acre of land in the county was apparently used for producing food of some kind. Corn, wheat, potatoes, beans and other similar food products were produced as far as was possible. Nearly every back yard became a Garden, and if any of these products were limited by the government as to price, the producers cheerfully accepted such prices and aided in every possible way. Every railroad in the county invited citizens along its line. to come inside its right of way and ploy up and cultivate all the land. This was largely done, even up to the edge of the cross ties.

    The agricultural agent, D. D. Sizer, assisted in the campaign for food conservation and food production. He was especially active in organizing corn clubs among the boys and canning clubs among the girls. He also encouraged the raisin; of poultry.

    Miss Conway Howard was county home economics agent, and she assisted in stimulating production and conservation among the women of the county.

    The Federation of Women's Clubs. Mrs. G. F. Heuser, president, aided in food conservation. Mrs. Heuser acted as team manager for the card pledge campaign and it was chiefly due to her ability and the h4 organization back o? her that Wise County led the State in this campaign. The federation procured the services of Miss Hallie Hughes, of the State Agricultural Department, who spent some time in the county, giving demonstrations in canning. This organization held an open-air demonstration in the ball park at Big Stone Gap, which was attended with interest.

    The Community League had a committee on food production and conservation, and tinder its auspices Miss Conway Howard gave war kitchen demonstrations in the making of Victory bread, pastries and biscuits, also talks on sugar saving, meat saving and canning. The demonstration was held in the domestic science rooms of the high school building.

    When the government requested the people to limit their use of sugar, bread stuffs and other foods, no one in the county, so far as is known, refused or evaded such request. The people generally, even those who remained and worked in the mines, went, to a great extent, "meatless" and "sugarless," and corn bread became literally the "staff of life." Practically every head of a family in the county signed a pledge to conserve food and to observe strictly the rules and requests of the government in this matter. Mrs. Otis Mouser was chairman of the food pledge card campaign and Mrs. Guido Heuser team manager. The Richmond Times-Dispatch stated that "Wise County leads Virginia counties with the largest registration of pledge cards, registration being over 6,000."

    PATRIOTISM AND RACIAL CONDITIONS

    An almost undiluted patriotism marked the war activities of Wise County from first to last. The realization that this county was in a position to contribute to the successful outcome of the war stirred in the community a unanimity of patriotic fervor that resulted in concerted and never-flagging action. ' John Poole, chairman of the War Fund drive, wired from Washington to T. V. Brennan, local chairman of the Second War Fund drive of the Red Cross, as follows: "Your work to Wise County wonderful. Words fail to express our admiration of the patriotism and liberality of your citizens as shown by subscriptions to the American Red Cross."

    While there was a polyglot population in Wise County's industrial towns, racial conditions were not such as to cause apprehension during the tense days of the war. III tile mining towns the population was probably one-tenth alien, that element consisting largely of Italians, Hungarians and Polish. The negro population was about the same as in any other industrial community, although it was increased somewhat by the migration of negro laborers from the South daring the period when the demand for coal was greatest. In the commercial towns the alien population was practically negligible, the usual Italian restaurant keepers and fruit vendors comprising the foreign element, most of whom were naturalized citizens. Those communities having almost no alien citizens anticipated that Wise County, with her mixed peoples, would encounter racial difficulties when the various war campaigns were in inaugurated, but the record shows that all calls for money and men and for personal service were met by all classes and all nationalities with almost equal enthusiasm.

    RED CROSS

    In June. 1917, petitions for the formation of three separate chapters in Wise County, one at Big Stone Gap, one at Norton, covering Norton and Wise, and the third at Coeburn were forwarded to Washington. The authorities hesitated to put three chapters in one county, and referred the matter for action to Col. W. M. Anderson; of Richmond, who was State Chairman of the Red Cross. In July he held a conference in Richmond with several leaders of the proposed chapters in Wise County, with the result that charters were given for all three chapters.

    Big Stone Gap Chapter.-Under the supervision of Mr. Jas. M. Hodge, who provided all the material at first, several of the Big Stone Gap women, aided by Mrs. Erskine Ramsey, Mrs. J. K. Taggart, Sr.. and several others, had been doing war relief work since the fall of 1916. By this means a nucleus of trained and skilled workers had been) formed before we entered the world war, and it therefore became easy to assemble an efficient group of workers and broaden and enlarge the work as soon as the Red Cross chapter was formed. The area of this chapter embraced not only the western part of Wise County. but also the eastern part of Lee County, which lay adjacent.

    The first officers elected for this chapter were R. E. Taggart, chairman; Mrs. E. E. Goodloe, vice-chairman, L. T. Winston, treasurer; Mrs. J. B. Ayres, secretary: Mrs. H. E. Fox, chairman of production, Miss M. C. Fox, supervisor of knitting. Branches of the chapter were fronted at Appalachia, East Stone Gap and Cadet, also at ten mining towns: Stonega, Roda, Osaka Arno, Andover, Imboden, Exeter mines, Exeter Lumber mill, Inman and Linden.

    An active organization was quickly formed and work began. Messrs. Whitridge and Fox offered the exposition hall (now the Kiwanis Club building) to the chanter, and its meetings were held there daily. Donations of money and material poured in, and there was never any lack of funds to push the work. The following represents work accomplished during the first eleven months: 1,067 pillow cases, 323 sheets, 147 dish towels, 91 hot water bag covers, 45 pairs bed socks, 7,104 4x4" sponges, 234 triangular bandages, 35 doz. 4" bandages, 50 doz. 2" bandages, 194 doz. 4x4" compresses, 34 doz. 3" bandages, 6? z doz. 3" crinoline bandages, 8 1/2 doz. 3" outing bandages, 3 doz. 4" outing bandages, 6 doz. fourtailed bandages. 52 pairs operating socks, 54 pajamas, 285 bed shirts, 36 operating gowns, 73 comfortables, 633 napkins, 168 tray covers, 6 bed spreads, 56 nightingales.

    From the knitting department came the following scattered reports taken from newspaper clippings: February 6, 1918. First shipment to Camp Lee for Wise County boys: :100 sweaters, 40 mufflers, 57 pairs wristlets, 30 pairs socks. Second shipment: 50 sweaters, 36 pairs socks, 20 mufflers, 12 helmets, 12 pairs -,vristlets. September 25, 1918: 120 pairs socks, 20 sweaters. (Shipment for Italian Commission). September 28, 60 sweaters shipped to Washington.

    From December 4, 1917, to April 3, 1918, there were sent in through the Red Cross: 342 sweaters, 83 mufflers, 355 pairs socks, 110 pairs wristlets, and 59 helmets. January 22, 1919, quota of infant layettes assigned, 768 pieces, furnished and shipped.

    In 1918 the following officers were elected: Gen. R. A. Ayres, chairman; Miss M. C. Fox, vice-chairman: Mrs. J. B. Ayres, secretary-, Geo. L. Taylor, treasurer; Miss Mary Ramsey, chairman of production: Mrs. C. C. Long, supervisor of knitting; Jas. M. Hodge, chairman of home service section. Production was continued unabated up to Armistice, and at diminished intensity thereafter with the object of utilizing the materials on hand. In July, 1918, home service work was started with Mr. Hodge in charge, with his office in the U. S. Marshall's room of the Government Court House. By the end of 1918, Mr. Hodge had 141 cases on file, for relief in the home service work.

    The nursing service of the chapter became important in the epidemic of influenza, which began in October, 1918. A special office was opened for the work, in charge of Miss Jane Morgan, a registered nurse. An automobile was bought by the chapter for her use, and in the epidemic which followed she was taxed to the utmost and worked with untiring zeal.

    A drive for funds was held in June, 1918, and the chapter raised $21,213.65, of which it retained $5,299.04 and remitted the remainder to the general fund at Washington. Chapter production ceased early in 1919, with a record of articles knitted 2,573 ; garments made, 2,520 ; surgical dressings prepared, 22,722. In addition to this, 4,700 rounds of clothing were collected and shipped in the drive for Belgian relief. Home service cases reached their peak in January, 1919. Up to May first of that year, cases on file were 225 soldiers, cases not filed 22. Christmas packages forwarded (1918) 200. Families served, not included in the above, 100. Total, 547.

    Public health nursing was voted a regular department of the chapter in March, 1919, and as the influenza epidemic decreased, Miss Morgan's work was broadened to cover other classes of nursing service and school inspection and sanitation with regular visits to each of the ten chapters twice a month. Miss Morgan's house-to-house visits averaged more than 100 each month, besides visits to schools, examining several hundred school children and doing a large amount of bedside nursing. Half of Miss Morgan's salary was paid by the Stonega Coke & Coal Co., which was the largest operating company in the district, but her work was still controlled by the Red Cross, and an office kept for her in the government building. In May, 1919, a history committee was appointed with Miss M. C. Fox, chairman; Mrs. C. C. Cochran, Mrs. R. 'I'. Irvine and Jas. M. Hodge. In December, 1919, under the leadership of Rev. J. PI. Smith as roll-call chairman, the canvass of the chapter resulted in obtaining a membership of 2,398, and receipts of $2,442.81.

    After the first of 1920 the activities of the chapter slackened and were confined chiefly to the home service work which was continued under the care and direction of Mr. Hodge, chairman of this section, and much work has been constantly done by him in aiding the soldiers who were in the service and the families of those who failed to return, in all matters pertaining to discharges, insurance, back pay, and many other problems that followed in the aftermath of the war.

    The formal petition of this chapter was filed with the proper department at Washington, on July 21, 1917, and official notice of the granting of the charter was issued on August 17, 1917. The officers named in the original charter were: Robert Fleming, chairman; Judge F. M. Fulton, vice-chairman; John Roberts, secretary, and H. G. Gilmer, treasurer. The executive committee was composed of the foregoing and A. L. P. Corder, H. A. Cavendish, D. Terpstra, W. P. Beverly, Thurston Banner, C. H. Creveling, and Lee McChesney. These officers continued with the exception that in January, 1919, T. V. Brennan succeeded Robert Fleming as chairman of the chapter. The other officers remained the same. At the outset, the active membership was 348. This was increased by January 1, 1918, to 1,473, and after the Armistice in January, 1919, the membership was 811, of which 197 belonged to the Wise branch and 714 to the Norton branch.

    The chapter was not organized in time to participate in the First Red Cross drive, but on the Second drive it raised $9,700, although the quota asked of it was only $3,000. Of the amount raised $7,225 was sent to the National Headquarters while $2,475 was kept in the local treasury. In addition to the foregoing amount the chapter, later on, raised $3,700.92, bringing the total raised in all to $13,395.02. The Wise branch secured the sum of $1,071.76 at the time of the Second drive. The remainder was raised by the Norton branch. Of the stun retained by the chapter, $3,088.63 was spent for supplies for the Red Cross work room, and the remainder in home service relief work.

    The home service section was organized early in the history of the chapter with Mrs. Mary S. Martin, executive secretary Mrs. T. P. Ford, chairman of the investigating committee ; Mrs. J. B. Fleming, executive committee; Mrs. T. M. Cherry, relief committee, and Mrs. R. H. Bruce, chairman publicity committee. This branch of the service gave financial aid to many soldiers and their families, and was a source of great aid and comfort in many ways otherwise. The department of publicity was first in charge of Mrs. H. G. Miller, and later Mrs. R. H. Bruce. A persistent campaign of publicity increased the output from the workrooms and aroused an increased interest in the Red Cross activities. A column was published each week in all the local newspapers giving information regarding the work of the chapter. Local conditions influenced the character of the work in the sewing rooms and the other activities of the members. The department of supplies was efficiently conducted by Mrs. C. R. Pepper, who served from the chapter organization until the Armistice; and after that, by her successor, Mrs. J. M. Allen. The knitting department was under the direction of Mrs. E. W. Miller. Eight hundred and seventy-- four knitted garments were shipped from this section. The output from the sewing rooms under the charge of Mrs. Robt. Fleming as superintendent of women's work reflected credit on the chapter. The number of garments made in this department was 3,817. Of this total, 942 were made by the Wise branch, and the remainder 2.965 by the Norton branch. This list includes 298 sheets, 674 pillow cases, 468 towels, 946 hospital bed shirts, 482 pajamas, 71 convalescent robes, and 14 hospital pillows. In addition, until August, 1918, this chapter presented to each boy from Wise County, as he left for training camp, a comfort bag made and filled by the women workers of the chapter, the approximate number being 1,347, and filled at an expense of $3,367.50.

    COEBURN CHAPTER

    This chapter was chartered at the same time as the other two chapters, August 17, 1917. Branches were formed at St. Paul, Toms Creek and Cranes Neck. N. T. Shumate was chairman of the chapter. A workroom was maintained at Coeburn, of which Mrs. V. E. Littlewood was chairman, followed later by Mrs. j. D. Clay, Jr. Mrs. G. W. Tompkins was chairman of the surgical dressings department. There were branch workrooms in all the branches. Drives for membership and funds were held as elsewhere. The membership was 700. Total receipts, $2,406.03. There were sixty active members in the work department, with the following output in the sewing and knitting departments, respectively : 900 hospital shirts, 55 pajama suits, 250 comfort kits-75 filled, 90 girls' aprons, 75 hospital comfort bags, 100 fracture pillows, 175 sweaters, 130 pairs socks, 35 helmets, 10 hot water bag covers, 100 bed socks, 50 foot warmers, 100 tray clothes, 8,330 gauze wipes, 2,036 muslin bandages, 1,000 shot bags, 25 pairs wristlets, 30 mufflers, and 20 wash cloths.

    The work of this chapter was greatly assisted during the war by the local physicians who aided the chapter in its relief work in every way possible. Dr. G. W. Tompkins enrolled in the volunteer medical corp, and the other physicians who were commissioned were: Dr. V. R. Culbertson and Dr. I. E. Wolfe, at Coeburn, and Dr. C. C. Carr, at Toms Creels. In addition to Red Cross work, these physicians assisted in examining the drafted men whenever summoned for this work.

    WAR WORK AND RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS

    WOMEN'S WORK

    A chapter of the Navy League was formed at Big Stone Gap in July, 1918, of which Mrs. E. J. Prescott was president, Mrs. E. E. Goodloe, vice-president; Mrs. J. B. Ayres, secretary, and Mrs. D. B. Pearson, treasurer. Miss Minnie C. Fox was chairman of ways and means and Mrs. Pearson, chairman of the knitting committee. This organization did effective work until its dismemberment, owing to disagreement in Washington. Among the articles furnished were 200 sweaters, 91 helmets, 64 pairs of wristlets and 17 pairs of socks. Boxes were sent to Wise County soldiers at Anniston and Camp Lee. Several boxes of sweaters, scarves, helmets, socks and wristlets were sent to the Navy League headquarters in Washington, and each soldier who left the county was supplied with these articles.

    All the county and local women's organizations bent all their energies and resources to the task of furthering the "drives" and "campaigns." The Wise County Federation of Women's Clubs put the first public health nurse, Miss Jane Morgan, in the county, and was responsible for her salary until she was taken over by the Red Cross. It was also through this organization's efforts that the board of supervisors secured the services of an all-time health officer in the person of Dr. Keister who filled this position until his services were needed in the field. Wise County claims that it Nvas the first county in the State to have a public health officer, the second to have a county school nurse, and the second to have a federation of women's clubs. The work of this federation in the matter of food conservation has already been noted in the economic section.

    The Norton Civic Betterment Club bought a one hundred dollar Liberty Bond, and the Community League of Big Stone Gap contributed $100 a year to the salary of the county nurse until she was taken over by the Red Cross. It fostered the "Community Sings" which were held every Sunday at noon in the High School auditorium and later in the open air at the ball park. The part the league took in food conservation has been told in the economic section of this sketch. Mrs. E. J. Prescott of the league was appointed to raise funds to care for the ten fatherless children of France allotted to Big Stone Gap. Support of one of the orphans was assumed by each of the following organizations: The Floyd Guild of the Episcopal Church, the Ladies' Aid Society of the Baptist Church, the Women's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, the Navy League, the Camp Fire Girls the teachers of the high school, the pupils in the school, and the three remaining children were supported by interested officers of the league. The league also made a donation to the Armenian hospital through the State Federation.

    The project of buying War Savings Stamps by selling junk, old papers, rubber and iron, etc., to dealers was also undertaken. During the influenza epidemic the league supplied food and nourishment to those in distress and daily distributed gallons of soup and other cooked foods to the most needy, the expense of which, beyond private donations, was met by the Town Council.

    The women conducted sewing circles in the various towns of the county. Among those kvho took part in all the campaigns were Mrs. N. F. Hix, of Wise; Mrs. R. E. Taggart, and Mrs. R. T. Irvine, of Big Stone Gap. One group of women in Big Stone Gap raised and sent through the treasurer, Mrs. H. A. W. Skeen, $530.82, between June and December, 1918, for .Armenian Relief. Similar work was done by the women from all parts of the county.

    The two chapters of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in the county furnished knitted garments for the battleship Virginia and the Norton chapter bought a fifty-dollar Liberty Bond.

    MISCELLANEOUS WAR WORK

    No special report has been made of the Y.M.C.A. work. Successful drives were made in behalf of this organization and large sums were contributed. Hon. John W. Chalkley offered his services to the Y.M.C.A. and he was sent to France where lie served for six months in a relief station.

    Prominent in the Liberty Loan drives were John Fox, Jr., Major J. F. Bullitt, Henry Gilmer, Bob Graham, Rev. S. D. Bartle, R. B. Alsover, Douglas Terpstra, W. S. Dodd and W. G. Werth.

    All of the organizations were greatly assisted in their efforts by the newspapers which published editorials in support of all war measures.

    The colored population of the county took their full share of war work. A number of colored men entered the service and one of these, Carlos Warner, was killed in the battle of Argonne. An organization of colored women at Big Stone Gap, composed of Mrs. Emma Morrison, Mrs. Birdie Harris and Mrs. Henry Martin and their associates, rendered good service by knitting for the soldiers and by making other useful articles for them.

    POST WAR ACTIVITIES

    After the Armistice a reception was given for the returned soldiers and new residents by the Community League and the Young Men's Business Club of Big Stone Gap. The affair was held at the Monte Vista Hotel and was largely attended and most heartily enjoyed. Impromptu patriotic talks were a feature of the occasion.

    On February 22, 1919, a patriotic gathering, which filled the Amuzu Theatre, to overflowing, was held by the Community, League in co-operation with the American Legion. The object of the meeting was to present to the families of deceased soldiers honorary certificates given by the French government. The program consisted of a pageant, music, and speeches by Hon. R. T. Irvine and Maj. William A. Stuart. Automobiles were sent to transport all Gold Star families to the meeting, and they came from mountain sides and fastnesses far and near. It was an inspiring occasion.

    When the war strain was over, Wise County, like other counties, relaxed socially and commercially,. But the impetus that had been given by the war to energies of all kinds continued in large measure until the aftermath had all been properly worked out. The lessons of patriotism, loyalty and co-operation had been drilled in, and will affect the people, in not only this generation, but for successive generations. People learned the lesson that almost superhuman things can be put through by co-operation coupled with enthusiasm. Many things that seemed impossible before have since appeared not only possible but easy.

    The same spirit has operated in commercial and business matters. Manufacturers and miners have learned and applied not only greater thoroughness, but also new and better methods, so that the losses of the war have their compensation.

    The soldiers who survived came home and resumed their peacetime employment, and proved the old saying that "Peace hath her victory, no less renowned than war." They joined cheerfully in the movement to organize the American Legion, and are still keeping up this work actively. Major Wm. A. Stuart, a Wise County soldier, was made the first State chairman of the American Legion from Virginia. Two posts were formed in the county, one at Appalachia, covering Big Stone Gap, Appalachia and the coal fields of the western end of the count v, and the other at Norton, covering the towns and coal fields in the eastern end of the county.

    The post at Appalachia is called the "Henry N. Tate Post," in honor of the soldier of that name who was killed in battle in France. A. M. Greenfield was the first commander, and P. J. Groseclose, the first Adjutant. Dr. W. B. Peters succeeded later as commander. The post was organized Sept. 19, 1919. Among the organizers was Major Win. A. Stuart, who, as above stated, was the first Virginia State Commander of the Legion. The Norton Post was organized in September, 1921, and in honor of a soldier killed in battle was named the "Clarence V. Stidham Post." The first commander was Major Rice M. Youell, and the first Adjutant was Bruce Crawford.

    Wise County did not rush to the housetops after the war to shout her achievements. Her people, largely of sturdy, heroic stuff applied themselves to the business of readjustment. Thirty of her young men did not return, but little has been said about the part they played. Their record is enviable, nevertheless, and one which their children and their childrens' children will read with a warm thrill of pride.


    NOTE:-The author is indebted for assistance in the preparation of this article to Mr. C. B. Neel, Norton, Secretary of the Coal Operators Association; Mr. J. M. Bodge, Big Stone Gap, Chairman of Home Service Work of the Red Cross; Mr. Bruce Crawford, Norton, Editor of Crawford's Weekly, and to Professor H. L. Sulfridge, Principal of the Big Stone Gap High School.


    NOTES:

    *These figures differ to some extent from those contained in the Federal Reserve Bank report which gives a total for the four loans of $2,472,950.