Elliott and Nye's Virginia Directory and Business Register — 1852

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January 21, 2014

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Elliott and Nye's Virginia Directory and Business Register — 1852

Note: This is a parcial listing of the Elliott and Nye directory. It includes some counties that are now part of West Virginia.

  • CABELL COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1809, from the county of Kanawha. It is bounded by the Ohio river, the counties of Mason, Putnam, Kanawha, Boone, Logan and Wayne.

    The lands are productive of wheat corn, and grass. The surface of the country is hilly but favorable for pasturage. Average value of lands is $2.52 per acre. Population—whites 5,903, free colored 7, slaves 389. Whites over 20 years who cannot read and write 644.

    Guyandotte and Barboursville (the county seat) are the principal towns, and contain about 350 inhabitants each. Distance from Guyandotte to Richmond 375 miles.

    The Ohio river affords facilities of transportation the whole extent of this county, sand the Guyandotte, which is now under improvement with locks and dams, will accomodate the interior through which it passes. A graded turnpike passes from Charleston to Guyandotte.

    Bituminous and cannel coal abound in this county; there area also great quantities of iron ore, with gypsum, salt, lead, & c.

    There are none but common schools in the county.

    The Baptists and Methodists are the principal denominations of christians in this county. They have several churches and preachers.

    Circuit Superior Court—D. McComas, Judge; John Samuels, Clerk; John Laidley, Attorney, Allen McGinnis, High Sheriff; Benj. Brown, deputy; Court held 16th May and October.

    County Court—John Samuels, Clerk; John Laidley, Attorney; Court held 2d Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    There are two mineral springs in this county of some celebrity, the Blue Sulphur on Mud River 3 miles east of Barboursville, and a sulphur spring on the Guyandotte about 18 miles south-west of Barboursville, both of which have recently been much resorted to on account of the efficacy of their waters.

    Merchants—Wm. C. Miller & Co., Wilson B. Moore, J. & S. Miller, George Proctor, Barboursville; Buffington & Hagan, Victor Letulle, P. S. Smith, H. H. Miller, A. S. Wolcott, Guyandotte; John M. Rece, Teay's Valley; Elijah Walton, A. M. Whitney, Falls Mills; E. L. Rolfe & Co., W. T. Dusenbury, Bloomingdale; J. A. Lewis, middle fork of Mud River.

    Physicians—Maupin & McCorkle, Barboursville; Wm. W. McComas, Gerrard C. Ricketts, John W. Peyton, Guyandotte; Dr. Clarke, Green Bottom; Dr. Harriman, Mud Bridge.

    Attorneys: E. W. McComas, J. Samuels, Barboursville; John Laidley, Guyandotte.

  • Caroline County

    Lies near the head of navigation on the Rappahannock river, which constitutes its northern boundary, with Spotsylvania on the west, Hanover on the South, King William, King & Queen and Essex on the east. Distance to Richmond from county seat by railroad 39 miles. The soil is generally of good quality, readily producing corn, wheat, oats and tobacco.

    There are many extensive fisheries along the Rappahannock, where large quantities of herring and shad are caught and packed for market. Average value of lands $7.64 per acre. Population— white 6890; free colored 905; slaves 10,661. White persons over the age of 20 years who can neither read or write 467.

    There are many academies and schools of high standing in the county, all well attended and in a prosperous condition.

    Churches are numerous, mainly of the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist denominations.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. T. Lomax, Judge; Robt. Hudgin, Clerk, Thomas R. Barton, Attorney; Wm. J. Dickinson, High Sheriff, J. D. Butler and M. Anderson, deputies; Court held 29th April and Wednesday after 2nd Monday in November.

    County Court—John L. Pendleton, Clerk; R. H. Coleman Attorney; held 2d Monday in each month; quarterly in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Wm. Gray & Co., C.B. Catlett, Geo. W. Catlett, James M Shaddock, C. B. Thornton, Wm. S. Payne, J. Farnhall, Port Royal; J. H. Wright, Wm. Gothold, Thomas Charlton, Wm. Smith, Bowling Green, Josiah Gatewood, New Market, Wm. F. Catlett, Guinea's Depot; Wm. F. G. Garnett, White Chimneys.

    Attorneys—F. W. Scott, Ruther Glen; Brockenbrough Peyton, Bowling Green; Jno. Washington, Chas. Maurice Smith; Geo. Fitzhugh, Port Royal.

    Physicians—A. M. Glassel, B. Anderson, Dr. Tennent, Bowling Green; B. Wright, Turner's Store; Walker Washington, Guinea's Depot; John D. Butler, Sparta; Thos. L. Scott, Ruther Glen; Dr. Dickinson, Golansville; Musco Boulware, Port Royal

  • Charles City County

    This is one of the old shires established in 1634, situated on the north side of James River, with James City on the east, New Kent on the north, and Henrico on the west. The courthouse is the only village in the county, 35 miles distant from the metropolis of the State by stages.

    The lands for the most part are naturally good, but from improvident culture have become nearly exhausted. Of late years, however, they have undergone a rapid improvement from the free use of marl and other fertilizers, the former having bu lately been brought into notice, and procured at but little expense. Its products are principally wheat and corn, which find a ready market, by the way of James river, at Richmond, Petersburg, or Norfolk.

    Average value of lands $7.75 per acre. Population—whites 1656; free colored, 780, slaves 2764. Number of whites over the age of 20 who can neither read or write 176.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. B. Clopton, Judge; P. P. Mays, Attorney; Edward P. Christian, Clerk; E. B. W. Apperson, Sheriff; Geo. W. Chancy, Deputy; Court held 18th May and November.

    County Court—Edward T. Christian, Clerk; Thos. H. Willcox, Attorney; held 3d Thursday of each month, quarterly in March, May, August and November.

    There are none but normal schools in the county, those of a higher character are much needed.

    Churches—There are 2 Episcopalian, 2 Methodist Episcopal, 4 Baptist and 2 Methodist Protestant.

    Merchants—Wm. F. Graves, E. Harwood, L. H. & A. Bradley, James A. Ladd, Courthouse; M. Marable, N. Phillips, E. B. W. Apperson, J. Hubbard, Wm. A. A. Southall, at Apperson's.

    Physicians—Dr. Willcox, Dr. Selden, Gideon Christian, James L. Diddep, P. F. Gay, J. B. McCaw, Dr. Pearman, Dr. Crenshaw, Dr. Upshaw at the courthouse.

    Attorneys—A. H. Ferguson, Thos. H. Willcox, courthouse, Henry Harrison, Swinyards, P. P. Mays, Norfolk City.

  • DODDRIDGE COUNTY

    Created in 1845 out of Harrison, Lewis, Ritchie and Tyler, by which Counties and parts of Wetzel and Gilmer it is bounded. It lies upon the waters of Middle Island Creek; West Union, the county seat, lying upon a branch of that Creek, contains about 200 inhabitants, and is distant from Richmond about 250 miles. New Milton, a small village, has about 50 inhabitants.

    The lands are very productive of the staples of northwestern Virginia, and are especially adapted to grazing. The cheapness of the lands, and its accessibility has encouraged immigration to this section and it is settling rapidly.

    Value of land as per assessment, $1.45 per acre.

    Population—Whites 2720; free colored 1; slaves 31; whites over the age of 20 who cannot read or write 327.

    The trade of Doddridge is principally by the Northwestern Turnpike to the Ohio river, which is distant 36 miels from West Union. A Turnpike from Weston to West Union has been authorized by the Legislature, with a state subscription towards its construction. The Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Parkersburg will pass through the centre of the county and afford access to the eastern markets.—Large quantities of lumber are sent down the streams during the winter, destined for Cincinnati or other towns on the Ohio. Large quantites of stock are also raised, much of which is driven South.

    Bituminous coal, common to this section of Virginia, abounds throughout the county, especially within a mile of the county seat.

    There is a college a West Union under the control of the seventh day Baptists, and numerous other schools of a normal character in various parts of the county. The churches are 2 seventh day Baptist and 3 Methodist Episcopal north.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. L. Fry, Judge; F. D. Hickman, Clerk; James M. Stephenson, Attorney; Samuel Archbold, High Sheriff; Floyd Neely, Deputy; Court held 15th March and August.

    County Court—S. P. F. Randolph, Clerk; W. M. Turner, Attorney; held 4th Monday in each month; Quarterly terms, March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—James A. Foley, William M. Lewin, L. R. Charter, R. A. Jeffrey & Co., Calvin Dodson, J. J. Ingle, Joshua McJunkin, Ethelbert Bond, at West Union; J. W. Lefever, New Milton; G. D. Davis, Greenwood; William B. Ripley, West Union.

    Attorneys—Chapman J. Stewart, B. W. Jackson, West Union

    Physicians—J. J. Ingle, L. R. Charter, E. Bond, West Union.

  • DINWIDDIE COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1752 from Prince George, and named for Robert Dinwiddie, who was governor of Virginia from 1752 to 1758. It is bounded by the Appomattox and Nottoway rivers, Amelia, Prince George and Sussex counties.

    The town of Petersburg is situtated at the northeastern angle of this county, on the south bank of the Appomattox, and is in a very flourishing condition; it is 22 miles from the city of Richmond. The harbour admits vessels of considerable draft, and ships come up to Port Walthall, six miles below.

    The lands of this county are generally poor, except upon the river and in the vicinity of Petersburg, where they have been much improved. The products are tobacco and wheat. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850 $3.70 per acre. Population—whites 4277; free colored 680; slaves 6149. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 563.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. W. Nash, Judge; John P. Crump, Clerk; David May Attorney; James H. Boisseau, High Sheriff; David F. Hay, R. M. Barnes, F. M. Mason, Robert B. Vaughan, Deputies; Court held 28th March and 17th September.

    County Court—John P. Crump, Clerk; David May, Attorney; Court held third Monday in each Month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and November.

    This county has several Academies, vix:—Jefferson Academy on Cox's Road; Green Wood Seminary at the Courthouse; Olden Place Seminary, near Darills, all in a flourishing condition; besides many normal schools.

    Churches—There are 17 Methodist Episcopal churches in this county; 2 Episcopal and 1 Baptist.

    Merchants—Robert E. & Wm. H. Pubet, Benj. P. Hall, Courthosue; Charles Young & Son, Balam Wells, Darville; Archibald Thweatt, Wyoming; John W. Butterworth, Harper's Home.

    Physicians—Thos. F. Scott, John P. Goodwyn, Richard E. Harrison, Ritchieville; Wm. F. Thompson, Ed. C. Joines; Darvills; H. C. Worsham, Harper's House; Charles J. Zehnue, Wyoming, Jas. P. Boisseau, E. H. Smith, Courthouse; John Croweller, Francis Jones, John Crawford, Billups; E. H. Allen, Robt Shore, Mount Level; John E. Harris, Burnt Quarter; W. W. Anderson, Fork Inn; M. R. Griswold, James R. Craig, Henry Hunt, Goodwynsville.

    Attorney—Isaac S. Kuler, Courthouse.

  • ELIZABETH CITY COUNTY

    This county was one of the original shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634. Its form is nearly a square of 18 miles on a side. It is bounded by the counties of York and Warwick on the north and west, and by Hampton Roads and the Chesapeake on the south and east.

    Hampton, the county seat is a prosperous village, and lies upon Hampton Roads, and enjoys a considerable trade in the products of the adjacent county. Owing to the facilities of intercourse with the large cities of the north, the lands of Elizabeth City are becoming very valuable, and its numerous vegetable productions are in great demand. The general use of marl, and the practical improvement of agriculture, is rapidly raising the value of lands in this county, whilst its society, accessibility and climate renders it attractive to the immigrant. There are no works of Internal improvment necessary in this county, it being penetrated and almost surrounded by navigable waters.

    Average value of lands under the assessment of 1850, $15.44 per acre. Population—whites 2352; free colored 97; slaves 2151. White persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 203.

    Circuit Superior Court—G. P. Scarburgh, Judge; S. S. Howard, Clerk; Peter P. Mayo, Attorney; Robert A. Armistead, High Sheriff; William S. Sclater, Deputy. Court held 20th April and 24th October.

    County Court—S. S. Howard, Clerk; Chas. K. Mallory, attorney; Court held the fourth Thursday of each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and November.

    Churches— There is 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist Protestant, and 1 Methodist Episcopal church in this county.

    Institutions of Learning—The Hampton Academy located in the town of Hampton, is in a very prosperous condition. Beside this there are several other normal schools in the county.

    Merchants—Robert A. Armistead, Face & Sclater, Thomas Peck, Collier & Wray, Kennon Whiting, Samuel Cumming, Francis A. Sehureley, Henry H. Collier, S. D. Wilburn, John M. Willis, Parker West, Charles Shelton, Thos. W. Roche, Wm. H. S. Holcroft, John Stacia, Samuel B. Wright, J. P. Suttle, Hampton; John Laurison, Mill Creek; John P. Topping, Fox Hill; P. G. Outten, Hampton.

    Attorneys—Chas. K. Mallory, Joseph Segar, Jno. A. Jones, Thos. C. Peek, Hampton.

    Physicians—Richard G. Banks, George W. Semple, Samuel R. Sheild, Jesse P. Hope, Hampton.

  • FAIRFAX COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1742 from Prince William, and lies on the Potomac river, which separates it from Maryland. The courthouse is near the center of the county, 21 miles from Washington City, and contains ____ inhabitants; besides this Centerville, is the only village of consequence, it is situtated near the southwestern angle of the county, and has about the same population as the Courthouse.

    Mount Vernon, the former residence of General Washington, where his sacred remains now rest, is on the Potomac, 8 miles from Alexandria, and 15 from the City of Washington.

    The lands are naturally of a good quality, but from improvident use have become sterile, yet are easily restored, as from the experience of the last five or six years, has been well established; many emigrants from the northern states having settled here during that time and so improved them by the use of artificial fertilizers and a judicious system of culture, as to make what before was a mere barren, a perfect garden spot.

    Average value per last assessment, $11.11. Population—whites 6847, free colored 585, slaves 3250. Whites over the age of 20 who cannot read and write 391.

    Red-Sand Stone of an excellent quality, such as has been used in the construction of the Smithsonian Institute at Washington, is found through the entire length of the county, form the Potomac river to the line of the Alexandria and Orange Railroad; also fine grey granite, suitable for building purposes near Alexandria.

    Wheat corn, and grass growing, and cattle and sheep raising, form the principal pursuits of its inhaitants.

    There are five Merchant mills in the county turning out large quantites of flour and some 15 saw mills, all on the improved plan, one of which runs six saws, turning out some 10 to 12 thousand feet of lumber per day.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. W. Tyler, Judge; F. D. Richardson, Clerk; Henry W. Thomas, Attorney; Thomas Nevett, High Sheriff; Edward Sangster, Deputy; Court held first Monday of June and November.

    County Court—Spencer M. Ball, Clerk; Henry W. Thomas, Attorney; held third Monday in each month; quarterly terms March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—E. R. Ford, N. Conrad, W. G. Alison, J. R. Taylor, at the Courthouse; Cockrel & Whaley, W. H. Deming, Centerville; A. C. Harman, Chs. Coleman, Robert Coleman, Dranesville.

    Attorneys—H. W. Thomas, W. S. Edwards, W. H. Dulaney, G. W. Hunter, Jr., T. J. Murray, Alfred Moss, Thomas R. Love, Courthouse.

    Physicians—E. Jones, W. P. Gunnell, Dr. Baker, at the Courthouse; Drt. Day, Dr. Johnson, Dranesville, Ira Williams, James Hunter, Courthouse, Arthur Brent, Dr. Grout, Prospect Hill, Dr. Alexander, Dr. Rough, Dr. Rose, Centerville; Thomas Nevett, Acotive Mills, R. C. Mason, Alexandria.

  • FAUQUIER COUNTY

    This county was created in 1759 from Prince William and named from Francis Fauquier, who was Governor of Virginia from 1758 to 1767. It lies on the upper waters of the Rappahannock, whcih separates it from Culpeper on the southeast. Warrenton, the county seat, is a beautiful village in the heart of the county, 102 miles from Richmond. There are several others, among which is Upperville, in the northwest angle of the county, Paris, Somerville and New Baltimore.

    The White Sulphur Springs, now one of the most popular in the state, is within 8 miles of Warrenton.

    The lands are deversified, and the soil, when judiciously cultivated, susceptible of a high degree of improvement; products, wheat, corn, oats and tobacco.

    Minerals—Gold in considerable quantites has recently been discovered, and companies are not profitably engaged in mining for it; slate, lime sand stoen and granite is met with in abundance all along the banks of the Rappahannock.

    Average value of lands $14.70. Population — white 9895; free colored 628, slaves 10399. Whites over the rage of 20 who cannot readd and write 500.

    Schools are of good character, and well attended. There are two fine Academies of Warrenton, one for males and the other for females, where the higher branches are taught, both in high repute.

    Churches—are numerous, mainly of the Episcopal, Presbyterian and Methodist Denominations.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. W. Tyler, Judge; Wm. F. Phillips, Clerk; Rich'd Payne Attorney; Wm. R. Smith, High Sheriff, J. B. Smith, Deputy; Court held Thursday after First Monday in May and October.

    County Court—Wm. H. Jennings, Clerk, R. E. Scott, Attorney; held 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and November.

    Merchants—Spilman & James, White and Smith, Day & Newby, Yeatman & Hess, Inman H. Payne, Simon Waterman, J. H. Stephens, Warrenton; Hail & Scott, Sylvester Welsh, Geo. L. Cochran, Saltem; C. T. Page, Farronsville, W. W. Payne, Orleans, John H. Klepstone, New Baltimore; _____ Phillips, Oak Hill.

    Attorneys—Robert E. Scott, Geo. W. Brent, B. H. Shackleford, John P. Philips, Wm. W. Payne, Chas. W. Tebbs, Nathl Tyler, James B. Brook, Zephaniah Turner, Chas. Green, Thos. L. Moore, Thos. Monroe, John Marshall, Warrenton, Thos. N. Latham, Upperville.

    Physicains—Drs. Fisher, Chilton, Jennings, Horner, Hord, Warrenton, Drs. Leach, and Moss, New Baltimore; Drs. Brown, Edmonds, and Smith, Upperville; Dr. Payne, Paris; Dr. Massie, Orleans.

  • FLOYD COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1831, from Montgomery, and is surrounded by Patrick, Carroll, Pulaski, Montgomery and Franklin Counties. It is watered by Little river, a branch of New River. Jacksonville, the county seat is the only village in the county, and contains a population of about 300. It is 215 miles southwest of Richmond. The surface of the county is mountainous, and the soil generally better adapted to grazing than grain. It has been increasing in population very rapidly within the last few years.

    Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850 $2.22. Population—whites 6004, free colored 9, slaves 442. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 1086.

    Iron ore is abundant in this county.

    Learning—Floyd Insitute at Floyd Courthouse is a very flourishing institution, averaging from fifty to sixty scholars. Besides this there are several normal schools.

    Churches— There is a Presbyterian church at the Courthouse, and a Lutheran church near ther, one Methodist and three Baptist churches in other parts of the country.

    Circuit Superior Court—N. M. Taliaferro, Judge; Jubal A. Early, Attorney, J. N. Zentmeyer, Clerk; Leonard Aldridge, High Sheriff; Pleasant Howell, Stephen H. Cannadey, Moses S. Clark, Deputies; Court held the 3rd Monday of March and August.

    County Court—Eli Phlegar, Attorney; J. N. Zentmeyer, Clerk; Court held Thursday after second Monday in each Month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Samuel Dobyns, Thomas Franklin, Henry Deskins, Ira Howard, A. L. Howard & Brother, Howard & Harman, J. B. & T. Headen, A. & L. Slusher, Evans & Shelton, John Helms, Guerrant & Snuffer, Bird Huff, Courthouse.

    Attorneys—Eli Phlegar, Jubal A. Early, James R. Holt, Courthouse.

    Physicians—Tazewell Headen, S. A. J. Evans, Courthouse.

  • FRANKLIN COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1784, from Bedford and Henry. The Blue Ridge forms its western boundary, separating it from Roanoke, Montgomery, and Floyd, with Bedford on the north, Pittsylvania on the east and Patrick and Henry on the south—Rocky Mount the county seat is about 179 miles southwest of Richmond.

    The lands are very good, and produce large crops of tobacco, wheat, corn, oats and some cotton. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850 $4.16 per acre. Population—whites 11618, free colored 70, slaves 5712. Whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 917. Number of manufacturing establishments in the county 47.

    Iron ore is abundant , and of a good quality.

    Circuit Superior Court—N. M. Taliaferro, Judge; Moses G. Carper, Clerk, Jubal A. Early, Attorney; John S. Burrell, High Sheriff; Asa Hollan, Solomon Pasley, Deputies; Court held the 9th day of May and October.

    County Court—Moses G. Carper, Clerk; Jubal A. Early, Attorney; Court held the first Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Joseph Dickenson, Dickensons; Dickenson & White, McGhee & Pinkard, Snow Creek; P. Smith, Wm. Dickenson, Shady Grove; James Anderson, Stephen English, Solomon Pasley, English & Hiptenstann, Mathew Allen, Union Hall; Jno. D. Booth, E. & S. McGuire, Taylor's Store; R. & G. Burk, Daniel Wray, Fishersborough; Horn & Turnbull, Gogginsville; Saunders and Ferguson, Retreat; William Snuffer, Claiborne Johnson, Stanton Aldridge, Long Branch; Menefee & Prillaman, M. Hurt, Prillamon's; John S. Hall & Co., F.I. Claiborne, ____ Neneger, _____ Lavender, Rocky Mount; Wm. Pannell, Glade Hill; ____ Smith, Union Hall.

    Attorney's—R. S. Woods, E. Irvine, H. Nelson, N. C. Claiborne, Rocky Mount; W. Wingfield, W. B. Crump, Union Hall.

    Physicians—G. W. Clement, Benj. Williams, Dr. Tinsley, Union Hall; Henry Dillard, Glad Hill, R. M. Taliaferro, W. L. T. Hopkins, Rocky Mount; John C. Carper, Retreat; Lewis Burwell, Dr. Rees, Taylor's Store; Dr. James, Prillamon's.

  • FREDERICK COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1738 from Orange, and is now surrounded by Morgan and Berkeley on the north, Clarke on the east, Warren and Shenandoah on the south, and Hampshire on the west. Winchester, the county seat, is a thriving town, 74 miels from Washington city, 146 from Richmond, and 32 from Harper's Ferry. It is supplied with water for drinking and culinary purposes through pipes from a never failing and cool lime-stone spring, and for extinguishing fires and other uses, from hydrants whcih are supplied by two capacious and well constructed reservoirs at the northern and southern extemities of the town. It is considered a very healthy a very healthy place, and is doing an immense business with the valley, it being the only entrepot for all its produce which seek a foreign market.

    The principle objects of interest here in a historical point of view, are an old fort, known as Fort Loudoun, at the Northern extremity of Loudoun street. This fort was erected General (then Colonel) Washington, for the protection of the surrounding country, immediately after Braddock's defeat. It occupies a commanding position, and when built was considered impregnable; an old white building erected in 1796, and kept for a long time as a tavern, and antiquated stone building at the southern extremity of Washington street, the last residence of General Singleton. The chief objects of trade are flour, grain, iron, agricultural implements and waggons. There are eight or ten large establishments, employing a great number of hands, engaged in the manufacture of the latter. The exports eastward for the year ending Oct. 26 1850, according to the report of the treasury of the Winchester and Potomac Railroad Co., and which is steadily increasing, were 211,858 bbls flour, 2,239,000 tons merchandise and produce 1,523,000 tons pig and bar iron and 158,000 tons manganese.

    The inspections of Flour amount to from 90 to 100,000 bbls per year.

    The works of Internal Improvement in progress or completed, terminating here are —The Winchester & Potomac Railroad; the valley Turnpike; Frontroyal Turnpike and Plank Road; Winchester and Berry's Ferry Turnpike, and Plank Road; North Frederick Turnpike and Plank Road, and the Winchester and Moorefield Turnpike.

    Stephensburg is a neat and flourishing village, about 8 mies south of Winchester on the Macadamized road to Staunton.

    The lands of this county are highly productive, and its surface diversified. Average value by the re-assessment of 1850, $7.68 per acre. Population—Whites 12814, free colored 871, slaves 2297. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 126.

    Circuit Superior Court—R. Parker, Judge; Joseph Kean, Clerk; T. S. Fauntleroy, Attorney; Court held, 13th June and November.

    County Court—Thos. A. Tidball, Clerk; Joseph Tidball, Attorney; Court held Monday before the 1st Tuesday of every month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Attornies—Byrd & Carson, J. C. Baker, R. W. Brooking, Barton & Williams, Conrad & Tucker, P. J. Clark, F. M. Holliday, H. H. Lee, Marshall & Tidball, J. M. Mason & Sons, L. T. Moore, W. G. Singleton, F. Thomas, G. W. Ward, J. W. Murphy, Winchester.

    Physicians—R. T. Baldwin, A. S. Baldwin, W. A. Bradford, J. H. Baldwin, Cedar Grove; J. R. Holliday, W. M. Hite, Middletown; J. J. Jenney, L. A. Miller, H. H. McGuire, R. E. McCandless, Bricetown; J. B. McLeod, J. W. Owen, New Town, J. P. Smith, J. W. Stephens, S. Depot, J. W. Walls, New Town.

    DIRECTORY OF WINCHESTER

    Winchester Medical College, incorporated in 1826. Professors: Hugh McGuire, Surgery; Daniel Conrad, Anatomy and Physiology; John P. Smith, Principles and Practice of Medicine; Wm. A. Bradford, Materia Medica and Chemistry; Daniel Conrad, Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children. It is in a very flourishing condition. N. W. Corner of Water and Stewart streets.
    Winchester Academy—west end of Cork street; incorporated and under the government of a board of Trustees; Rev. H. W. Thorpe, Principal.
    Winchester Classical School for boys—at the Lecture room of the German Reformed church.—J. W. Marvin, Principal.
    Classical School for boys—at the New School Presbyterian church—Wm. James, Principal.
    Female Classical and Boarding School—north end of Loudoun street—Rev. Jos. Baker, Principal.
    Female Academy-northend of Loudoun street—Rev. Jos. Baker, Principal.
    Female Academy-Ambler Hill—Mrs. Martha Brent, Principal
    Female Academy—E.s. Braddock's street—Mrs. Elizabeth Aimiss, Principal
    Female Academy—w. s. Camden, bt. Water and Cork—Mrs. Evelina Street, Principal
    Female Academy—westend of Picadilly—Rev. J. Eichelberger, Principal.

    Churches

    Protestant Episcopal, Rev. Cornelius Walker, n.e. corner Washington and Water.
    Lutheran, Rev. C. P. Krauth, n.s. Water between Loudoun and Braddock
    Old School Presbyterian (vacant), n.e. corner Water and Kent,
    New School Presbyterian, Rev. A. H. H. Boyd, e.s. Loudoun bt Cork and Water
    Methodist Episcopal, Rev. Wm. Krebs, e.s. Cameron, between Cork and Water.
    Baptist, Rev. Jos. Baker, n.s. Piccadilly, between Kent and East Lane.
    Roman Catholic, Rev. J. H. Plunket
    Friend's Meeting House, w.s. Washington, between German and Monmouth
    African Methodist, s.s. Cork, between Cameron and Kent.
    German Reformed, Rev. W. O. Miller, s.e. corner Cork and Cameron.

    Hotels and Boarding Houses &c.

    Union-Gilkeson, e.s. Cameron, between Fairfax Lane and Peyton.
    Taylor—Geo. W. Seevers, w.s. Loudoun, between Piccadilly and Water
    Traders—J. A. Kintz, n.e. corner Monmouth and Loudoun.
    Eagle—Josiah Marrie, e.s., Loudoun, between Cork and Water
    Monterey House—Geo. Aulick, e.s., Loudoun, between Piccadilly and Water
    Washington—A. P. Fitch, e.s. Loudoun between Piccadilly and Water.
    Tremont House—A. Overbaugh, w.s. Loudoun, between Peyton and Fairfax Lane
    Drover's Inn—P. Hoover, s.w. corner Fairfax and Loudoun
    American—W. Brannan
    Coe's, __________ Coe, e.s. Cameron, between Fairfax Lane and Peyton
    Boarding House—L. Lindsey, w.s. Loudoun, between Cork and Water

    Banks

    Branch of Farmer's Bank fo Va., s.w. corner Loudoun and Water streets
    Bank of the Valley, n.w. corner of Loudoun and Piccadilly

    Newspapers

    Winchester Republican, weekly—Geo. E. Senseney, C. A. B. Coffroth—office, e.s. Loudoun, between Cork and Water.
    Winchester Virginian, weekly—Edward Bruce—office s.s. Courthouse avenue.

    Public Buildings and Offices

    County Court House—e.s. Loudoun, between Water and Piccadilly
    County Jail—n.w. corner Cameron and Cecil
    Market House and Town Hall—w.s. Cameron, between Water and Piccadilly
    Post Office—Richard Milton, P. M., e.s. Loudoun between Cork and Water
    Clerk of Husting's Court—office n.s. Courthouse Avenue
    Washington and Alexandria Stage Office—John Linn, Agent, e.s., Loudoun, between Water and Piccadilly
    Winchester and Potomac Railroad Depot—north end Cameron street.
    Telegraph Office, in the Depot—north end Cameron street.
    Adams & Co.'s Express—office e.s. Cameron, between Peyton and Fairfax.
    Straus, M. L. & Co., clothing, w.s. Loudoun, between Piccadilly and Water
    Steele, J. W., boot and shoe maker, n.s. Courthouse Avenue
    Stackhouse, Jas. Cabinet merchant, s.s. Water w. Of Stewart
    Smith, Dr. J. P., office s.s. Water, between Loudoun and Cameron
    Swann, E. W., confectioner, n.s. Water, between Loudoun and Braddock
    Swartzwelder, Dr., office,n.s. Water, between Loudoun and Braddock
    Swartzwelder, L. E., hardware, e.s., Loudoun, between Water and Piccadilly
    Streit, H. B. & W. H., dry goods and crockery, w.s. Loudoun bt Piccadilly and Water.
    Thomas, F. Attorney, n.s.Water, between Loudoun and Braddock
    Tibbett, W. W. D., sign and fancy painter, s.s. Piccadilly, between Loudoun and Cameron
    Tipping, J., dry goods and crockery, w.s., Loudoun, between Piccadilly and Water
    Tucker, J. Randolph, attorney, n.s. Water, between Loudoun and Braddock
    Ulrick, C., confectioner, w.s.Water between Fairfax Lane and Piccadilly
    Walter, W. B., grocer and flour dealer, w.s. Cameron, between Fairfax and Peyton
    Ward, H. T., dry goods and crockery, w.s. Loudoun, between Piccadilly and Water
    Wilson, G. J., machine merchant, n.s. Peyton, between Cameron and Kent
    Wilson, J., Saddler, e.s. Loudoun, between Water and Piccadilly
    Williams, P. W., Jr., attorney, n.s. Courthouse Avenue
    Wolfe, Robt. B., dry goods and crockery, w.s. Loudoun, bt. Piccadilly and Fairfax Lane
    Wood, Chas. L., grocer and flour dealer, n.w. corner Peyton and Cameron
    Wright & Steer, agricultural implement merchandise, w.s. Cameron, bt. Fairfax & Peyton

  • GILMER COUNTY

    This county was created in 1845 out of Lewis and Kanawha counties. It lies upon the Little Kanawha and its tributaries and is bounded by Kanawha, Wirt, Jackson, Ritchie, Doddridge, Lewis and Braxton. Glenville, the county seat, is situated on the Little Kanawha River, twenty five miles from Parkersburg. It contains about 200 inhabitants. The country is broken, but heavily timbered, and very productive in grain and grass. The principal exports are live stock which are driven to the Baltimore and Philadelphia markets, corn, wheat, tobacco and lumber, which is sent down the Ohio to Cincinnati, New Orleans, and the lower country. Average value of lands by the reassessment of 1850, 93 cts per acre. Population—whites 3403, slaves 72. Number of whites over the age of 20 who cannot read and write 569.

    The Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike passes through the northern end of the country, and a road has been projected from a point on the Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike passing through Glenville and Ripley tot he Ohio opposite Pomeroy.

    Iron ore and coal is found in abundance in this county.

    There are no academies or high schools in this county, but private schools are found in almost every neighborhood, where are taught the common branches of an English education.

    Churches—There is one Methodist Episcopal north, one Methodist Episcopal church south, one United Brethern, one Baptist and one Protestant Methodist in Glenville; there are also other houses of worship of these denominations in various parts of the county.

    Circuit Superior Court-D. McComas, Judge; Wm. Hatcher, Clerk; James H. French, Attorney; Alexander Huffman, High Sheriff; Peregrin Hays, Robert Ervin, Norval Hays, George W. Silcott, John B. Townsend, Deputies; Court held 12th April and September.

    County Court—Levi Johnson, Clerk; Robert Lynn, Attorney; Court held, Tuesday after third Monday in each month; quarterly terms in February, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Ervin & Lynn, Geo. W. Tylcott & Co., C. M. Sperry & Co., Glenville; Adkins & Douglass, Lorentz & Flesher, Westfork; Jackson & Heckert, Troy; M. Jackson & Co., Jerkland; John Jack, Stout's settlement.

    Attorneys—James H. French, Robert Lynn, E. T. Withers, John E. Hays, Glenville

    Phyicians—John E. McCally, Wm. E. Herndon, Anthony Conrad, Glenville.

  • GRAYSON COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1793 from Wythe. It lies west of the Blue Ridge with Washington, Smythe, and Wythe on the west and North, Carroll on the east, and North Carolina on the south. Grayson Courthouse lies 260 miles southwest of Richmond.

    The soil is rich and well adapted to the growth of wheat, corn and tobacco. The raising of cattle and sheep is here carried on very extensively and those who have embarked in the wool business are realizing large profits.

    Iron ore, of a very fine quality is here found very abundant, and Lead ore in considerable quantites. Average value of land in 1850 $1.21 per acre. Population—whites 6141; free colored38, slaves 499. Number of whites over the age of 20 who cannot read and write 131.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. E. Brown, Judge; Garland Anderson; Benj. R. Floyd, Attorney, James Anderson, High Sheriff; Alexander Porter, Jas. Dickey, Deputies; Court held, 1st April and September.

    County Court—William Dickey, Clerk; Samuel McCamant, Attorney; Court held, 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in February, May, July and October.

    Merchants—Nuckolls & Dickinson, Nuckolls & Jennings, James Waugh, Courthouse; John Dickinson & Co., B. Austin & Co., Elk Creek; Thomas Austin & Co., Fulton, Darnall & Co., Independence; John Dickinson & Co., John K. Ballard, Bridle Creek; W. C. Parks, Mouth of Wilson; J. B. Hash, Big Meadow.

    Attorneys—Samuel McCamant, Courthouse; Granville Mathews, Independence.

    Physicians—James E. Robinson, _______ Weathers, Courthouse; F. S. Thomas, Independence; Geo. D. Mendenahll, Bridle Creek, Christopher Stump, mouth of Wilson; Alexander Perkins, Big Meadow.

  • GREENSVILLE COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1784 from Brunswick. It is situated on the North Carolina line, with Brunswick on the west, Dinwiddie on the north, Sussex and Southampton on the east. The Nottoway river runs on its northern boundary, and the Meherren through its centre.

    Hicksford, the county seat, is situated on the Meherrin river, 41 miles from Petersburg, and 63 from Richmond, and contains 200 inhabitants.

    The lands in the county are generally poor. The best lands lie upon the north of the Meherrin river. The productions are tobacco, wheat and corn. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850 2.82 per acre. Population—whites 1725, free colored 136, slaves 3766. Number of whites over the age of 20 who cannot read and write, 188.

    There are no streams passing through this county that are navigable. The facilities to market are the Petersburg and the Greensville and Roanoke Railroads, both of which run through the county.

    There are nine Methodist churches, one at Hicksford, the others in different parts of the country, two Protestant Methodist churches; one Protestant Episcopal at Hicksford; three Baptist, one of which is at Hicksford, and one free church.

    Learning—1 Academy at Hicksford, 2 private female schools, a few miles from the county seat on the north side of the river, and one female school near Ryland's Depot. These schools educate between 80 and 90 scholars annually. Besides these there are many normal schools in different parts of the county.

    Circuit Superior Court—R. H. Baker, Judge; Joseph Turner, clerk; John R. Chambliss, Attorney; Thos. F. Jones, high sheriff; W. R. S. Weaver, deputy; Court held 27th April and 1st November.

    County Court—Joseph Turner, Clerk; John R. Chambliss, Attorney; Court held first Monday of each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and October.

    Merchants—Potts & Mason, Darden & Clarke, Hicksford; Wm. T. Person, Belfield; Spencer & Mysick, Poplar Mount; Benjamin F Robinson, Henry Chambliss, Jr., Nathaniel Y. Woodruff, Ryland's Depot.

    Attorney's—John R. Chambliss, D. A. Claiborne, James W. Cook, Jr., Stephen A. Goodwyn, William S. Goodwyn, William S. Tundy, Hicksford.

    Physicians—Orris A. Browne, Robert W. Broanax, William H.Batte, Hicksford; Green H. Batte, Robert A. Gholson, Poplar Mount; John A. Smith, Ryland's Depot; John C. Watkins, Jarratt's Depot; Benjamin H. Walker, James Johnson, E. W. Lundy, Wm. T. Maclin, Miles R. Stark, Edward P. Scott, Hicksford.

  • GREENBRIER COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1777, from Botetourt and Montgomery. It is surrounded by the counties of Fayette, Nicholas, Pocahontas, Bath, Alleghany, Monroe and Raleigh. The Greenbrier river passes through it.

    Lewisburg, the county seat lies on the James River and Kanawha Turnpike, 214 miles from Richmond; and about 150 from Guyandotte on the Ohio river. Frankfort is another small village about 10 miles northeast of Lewisburg. The White Sulphur Springs of Greenbrier, 9 miles from Lewisburg, is the most celebrated watering place in Virginia. The Blue Sulphur Spring in this county, is also a fashionable resort.

    The surface of the county is broken, and parts of its mountainous. The lands on the Greenbrier river are very fertile. Average value by the assessment of 1850, $3.45. Population—whites 8942, free colored 101, slaves 1317. Numbers of whites over the age of 20 whoe cannot read and write: 914.

    Circuit Superior Court—E. Johnson, Judge; John A North, Clerk; Alexander P. Esridge, Attorney; Addison Frazier, High Sheriff; John E. Lewis, John M. Alderson, deputies; Court held 3rd Monday after 4th Monday in April and September.

    County Court—Joel McPherson, Clerk; Edward B. Baily, Attorney; Court held the 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Mathews, Gay & Co., Montgomery & Bell, Andrew D. Johnston, John Withrow, Mays & Beard, Baugh & Co., David J. Ford, Spotts & Johnston, D. C. B. Calwell, J. G. Alderson, Lewisburg; Watts & Estell, White Sulphur Springs; Arbuckle & Co., H. Scott & Co., Frankfort; Wm. Montgomery, Falling Spring; Geo. W. Buster, Edward Skaggs & Co., Blue Springs; Charles R. Hines & Co., Palestine; Burne, Skaggs & Co., Clentonville; T. A. Henning & Co., Meadow Bluff, J. Burdett & Co., Second Clerk.

    Attorneys—William Smith, Johnson Reynolds, P. B. Wethered, John W. McPherson, Robert F. Dennis, Robert Alexander, Samuel Price, Lewisburg; John Miller, White Sulphur Springs.

    Physicians—Thomas Creigh, W. H. Syme, Wm. N. Patton, D. C. B. Caldwell, Dr. Lake, Lewisburg; John A. Hunter, Alexis Martin, Blue Sulphur Springs; Granville Smith, James H. Steele, Dr. Renick, A. W. Davis, Frankfort; Dr. Butcher, Falling Spring; W. B. Burwell, Second Creek.

  • GREENE COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1838, from the western part of Orange, and named after General N. Greene of the revolution. It lies on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge, adjoining the counties of Albemarle, Madison and Orange. Standardsville, the country seat is in the western part, 95 miles from Richmond, and contains about 250 inhabitants. Ruckersville, is a small village in the southeastern part of the county.

    The lands are very fertile, producing wheat, tobacco, and the artificial grasses in great perfection. It is admirably adapted to raising stock, and the growth of fine wool. There is abundant water power upon the Rapid Ann and its tributaries. No works of Internal Improvement are in operation of in this county, though a turnpike or plank road has been projected from Fredericksburg to the Swift Run Gap. The Central Railroad at Gordonsville is within a short distance of the county line, and the Alexandria and Orange Railroad passes near the eastern boundary. These roads will afford convenient access to market. Average value of land in 1850 $6.65 per acre. Population—whites 2701, free colored 34, slaves 1699. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 494.

    Copper ore is found in the mountainous sections of this county, which is represented to be very rich.

    There is a classical school at the Courthouse, and eight common schools in other parts of the county, in a prosperous condition.

    Churches—There are Baptist churches at Swift Run, Pleasdant Green, Libert meeting house, and Orange Church; Methodist—Kenneys, South River, Mountain Chapel and Standardsville; Blue Ridge Mission—Methodist—Warren's, Temple Hill; Campbellites at Moyer's.

    Circuit Superior Court—R. H. Field, Judge; Robert Pritchett, Clerk; Louis B. Williams, Attorney; Daniel Miller, High Sheriff; Robert L. Pritchett, Deputy; Court held the 3d Monday of June and November.

    County Court—Robert Pritchett, Clerk; A. R. Blacky, Attorney; Court held he Thursday after the second Monday in each month; quarterly terms, in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Gibbons & Davis; Valentine & Atkins, Price & Almond, Standardsville; Saunders & Moore, Ruckersville; Geo. W. Mitchell, Standardsville.

    Attorneys—W. R. Mills, R. H. Poone, Arthur Stephens, B. A. Pritchett, Thomas G. Garth, Wyatt S. Beasley, Courthouse.

    Physicians—Thomas M. Sherman, S. C. Blakey, John S. Early, Robert S. Beazley, Francis Whitely, Courthouse.

  • HAMPSHIRE COUNTY

    This county was established in 1754 from Frederick and Augusta. It lies one the Potomac river which separates it from Maryland on the north. Romney the county seat is situated near the centre of the county, on the south Branch of the Potomac, 39 miles from Winchester, and 188 from Richmond. Frankfort, Springfield, and Paddy town are small villages. A large portion of the country is mountainous and untillable; on the streams, however, there are extensive and fertile low grounds. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850 $4.65 per acre. Population—whites 12,299, free colored 220, slaves 1433. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 1229.

    The ice Mountain in this county is one of the greatest natural curiosities in Virginia. It rises from the eastern bank of North river to the height of 400 or 500 feet.

    Bituminous coal is found here in great abundance, and iron ore in various parts of the county.

    Circuit Superior Court-R. Parker, Judge; John B. White, Clerk; James D. Armstrong, Attorney; Eli Beall, high sheriff; J. C. Heiskell, Josiah Constable, John Myers, deputies; Court held 10th April and September.

    County Court—John B. White, Clerk; Alfred P. White, Attorney; Court held the 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Armstrong & Kuykendall, Sherrard & Kuykendall, Vance & McDonald, Brady & Dawson, John McDowell, Jr., Daniel Mytinger, Romney; G. E. Chamberlain, Capon Bridge; Sherrard & Co., Sherrard's store; S. A. Pancoast; W. D. F. Crawford, Bloomen's; Jno Saap, Stanes Cross Roads; Jacob Grace, Hoffman, Springfield; S. D. Brady, Frankfort; W. O. Bond, North river meeting house; Barry & Healy, Green Valley Depot; Trout and Myers, Ridgeville; Vance & Co., Purgits.

    Attorneys—Robert C. Kercheval, A. W. McDonald, P. B. Steit, A. P. White, J. D. Armstrong, J. A. V. Pugh, V. W. Varden, William Perry, T. C. Green, A. W. Kercheval, Romney.

    Physicians—V. W. Dailey, T. Clayton, Foster Pratt, J. M. Snyder, Romney, John G. Guyer, J. W. Wall, Sherrod's store, J. J. T. Offutt; Capon Ridge; Hamlet V. Neale, Paddy Town.

  • HANCOCK COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1838 out of Brooke. It is bounded by the Ohio River, the State of Pennsylvania and Brooke County. New Cumberland, the county seat is about 325 miles from Baltimore. The lands, though broken, are very productive, and wheat, rye, corn, oats, and barley are produced in abundance. A great quantity of wood is carried from this county to market. Average value of the lands by the assessment of 1850, $14.36 per acre. Population—whites 4059, free colored 7, slaves 3. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 185.

    Inexhaustible mines of stone coal are found in this county. Manufactures—The manufacture of fire bricks is extensively carried on in this county, of which five millions, worth $10 per thousand at the landing, are annually shipped down the Ohio. A Railroad is under construction from Wellsburg to Cleavland which will affort access to the markets of Baltimore and Philadelphia.

    Churches—There are three Old School Presbyterian, two Methodist Protestant, and two Disciple Churches in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. L. Fry, Judge; John H. Atkinson, Clerk, Isaiah Steen, Attorney, W. H. Grafton, high sheriff, John M. Grafton, deputy; court held 16th April and September.

    County Court—John H. Atkinson, Clerk; O. W. Langfitt, Attorney; Court held the second Monday in each month; quarterly terms in January, April, June and October.

    Merchants—McCown & Murry, Cameron & Connell, Fairview, Jenkins & Halstead, Grafton & Starr; New Cumberland; Gibson & Neely, Freeman's Landing, O. Brown & Son, Holliday's Cove; Grafton & Co., Hamilton.

    Attorneys—R. C. Brown, Holliday's Cove; T. W. J. Long, Daniel Donehoo, Fairview; Isaiah Steen, O. W. Langfitt, Wellsburg.

    Physicians—Samuel F. Marquis, Wm. Shanley, Wm. Beaumont, New Cumberland; P. C. McLane, A. C. McBeth, Fairview; James Ross, Holliday's Cove.

  • HENRY COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1776 from Pittsylvania and named in honor of Patrick Henry. It lies on the North Carolina line, 80 miles southwest of Lynchburg, it is bounded by the counties of Patrick, Franklin and Pittsylvania. Martinsville, the county seat lies near the north bank of Smith's River, about 194 miles from Richmond. This county belongs to the Piedmont section of the state. The lands are feeble, being based on deep red clay. They live generally very well, and are adapted to the growth of tobacco, wheat and the artificial grasses and stock raising. Average value of land by the assessment of 1850 $4.25 per acre. Population whites 5545; free colored 201, slaves 3327. Number of whites over the age of 20 who cannot read and write 813.

    Smith's river runs diagonally through the county from N.W. to S.E. and is now being rendered navigable for batteaux. The Richmond and Danville Railroad,will when completed afford adequate facilities for transportation and intercourse.

    Education—This county has adopted the free school system. It is laid off in 45 districts, and there were at school last year 1140 scholars. Patrick Henry Academy is located in this county.

    Churches—There are 6 Baptist, 1 at Mount Vernon, 1 at New Leatherwood, 1 at Old Settlement, 1 at Reed Creek, 1 at Pedigo, and 1 at Mayo; 4 Methodist, 1 at Martinsville, 1 at Mount Bethel, 1 at New Bethel, and 1 at Home Creek; 1 Episcopalian at Martinsville, and 2 Reformers.

    Circuit Superior Court—N. M. Taliaferro, Judge; Anthony M. Dupuy, clerk, Geo. Gilmer, attorney, W. A. Taylor, high sheriff; Jesse Wootton, Jas. M. Sheffield, Hugh N. Dyer, V. R. Trent, Deputies; Court held 1st May and October.

    County Court—Jeremiah Griggs, clerk, John Wooton Attorney; Court held 2nd Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—J. R. Fontaine, Sigmund Putzel, Martinsville; Benj. F. Gravely & Co., Dyer & Reynolds, Leatherwood; Samuel O. Smith, Draper & Davis, Oak Level; Wm. M. Schoolfield, Traylorsville; Reed, Spencer & Co., Horse Pasture; Smith & Clark, Hough and Ready Mills; George N. Rals & Co., S. & G. Hairston, Martinsville.

    Attorney—John S. Wootton, Hughes Dillard, C. Y. Thomas, John R. Smith, Will C. Redd, Martinsville; William Martin, Horse Pasture; George D. Gravely; Leatherwood.

    Physicians—Anderson Wade, Robert C. Campbell, James Carter, Peter R. Beany, Nathaniel R. Cole, Dr. May, Martinsville; Henry D. Peters, Leatherwood, Washington Flood, Shady Grove; James R. Stovall, Oak Level; Landis P. Stovall, Traylorsville, Robert A. Read, George S. Hairston, Horse Pasture.

  • ISLE OF WIGHT

    This county was one of the eight original shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634. It lies near the mouth of James River, and is bounded by the counties of Surry, Southampton, and Nansemond, Smithfield, the county seat, is situated on Pagan Creek, a navigable stream, about 60 miles from Richmond, and has a population of about 1000. The soil is generally thin and sandy. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, $5.99 per acre. Population—whites 4704, free colored 1252, slaves 3295. Number of whites over the age of 20 who cannot read and write 918.

    Education—There are many good schools in this county, both male and female.

    Churches—There are 8 Episcopal Methodist, 2 Protestant Episcopal, 4 Methodist Protestant, 4 Baptist, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Christian church in the county.

    Circuit Superior Court—R. H. Baker, Judge; Nathaniel P. Young, clerk; Richard H. Riddick, Jr., attorney; Watson P. Jordan, High Sheriff; A. A. Jordon, Josiah P. Guy, Deputies; court held 16th May and 18th October.

    County Court—N. B. Young, Clerk Wm. H. Day, Attorney, court held the 1st Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Wonbe & Wilson, Wm. H. Jordan, Thomas & Adams, S. & N. W. White, D. B. Pasteur, Boykin & Chapman, E. H. Valentine, Smithfield; Jesse Fangham, Feansville; Eey & Primer, Mills E. Marshall, Barbers Cross Road; Edward Rawls, Carrsville; Irvin W. Duck, Ducksville; Jones and Joyner, Burwell's Bay.

    Attorneys—Archibald Atkinson, Wm. N. Day, Robrt H. Whitfield, Charles B. Hayden, George R. Atkinson, A. A. Whitefield, Joseph D. Thomas, James P. Wills, Smithfield

    Physicians—John B. Purdie, Anthony G. Boykin, James B. Southall, Joseph N. Atkinson, W. P. Jordan, Jr., John B. Butler, T. J. Cheatham, Smithfield, F. T. Vail, Burell's Bay; Franics M. Boykin, Anthony Person, H. B. Councill, Carrsville, George A. Glover, Crawley Finney, Barber's Crossroad.

  • JACKSON COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1831, from Mason, Kanawha and Wood. It lies on the Ohio river, and is bounded by Mason, Putnam, Kanawha, Wirt and Wood. Ripley the county seat, is a very thriving village about 336 miles from Richmond. The surface of the county is hilly and the saoil well adapted to grazing. The lands on the Ohio and Mill Creek are of the best quality. Average value of land by the assessment of 1850, $1.75 per acre. Population—whites 6485, free colored 10, slaves 55. Number of whites over the age of 20 years tho cannot read and write 873.

    There are no works of internal improvement completed in this county, though there are a number of turnpikes under construction.

    Mineral—Iron ore is found and thought to be extensive. A species called beg ore is also found in this county. Coal is very abundant.

    Education—There are no high schools in this county, it is well supplied with normal schools.

    Churches—The Episcopalians, Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, Methodist South, Presbyterian, Baptist and United Brethern have Churches in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—D. McComas, Judge; H. J. Fisher, attorney; D. G. Morill, clerk, John Armstrong, High Sheriff; W. H. Watson, R. E. Starcher, deputies; Court held 23rd March and August.

    County Court—Andrew Waugh, Clerk; H. J. Fisher, attorney; Court held the 2nd Monday in each month; quarterly terms in February, June, August, and November.

    Merchants—W. A. Harper, John W. Peers, B. Rollins & Co., J. H. Stants, J. McKown & Co., J. J. S. Hassler, Ripley; John Armstrong, W. V. & D. M. Barr; Daniel Fronst, G. W. Gibbs, Ravenswood; Wm. Hicks, Murraysville; J. H. Moore, Moore's Mills; F. A. Knight & Co., McGrew's Mills; Andrew Fisher, Pleasant View; Henry Nelson, California.

    Attorneys—Robert Louther, Joseph Smith, C. E. Shaw, Fleet Smith, F. W. Smith; Courthouse; Henry Fitzhugh, Jr., Ravenswood.

    Physicians—F. A. Holt, W. B. McMahon, Ripley; John Armstrong, D. Vooheis, Ravenswood; Dr. Cunningham, Moore's Mills; Dr. Nelson, California.

  • JEFFERSON COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1801, from Berkeley. It is one of the most fertile and populous counties in the state. It lies upon the Potomac, adjoining the counties of Berkeley, Frederick, Clarke and Loudoun. Lying in the Valley of Virginia, it belongs to the limestone formation, and is highly productive in wheat, corn, and cattle. Average value of land by the assessment of 1850, $43.49 per acre. Population—whites 10,481, free colored 535, slaves 4341. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 436.

    Charlestown, the county seat, is situated on the Winchester and Potomac Railroad 15 miles from Harper's Ferry and 92 from Baltimore.

    Circuit Superior Court—R. Parker, Judge; Robert T. Brown, Clerk; Mr. Page, attorney; Fontain Bekham, high sheriff; Thos. Rutherford, deputy; Court held the 18th May and October.

    County Court—Thos. A. Moore, clerk, W. C. Worthington, attorney; Court held the 3rd Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Public Buildings—Jail, Courthouse and Market House

    Hotels and Taverns—J. N. Carter, G. W. Sapington

    Institutions of Learning—Charlestown Academy, John J. Sanborn, principal; Charlestown Female Seminary, Jas. M. Williams, principal.

    Newspapers—Virginia Free Press, H. N. Gallaher & Co., Editors; Spirit of Jefferson, Jas. W. Beller, editor.

    Lawyers—W. C. Worthington, Andrew Hunter, W. Lucas, Moore & Botts, N. G. White, W. L. Baker, R. H. Lee, John T. Gibson, Andrew Kennedy, John W. Kennedy, R. H. Butcher.

    Physicians—J. J. H. Straith, L. C. Cordell, G. F. Mason, Wm. Douglass, W. R. Roum, W. H. D. Hall, Edward G. Eichelberger.

    Dry Goods Merchants—Crane & Brown, Lock, Cramer & Line, J. Harris, John J. Lock, Tate & Hooff, Keyes & Kearsley, Lyalrose & Harly.

    Grocers—James H. Sloan, H. L. Ely & Son

    Hardware—Thomas Rawlins

    Tobacconist—G. W. Sweitzer

    Watchmaker and jeweller—C. G. Stewart

    Apothecaries and druggists—John P. Brown, L. M. Smith & Co.

    Boot and shoe store—Samuel Ridenour

    Churches—Episcopal, Rev. W. Tyng; Methodist Episcopal, Rev. Mr. Martin, Presbyterian—Rev. Warren B. Dutton.

    Bank—Branch of the Bank of the Valley

    Harper's Ferry—This is one of the most romantic looking spots in Virginia. Every traveller whose good fortune it has been to pass here, and has looked upon the magnificence of its varied scenery, has gone away satisfied at nature has done more for it in this respect than for any other place in the world.

    The Shenandoah is rendered navigable several miles above this place by locks and dams, facilitating the transportation of the valuable products of its rich back country.

    Besides its scenery, Harper's Ferry is noted as being the sear of the finest government arsenal and manufactory of small arms in the United States. The buildings are extensive, and constructed upon a scale of magnificence, rendering them worthy the notice of those curious in these matters.

    Manufactories—Shenandoah cotton manufacturing company, mills on the Shenandoah river, Isaac Gregory aget; cotton yarn and rope factory, Stanbrough & Holiday also on the Shenandoah river.

    Churches—Methodist Episcopal, Rev. G. D. Chenworth, pastor; Presbyterian, Rev. Mr. Heaton, pastor; Radical Methodist, Rev. Mr. Everett, pastor; Episcopal. Rev. Horace Stringfellow, pastor; Roman Catholic, Rev. James Plunket, pastor.

    Hotels &c.—United States, Mrs. Carrell; Mrs. Pollock, boarding house, Our House, S. Downey; Gault House, Jacob Brown; taverns kept by the following—Thomas Boerly, S. Timberlake, Mary Grace, N. O. Allison, Mrs. House, John Hartshorn, C. Schuster, John Shilling.

    Lawyers—W. T. Dougherty, Isaac Fouke, A. M. Kitzmiller, C. B. Harding

    Physicians—N. Marmion, Jas. Garry, G. B. Stephenson, P. P. W. Stephenson, J. D. Starry, Dr. Logic.

    Dry Goods &c.—R. Doran, J. C. Willson, Philip Coons, J. Johnson, F. J. Conrad & Brother, Jno. G. Ridenour, J. W. Deener, B. Ott, R. W. Holland.

    Clothing Stores—R. Waller & Brother, Jno. Walden, Stephen & Wells, Jno. Strauss.

    Grocers &c.—John Price, Philip Engle, Orm & Potts, Wm. McCoy, Thos Hughes, Wm. Smallwood.

    Apothecaries—Thomas Hammond, A. M. Cridler

    Flour Dealer—A. Fleming

    Confectioners and Bakers—Jno. Bender, Mrs. Mitchel, Joshua Cox, A. Rueder.

    Book and Shoe Makers—A. S. Stephens, Geo. Fertnery, Jno. Avis.

    Tailors—F. Deffer, Geo. Stailman, Geo. Cutshaw

    Hardware-T. Dalton

    Tinner-Geo. A. Mills

  • KANAWHA COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1789 from Greenbrier and Montgomery. Its is surrounded by the counties of Boone, Cabell, Putnam, Jackson, Wirt, Gilmer, Nicholas and Fayette. Gauly [sic] River unites with New river, and forms the great Kanawha on its eastern border. The Kanawha then flows through the county in a north east direction. The face of the country is generally mountainous, interspersed with rich alluvial valleys of great fertility. Average value of land by the assessment of 1840, $.99 per acre. Population—whites 12007, free colored 207, slaves 8140. Persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 1718.

    Charleston, the county seat, is a neat and flourishing village on the north bank of the Kanawha, 308 miles west of Richmond, and 46 miles east of the Ohio river.

    Kanawha Salines is a flourishing village about 6 miles above Charleston.

    The salt works on the Kanawha are very extensive, employing near 3000 persons in their operations. Near three millions of bushels of salt is here manufactured annually, which find a ready market in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky.

    The county also abounds in Bituminous and Cannel Coal.

    Circuit Superior Court—W. Dunbar, judge; Alexander W. Quarrier, clerk; Andrew Parks, attorney; John Hansford, high sheriff; James H. Fry, deputy; court held the 5th May and October.

    County Court—Alexander W. Quarrier, clerk; Andrew Parks, attorney; court held the third Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Circuit Court of the United States—At Charleston, 1st Wednesday after 2d Monday in April and September.

    They have none but normal schools in the county.

    Churches—There are Episcopal, Presbyterian and Methodist churches in this county.

    Merchants—James A. Lewis, Davis H Estill, J. C. Ruby, Wm. Chamberlain, Welch & Hansford, Ruffner, Donnally & Co., Jacob Goshorn, W. & J. Goshorn, Brooks & Brighton, A. W. Whitaker & Son, A. Wright, E. Baines, D. H. Snyder, J. H. Rogers, Kanawha Courthouse; Ruffnar, Donnally & Co., Rook & Hill, Thomas A. Norson, Kanawha Salines.

    Attorneys—G. W. Summers, R. H. Smith, James Hendrick, James M. Laidley, R. Thompson, J. L. Carr, C. E. Doddridge, Isaac Read, T. B. & J. S. Swann, J. H. ______, Thomas L. Brown, Courthouse; Charles Hedrick, James S. Thager, Kanawaha Courthouse; Edward Kenner, Coals Mouth.

    Physicians—Spicer Patrick, T. C. Watkins, John T. Cotton, M. Parker, A. E. Summers, J. C. Wiebely, Arthur Train, James Putney, Kanawha Salines, W. D. Jackson, Shrewsbury; John Thompson, James Wilson, Allen McGinnis, Coals Mouth; Edward H. C. Bailey, ____ Creek.

  • KING WILLIAM COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1701, from King & Queen. It lies between the Pamunkey and Mattapony, which unite at the southeast angle and form the York. The courthouse lies 27 miles northeast of Richmond and 2 miles from the Mattapony. The lands in this county are generally good; those on and near the rivers very fertile. Average value of the land by the assessment of 1850 $8.10. Population—whites 2712, free colored 345, slaves 5737. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 204.

    There are no internal improvements in this county, the Mattapony and Pamunkey afford easy access to the markets of Norfolk and Baltimore.

    Education—There are two fine Academies in this county; Rumford Academy and one at the Courthouse. There are many normal schools in the county.

    Churches—There are Baptist, Methodist, Reformers and Thomasite Churches in various parts of the County.

    Circuit Superior Court-J. B. Christian, Judge; Robert Pollard, clerk; William S. Peabody, attorney, Richard W. Fox, high sheriff; Wm. M. Turner, R. J. King, deputies; Court held the 3rd Monday in May and November.

    County Court—Robert Pollard, clerk; T. O. Dabney, attorney; Court held the 4th Monday in Each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and November.

    Merchants—Burch & Sweek, Brooking Samuel, Aylett's; James A. Lipscomb, Baylor Temple, Agent & Co., Courthouse; Jno. P. Mitchell, Canton; Sweet & Lurch, _____ Dealing, Stevens & Woody, Mangohick.

    Attorneys—Wm. S. Peachy, Williamsburg; P. H. Aylett, T. O. Dabney, B. B. Douglass, Aylett's; Fendall Gregory, Jr., Courthouse.

    Physicians—Corbin Braxton, Old Church, Hanover; Wm. P. Braxton, John Lewis, Acquinton Church; Philip P. Duval, Fendall Gregory, John S. Lewis, Robert B. Tebbs, Courthouse; Lemuel Edwards, Dr. Williams, Lanesville; Richard W. Fox; Mangohick; W. Gwathmey, Daniel H. Gregg, Wm. Geo. Pollard, Aylett's, Peter R. Turner, Enfield.

  • KING GEORGE COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1720, from Richmond county. It lies between the Potomac and the Rappahannock, with Stafford on the east and Westmoreland on the west.

    King George Court House, near the centre of the county, is a village of about 200 inhabitants, 82 miles from Richmond. Port Conway, on the Rappahannock is a village of 150 inhabitants. The lands throughout the county are generally very good, producing readily corn, oats, wheat and tobacco and cotton; the best lands are on the rivers. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, $9.61. Population—whites 2302, free colored 266, slaves 3403. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 236.

    The Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, and several navigable creeks, afford a ready and economical means of access to the markets of Baltimore, Alexandria, Fredericksburg and Norfolk.

    Education—They have in this county a well organized system of District Public Schools.

    Churches—There are 2 Episcopal, 3 Methodist, and 2 Baptist Churches in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. T. Lomax, judge; W. S. Brown, clerk; B. Thomas Lomax, attorney; Henry S. Washington, high sheriff; Chalres G. Jones, deputy; court held the 24th April and 8th October.

    Merchants—Wm. C. Bruce, P. Marshall, Benjamin Weaver, Courthouse; James E. Jones, Edge Hill; George S. Scrivner, Benj. S. Beenar; Hampstead; N. W. Baker, Shiloh; Wm. S. Payne, Owens & Lumpkin, Port Conway.

    Attorney—W. R. Mason, Court House; George W. Lewis, Oak Grove, Westmoreland County; P. Thornton Lomax; Oak Grove, Westmoreland.

    Physicians—Thos. L. Hunter, H. D. Asher, George W. Lewis, Thos. K. Price Court House; William Potts, Edge Hill; Richard H. Stuart, Francis T. Fitzhugh; Abram B. Hooe, John T. A. Billingley, Hampstead; Ferdinand Fairfax, Broderick Ninde, Shiloh; John P. Robb, Port Conway; James W. Barnett, Court house.

  • KING & QUEEN COUNTY

    This county was formed from New Kent in 1691. The Mattapony runs on its southwestern borrder separating it from King William and the Piankatank on a portion of its northwestern, separaring it from Middlesex. The Courthouse is near the Mattapony, about 53 miles northeast of Richmond. The soil of this county is generally very good, and the immense beds of marl with which the county abounds furnish great means of improvement. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, $7.48. Population—whites 3948, free colored 440, slaves 5764. Number of persons over the ave of 20 years who cannot read and write 401.

    Education—There are 4 flourishing Academies in this county, viz: Fleetwood, male, Stevensville, male; Stevensville, female; and Shacklesford's female. Besides these there are many normal schools.

    Churches—Epsicopal 1; Reformers 2; Baptists 8; and Methodists 5.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. B. Christian, judge; Robert Pollard, Jr., clerk; James M. Jeffries, attorney; John Pollard, high sheriff; Hill Jones, deputy; Court held Thursday after 1st Monday in May and November.

    County Court—Robert Pollard, Jr., clerk; James M. Jeffries, attorney; Court held the 2nd Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and November.

    Merchants—William H. Anderson, Plain View; Andrew M. Boulware, Newtown; B. Bird, Courthouse; John N. Gresham & Co., Stevensville; Samule E. _____, Newtown; Clarke & Faulcouner, Millers, Essex County; Courtney &Eodies, Walkerton; James W. Courtney, Little Plymouth; Richard W. H. Godwin, Carlton's Store; Danforth Butrick, Richmond Williams, Claiborne H. Bland, Shackleford'; James Wright, Little Plymouth; Turner & Acree, Walkerton.

    Physicians—Richard H. Cox, Shackleford's; William Dew, John M. Garnett, Newtown; John Duval, Z. Lewis, William B. Todd, Bernard H. Walker, Stevnesville; Benj. Fleet, Moore G. Fauntleroy, S. G. Faultleroy, Aylett's, King William; Sam'l G. Fauntleroy, Sr., Samuel G. Fauntleroy, Jr., Beverly D. Roy, Little Plymouth; John W. Garrick, Alexander H. Perkins, Brewington; James R. Garrett, Courthouse; Samuel S. Henley, Walkerton; B. Richards, Philemon B. Robinson, Carlton's Store.

    Attorneys—Benj. F. Day, Newtown; Alex Dudley, Samuel F. Harowood, T. W. Tyler Courthouse; T. R. Gresham, J. M. Jeffries, Stevensville; Edward Gresham, Carlton's Store; J. H. C. Jones, James Smith, Fleetwood, John R. W right, Little Plymouth.

  • LANCASTER COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1652. It lies on the north side of the Rappahannock, at its mouth. Lancaster Court House, situated near the center of the county is about 83 miles northwest of Richmond. The lands are pretty good, and with good improvement produce corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, &c. Average value by the assessment of 1850, $9.69. Population—whites 1803, free colored 265, slaves 2640. Number of persons over the age of 20 who cannot read and write 156.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. T. Lomax, judge; D. T. Dunaway, Clerk; P. T. Lomax, attorney, James Carrell, High sheriff; G. D. Wadley, deputy; court held 1st April and 28th October.

    County Court—R. T. Dunaway, clerk; Samuel Gresham, attorney; court held the 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and November.

    Merchants—Wm. Bentley, W. S. Jessee, Litwalton; R. T. Dunaway & Co., Waddy & Dix, Wm. Brent, Courthouse; L. H. Dix, Merry Point; T. J. Meredith, L. Lur____; Kilmarnock, J. S. Currell, G. G. Lee, Peter Chase, White Stone.

    Attorneys—Samuel Gresham, B. H. Robinson, Lancaster Courthouse.

    Physicians—C. H. Leland, J. Sammonds, A. A. Edwards, Courthouse, E. B. Edmonds, Kilmarnock, P. Towles, M. Lawson, Whitestone.

  • LEE COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1792 from Russell. It lies in the southwestern angle of the State, bordering on Tennessee and Kentucky. Jonesville, the county seat is 284 miles from Richmond, 65 from Knoxville, Tennessee, and 60 from Babersville, in Kentucky. The lands are very rich, and produce wheat, corn, rye, oats, &c., in abundance. Average value by the assessment of 1850, $2.42. Population whites—9442, free colored 37, slaves 787. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 1822.,

    Iron ore and coal are found in abundance in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—B. Estill, Judge; John W. L. Morison, clerk; John D. Shaff, attorney; Samuel Ewing, high sherif; John M. Crockett, Dudley Ewing, deputies; court held the 3rd Monday in April and 2nd in September.

    County Court—J. W. S. Morison, clerk; Henry S. Kane, attorney; court held the __ Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August, and November.

    Mercants—M.D.B. Lane, Conk & Co., Elijah Hill & Son, John T. Ransom, Wm. S. Martin & Co., John W. S. Morison & Co., Lawson W. Loyd, Jonesville; Johnson, Gibson & Co., Bales & Ewing, Rose Hill; L. M. Day, ____ McElroy, Powell's Mountain; Vastine Stickley, Walling's Creek; Sutton and Robinson, Wm. P. Minter, Yorkem Station; J. & W. Richmond, Turkey Cove.

    Attorneys—Henry S. Kane, John D. Shaff, M. B. D. Lane, Jonesville, Wm. Ely, Rose Hill

    Physicians—George R. Stubble, Dr. Campbell, W. L. Stubblefield, J. B. Spencer, Boyd Dickinson, James Pendleton, Jonesville; Joshua Ewing, Rose Hill; Andrew J. Young, Powell's Mountain; James W. Sage, Walling's Creek; Samuel D. Stalleurs, Yoken Station; William Wilson, Aaron Collier, Hiram Riggs; Turkey Cove.

  • LEWIS COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1816 from Harrison. It is surrounded by the counties of Braxton, Gilmer, Doddridge, Harrison, Barbour, and Ranolph. Weston the county seat is situated at the west fork of Monogalia, 281 miles from Richmond and 50 from the Ohio river. The surface of the county is rocky, hilly, and in some parts mountainous; the soil on the water courses is fertile. Average value of land by the assessment of 1850 $2.43. Population —whites 9629, free colored 34, slaves 362. Number of whites over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 1117.

    In Weston there are three Churches; Epsicopalian, Catholic and Methodist, the latter attached to the Pittsburg Conference. The Catholic Church, of which the Rev. Mr. Stack is pastor, is quite a good little brick edifice, prominently situated, and contains a finely executed picture of the Crucifixion. There are also some primary schools; and the hills in the vicinity of th eplace abound in rich bituminious coal which blazes readily without the use of a blowers.

    Circuit Superior Court—G. H. Lee, judge; John Talbott, clerk; John McWhorter, attorney; Wm. Powers, high sheriff; Cornelius T. Hurley, Jacob Lorentz, Jr., deputies; Court held the 26th May and October.

    County Court—John Morrow, clerk; John McWhorter, attorney; Court held the 2nd Monday in each month; quarterly terms in April, June, August and September.

    Merchants—Weeden Hoffman, John Lorentz, George A. Jackson, Albert A. Lewis, Henry H. Withers, Charles C. Moore, James T. Jackson, Martin Smithson, Darlington & Wood, David R. Core, Weston; Peter M. Arnold, Collins' Settlement; E. A. Ceare, Bennett's Mill; Jesse L. Peterson, John West, Little Skin Creek; James Ha___, Big Skin Creek; Blackwell Jackson, B. & Z. Jordan, James Jackson, Jane Lew.

    Attorneys—Lewis Maxwell, John McWhorter, Joseph C. Spalding, Mathew Edmonton, John Brannon, Robert Irvine, George J. Arnold, W. E. Arnold, James Benner, Caleb Bogges, Jr., J. M. Bennett, Weston; Jonathan Holt, Bennett's Mill.

    Physicians—Wm. J. Bland, Newton B. Barns, James A. Hall, J. M. Hamilton, Evan Carmack, Weston; B. Jodon, Jane Lew; Jonathan Holt, Bennett's Mills.

  • LOUDOUN COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1751 from Halifax [sic—Fairfax]. It lies on the Potomac river, which separates it from Maryland, the Blue Ridge forming its western boundary. Leesburg, the county seat, lies in the northern part of the county, 153 miles from Richmond, and 34 from Washington City. This county contains all varieties of soil from rich alluvian to an unproductive clay. Average value by the assessment of 1852, $27.50. Population—whites 15066, free colored 1373, slaves 5641. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 612.

    This county has access to market by means of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Ashby's Gap Turnpike, Leesburg Turnpike, Snicker's Gap Turnpike and Little River Turnpike; they have also the Manassas Gap Railroad and Goose Creek and Little River improvement in the course of construction.

    Iron ore is found in abundance in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—Jon W. Tyler, judge; Matthew Harrison, attorney, Thos. P. Knox, clerk; Hamilton Rogers, high sheriff; Fielding Littleton, David Hixson, Thomas Rogers, Richard H. Summers, Seldon M. Gibson, Alexander H. Rogers, deputies; court held the 3rd Monday in April and 4th Monday in October.

    County Court—Burr W. Harrison, attorney; Charles G. Eskridge, clerk; court held the second Monday in each month, quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Harrison, Hough & Co., Robert Bentley, Jr., Robert W. Gray, J. W. & B. Wildman, G. & W. Harding, S. M. Boss, Benjamin D. Rathie, Wm. D. Driskell, M. Wallace, Peter W. Johnson & Co., Charles A. Johnston, J. S. & S. M. Harris, T. S. Dorrell, Thomas Purcell, John Small, Joel L. Nixon, Thomas Spates, John Saunders, Wm. Newton, Washington Jarvis, Daniel G. Smith, George R. Head, A. R. Mott, John H. Kaighn, John E. S. Hough, Charles E. Evard, James Garrison, P. I. Scott, Wm. Cline, John W. Gover, Leesburg; Asa Rogers, Brown & Stevens, Ruth Smith, George W. Adams, A. G. Smith, John M. Moran, John R. Smith, Johnston & Co., Middleburg; Dutton & Hollingsworth, Wm. Carroll, Henry T. Gover & Brother, Wm. T. French, Paxson & Beans, Abraham Hains, Wm. S. Wood, Waterford; Bernard Hough & Co., Silas Marmaduke, James Carroll, John Jones, Jr., Hamilton Householder, Hillsborough; John P. H. Green, James S. Oden, L. W. & B. Swart, ____ Weeks, Adie; B. H. Richards & Co., John W. Griffith, Union; Charles F. Wright, J. C. Stoneburner & Co., Lovettesville; Silcott & Chambin, T. V. B. & T. M. Osburn, Snickersville; Megeath & Co., Gregg & Megeath, Philomont, Wm. McIntosh, Young & Osburn, B. P. Chamblin & Co., Cummins & Chamblin, Woodgrove; Isaac S. Hough, Samuel C. Luckett, Townsend M. Paxon, Hoyesville;S ettle & Newman, David P. Conrad, Alexander McFarland, Gum Spring; Wm. H. Gill, James Johnson, George Kile, F. L. Fred & Co., Bloomfield; Thomas Hughes, Hughesville; J. L. & C. F. Palmer; Geasilin & Alinutt, Frankville; John Weaden, B. B. Jeffries, Mountsville; Peter Derry, Thomas Vickers, Neersville; E. J. & E. W. Hamilton, Jonathan Hirst, Hamilton; E. R. Purcell & Co., Eli Hurst, Stacy M. Nichols, Purcelville; Wm. H. Schooby, Daniel Boland, Bollington; Thomas Brown, Circleville; James R. Simpson, Mandley Hampton, Mount Gilead; Jesse McIntosh, Leesburg; Harrison Cross, Arcola.

    Attorneys—John Janney, Burr W. Harrison, A. Sidney Tebbs, Tebbs & Ball, Mathew Harrison, John M. Orr, W. H. Gray, James F. Trayhern, John L. Shackleford, Luther G. Carrington, Chalres W. Blincoe, Leesburg; H. B. Powell, Burr P. Nowland, Middlebury; Seth Smith, Union.

    Physicians—George Lee, A. R. Mott, Wm. Cross, S. R. Jackson, W. Harding, Thomas F. Drake, Leesburg; W. B. Cochran, Francis W. Powell, John F. Mount, Middlebury; Richard H. Edwards, Charles G. Edwards, Thomas M. Bond, Waterford; Frederick Davisson, Samuel Turner, Hillsborough; Abner Osburn, Nathan Love, Snickersville; J. Decatur Heaton, Pursel's store; Isaac Eaton, F. Edward Lockett, Mount Gilead; Theodrick Leith, James Leith, Union; N. Janney, Daniel Downey, Hamilton's Store; Wm. H. McVeigh, Gum Spring; James Weeks, Arcola; Thomas H. Bogle, Aldie; Mahlon R. Baldwin, Mt. Gilead.

    There is a Branch of the Bank of the Valley at Leesburg, Wm. H. Powell, Cashier; James H. Chamblin, notary public.

  • LOUISA COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1742 from Hanover. It is bounded by the counties of Orange, Spotsylvania, Hanover, Goochland, Fluvanna and Albemarle. Louisa Court House is situated about 60 miles northwest of Richmond, and contains about 150 inhabitants. The land in this county is generally poor, though the "Green Spring" section is estimated the best wheat land in the State. There is also good farming lands on the North and South Anna rivers. Average value by the assessment of 1850, $8.44. Population 6429, free colored 398, slaves 9864. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 500.

    There are no navigable streams running through the county—the Central railroad and the James River canal are employed in the transportation of produce to market.

    Mineral resoruces—There are two furnaces for smelting pig iron now in operation, one about a quarter of a mile and the other about four miles from the line of the Central railroad. There is near the latter furnace a bed of fine iron ore. Several gold mines are in operation in this county, some of which are said to be profitable.

    Churches—There are at the Courthouse a Baptist, Methodist and Reformers churches and in different parts of the county there are numerous churches belongin to the various persuasions.

    Schools—There are no institutions of learning other than common schools in the county.

    Circuit Court Superior Court—R. H. Field, judge; John Hunter, clerk; Lucian Minor, attorney, Nathaniel Mills, high sheriff; Luther M. Jones, T. G. Morris, Nathaniel Mills, Jr., deputies; court held the 10th April and September.

    County court—John Hunter, clerk; Lucian Minor, attorney; court held the second Monday in each month; quartrely terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Berryman T. Jennigns, Yanceyville; Richard B. Wooldridge, Andrew Armstrong, Granville T. Armstrong, David M. Foster, William N. Gentry, James _____, lower end of county; Joseph A. Ballman, Mechanicsville; Saml. W. Mason, Thompson's X Roads; James P. Perkins, Bell's X Roads; John T. Quarles, William Robinson, Stern & Co., John R.Jones, Robert T. Gooch, Courthouse; Marshall Waddy, Sims' Store; William Bagby, Locust Creek; John T. Bumpass; Second _____; Reuben Davis, Tolersville; George W. Duke, Duke's Old Store; Rober Ellis, Ellisville; William A. Gillespie, Clayton's Old Store; Nathaniel W. Harris, Frederick Hall; Mathew A. Hope, Jackson's; Leon Levy, Garrett's Store; Hyman Levy, Courthouse; Goodrich Terrell, Gold Mine Creek; Charles G. Trevillian, Trevillian's Depot; James B. Parrish, north side county; M. Hall, upper end of county.

    Attorneys—Wm. M. Ambler, James L. Gordon, Charles S. Jones, Edward H. Lane, ____ Minor, Henry W. Murray, Starke W. Morris, Joseph K. Pendleton, Robert Perkins, Courthouse; George W. Hackett, Thomas S. Watson, Trevillian's Depot; Alexander R. Holladay, Mansfield; John Woolfolk, Ellisville; Robert B. Waddy, Johnson's Cross Roads; Francis V. Winston, do.

    Physicians—Archibald Anderson, John B. Anderson, Mathew Anderson, Wm. Meredith, Jackson's; William Beadles; John L. Burruss, Enos F. Funter, Dr. Perkins, Mercer W. Quarles, Courthouse; Baldwin M. Buckner, Pottersville; D. Campbell, Julian Keen, Thompson's X Roads; Benj. F. Dunn, _______ ______, Trevillian's Depot; Charles Dickinson, Poindexter's Store, William N. ____pie, Ellisville; William Hackett, Poindexter's Store; William J. ____, Mechanicsville; Lewis Perkins, Harris'

  • LUNENBURG COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1746 from Brunswick. The Meherrin river is its southern boundary separating it from Nottoway County. Lewiston, the county seat, is about 80 miles southwest of Richmond. The soil is generally poor, though on the margins fo streams it is of a very good quality, and with proper cultivation readily yields crops of tobacco, corn, wheat and oats. Average value by the assessment of 1850 $3.84 per acre. Population—whites 5299, free colored 192, slaves 7187. Number of persons over the age of 20 who cannot read and write, 157.

    Education—There is a flourishing school kept by John Organ, Jr., about 7 miles of the Courthouse. The other schools are normal.

    Churches—There are 2 Episcopalian, 4 Presbyterian, 11 Methodist, 2 Old Baptist; 4 Reformed Baptist Churches in different parts of the county.

    Circuit Superior Court—W. Leigh, Judge; Thomas W. ____, Clerk; Chalres Small, attorney; G. M. Bacon, high sheriff; John A. Stokes, Alpheus Billings, William Love, deputies; Court held the 4th May and October.

    County Court—Thomas W. Winn, clerk; Charles Smith, attorney; Court held 2nd Monday; quarterly terms in March, June, August, and November.

    Merchants—Elisha B. Jackson, Wm. M. Bagley, Day, Crymes & Bro., Courthouse; Rudd, Smith & Snead, Wm. M. Bagley, Columbian Grove; John W. Kuton, Wm. Jordan, Rehoboth; Eubank & Lipscomb, Haleysburg; Figg & Wall, J. & A. R. M_____, Pleasant Grove; Musgrove & Marshall, Knight & Oliver's Mill; Joel G. Wall; Wattsboro; Washington Maddox, Cone & Adler, MacFarland's; Blackwell & Hardy; Kepburn & Swepson, Yatesville.

    Attorneys—Charles Smith, Jeffries Store; Wm. J. Neblett, Brickland, F. C. W__son, Wm. E. Stockdell; Henderson L. Lee, Courthouse.

    Physicians—Henry May, John T. Merryman, Courthouse; John S. Bayn, Thomas Johnson, Samuel Stone, Rehoboth; Edward Wilson, Chales May, Wattsboro; Anthony W. Smith, Barry's Bridge; James E. Hazelwood, Robert Patterson, Cobb's Grove; John A. Johns, Jr., Double Bridges; Henry A. Vaughan, John Vaughn, Brydies Store; Robert S. Bagley, Lew, Hatchett, R. J. H. Hatchett, Cornelius Lee, Macfarlands; Samuel Saunders, Haleysburg.

  • MARSHALL COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1835, from Ohio county. It lies on the Ohio river. Ohio county on the north and Wetzel on the south. The Courthouse is situated 12 miles below Wheeling, at the mouth of Grave creek. The surface of the county is uneven and mountinous, but the soil is very good. Average value of the lands by the assessment of 1850, $8.71. Population—whites 10054, free colored 35, slaves ___. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 977.

    The Ohio affords easy access to market; large quantities of flour and wool are annually shipped from this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. L. Fry, Judge; James D. Morris, clerk; Z. Jacobs, attorney; Simeon B. Purdey, high sheriff; James R. Bell, Enos Howard, deputies. Court held the 4th May and October.

    County Court—James D. Morris, clerk; E. H. Caldwell, attorney; court held on third Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Michael Dunn, W. & C. Thompson, John Straughn, Alexander & Schultz, J. & J. Gallagher, Blackmore & Gallagher, _____ Myers, George Edmonds, James Holliday, Jacob Jefferson, Courthouse; Hornbrook & Son, mouth of Fish Creek; Benoni Wheat, Fish Creek; John Bell, Bell's; _____ Funk, Poplar Spring.

    Attorneys—E. H. Caldwell, Wylie H. Oldham, Wm. McConnell, Campebll Holliday, Courthouse.

    Physicians—Zedekiah Masters, George W. Bruce, J. W. Nay, George C. Gance, Courhouse; Wm. Baldwin, Poplar Spring, Dr. Gillespie, West Union.

  • MASON COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1804, from Kanawha. It is situated in the western division of the state, at the mouth of the great Kanawha river, where it unites with the Ohio, whose waters bounding it at one side, together with those of the first named river, offer facilities for transportion with its most remote parts, such as are enjoyed by boats of a heavy class. The lands along the rivers are rich, and well suited to agricultureal purposes. Average value by the assessment of 1850 $5.46. Population—whites 6842, free colored 50, slaves 647. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 955.

    Its minerals are iron ore, which has recently been found in such abundance on the south side of the Kanawha as to justify the erection of a furnace. Coal deposits of immese extent and richness are worked to profit. Near west Columbia, on the Ohio, extensive wells have lately been sunk and salt is being manufactured at the rate of 450 bushels per day. Limestone and sand stone, suitable for building, is found in great abundance, also the grind stone variety.

    Its highways are the rivers Ohio and Kanawha, and the Charleston and Point Pleasant Turnpike.

    Point Pleasant, the county seat, is situated at the junction of the great Kanawha with the Ohio, 370 miles west of Richmond, containing a population of 400.

    There are but two schools of consequence in the county, both at Point Pleasant, one for males and the other for females; they are very well attended.

    There is one Pesbyterian and one Methodist Church at Point Pleasant; one Episcopal at Mercer's Bottom; and one Presbyterian at Pleaant Flats.

    Circuit Superior Court—D. McComas, judge; Henry J. Fisher, attorney; George M. Strebling, clerk, Robert Mitchell High sheriff; Elijah Kimberling, Samuel W. Sommerville, deputies; court held the 15th March and August.

    County Court—Thomas Lewis, clerk; James H. Couch, attorney; court held the first Monday in each month; quarterly terms in February, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Robert Mitchell, Beale & Son, James Capehart, Charles C. Miller, Jno. Franklin, Francis Gilmore, Point Pleasant; Michael Barlow & Co., Wm. J. Stephens, Yeager & Aumiller, West Columbia; John Dunn, Leon; John M. Hanley, Hereford's; George M. Girt, Graham's Station.

    Attorneys—Henry J. Fisher, James H. Couch, George W. Stribbling, James H. Hutchinson, Point Pleasant.

    Physicians—Daniel Couch, Samule G. Shaw, John J. Thompson, James H. Hoff, Point Pleasant; Aquilla L. Knight, Charles A. Barlow, West Columbia, Owen S. G. Chase, Leon.

  • MERCER COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1837 from Giles and Tazewell. It is bounded by Tazewell, Wyoming, Raleigh, Monroe and Giles counties. Princeton, the county seat is about 270 miles from Richmond. The surface of the county is mountainous and hilly. It is a stock-raising county; the woodlands affording a fine range for cattle. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, $1.06 per acre. Population—whites 4019, free colored 26, slaves 177. Number of persons over the age of 20 who cannot read and write, 586.

    Minerals—Iron ore is abundant. Salt is believed to be abundant. One well is prepared to make at least 150 bushels per day. Coal plenty, including the cannel variety, and coaser in quality than that of Kanawha. Limestone plenty.

    Circuit Superior Court-J. E. Brown, Judge; Alexander Mahood, clerk; Henley Chapman, attorney; Robert Hall, high sheriff; Benjamin McNutt, Ralph Hall, deputies; court held the 1st Monday after the 4th Monday in April and September.

    County Court—Charles W. Caffer, clerk; David Hall, attorney; court held Thursday after second Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August, and November.

    Merchants—Elliot Vauter, Ward & Gibbony, Geo. W. Peariss, David Hall, Court house; Joseph Straley, East River; Gordon Jordan, Pipe stems; Anderson Pack, Mouth of Blue Stone; A. W. Ball, Flat Top Mountain; Byrnsides & Co., Salt works; Pearis & Henderson, Rock Settlement.

    Attorneys—A. Mahood, David Hall, Courthouse

    Physicians—Robert B. McNutt, Dr. Martin, Courthouse.

  • MIDDLESEX COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1675 from Lancaster. It lies between the Rappahannock and Piankatank. Urbanna, the county seat, is situated on the Rappahannock about 18 miles from its mouth, and 84 miles northeastwardly from Richmond. The lands are generally very fertile, producing wheat, corn, and oats. Average value by the assessment of 1850, $8.53 per acre. Population—whites 1916, free colored 148, slaves 2342. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 132.

    Education—There are no academies in this county. Six public school houses have been erected for the education of indigent children, in whcih schools are kept most of the year. There are six other schools kept in the county in which pay scholars as well as indigent are instructed.

    Churches—There are 5 Baptist, 2 Methodist, 1 Episcopal, 1 Free, and 1 Union Baptist Churches in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. B. Christian, Judge; Robert N. Trice, clerk; John T. Seawell, attorney; John P. Bristow, high sheriff; Jas. S. & John R. R. Bristow, deputies. Court held Tuesday after 1st Monday in April and October.

    County Court—Robert N. Trice, clerk; Robert L. Montague, attorney; Court held the 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August, and November.

    Merchants—Robert N. Trice, Alfred Healy & Co., Urbanna; Gwyn & Heywood, Jamaica; John W. Daniel & Co., 5 miles below Urbanna; Davis & Walker, Mount Vernon; Thomas S. Browne, Oakley; Andrew Stiff, Freeshade; John W. Palmer, Cedar Hill; Thomas K. Savage, Sandy Bottom; John A. Miles, Wm. T. Miles, Jas. A. Jackson, Thomas R. Ball, New Market.

    Attorneys—P. L. Montague, Joseph Christian, T. T. Woodward, Urbanna.

    Physicians—Wm. L. Gatewood, Wm. G. Jeffries, Jamaica; Mason Evans, R. A. Christian, George L. Nicolson, Wm. S. Christian, M. C. Booth, Urbanna; Douglas Pitt, Addison Hall, Jr., Freeshade; James Moore, Dr. Dunn, Sandy Bottom.

  • MONONGALIA COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1776 from the district of west Augusta. It is bounded on the north by Pennsylvania, east by Preston, south by Marion, and west by Wetzel. Morgantown, the county seat, is 295 miles northwest of Richmond. The county is hilly, but much of the land is fertile. Its principle exports are stock, iron, lumber and some flour. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, $7.90 per acre. Population—whites—12,092, free colored 119, slaves 176. Number of persons over the age of 20 who cannot read and write, 456.

    Minerals—This county contains much mineral wealth. Iron ore of all varieties is abundant. Coal in the most profuse abundance, and in strata from one to twelve feet thick, found in every part of the county. Lime stone and sand stone are abundant. Sulphur springs of the first quality abound.

    Education—There are two good academies in the county and many normal schools.

    Churches—Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, and Baptist.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. L. Fry, judge; W. T. Willey, clerk; G. R. C. Allen, attorney; Wm John, high sheriff, E. P. Fitch, A. C. Dorsey, J. J. Fitch, George D. Evans, deputies; court held the 3rd of April and September.

    County Court—Waitman T. Willey, clerk; Ralph L. Berkshire, attorney; court held the 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—H. Dering & Co., Chadwich & Brother, George M. Hagan & Co., Brook & Haymond, L. McLane & Co., Fleming & Guseman, Hugh H. Carr, Morgantown.

    Attorneys—Edgar C. C. Wilson, L. L. Hough, Matthew Gay, Henry E. Smith, Philip H. Kick, Morgantown.

    Physicians—Watson Carr, Charles McLane, Joseph A. McLane, Dr. Willey, Dr. Guyer, Morgantown.

  • MONROE COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1799. New river forms its southwestern boundary, and receives in its course the Greenbrier river, Indian Creek, and some minor streams. Much of the country is mountainous, but as a whole, it is a thriving agricultural section, having a large proportion of fertile soil, well adapted to grazing. Union, the county seat, is 229 miles west of Richmond— Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, $5.25 per acre. Population whites—9065, free colored 69, slaves 1063. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 910.

    Internal Improvements—The Red and Blue Sulphur Springs turnpike road passes through this county. The White and Salt Sulphur Springs turnpike passes through the town of Union. The Giles, Fayette and Kanawha turnpike passes through the lower end of the county. There is also a very good road from the Sweet Springs to Union.

    Minerals—Iron ore is abundant and of the best quality. Coal is believed to be abundant. Limestone and sand stone in profusion. This county is favored with several mineral springs. There are the Sweet Springs, Salt Sulphur, Red Sulphur, Crimson Sulphur, Carden's Sulphur, and the Gray Sulphur; the improvements at all of which are extensive.

    Education—Union Academy, at Union, is in a flourishing condition and sometimes has a high as eighty scholars. There is also a female school at the same place. In other parts of the county are normal schools.

    Churches—There are in the county 4 Presbyterian, 6 Baptist, 9 Methodist, and 1 Seceder's churches.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. E. Brown; judge; John Hutchinson, clerk; Nathaniel Harrison, attorney; John Hinton, high sheriff; John W. Lanius, Wilson Lively, deputies; court held the second Monday in April and September.

    County Court—John Hutchinson, clerk; John Echols, attorney; court held the third Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Wm. Adair, Red Sulphur Springs; E. M. Brown & Co., C. J. Beirne, Union; James M. Byrnside, Peterstown; Lewis E. Caperton, Union; C. J. Campbell, Gap Mills; C. S. Campbell, Sweet Springs; Campbell, Roberts & Co., Pickaway Plains; A. Dunlap & Co., Red Sulphur Springs; Estill & Watts, Salt Sulphur Springs; Hawkins & Gray, Hill & Patton, Rocky Point; James Hopkins, James Swinney, Rich Creek; John L. Hutchinson, Thomas J. Johnston, Union; A A. Dunlap & Co., Johnson & Patton, Cross roads; Lewis Johnson, Egypt; Lewis & White; Sweet Springs; McNeer & Ballard, Centerville; Swan & Morgan, Crimson Springs; Osborne & Rowan, Gap Mills; Plunkett & Hutcheson, Nickell's Mills, J. Vawter * Co., Centerville.

    Attorneys—Joseph A. Alderson, Allen T. Caperton, A. A. Chapman, John Echols, Union; Nathaniel Harrison, Salt Sulphur Springs; William W. Wallace, Union.

    Physicians—Charles Baldwin, Thomas G. Clay, Walter Douglass, Union, Thos. J. Burke, Red Sulphur Srpings; Shannon Butt, Centerville; William G. Cook, Sweek Springs; Thomas Fowler, Park's Ferry, New River; Francis Murphy, Gap Mills; James Y. Waite, Egypt; A. M. Waite, Nickell's Mills.

  • MONTGOMERY COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1776. It lies on the New river which separates it from Pulaski, with Giles on the north, Roanoke and Franklin on the east, and Floyd on the south. The face of the country is broken and mountainour, though the streams are bordered with excellent soil, which yield heavy crops of corn and wheat. Average value of land by the assessment of 1850, $5.84 per acre. Population—whites—6821, free colored 65, slaves 1471. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 456.

    Christiansburg, the county seat, lies 203 miles southwesterly from Richmond, 46 miles from Fincastle, and 47 from Wytheville. It contains 532 inhabitants. Blacksburg, 9 miles north of Courthouse, contains 333 inhabitants.

    Minerals—Semi-bituminous coal found in great quantities in several parts of the county, and a recenlty a species of Cannel has been found in the northwestern part. Limestone abundant. White marble is found on the South Fork on the Roanoke, of fine quality.

    Learning—Montgomery Male Academy, at Christiansburg, under the care of Montgomery Presbytery, is in a flourishing condition. The other schools in the county are normal.

    Churches—There are 2 Presbyterian, 5 Methodist, 1 Lutheran and 1 Campbellite Church in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. E. Brown, judge; R. D. Montague, clerk; John B. L. Logan, attorney; Hugh McG. Kent, high sheriff; Giles J. Henderson, Thomas W. Jones, deputies; Court held the 4th Monday in April and September.

    County Court—R. D. Montague, clerk; James F. Preston, attorney; Court held the 1st Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August, and November.

    Merchants—Amiss & Wade, Jeremiah Kyle, Robert Gardner, C. B. & J. Gardner, J. H. Guggenheimer, Wade, Shields & Co., Christiansburg; Edwin J. Amiss, John Peterman, John R. Phillips, Wm. H. Peck, Newlee & Ronald, Wm. Thomas, Blacksburg; Price & Straley, Price's Store; Thomas & Brothers, Everet & Armstrong, Lafayette; Kent & McConkey, White House; Barnes & Trigg, Hans Meadow; Wall & Peterman, Thompson's Lawn; Wall & Jordan, Chrisman's Mill; Russell Carper, Lovely Mount; S. & T. D. Childress, Mill Creek, Amiss & Wade, Rough and Ready.

    Attorneys—Preston & Staples, Eli Phelgar, Wm. M. Barnity, Jas. C. Taylor, Christiansburg; Chas. A. Ronald, Blacksburg.

    Physicians—Joseph S. Edie, Benj. L. Brown, David Wade, Hugh McG. Kent, Christiansburg; Thomas T. Jackson, John R. Phillips, Harvey Black, Jonathan T. Evans, Henry Ribble, Blacksburg, Thos. H. Barnes, Samuel A. McConkey, Lafayette; James Kent, Shawsville.

  • MORGAN COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1820 from Hampshire and Berkely. It lies on the Potomac river, which separates it from Maryland. Bath, the county seat, is situated on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 180 miles from Richmond, 95 miles from Washington, and 45 from Harper's Ferry. It contains 200 inhabitants. The Berkely springs near this place, are much resorted to. There are several fine boarding houses for the accomodation of visitors. The land, though hilly, is very valuable, and the lands on the Potomac, Cacapon and Sleepy Creek, range from $5 to $50 per acre. Average value by the assessment of 1850, $4.22 per acre. Population—whites-3431, free colored 3, slaves 123. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 434.

    The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal traverse the county, and afford means of communication with the eastern markets. There are also several graded roads under construction.

    Minerals—This county contains abundant minerals, which are not worked to any extent.

    There are non but normal schools in the county.

    There are several Methodist churches and one Roman Cahtolic in this county.

    Circuit Superior Court—R. Parker, judge; Isaiah Buck, clerk; A. J. O. Bannon, attorney; George Aulabough, high sheriff; Peter E. Ziler, deputy; court held the __ May and October.

    County Court—Isaiah Buck, clerk; Robert E. Gustin, attorney; court held the 4th Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, September, and November.

    Merchants—Hammond & Tyler, Charles Green, Jonathan Carler, Robert P. Gustin, Joseph Graves, John Cross, Berkely Springs; Unger & Buck, Oakland; Charles A. Swann, Swann's Depot; Jas. M. Lemon, Wm. Rockwell; Sleepy Creek village; Wm. Young & Co., Oakland; Lloyd & Higgins, Sir Johns Run; Chas. Ogden, Dam. No. 6. Isaac Baker, Gale & Son, Pawpaw Tunnel.

    Attorneys—Robert C. Gustin, Jos. S. Duckwall, Jas. E. Stewart, Berkeley Springs

    Physicians—Joseph W. Brown, John A. Chambers, L. S. Allen, Berkley Springs.

  • NANSEMOND COUNTY

    This county was formed as early as 1639-40. It is situated on Hampton Roads, between Norfolk and Isle of Wight Counties. The surface of the county is very low—the lands on Nansemond river are generally good, as are some in the interior. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, $5.12 per acre. Population—white 5414, free colored 2146, slaves 4715. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write, 1006.

    Suffolk, the county seat, is on the Nansemond river, on the lime of the Potomac and Roanoke railroad, 18 miels from Norfolk, and 85 from Richmond, it contains about 1100 inhabitants.

    Marl of excellent quality and in great abundance is found on the river and the borders of the Dismal Swamp.

    Circuit Superior Court—R. H. Baker, judge; Benjamin Riddick, clerk; Richard Riddick, attorney; Nathaniel P. Phillips, high sheriff; Hugh H. Kelly, deputy, court held the 16th April and 12th October.

    County Court—Benjamin Riddick, clerk; Richard H. Riddick, attorney; court the second Monday in each month; quarterly terms in March, June, August and November.

    Merchants—Wm. B. Whitehead, James B. Norfleet, Charles Walters, O. R. Flynn, Wm. D. McClenny, Jos. P. Hall, Benjamin D. Smith, Archibald Riddick, Chales F. Hoffman, James M. Bailey, D. P. Wright, S. P. Johnson, S. Hodges, M. Briggs, Elisha Everitt, George W. Riddick, Suffolk; James E. Smith, Joshua King & Co., Somerton; Jos. C. Meador, Julius C. Godwin, Chuckatuck; Jas. Hargrove, Chas. Oliver, Hargroves; Jethro Haslett, Holy Neck.

    Attorneys—John R. Kilby, James E. Jenkins, Richard H. Riddick, Jr., Robert R. Prentiss, Suffolk.

    Physicians—James S. Brown, Samuel Harris, Robert H. Webb, Samuel C. Holland, Thos. C. Hines, Suffolk; Richard Elliott, Somerton; Edwin Phillips, Chuckatuck; Richard H. Beamon, Hargrove.

  • NEW KENT COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1654 from York. The Pamunkey runs on its northern and the Chickahominy on its southern boundary. New Kent Courthouse is 30 miles east of Richmond. The lands in the county are generally of good heart, and the facilities for improvement are not to be surpassed by any section of the State. Marl of the very best quality abounds throughout the county. Average value of land by the assessment of 1850, $5.43. Population—whites 2224, free colored 430, slaves 3418. Number of persons over the age of 20 years who cannot read and write 198.

    Circuit Superior Court—J. B. Clopton, judge; Judge John D. Christian, Clerk, William L. Peachy, attorney; John S. Lacy, high sheriff; Robt. Howie, Wm. L. Wilkinson, deputies; court held the 4th Monday in May and November.

    County Court—John D. Christian, clerk; R. T. Lacy, attorney, court held the second Thursday in each month; quarterly terms in March, May, August and November.

    Merchants—Robert Drake, J. L. & S. C. Slater, George W. Richardson, Thomas N. Timberlake, H. B. Jones, Barhamsville; Elijah Ball, John Slater, Samuel A. Meredith, James Stamper, Wm. T. Walls, Crump & Chandler, Boyd & Smith, Samuel M. Moody, Robert S. Taylor, James H. Lipscomb, Court House.

    Attorneys—R. T. Lacy, John P. Pierce, E. G. Crump, Court House

    Physicians—Robert L. Apperson, Barhamsville, Edmund W. Allen, Augustus Crump, John F. Christian, John G. Carter, Samuel P. Christian, Edmund Christian, C. M. Jones, John W. Royster, W. P. Richardson, W. R. Savage, George Williamson, Courthouse; George W. Morris, James Richardson, Barhamsville.

  • NICHOLAS COUNTY

    This county was formed in 1818 from Kanawha, Greenbrier, and Randolph. It is watered by Gauley, and Elk rivers, and is surrounded by the counties of Kanawha, Braxton, Randolph, Pocahontas, Greenbrier and Fayette. Summerville, the county seat, is 310 miles from Richmond, and about 70 from the Ohio. The soil and climate present great variety; being in some parts warm and fertile, in others cold, barren and mountainous. It is well adapted to the production of grain of all kinds, and particularly for grass; and is one of the best grazing counties of the west. Average value of lands by the assessment of 1850, 59 cents per acre. Population—whites 3889, free colored 1, slaves 73. Number of persons over the age of 20 who cannot read and write 45.

    Minerals—This county abounds in iron ore, lead, cannel, bituminious and antracite coal. There are two salt manufactories in the county, one on Brick, the other on Elk river. Water power for manufacturing purposes in abundance.

    Circuit Superior Court—W. Dunbar, judge; Robert Hamilton; clerk; Wm. Smith, attorney; William Sims, high sheriff; John H. Robinson, deputy; Court held the 28th March and August.

    County Court—Robert Hamilton, clerk; R. Dunlap, attorney, Court held the Monday before the 2nd Tuesday; quarterly terms in March, June, August, and November.

    Merchants—John H. Robinson, C. Vaughn & Co., Beirne, Duffy & Co., Dyer & Byrne, H. M. Price, F. Malcom, Courthouse; Col. John Brown, Brick river.

    Attorney—Robert Dunlap, Court House

    Physicians—T. R. Wethered, Anthony Rader, Courthouse.