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New River Notes — Complete

January 21, 2014

After about two years of work we have completed a major upgrade to New River Notes. On January 21, 2014 we switched in the last of the updated files and final page revisions.

In January 2013 we introduced the new site layout but because there were many pages left to do there was a big red Under Construction on the front page. A year later we've finished all of the pages that were on the original site. Construction is complete. We have a great looking site full of material to help you in your research and possibly entertain you.

We're not finished. A site like this can't just freeze in time. It must be maintained, .... Read More

New River Notes

January 6, 2013

New River Notes, a leading genealogy resource for the New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia, launched its new look website today.

new river valley mapNew River Notes was originally launched in 1998 by Jeffrey C. Weaver providing New River Valley researchers with a new wealth of information and that tradition is continued today by the Grayson County, Virginia Heritage Foundation, Inc.

Welcome and we hope you enjoy our new look. For more information on the changes and plans see posts on the GCVHF Google+ Page.

Life in Old Virginia

By James J. McDonald
Published by the Old Virginia Publishing Company, Inc., Norfolk, Va., 1907

FOREWORD

When I am old and feeble,
And cannot work any more,
Then carry me back to Old Virginia,
To Old Virginia's shore.

This sentiment doubtless was most forcibly expressed in the year 1907, during which there was witnessed an international celebration of the first permanent settlement of the English speaking people upon the American continent.

In aid of this event the Congress of the United States passed an Act approved March 3, 1905, entitled "An Act to provide for celebrating the birth of the American Nation, the first permanent settlement of English speaking people on the Western hemisphere, by the holding of an international naval, marine and military celebration in the vicinity of Jamestown in the waters of Hampton Roads, in the State of Virginia, to provide for the suitable and permanent Commemoration of said event and to authorize an appropriation in aid thereof and for other purposes."

The Act authorized the President of the United States to make public proclamation of this celebration, "inviting foreign nations to participate by the sending of their naval and such representatives of their military organizations as may be proper."

The proclamation fixed the time of the beginning of the celebration on May 13, and ending not later than November 1, 1907.

The purpose of this boob is to give a brief history of the efforts of the English to establish permanent settlements in Virginia, and to follow with interesting stories of the life and customs of the people inhabiting particularly that part of Old Virginia, known as the "Tidewater" section where American civilization began its first struggles for existence amid the forests of a new world whose only occupants then were wild beasts and savage men.

It was the fortune of the writer to pass more than twenty five years of his life in Eastern Virginia, beginning at the close of that great struggle-the War between the States--when there yet existed many of the customs and manners inherited from the forefathers of the quiet and orderly people inhabiting that section. By means of official and social intercourse with all classes of the citizens of Tidewater Virginia the writer is indebted for much of the interesting and amusing data herein submitted to the reader.

The book also contains the names of all the counties with date of formation and a valuable appendix giving a list with short biographical sketches of all the governors of Virginia.

This volume is, therefore, intended as a reference book as well as for general reading. Many of the narratives may appear disconnected, but the author wishes it understood that his purpose has been not to give a connected history but to present those facts of Virginia relating especially to the life and customs which are fast disappearing and of which there has been no chronicler.

  • CHAPTER I - Domain of Virginia

    The historian Burke wrote: "A correct history of Virginia would be the history of North America itself, a portion of the globe, which enjoying the invaluable privilege of self government, promises to eclipse the glory of Rome and Athens. In this part of the American Continent the first permanent establishment was farmed by the English, and it is here we must look for those ancient documents and materials, whose discovery will throw light on the history of the other States."

    Virginia, now a South Atlantic State, and one of the original thirteen States to form the Union, was named in honor of Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen, and originally comprised all the territory north of Florida extending "from sea to sea," across this continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. What is now left of this immense territory, bearing the honored name of Virginia, lies between the parallels of 30° 31' and 30° 27' North; and longitude 75° 13' and 83° 37' West, containing a gross area of 42,450 square miles, or 27,168,000 acres; 40,125 square miles of which is land surface, and 2,325 square miles of water surface. It contains 100 counties, which are grouped into sip grand divisions, as follows:

    (1) Tidewater Virginia; (2) Middle Virginia; (3) Piedmont, Virginia; (4) The Valley of Virginia; (5) The Blue Ridge, and (6) Appalachia.

    The first dividing of the original territory named Virginia was by James I of England, who on April 10, 1606, granted a charter to the "South Virginia Company" of London, commonly called the "London Company," and to the "North Virginia Company," of Plymouth. When this charter was granted, the Crown of England claimed the whole of North America called "Virginia," between 34° and 45° north latitude under the name of Virginia, by right of discovery. It was conceded that Spain occupied all south of 34°-commonly called Florida-and to France was conceded all north of 45°. To the London Company was granted the territory between 34° and 41° north latitude, running from ocean to ocean.

    The northern limits of Virginia were afterwards curtailed by grants to Lord Baltimore in 1631 and to William Penn in 1681, and the southern limits by a grant to the Proprietors of the Carolinas by charter in 1663. The next division of Virginia's territory was by deed of cession through her delegates in the Continental Congress, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy,-Arthur Lee, and James Monroe on March 1, 1784.

    When the definite treaty of peace with Great Britain was made, September 3, 1783, the general government had no lands in its possession, though the States had premised to cede their western lands. All the territory included in that treaty was then claimed by some one or other of the several States. It was through the cessions of these several States which claimed the lands that the United States government derived title to what is known as public lands, or "public domain." Subsequently both the public and national domain vas acquired and added to by the general government by purchase, treaty and annexation from France, Spain, Texas, and Russia., during several respective periods. The "national domain" is the total area, land and water, embraced within the boundaries of the United States of America. The United States government also holds dominion over the Sandwich Islands, some parts of the West Indies, and the Philippine Islands, all of which are outside the limits of the main lands of North America.

    Prior to 1781, six only of the original thirteen States, viz., New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware had their present defined boundaries, while the remaining seven States, claimed some lands to the west. The States with inexact boundaries ceded their claims to the lands west of their present limits to the general Government.

    The total actual cessions of these seven States, viz: Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, for public domain, were 404,956 square miles, or 259,171,840 acres. Of this amount Virginia ceded 195,431,680 acres, the most valuable gift ever recorded in the history of this nation. Hence her right to the honored title of "The Mother of States."

    On March 1, 1784, Virginia, through her delegates in the Continental Congress completed the act of ceding all the territory west of the State of Pennsylvania and northwest of the river Ohio below the forty-first parallel of north latitude, which was hers by charter right. She had an additional claim to the western territory extending north from the forty first parallel north latitude to Lakes Michigan and Huron, now in Illinois and Michigan, and northward, by reason of . conquest and occupancy during the Revolutionary War by her State troops under General George Rogers Clark.

    The present area of the State of Kentucky, 40,400 square miles, was a "District" of Virginia, lying south of the Ohio River, and was allowed to be organized into a State in 1792.

    The extent of the territory Virginia gave to the Union was :

    The State of Ohio (excepting the Western Reserve and Fire-lands claimed by the State of Connecticut and lands now in Michigan) 39,364 sq. miles
    The State of Indiana 33,809 sq. miles
    The State of Illinois 55,414 sq. miles

    She also ceded lands claimed by the State of Connecticut and Massacusetts under their crown charters, as well as by the United States under the definite treaty of peace with Great Britian of 1783:

    In Michigan 56,451 sq. miles
    In Wisconsin 53,924 sq. miles
    In Minnesota, east of Mississippi River 26,000 sq. miles
    Total (disputed and undisputed) cession by Virginia including Kentucky 305,362 sq. miles

    The last slice of territory taken from Old Virginia was 23,000 square miles, which went to form the State of West Virginia, by an Act of Congress, December 31, 1862, which took effect June 9, 1863.

  • CHAPTER II - The Peninsulas of Tidewater Virginia

    The region which the colonists first selected for settlement is known as "Tidewater Virginia." It was there that the first great struggle of the white race was begun with the aboriginal inhabitants for the purpose of establishing a permanent abiding home in a new world, many years before the pilgrim Fathers "first sighted Plymouth Rock. The howling of the wild beasts of the forest, the war whoop of the equally wild man and the solemn hoot of the midnight owl were the only sounds to greet the ears of the first settler in all the vast territory which now comprises this" Glorious Union of States" The settlement of this region was begun more than two hundred years before the first railroad was built upon this planet. There were then no public highways, but only here and there an Indian trail to point the new comer through the wide wilderness of America.

    This region of America is full of the romances and the realities of the experiences of the early years of the first permanent settlement of the English speaking people on this Continent. Here it was for the first time that the stroke of the axe of the English laid prostrate the standing giants of the forests of the new world, and thereby awakened nature from its slumbers and sounded new and alarming echoes throughout the lands christened "Virginia" by a Virgin Queen of the Old World. It was here that the beasts of the wild woods, and the fowls of the air first were shocked to death by the burst of the rifle's discharge, and the superstitious natives thus forced to believe that the new comers were born not of woman but sent armed from the skies with a demon of destruction which no other earthly power possessed. It was there the first thoughts of human freedom were given birth and voice to cheer mankind. The "cradle of liberty for this Continent" was first tenanted and rocked there to lull the cries of the "child of freedom." It was there the first truly representative legislative body of the people assembled on this continent. The first sound of praise and thanksgiving ever uttered in the language of this nation from a house of worship dedicated to God, in the new found world, vibrated the air of Tidewater Virginia, and wafted its way to the throne of Grace, bespeaking the coming of a new race. It was at Jamestown that the first church was built within the territory which later comprised the thirteen original States. It was in that section that Pocahontas, the untutored daughter of a savage chief, though born in the primeval forest, first taught the world that "pity and mercy" are the inherent qualities of womankind, and are not confined to the cultured princesses of the stately palaces of civilization.

    It was here that the first slave set foot upon the mainland of this continent. Here it was that the white man first exercised the right of suffrage, and that trial by jury was first granted. The first free school on this continent was started in this section. The first manufactures of this continent were begun here, and were the first of such products sent from the newly found continent to the Old World.

    Tidewater Virginia has produced more eminent and illustrious men of America than any other section of the same extent within the boundaries of this nation. Its history has inspired the orator, enthused the soldier, and awakened in the statesman suggestions of wisdom, the benefits of which this nation is now the recipient.

    Its soil is sprinkled with the blood of the patriots of the Revolution in their successful battling at Yorktown, which cheered a weak people in their mighty struggle for final freedom. The marks of many heroic battles for the perpetuation of the "Old Union of States," or a disunited nation and a "New Confederacy," are yet in plain view in many parts of section of Virginia, bearing evidence of the willing sacrifices which all Americans will make in defense of a principle.

    Tidewater Virginia begins at a gap in the Atlantic Ocean shores of Virginia, known as the "Capes of the Chesapeake." This gap forms an entrance more than twelve miles in width, and within a short distance inland from its mouth it broadens into a magnificent stream, in some places nearly forty miles wide, and is known as the Chesapeake Bay. The salt waters which flow from the Atlantic Ocean into this big bay, through its capacious mouth, spread out and form long rivers, such as the James, Rappahannock, and Potomac, and shorter streams as the York, Piankatank, Yeocomico, Coan, Wicomico, Nomini and others too numerous to mention, and inlets, creeks, and coves innumerable. The Chesapeake Bay also sends its flood of waters to the shores of Maryland, where they form innumerable streams throughout that State.

    Tidewater Virginia is divided into nine natural subdivisions, or large (primary) peninsulas, each of which contains many small (subordinate) peninsulas, no part of which is elevated more than 150 feet above sea level.

    The large peninsulas are grouped as follows:

    1. "The Eastern Shore Peninsula," consisting of two counties:

      Northampton and Accomac. The first was named in honor of the Earl of Northampton; the latter was named after an Indian tribe inhabiting that section. Northampton and Accomac were twice named. The territory composing the Eastern Shore of Virginia was first named Accawmake. Under this name it was made one of the eight original shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634, and continued under the name of Accawmake until 1642, when it was changed to Northampton. In 1672 Accomac was formed from its upper part, and the lower part retained the name of Northampton. This peninsula begins on the Atlantic coast at Cape Charles, and extends along the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay to the Maryland line. It includes the land across to the Atlantic coast.

    2. The "Norfolk Peninsula" consisting of two counties Princess Anne, formed in 1691, from Lower Norfolk, named in honor of Queen Anne.

      Norfolk, formed in 1691, from part of Lower Norfolk, named in honor of Duke of Norfolk.

      This peninsula begins on the Atlantic coast at the North Carolina line, extending inland around Cape Henry to the mouth of James River.

    3. The "Southside Peninsula" containing seven counties Nansemond was formed in 1639 from Upper Norfolk, and named Nansimun after an Indian tribe. In 1645 it was changed to Nansemond.

      Isle of Wight, one of the original eight shires formed in 1634, and known originally as Warrasquake. In 1637 it was named in honor of a place in England.

      Southampton, formed in 1684, from Isle of Wight, named in honor of Earl of Southampton.

      Sussex, formed in 1753 from Surrey County, named in honor of Lord Sussex.

      Surrey, formed in 1652 from James City County, named in honor of Lord Surrey.

      Prince George, formed in 1702 from Charles City County, named in honor of Prince George, afterwards King George II.

      Chesterfield, formed in 1748, from Henrico, named in honor of P. D. Stanhope, Lord Chesterfield.

      This peninsula is situated on the south side of the James River, beginning at its mouth, and extending to "the falls" of that river which flows between Chesterfield and Henrico counties.

    4. The "Richmond," or "Chickahominy" Peninsula, containing two counties:

      Charles City County, one of the original eight shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634, named in honor of Charles the First.

      Henrico, one of the original eight shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634, named in honor of Henry, Prince of Wales.

      This peninsula is on the north side of the James, and between that river and the Chickahominy. It begins at the mouth of the Chickahominy where that stream empties into the James, and extends to "the falls" of the latter river, which flows between Henrico and Chesterfield counties.

    5. The next peninsula is known as "The Peninsula," containing six counties:

      Elizabeth City County, one of the original eight shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634, named in honor of queen Elizabeth.

      Warwick, one of the original eight shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634, then called Warwick River, changed to Warwick in 1642, named in honor of Warwick in England.

      York, one of the original eight shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634, then called Charles River, changed to York in 1642, named in honor of Duke of York.

      James City County, one of the original eight shires into which Virginia was divided in 1634, named in honor of King James I.

      New Kent, formed in 1654, from York, named in honor of. Kent in England.

      Hanover, formed in 1720, from Now Dent, named in honor of George I, King of Hanover as well as England.

      This peninsula begins at Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay, its southern boundary, thence up the James River to mouth of Chickahominy, where this stream empties into the latter river, thence up the northern bank of Chickahominy. Its eastern and northern boundary is the whole length of the south side of York River, thence up the Pamunkey, between that river and Chickahominy.

    6. The "Gloucester Peninsula," containing three counties:

      Gloucester, formed in 1651 from a part of York, named in honor of Duke of Gloucester.

      Mathews, formed in 1790, from part of Gloucester, named in honor of Governor Mathews. This county is a peninsula extending into the Chesapeake Bay, and united to the main land by a narrow neck of land. Its lands are so nearly on a dead level that there are no running streams of fresh water in the county. The grist mills are run by wind or tide power.

      King and Queen County, formed in 1691, from New Kent, named in honor of King William and Queen Mary.

      This peninsula lies between the York and Piankatank Rivers and Chesapeake Bay.

    7. The "King William" or "Pamunkey Peninsula," containing two counties:

      King William, formed in 1701, from King and Queen, named in honor of William III. It lies between the Pamunkey and Mattaponi Rivers.

      Caroline, formed in 1727 in the language of the act of the House of Burgess, "On the heads of Essex, King and Queen, and King William Counties," named in honor of Princess Caroline Elizabeth. It lies between the North Anna and Rappahannock Rivers.

    8. The "Middlesex Peninsula," containing two counties:

      Middlesex, formed in 1675, from Lancaster, named in honor of Middlesex in England.

      Essex, formed in 1692, from part of "Old Rappahannock", named in honor of Earl of Essex.

      Old Rappahannock County was formed in December, 1656, from part of Lancaster County. In the language of the ;t of Assembly: "The upper part of Mr. Bennetts land knowne by the name of Naemhock on the south side of the eastermost branch of Moratticock Creeke, on the north side the river be the lowermost bounds of the upper county. The lower county to retaine the name of Lancaster and the upper county to be named Rappahannock."

      The territory embraced within what was termed in the act as the "Upper County" included Richmond County, on the north side of Rappahannock River, and Essex County on the south side of same river.

    9. The "Northern Neck of Virginia," now containing five counties:

      Lancaster, formed in 1651, from Northumberland, named in honor of Lancaster in England.

      Northumberland County, originally called Chickcoun, adjoining n Lancaster on the Chesapeake Bay. It originally comprised the whole "Neck of land between Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers."

      The date when this county was formed is in doubt; it certainly contained the first settlement or the whites north of Rappahannock River, within all the territory subsequently named "The Northern Neck of Virginia." At what date the first settlement was made there is not known. By an Act of Assembly in June, 1642, it was felony to settle outside of certain limits without permission of the governor and council. It provided "That the Rappahannock River should remain unseated for divers reasons therein contained, notwithstanding it should and might be lawful for all persons to assume grants for lands there," etc. A similar act to that of June, 1642 was passed in 1647, but in October, 1648, it was reviation of Secacaconies, an Indian tribe once located on that stream. The first public official announcement of the name of Northumberland occurs in the 9th Act of Assembly, February, 1644-5, providing for the erection of three forts, viz.: one at "Pamunkey" (Nest Point), named Fort Royal, one at the "Falls of James River" (Richmond), named Fort Charles, and the third on the ridge at "Chicquohominie" (near Bottoms Bridge), named Fort James, as follows: And be it explained and confirmed by the authorities that the associating counties on the south side of the river are hereby to contribute towards the maintainance of the (Indian) War on that side, without any expectation of any contribution from the north side, and so likewise on the north side by themselves including Northampton and Northumberland." From the above one would conclude it had been made a county at, or prior to 1644, but the writers of the early period, except Hening, were content with their own knowledge that Northumberland was but a "Plantation" in 1644-45. The earliest court records now in the clerk's office of that county are dated 1652. Some of the court records were burned many years ago, therefore it is not known what dates the records bore which were destroyed. The old books are bound with oak board backs, covered with heavy leather. They contain much of interest in the matter of curious wills, and surprising items relating to the sentences imposed by the courts for offenses (stated in the plainest words of the English language), which under the present day ruling of the courts would meet with less rigorous punishment.

      Richmond County, formed in 1692, from old Rappahannock, named in honor of Duke of Richmond.

      Westmoreland County, formed in 1653, from Northumberland, named after Westmoreland in England. The first mention of Westmoreland County is in an Act of Assembly of July, 1653, by which "It is ordered that the bounds of the County of Westmoreland be as follows, via.: from Machoactoke River, where Mr. Cole liven, and so upwards to the falls of the great river Pawtomake, above Nescostines towne." Nescostines towne referred to was probably a settlement of Indians at the place now known as "Anacostia," on the Eastern Branch, now in the District of Columbia. Westmoreland County under this Act extended to "the falls of the Potomac," which would include the territory now comprising the counties of King George, Stafford, Prince William, Fairfax and Alexandria.

      King George County, formed in 1720, from Richmond County, named in honor of grog George I.

      These five counties are formed within a peninsula, the southern and eastern boundaries being the mouths of the Rappahannock, and Potomac rivers.

      Many persons include the County of Stafford in the present "Northern Neck of Virginia." To include this county would bring the Northern Neck opposite to the City of Fredericksburg, and beyond it to include the limits of the whole county. The city of Fredericksburg is in Spotsylvania County, and lies on the southern banks of the Rappahannock, at the "falls" of that river-the head of tidewater of that stream.

      The original "Northern Neck of Virginia" distinguishes this peninsula as being once the seat of the largest individual land holdings ever in America. In 1661, Charles II, of England made a grant of land in America to Lord Hopton and others, which included: "All that entire tract, territory and parcel of land, lying and being in America, and bounded by and within the headwaters of the rivers Tappahannock alias Rappahannock, and Quiriough alias Potomac rivers, the course of the said rivers as they are commonly called and known by the inhabitants, and description of their parts and Chesapeake Bay." This was sold by the original patentees to Lord Culpeper in 1683, and later was confirmed to him by letters patent in the fourth year of the reign of James II, of England. The elder-Thomas 5th-Lord Fairfax, married the only daughter of Lord Culpeper. These lands descended to the son by this marriage-Lord Thomas Fairfax, Sixth Baron of Cambridge. He came to Virginia in 1739 to look after thin estate. This immense tract included the territory now comprising the counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Richmond Westmoreland, Prince George, Stafford, Prince William, Fauquier, Fairfax, Loudon, Culpeper, Clarke, Madison, Page, Shenandoah and Frederick, in the present limits of the State of Virginia, and Hardy, Hampshire, Morgan, Berkeley and Jefferson now within the State of West Virginia; the whole estate comprising nearly 6,000,000 acres.

      "It was said that the first grant was only intended to include the territory between the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. When Fairfax discovered that the Potomac River headed in the Allegheny Mountains he went to England and instituted his petition in the Court of the Dings Bench for extending his grant into the, Allegheny Mountains, so as to include the territory now composing the counties of Page, Shenandoah, and Frederick, in Virginia, and Hardy, Hampshire, Morgan, Berkeley, and Jefferson, now in West Virginia. A compromise was effected between Fairfax and the Crown, in which it was stipulated that the holders of lands, under what then were called "Kings grants," were to be quieted in their right of possession. Fairfax, under certain pretexts took it upon him self to grant away large quantities of these Crown granted lands to individuals other than those occupying or claiming them under the Crown grants, and thereby produced numerous lawsuits. His title was disputed on every hand. The northern boundary wan disputed by the Maryland proprietary, and his eastern and southern boundaries were disputed by many settlers upon it. On the Maryland side the question was which of the two head streams of the Potomac was intended to be the northern boundary of Lord Culpeper's purchase in 1683. In Virginia the dispute was concerning the grants to settlers east of the Alleghanies, and also as to which of the two head streams of the Rappahannock was the Fairfax limits: "The Conway" (confluent of the Rapidan), or the Rappahannock, between these being all the land now comprised by the counties of Culpeper, Madison and Rappahannock.

      On a petition of Lord Fairfax, the King appointed a "Commission" for running out and marking the limits of his patent. The three Commissioners for the Crown were Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, John Robinson, and John Grymes. Lord Fairfax appointed William Fairfax, William Beverley and Charles Career. In 1746 an expedition of forty gentlemen, amongst whom were Beverley, Lomax, Lewis, Lightfoot, Hedginan, Peter Jefferson, and young George Washington, started from Fredericksburg to survey and define the boundaries of "The Northern Neck of Virginia." This expedition laid the "Fairfax Stone" at the head spring of the Potomac. Lord Fairfax opened an office in the county-Fairfax-which was named in his honor. There he granted out his lands until a few years thereafter when he removed to Frederick County, and settled at a place he called "Greenway Court," twelve or fourteen miles southeast of Winchester, where he led a sort of hermit life, and kept his office during the remainder of his life. He died December 12, 1781, soon after hearing of the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. It is said that as soon as he learned of the capture of Cornwallis and his army, he called his servant to assist him to bed, observing: "It is time for me to die," and he never again left his bed until he was consigned to his tomb. His body was deposited under the Communion table in the then Episcopal church in Winchester.

      The lands were granted by Fairfax in fee simple to his tenants, subject to an annual rent of two shillings sterling 'per hundred acres, added to which he required the payment of ten shillings sterling on each fifty acres, which he termed "composition money," and which was to be paid upon the issuing of the grant. In 1785 the legislature of Virginia passed an Act, in which among other provisions, in relation to the Northern Neck, is the following: "And be it further enacted, that the land owners within the said district of the Northern Neck shall be forever hereafter exonerated and discharged from composition and quitrents, any law, custom or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding:"

      The present limits of the Northern Neck of Virginia have earned a far greater distinction than that of its connection with the largest individual proprietorship of lands. Within its borders were born some of the most illustrious men, who were conspicuous in the shaping of the destinies of the American people. Of the seven Presidents of the United States who were born in Virginia, but two of them were born outside of the tidewater section: Thos. Jefferson, born in Albemarle County, and Zachary Taylor, born in Orange County. Of the remaining five Presidents, three were born in the Northern Neck of Virginia-George Washington, and James Monroe, both born in Westmoreland County, and James Madison, born in the adjoining county of King George. The other two PresidentsWilliam Henry Harrison, and John Tyler, were born in Charles City County. The Northern Neck of Virginia is greatly distinguished and honored as the birthplace of "Mary" (Ball), "The Mother of Washington," born at "Epping Forest," Lancaster County, in 1707. She died at Mt. Vernon, Fairfax County, August 25, 1789.

      Westmoreland County was also the birthplace of the "Lees" "Light Horse Harry Lee," and others of that family, including General "Robert E. Lee."

      The Northern Neck is the longest of all the peninsulas comprising Tidewater Virginia. It extends from the Chesapeake Bay shores to the head of tidewater, upon the Rappahannock River; a distance of more than 120 miles.

      Tidewater Virginia extends beyond the confines of the counties named as being within the nine peninsulas herein mentioned. It also includes the five counties on the upper tidewater section of the Potomac River, to "the falls," viz.:

      Stafford, formed in 1675, from Westmoreland, named in honor of Lord Stafford.

      Spotsylvania, formed in 1720, from Essex, Ding William and King and Queen, and named in honor of Alexander Spotswood, a Governor of Virginia.

      Prince William, formed in 1730, from King George and Stafford, named in honor of William, Duke of Cumberland.

      Fairfax, formed in 1742, from Prince William, named in honor of Lord Fairfax, the proprietor of the Northern Neck.

      Alexandria County, was originally a part of Fairfax county, and was ceded to the United States, to become a part of the District of Columbia for the seat of the Federal Government. In 1846 it was retroceded to Virginia, and organized as a county.

      These five counties are by some authorities assigned to the "Tidewater Divisions," and by others they are classed as being in the "Middle Virginia" section. They are intersected by tidal streams through their lands, the greater part of which is on the fresh water section of tidewater.

      The soil of Tidewater Virginia is variable in its formation and fertility. The lands at the mouths of the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers are low, and composed mainly of sand and clay, devoid of stones or rocks. As the lands advance up the "Northern Neck," there is evidence of pebbles, cobble stones, and finally a rocky formation appears upon their surface. On "the ridge" -the central region between the rivers, Rappahannock and Potomac-is found the least fertile of all its soils. Such is the case in all of the peninsulas, as one goes from the east to the west. On the ridges can be seen bare sand hills free from vegetation even during the season of verdure on the surrounding lands, and seamed into unshapely galleys by the rains and snows of centuries. In these sections can be found log cabins, and "slab" dwellings and outhouses, and "pine brush arbor cuppens" (shelters) for cattle. Fortunately there is but a small percentage of this character of land in old Virginia. Its loss of fertility is due mainly to the improvident and neglectful modes of cultivation practiced in the early years, by taking everything off the land and returning nothing to it. These poor lands when "turned out" grow good pine, and oak timber on the higher parts, and poplar and other woods in and around the galleys.

      The lands on the sides of the ridges sloping gradually down to the rivers, present evidence of greater fertility, especially as they reach what is known as the "river bottom lands." These lower sections were early selected by the wealthiest planters, whose holdings were generally large, and whose dwelling houses were commensurate with their wealth and prosperity. Some of these old time dwelling houses are fine specimens of the architecture and splendor of their period. There are several of these old time dwellings yet standing along the James, York, Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. Among the number is "Stratford," the birthplace of General Robert E. Lee, in Westmoreland County. This dwelling and many of the outhouses-former servants quarters-are built of brick, and are yet in a good state of preservation. From the upper part of this dwelling house a beautiful view can be had of the Potomac River, and surrounding streams, and woodlands. The original tract contained nearly 3000 acres. A part of it is yet in the possession of a descendant of the Ire family. There are no remains of the dwellings in which either Washington, Monroe or Madison were born. Along the James are Westover, Sherley, Lower Brandon and other several rivers. They are the tears of joy which trickle down the, mountain's face as it views from its high peaks the verdure, quiet, and beauty of its lowland offspring. The numerous streams throughout Tidewater Virginia can be made to produce as much wealth as can be produced from its lands. Oysters of the finest flavor, and fish of nearly every edible species are found in its waters. Many of these streams wind their tortuous way far into the interior of the many little peninsulas. They add a charm to the landscape as they sharply turn a point of land, and hide beyond it to appear again farther away. To follow them in their gambols, one has only to seek some high point of land and he is charmed by the sight which nature in her freak of jollity has bestowed to this section of America. The forests are composed mainly of pine, which always carry an emerald hue upon their boughs, and thus form a pleasing sight during the winter months in comparison with the harder woods which shed their leaves in autumn, and shiver in their bare limbs during the chilly winter, until spring in its compassionate mood grants them cover and makes them again things of beauty.

  • CHAPTER III - The Indians of Virginia

    When America was discovered, there were at least three distinct conditions of life amongst the Indian tribes inhabiting North America. The least advanced tribes were those in the valley of the Columbia, in the Hudson Bay Territory, in parts of Canada, California, and Mexico. The use and art of pottery, and the cultivation of gardens, or fields were unknown to these tribes.

    The second, or intermediate class lucre those who subsisted upon fish, game, and the products of a limited cultivation of the soil. Many of them lived in stockaded villages. Such were the tribes of Virginia and New England, and the Creeks, Choctaws, Shawnees, Miamis, and others east of the Missouri River, and certain tribes in Mexico.

    The third class were the tribes who depended upon horticulture for subsistence, cultivating maize and plants by irrigation. They constructed joint tenement houses of adobe bricks and stone, and lived together in villages. Such tribes were found in New Mexico and Mexico.

    The Indians whom the colonists first met in Virginia and with whop whom they lead to deal later on, were members of the Powhatan Confederacy, a part of the Algonquin stock whose tribes extended from Cape Hatteras to Newfoundland.

    The Powhatan Confederacy inhabited the Virginia tidewater section from the sea coast westward to the falls of the rivers James, Rappahannock, and Potomac, extending into the tidewater section of Maryland as far north as the Patuxent River, and southward to Carolina. It was composed of between thirty and forty tribes, the far greater number of whom were women and children. Accidents incident to hunting wild animals, and the frequent warring between tribes decimated the ranks of the men. In the wars the women and children were usually taken captive to become a part of the victorious tribe.

    Each of the tribes was governed by inferior kings-Werowances-who paid tribute from the products of the chase, and of the soil to the great chief, or emperor, called Powhatan, whose subjects they and all their tribe were to his will.

    The Powhatan, known to history, was between sixty and seventy years of age when the first colony reached Virginia. He was tall and powerfully built, and able to endure much fatigue. He was a man of exceptional valor and judgment, though tyrannous in his commands, and cruel in his punishments. He caused the heads of those who offended him "to be laid upon the altar or sacrificing stone and their brains beaten cut with clubs;" others were tied to a tree, and their joints cut off with oyster or clam shells, and their skin scraped from their head and face, and their bodies ripped open and burned.[1] Powhatan lived in savage splendor surrounded by as many women as he willed: "whereof when he lieth on his bed one sitteth at his head, and another at his feet, but when he sitteth, one (woman) sitteth on his right hand and another on his left, when he dineth or suppeth, one of his women before and after meal, brought him water in a wooden platter to wash his hands. Another waiteth with a bunch of feathers to wipe them instead of a towel, and the feathers when he hath wiped are dried again. As he is weary of his women he bestows them on those that best deserve them at his hands." He was usually attended by a guard of forty or fifty of the tallest men found in his kingdom, and at night his dwelling place was guarded with sentinels who "every half hour shouted while shaking their lips with the fingers between." Part of the territory over which he ruled came to him by inheritance, the greater part by conquest. The rule of descent of his government was, upon his death, first to his brethren, and after that to his sisters, and then to the heirs, male or female of the eldest sister. In all his ancient inheritances he had houses built for his entertainment. Powhatan died in April, 1618, and was buried at the place known as Powhatan, on the James River.

    The habitations of the Virginia Indians were built like arbors, of small young saplings bowed and tied, and covered with mats of rushes, or the barb of trees "very handsomely, that notwithstanding either wind, rain, or weather, they are warm as stoves, but very smoky, yet at the top of the house there is a hole made for the smoke to go into right over the fire." Houses were built in the midst of their fields or gardens, or by the river side, "not far distant from some fresh spring." The shell banks upon the shores of the tidewaters indicate the sites of the former Indian villages.

    Their fire was kindled by friction by rapidly revolving between the palms of the hands a pointed stick pressed within a hole in a block of wood, surrounded by dry moss, or leaves: "Against the fire they lie on little hurdles of reeds covered with a mat, borne from the ground a foot or more by a hurdle of wood. On these round about the house they lie heads and points one by the other against the fire, some covered with mats, some with skins, and some stark naked lie on the ground, from 6 to 20 in a house"

    The Indians lived chiefly by hunting, together with the products of the water, supplemented by the products of the soil which consisted mainly of corn and pumpkins, together with the roots of artichoke--Tochnough. An old writer said: "It is strange to see how their bodies alter with their diet, even as the deer and wild beast they seem fat and lean, strong and weak. Powhatan, their great king, and some others that are provident, roast their fish and flesh upon hurdles, and keep it until scarce times. If any great commander arrive at the habitation of a Werowance (king of a tribe), they spread a mat as do the Turks, for a carpet for him to sit upon. Upon another right opposite they sit themselves. Then do all with a terrible voice of shouting bid him welcome. After this do two or more of their chiefest men make an oration, testifying their love, which they do with such vehemency, and so great passions, that they sweat till they drop, and are so out of breath they can scarce speak. So that a man would take them to be exceeding angry, or stark mad. Such victual as they have, they spend freely, and at night where his lodging is appointed they set a woman fresh painted red with Pocones and oyle to be his bed fellow."

    The men spent their time in fishing, hunting, and in warring upon one another, "scorning to be seen in any womanlike exercise, which is the cause that the women be very painfull, and the men idle" The women planted and tended the crops, pounded the corn, made mats, pots, baskets, and bore all the burdens of labor. The mothers were fond of their children and never punished them, hoping thereby they would grow to be brave and courageous. To make them hardy, they were bathed in the rivers during all seasons of the year, and their bodies painted and anointed with oils or grease.

    Their clothing consisted of loose mantles of turkey feathers, or the skins of wild animals, and aprons of the same material bound about the lower body. The less provident were covered with mats of rushes, grass or leaves. Their feet in winter were covered with deer skins. The women tattooed their faces, breast, arms, and legs with shapes of beasts and serpents. In their ears some had holes to hang chains or bracelets. In these holes some wore a small green, or yellow snake, which lapped itself about their neck, often coming in contact with the lips of the wearers. Their heads and shoulders when in full dress were painted red with Pocone.

    During the late fall and winter months, they left their habitations by the rivers and separating into companies of a hundred or more, they built arbors for shelter in the forests, and lived by hunting. During these journeys, the women carried all the supplies and built the shelters while the men hunted.

    Their manner of hunting deer was to surround the drove with many fires, and betwixt the fires were stationed men who shouted and scared the animals into the circle, where they were chased by the hunters. Where it vas convenient and possible, the deer were driven into some narrow point of land and forced into the river where the hunters lay in wait in boats to shoot them with arrows, or to kill them with clubs.[2] The principal weapons of the Indians were clubs of hard knotty wood, or a stone sharpened at both ends and secured by deer thongs to a handle, swords from the horn of a deer put through a hole in a piece of wood in the form of a pickaxe, and the bow and arrows which all the tribes in North America carried. The arrows were made of straight, young: tough sprigs, headed with bone two or three inches long. These they use for hunting small game. The better sort were made of reeds pieced with wood, and headed with splinters of flinty stone, the spurs of a turkey, or the bill of some large bird, fastened thereon with glue made by boiling the tips of deer horns to a jelly. With the bow and arrow, their best shots could hit the mark on the level about forty yards, and their arrows could be shot at random about 120 yards by pointing well upward. For a knife, they used a piece of reed rubbed to a sharp point; with this implement they could unjoint a deer, shape the skin for moccasins or mantel, and for such other purposes.

    The Indians deified all things which could harm them beyond prevention, as fire, water, lightning, thunder, winds.

    Through God begetting feare,
    Man's blinded minde did reare,
    A hell God to the ghosts;
    A heaven God to the hoasts;
    Yea'. God unto the seas;
    Fear did create all these."

    Their chief God was fashioned after their own form, carved from wood, painted and adorned with such trinkets as they could make for him. He was kept in sacred houses remote from the resident villages, which priests and kings only were permitted to visit.

    These houses were also the sepulchres of their kings whose bodies were first boweled, then dried, lapped in skins and rolled in mats, with their trinkets set at their feet in baskets. For ordinary burials, holes were dug in the earth with sharp stakes, and sticks placed therein on which the bodies were laid covered with skins or mats, and the graves filled with earth.

    After the burial, the women painted their faces with charcoal and grease or oil, and mourned for twenty-four hours by turns crying and yelling to express their grief.[3]

    The priests and conjurers mere selected from amongst those who as children were subjected to the yearly sacrifice of children, by being forced to run through a lane on which men were stationed on both sides with reeds, who beat each child as he was escorted therefrom by young men chosen for the purpose, after which they were kept nine months "in the wilderness" under the charge of the young men, "during which time they must not converse with any." Many of the children died from their wounds and exposure. This sacrifice was held to be so necessary, "that if omitted their Okee or Devil, and their other Gods would let them have no Deere, Turkies, Corne, nor fish:' Such ceremony as this was performed in 1608, by one of the tribes within ten miles of Jamestown.

    "Their devotion was most in songs which the chief priest beginneth and the rest followed him, sometimes he maketh invocations with broken sentences by starts and strange passions, and at every pause the rest give a short groane."

    They observed no day more sacred than another. They had solemnities in times of great distress of sickness or want of food, fear of enemies, times of triumph, and gathering of their harvests. At such times, they usually make a great fire, "and sing and dance about it with rattles and shouts together, four or five hours. Sometimes they set a man in the midst, and about him they dance and sing, he all the while clapping his hands, as if he would keep time, and after their songs and dancings ended they goe to their feasts."

    The leading tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy was that from which the Pamunkey River takes its name. The chief of this tribe at the date of the final settlement at Jamestown was Opechancanough, the eldest brother of Powhatan, and his successor after his death. This chief was a man of remarkable skill and ability as a ruler. It was he who made the famous capture of Captain John Smith while hunting with his tribe up the Chickahominy River; and it was he who planned the massacre of the colony in 1622. His principal seat was on the peninsula, or point of land where West Point, King William County, is now situated, between the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers, at the head of York River, which these two streams form.

    Notwithstanding Opechancanough's prowess as a warrior, and though surrounded by his whole tribe, Captain John Smith on the occasion of a visit to his seating place, to procure corn for the colony, when he discovered this chief was attempting to betray him, seized Opechancanough by the hair, and pointing a pistol at his head forced him before all his warriors to the humiliation of compelling his men to throw down their arms and load Smith's boats with corn. After the massacre of the whites, this chief was captured, and while a prisoner at Jamestown was basely shot and killed by one of his white guards.

    Directly opposite "White House Landing," where George Washington courted the widow Custis, who afterwards became his bride, is the Pamunkey Indian Reservation, known as "Indian Town." The settlement is about a mile east of the White House, across the Pamunkey River, distant about twenty-one miles east of Richmond City, immediately on the line of the York River division of the Southern Railway. It comprises about eight hundred acres, ceded to the tribe by the General Assembly of Virginia. About one-third of the reservation is good farming land; the remainder consists of woods and swamp, which up to a few years ago was well stocked with game, such as deer, raccoons, opossums, otter, muskrats, birds, turkeys, and wild geese and ducks in the fall and spring, during their migrations. Adjacent to the reservation are several large marshes in the Pamunkey River, which up to recent years were used as commons by these people for the hunt. These marshes are now held by the adjacent land owners who use them as private grounds, or rent them to associations, or clubs of city men, thus curtailing the privileges heretofore granted this tribe.

    The writer, during a visit to this reservation in August, 1906, was informed by their chief, that the privilege heretofore granted of hunting upon the wooded lands of private property adjacent to their reservation is also curtailed, and because of these changes many of their young men seek employment outside the reservation, especially during the fishing season, in the Northern Lakes, and the sea coast and its adjacent waters. "With the money saved in these employments," said he, "they usually return here and build, or purchase dwelling houses for their use upon the lands allotted them."

    Their chief occupations are hunting, fishing, and the cultivation of truck patches and corn for their own uses. They also find employment as guides to hunting and fishing parties around the Pamunkey and Mattaponi rivers and vicinities. In the autumn season sora are plentiful in the marshes of these inland rivers of Virginia. The Indian method of capturing sora at night is by building a bright fire in a "sora horse:' This implement is made of strips of iron fashioned in the form of a peach basket. They were formerly made of clay, like a deep platter. When in use, the "horse" is mounted on a pole which is stuck in the marsh or placed upright in the bateau. A fire of pine light wood knots is then kindled in the "horse." The bright flames attract the sora, and as they fly around it, the Indiana knock them down with paddles.

    The reservation belongs to the tribe as a whole. There is no individual ownership of land. Improvements, such as houses, are individual property, to be bought and sold at pleasure. Land is allotted to each head of a family, to be his generally for life unless a new division is necessary to provide for others. The tribe is restrained by the terms of the grant from alienating the land. The reservation is not taxed by the State, but the chief presents an annual tribute of wild turkeys, geese, or ducks, to the Governor of Virginia. The State maintains a free school on the reservation !or the benefit of the Indian children. They receive no other aid from the State or National Government. The writer upon inquiry of their chief in August, 1906, was informed that there were one hundred and sixty-one members, men, women, and children belonging to the reservation. None but those of Indian blood are permitted to reside within its limits. They are quiet, orderly people and are all members of the one small frame Baptist church, where hangs the picture of Pocahontas above the pulpit. It is said there has been a considerable intermixture of white blood, and some little of the negro in the tribe, and that therefore because of the many intermarriages there is no member of full Indian blood.

    Their present chief, George M. Cook, whose Indian name is "Cayatayita," is dignified and genteel in appearance, and has the distinguishing marks of the Indian, in his copper-colored skin, and long, straight, black hair and eyes.

    In his family he maintains the English Christian names, and the Indian names for each of his children, as given the writer:

    English name Indian Name
    T. O. Cook Mina-Ha-Ha
    Major T. Cook Red Shirt
    Otigney Pontiac Cook Pontiac
    George T. Cook Iron Bull
    Tecumseh Deerfoot Cook Tecumseh
    Captola Eulalia Cook Captola
    Theodora Cook Minnie-Ha-Ha
    Pocahontas Cook Pocahontas

    They know but few words of the ancient tongue of their forefathers. Their houses are frame, weather-boarded structures, one and a half or two stories high. They dress as the whites, but are fond of gaudy colors. They make some articles of clay which is found a few feet beneath the surface within the reservation. The writer was given several clay pipes fashioned in the form of tomahawks, moccasins, and hatchets. Another article of interest made of clay is the "pipe of joy." In the bowl of this pipe are five holes made fur the insertion of five stems, one for the chief and one for each of the four councilmen. The smoking of a pipe during a peace conference was an ancient custom amongst the Indians.

    There is a ferry within nine or ten miles of the reservation known as "Piping Tree" Ferry. It is tradition that at this place the whites, and Indians of this tribe met and formed a treaty, and at its conclusion as usual, the pipe was passed from mouth to mouth for each to take a puff as evidence of good faith and friendship, after which the pipe was deposited in a hollow tree near by the river's side. In after time when disagreements arose because of the whites failing to live up to their agreement, the Indians would remind them of "pipe-in-tree."

    At the date of settlement at Jamestown, in 1607, the Pamunkey tribe was the largest of all the several tribes composing the Powhatan Confederacy which dominated Tidewater Virginia, and it had to contend for its supremacy mainly with the two other great tribes who lived on the head waters of the three largest streams of Tidewater Virginia, namely, the Monocans who occupied the territory of the upper James River, beyond the falls, and the Mannahoacs who occupied the head waters of the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers.

    The Pamunkey tribe is governed by a chief together with a council of four men. The chief was formerly elected for life, but now both chief and council are elected to serve four years, by vote of the male citizens of the tribe. When the election of a chief is to be had, the council names two candidates to be voted for. Those favoring candidate "Number 1" indicate their choice by depositing a grain of corn in the ballot box at the school house, while those who favor the election of candidate Number 2 "must deposit a bean in the same place. The candidate for whom the largest number of beans, or of grains of corn is cast is declared chosen.

    The State of Virginia appoints five trustees who have the right of approval or disapproval of the Indian code of laws. The legislative and judicial powers are performed by the chief, together with the council. In the judicial proceedings the chief acts more the part of judge, and the council the part of jury. The chief and council try all the cases of infringements of the law, and settle all disputes between members of the tribe. Their jurisdiction extends to all cases arising on the reservation, and which concern only the residents thereon, with the exception of trial for homicide, in. which the offender would be arraigned before the County Court of King William County. The following extracts indicate something of their intelligence in law making:

    "1st. Res. No member of the Pamunkey tribe shall intermarry with any Nation except White or Indian under penalty of forfeiting their rights in Town."

    "5th. Anny party or person found guilty of stealing annything belonging to annyone else they shall pay the party for the amt. that are stolen from them and also shall be fined from $1 to $5. 3rd time they are to be removed from the place."

    "9th. Be it known that all the citizens age 16 to 60 of Indian Town shall work on the road as far as red hill and anny member refuse to work shall be fined 75c. and Jacob Miles to be Road Master and he to be paid $1 pr year."

    "14th. If anny person owning a piece of land and do not build and live upon it in 18 m it shall be considered as town property and the person shall be allowed 20 days to move what they has thereon off; then it shall be considered as Town Property and the Town can allow anyone else the same privilege under the above obligations."

    "15th. Anny person that become rude and corrupt and refuse to be submissive to the Laws of Indian Town shall be removed by the Trustees, chief and councilmen."

    "18th. An Amendment to Resolution all male citizens of Indian Town from 18 year upward shall pay $1.00 per year and until amt is paid they will not be given no land."

    There are twelve or fifteen of the Chickahominy tribe living in Virginia, but they are too scattered to form a tribal organization.

  • CHAPTER IV - The Lost Colony of Roanoke

    Before the first permanent settlement was made at Jamestown, Virginia, several prior attempts were made by the English to form permanent settlements in America; the most notable were those under the direction and through the aid of Sir Walter Raleigh. The history of these attempts to settle .in America are interesting stories of the aboriginal inhabitants, and of the adventures of the English who attempted to settle amongst them during these early periods. In 1578 Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtained letters patent to settle a colony in Newfoundland. He made another effort in 1583 and took possession of the harbor of St. Johns-Newfoundland.[4]

    The next attempt was through Sir Walter Raleigh, half brother to Sir Humphrey Gilbert. This attempt was unsuccessful as the ships after a few days' sail had to return, owing to contagious sickness among the company and crew.

    In 1584, Raleigh obtained letters patent from Queen Elizabeth for "discovering and planting any such Lands and Countries, as were not already in the actual possession of any Christian Nation." Sir Walter Raleigh persuaded "Gentlemen and Merchants" to join with him in this enterprise. Two vessels were provided and put under command of Captain Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow. On April 27, 1584, they set sail from the Thames river, and on July 2, they reached the coast then known as "Florida."

    As Virginia was first named through this expedition, some incidents in connection with this attempt at settlement are given from Stith's history of Virginia. "They (the English) landed at an island called Wococon" supposed to be Ocracock island, between Cape Hatteras and Cape Fear, N. C. "On the third day after landing they saw three natives in a canoe. One of them went ashore and waited without any signs of fear 'till the English rowed to him. He spoke much to them in his own language, and then went boldly aboard their vessels. They gave him a shirt, a hat, wine and meat, with which he was much pleased. Having attentively viewed everything he went away, and within half an hour he loaded his canoe with fish, which he brought and divided between the ship and Bark. The next day several canoes came, and in one of them the king's brother. His name was Granganameo, the King was called Wingina, and the country (was called by the English) Wingandacoa."

    "Leaving his canoes he went to a point of land where the English had gone the day before. Having spread a mat, he sat down upon it; and when the English came to him well armed, he showed no fear; but made signs for them to sit down, stroking his own head and breast, and then theirs, to express his love.

    "The natives were a proper, well proportioned people, very civil in their behavior and highly respectful to Granganameo. For none of them sat down, or spoke a word in his presence, except four; on whom the English also bestowed presents. But Granganameo took all from them, and made signs that everything belonged to him. After some small traffick he went away. Not long after he brought his wife and children. They were of mean stature but well formed, and very bashful and modest. His wife had a band of white coral about her forehead, and bracelets of pearl in her ears hanging down to her middle of the bigness of large peas, the rest were decked with red copper and such ornaments as are at present in fashion among Indians.

    "After this, there came from all parts, great numbers of people, with leather, coral and divers kinds of dyes. But when Granganameo was present, none durst trade but himself and those who wore red copper on their heads, as he did. He was just to his promise, for they often trusted him, and he never failed to come within his day to keep his word.

    He commonly sent the English every day a brace of bucks, conies, hares and fish, and sometimes melons, walnuts, sent live mats to cover them from the weather. In short, she omitted nothing that the most generous hospitality and hearty desire of pleasing could do, to entertain them.

    "They returned to England about the middle of Sept., 1584, carrying with them two of the natives, Manteo and Wanchese.

    "The Queen ( Elizabeth) herself was pleased to name the country 'Virginia' in memory of its having been first found in the reign of a Virgin Queen, or as some have been pleased to gloss and interpret it, because it still seemed to retain the Virgin Purity and Plenty of the first Creation, and the people their primitive innocence of life and manners."

    When the English asked one of the Indians what was the name of his country, he not knowing what was meant, replied, "Wingandacoa: ' This sentence was in later years interpreted into English and found to mean" What pretty clothes you wear."

    The next settlers to Virginia came under Sir Richard Grenville, from Plymouth, England, April 9, 1585. They chose Roanoke Island as their seating place (May 26, 1585). While in America they made discoveries south and north of Roanoke, going as far north as Elizabeth River (now in Virginia), where they visited a nation of Indians called Chesapeakes, after which tribe the Chesapeake Bay is named. These voyages were made hoping to discover an outlet to the South Sea. During these voyages they had skirmishes with the Indians provoked mainly by their own indiscretion. They burned an Indian town because one of the natives stole from them a silver cup. Among their atrocious murders was that of Wingina, the Indian King, who had been so generous and hospitable to the English of the former expedition. There were 108 persons in this expedition.

    After undergoing much hardship and danger daring about 14 months' stay in America, they were returned at their own request by Drake to England, about the latter end of July, 1586. They carried home some tobacco, which probably was the first ever brought to England. It is said that owing mainly to Sir Walter Raleigh, tobacco was introduced into general use by the ladies and noblemen of the Court, to which the Queen ( Elizabeth) "gave great countenance and encouragement as a vegetable of singular strength and power which might benefit mankind."

    There are two famous stories told concerning tobacco and Sir Walter Raleigh. He wagered with the Queen, that he could determine exactly the weight of the smoke which came out of a pipe of tobacco. This he did by first weighing the tobacco, and then carefully preserving and weighing the ashes; and the Queen readily granted that what was wanting in the prime weight must be evaporated in smoke. And when she paid the wager, she said pleasantly that she had heard of many laborers in the fire, that turned their gold into smoke, but Raleigh was the first who had. turned his smoke into gold. It is also related that a country servant of his, bringing him a tankard of ale and nutmeg into his study, as he was intently engaged. at his book, smoking a pipe of tobacco, became so frightened at seeing the smoke reek out of his master's mouth, that he threw the ale into his face, in order to extinguish the fire, and ran down stairs, alarming the family, and crying out his master was on fire, and before they could get up, he would be burned to ashes.

    Not knowing the colonists were on their way to England, Sir Walter Raleigh sent a ship loaded with provisions for the settlement. After seeking the colony in vain the ship returned with all on board to England. About a fortnight after the departure of this ship (October, 1586 ), Sir Richard Grenville arrived with three ships, seeking the colony which he himself had seated (and which was returned home by Drake), and finding their habitation abandoned, in order to hold possession of the country, he landed fifty persons on the island of Roanoke, supplied with all provisions for two years. He thereupon returned to England. These fifty men were never afterwards found.

    In 1587, three ships were sent under command of John White who was appointed Governor with twelve assistants as council under a Charter from Raleigh, incorporating them by the name of "The Governor and Assistants of the City of Roanoke, in Virginia," with express directions to seat at Chesapeake, which they neglected to do. They reached Hatteras July 22 (1587) and went to Roanoke to look for the fifty men left there by Grenville, "but they found nothing but the bones of a man, and where the Plantation had been, the houses were undestroyed, but overgrown with weeds, and the fort defaced. Upon further search they learned that the colonists had been suddenly set upon by Wingina's men, and after a small skirmish, in which one of the Englishmen was slain, they retired to the water side, and having got their boat, and taken up four of their fellows gathering crabs and oysters, they went to a small island by Hatteras; that they staid there some time, but after departed they knew not whither." After some delay, White planted his colony on Roanoke Island.

    At the earnest request of the colonists Governor White went to England to seek assistance there for his colony. He left about one hundred persons on one of the islands of Hatteras to form a plantation. Among those whom Governor White left in the Colony was his own daughter, wife to Ananias Dare, one of the Council, and mother of Virginia Dare, born at Roanoke island, August 13, 1587, the first white child born in the region then known as Virginia. This child and her parents are numbered with those of this second lost colony.

    At the time Governor White reached England for assistance "the nation was in great commotion and apprehension of the Spanish Invasion and Invincible Armada." He succeeded in obtaining two small barks, but they were attacked at sea by the Spaniards and compelled to return to England. In the meantime Sir Walter Raleigh made an assignment of all his interest, title, or privilege, to several other gentlemen, for continuing the plantation in Virginia. On account of the invasion of the Spanish Armada, it was not until March, 1590, that White was able to get further assistance. At that date "he set sail with three ships from Plymouth, and passed by the West Indies. They staid some time there, to perform some exploits, which was to attack and plunder the Spaniards." They finally reached Hatteras: "There they descried a smoke, at the place where the colony had been three years before. The next morning they discharged some cannon to give notice of their arrival, they went ashore, but found no man nor signs of any, that had been there lately." They found engraved on a tree the word "Croatan," but searched in vain for the place. They made further search on Roanoke Island and elsewhere, but finally started again for the West Indies in search of more Spanish plunder, basely deserting their friends and relatives of the Colony.

    Sir Walter Raleigh after making his assignment sent five several times to Virginia to search for the lost colonists, but they were never seen nor heard of afterwards. Some of the Jamestown colonists on their voyage up the James River "saw a savage boy about the age of 10 years which ad a head of hair of perfect yellow, and a reasonable white skin, which is a miracle amongst all savages." Some of the Indians reported that they had seen whites in the South, but to this day the fact of the Roanoke settlers is not known.

  • CHAPTER V - The Founding of an English Nation in America

    It was mainly through the efforts of Captain Bartholomew Gosnold that an attempt at colonization was made which resulted in making the final first permanent settlement in Virginia, he "having made former voyages (in 1602) to the northern parts of Virginia, and was so pleased with the places he saw, that he solicited all his friends and acquaintances to join with him in an attempt to settle that country." He finally "prevailed upon Capt. John Smith, Edward Maria Wingfield, Reverend Robert Hunt, and divers others to join with him in the undertaking." Several of the noblemen, gentry, and merchants joined in the enterprise. Letters patent were obtained from King James I, bearing date 10th of April, 1606, naming certain persons for the "Southern colony," which settled in Tidewater Virginia, and certain other persons for the "Northern Colony," which finally settled in New England.

    "The Southern," or "London," Colony was designed for the city of London, and such as would adventure with them to discover and choose a place of settlement between the degrees of 34th and 41st parallels of latitude. "The Northern," or "Plymouth," Company, was appropriated to the cities of Bristol, Exeter, Plymouth, and the western parts of England, and all that would adventure with -them, to make their choice between the degrees of 38th and 45th parallels of latitude, provided there should be at least one hundred miles between the two colonies.

    The Charter from James I, dated April 10, 1606, begins by naming certain "loving and well disposed subjects * * * * that we would vouchsafe unto them our license to make Habitation, Plantation, and to deduce a Colony of sundry of our people unto that Part of America either appertaining unto us, or which are not actually possessed by an Christian Prince or People"

    It granted all the territory between the 34th and 45th degrees of north latitude, and all islands within one hundred miles of coast. The 34th to the 45th parallels extend from a short distance south of Columbia, S. C., to the dividing line between what we know as Vermont and Canada. The strip from the 38th to the 41st parallels, comprising between the mouth of the Potomac to the southern end of Long Island Sound, was embraced in the charters of both the Southern and Northern Companies, and was thus open to settlement by both. Conflict of jurisdiction was avoided by the proviso that neither colony should establish within one hundred miles of any actual occupancy by the other. Half of this territory could be secured to the first who settled upon it and yet there would be one hundred miles left. The actual settlement of the Jamestown colony was begun near the 37th parallel, while the Plymouth colony first settled at the 42nd parallel.

    The Companies were to be governed each by a Council of thirteen persons resident in England. There was likewise to be a council in each colony to govern according to the laws, ordinances and instructions of the King,-he to appoint the Royal Council in England. They had the power to work mines, paying the King one-fifth of the gold and silver, and one-fifteenth of the copper mined. They had the power to coin money, and to levy duty on King's subjects trading with them.

    The Council in England was empowered to name the Council to reside in Virginia. The President and Council in Virginia were constituted the supreme tribunals in all cases.

    May 23, 1609, a second charter was granted to the London (Virginia) Company, by which it became an entirely distinct corporate body, and was under the management of a Special Royal Council in England, which included individual and corporate bodies of wealth and power.

    By it the power which had formerly been reserved to the King was transferred to the Company-the power of choosing the Supreme Council in England, and also of legislating for the colony. It became a corporate body known as the "Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the City of London for the First Colony in Virginia." The incorporators were fifty city companies of London, and nearly 700 persons, of whom there were knights, peers, ministers, doctors, esquires, gentlemen, captains, merchants, and others.

    It gave the company "all those Lands, Countries, and Territories situate, lying and being in that part of America called Virginia, from the Point of Land called Cape or Point Comfort, all along the sea coast to the Northward 200 miles, and from said Point of Cape Comfort, all along the Sea Coast to the Southward 200 miles, and all that space and circuit of Land, lying from the Sea Coast of the Present aforesaid, up into the land, throughout from Sea to Sea, West and North West, and all the islands lying within 100 miles along the coast of both Seas of the Precinct aforesaid."

    This charter extended the limits of Virginia to the Pacific Ocean. It embraced the entire northwest of North America; granting 400 miles along the coast-200 miles each way from Old Point Comfort. It supplanted the former president and council, and provided a governor and council instead, and gave them full power to correct, punish, pardon, govern and rule "all subjects as shall adventure in any voyage, or shall inhabit on the Precincts of the said Colony."

    A third Charter by James I, dated March 12, 1612, confirmed and enlarged the privileges which had been granted under former charters, and extended the territory and jurisdiction to all islands and settlements withing 300 miles of the coast of the main land. This added the Bermuda islands, which were soon thereafter sold to some of the members of the Company.

    The colony when first started was a "proprietary" enterprise, and so continued until the second charter-1609-when it became a "corporation," and so continued under its third charter until the year 1624, when the corporation or company was declared null and void, the corporation dissolved, and the colony placed under the Royal Government of the King of England, and so it continued as "a Royal Province," until the Revolution, with the exception of the period when it was attempted to grant the whole of Virginia for a period of thirty-one years to a few of the favorites of the Crown, and the period during the short interval of Cromwell's reign.

    On December 19, 1606, the colonists, composed of men and boys left Blackwalls, England, in three small ships, the Susan Constant, Godspeed and Discovery to make their future home in the wilds of America. They were detained on the coast of England by contrary winds about six weeks. Their voyage to America was by the southern route.

    "Your course securely steer,
    West by south forth keep,
    Rocks, lee shores, nor shoals
    Where Eolus scowls,
    You need not fear,
    So absolute the deep."

    "And cheerfully at sea
    Success you still entice
    To get the pearl and gold
    And ours to hold
    Virginia,
    Earth's only Paradise."

    The voyage was long and tedious, consuming more than four months from the start at Blackwalls to the landing at the Capes of Virginia, April 26, 1607.

    Thomas Studley, one of the "Gentlemen" colonists gives the following list of "names of the first planters left in Virginia," when Captain Newport returned to England, June 15, 1607.

    Edward Maria Wingfield, Capt. John Radcliffe, Capt. John Martin, Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, Capt. John Smith, Capt. George Kendall. These were the council appointed by the London Company. Winfield was selected as President by this Council for a year.

    Mr. Robert Hunt, Preacher.

    Those listed as "Gentlemen" were George Percie, Anthony Gosnall, Capt. Gabriell Archer, Rob. Ford, William Bruster, Dru Pickhouse, John Brooks, Thos. Sands, John Robinson, Ustis Colovill, Kellam Throgmorton, Nathaniel Powell, Robt. Beberbland, Jeremy Alicock, Thos. Studley, Richard Crofts, Nicholas Houlgrave, Thos. Webbe Jno. Walco, Wm. Tankard, Francis Scarsborough, Edward Brooks, Rich. Dixon, Jno. Martin, Cxeo. Martin, Anthony Gosnold, Thos. Wotton, Surg. Thos. Gore, Francis Midwinter.

    The Carpenters were:

    Wm. Laxon, Edward Pising, Thos. Emery, Rob. Small.

    The others were listed as follows: Anas Todkill, Jno. Capper, (no occupation indicated).

    James Read, blacksmith; Jonas Profit, sailor; Thos. Cooper, barber; John Herd, bricklayer; Edward Printo, mason; William Love, tailor; Nic Skol, drum.

    The laborers were: John Laydon, Win. Cassen, Geo. Cassen,[5] Thos. Casson, Wm. Rods, Wm. White, Ould Edward, Henry Tauin, Geo. Golding, Jno. Dods, Win. Johnson, Will Unger.

    Will Wilkinson, Surgeon.

    The boys were: Sam'1 Collier, Nat. Pocock, Richard Mullin, Jas. Brumfield.

    Studley ends the list with the statement that there were "divers others to the number of 105."

    They were accompanied by between forty and fifty sailors, who were the crews of the three ships.

    When the colonists embarked upon their journey, they knew not who would be their rulers in the new world. They only knew the expedition was to be in charge of Capt. Newport until Virginia was reached. Sealed orders from the Company naming the first president and council for the colony were given Newport. The evening of their arrival within the Capes of the Chesapeake, the box containing the orders was opened and read, and no doubt great surprise was manifested by some upon reading the name of Capt. John Smith as one of the first Council. During the voyage he had been accused of mutiny by Wingfield and others, and had since then been a prisoner. His trial took place after the colony was established at Jamestown. He was honorably acquitted and his accuser ordered to pay him a large sum of money, which Smith refused to accept for his personal use, and donated to the colony.

    The size of the ships in which these colonists ventured across the wide Atlantic Ocean, indicates the meagre accomodations of the colonists during the four months cruise. A vessel's tonnage is estimated as 100 cubic feet to the ton, a little less in size than a cord of wood which is 128 cubic feet.

    The tonnage and capacity of each of the three ships were as follows "Susan Constant,'" 100 tons burden, capacity to hold 78 cords of wood.

    "Godspeed" 40 tons burden, capacity to hold 31 cords of wood.

    "Discovery," 20 tons burden, capacity to hold 151/2 cords of wood.

    Few sailors of the present day would have the temerity to attempt to cross the Atlantic ocean in a vessel of but 20 tons burden.[6]

    An interesting account of this memorable expedition was written by George Percy, or Pereie, a brother of the Earl of Northumberland, in whose honor a county in the Northern Neck of Virginia was named. He was a member of this first expedition to form a permanent settlement. When Captain John Smith returned to England in 1609, Percy was president in his stead, which office he held during "The Starving Time," in 1610, and later was Lieutenant-Governor. The history of the colony during the days they were seeking a final seating place can best be told in his own recital of those events.

    He described the voyage to Virginia as beginning on Saturday, Dec. 20, 1606, (other writers, Dec. 19), "the fleet fell from London, and the first of January we anchored in the Downer but the winds continued contrarie so long, that we were forced to stay there some time." He gives an interesting description of the places where the fleet stopped en route to Virginia, and the habits of the aborigines whom the colonists met, and with whom they exchanged trinkets for food. They left the West Indies on the tenth of April, and all went well with the fleet until "the one and twentieth day about five a clocke at night there began a vehement tempest, which lasted all the night, with winds, raine, and thunders in a terrible manner. Wee were forced to lie at Hull (bare poles) that night because wee thought wee had beene neerer land than wee were." The next three days they sounded the lead for land "but wee could find no ground at a hundred fathom."

    "The sixth and twentieth day of Aprils, about fours a clock in the morning, wee descried the Land of Virginia; the same day wee entered into the Bay of Chesupioc directly, without let or hinderance; there wee landed and discovered a little way, but we could find nothing worth speaking of, but faire meddowes and goodly tall Trees, with such Freshwaters running through the woods, as I was almost ravished at the sight."

    "At night, when wee were going aboard, there came the Savages creeping up on all foures, from the Hills like Beares, with their Bowes in their mouthes, charged us very desperately in the faces, hurt Captaine Gabrill Archer in both his hands, and a sayler (named Mather Morton) in two places of the body very dangerous. After they had spent their Arrowes, and felt the sharpnesse of our shot, they retired into the Woods with great noise, and so left us."

    The first settlers probably cast their first anchor in Virginia waters some two or three miles westward of the present location of Cape Henry Light House, within the Chesapeake Bay, and nearly on a south line with the inland waters of what is now known as Broad Bay, end its adjoining waters, known as Lynn Haven Bay. This latter named place lies directly south of this anchorage, some seven or eight miles, where on the second day of their arrival they "marched 8 miles up into the land and came to a place where the Indians had beene newly a roasting oysters."

    On April 29, 1896, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities put upon the old light house at Cape Henry a bronze tablet with these words upon it:

    "Near this spot landed April 26, 1607, Capt. Gabriell Archer, Hon. Geo. S. Percy, Christopher Newport, Bartholomew Gosnold, Edward Maria Wingfield, with 25 others, who calling the place Cape Henry, planted a cross April 29, 1607.

    "Del gratis Virginia condita,"

    The "Savages" who gave the colonists this ungracious reception were of the (Chesapeake) Chesupioc tribe whose seat was near the head waters of Lynn Haven Bay. Their hostility was no doubt induced by the belief that the colonists were of the same class of white men who had made prior visits to these shores:[7]

    "The seven and twentieth day we began to build up our Shallop: the Gentlemen and Souldiers marched eight miles up into the Land, we could not see a Savage in all that march, we came to a place where they had made a great fire, and had beene newly a roasting Oysters: when they perceived our coming, they fled away to the Mountaines, and left many of the oysters in the fire: we eat some of the oysters, which were very large and delicate in taste."

    "The eighth and twentieth we launched our Shallop, the Captaine and some Gentlemen went in her, and discovered up the Bay, we found a River (Lynn Haven Inlet) on the South side running into the Maine; we entered it and found it very shoal water, not for any Boats to swim: Wee went farther into the Bay, and saw a plaine plot of ground where we went on Land, and found the place five mile in compass, without either Bush or Tree, we saw nothing there but a Cannow, which was made out of the whole tree, which was five and fortie feet by the Rule. Upon this plot of ground we got good store of Mussels and Oysters, which lay on the ground as thick as stones: wee opened some, and found in many of them Peerless. We marched some three or four miles further into the Woods, where we saw great smoakes of fire. We marched to those smoakes and found that the Savages had been burning down the grass, as wee thought either to make their plantation there, or else to give signs to bring their forces together, and to give us battel. We past through excellent ground of Flowers of divers kinds and colours, and as goodly trees as I have ever seen, as Cedar, Cypresse, and other kindes, going a little further we came into a little plat of ground full of fine and beautiful Strawberries, foure times bigger and better than ours in England. All this march we could neither see Savage nor Towne."

    The same evening towards dusk while attempting to enter James River they struck "Willoughby Spit," the eastern end of Hampton Roads, where they "found shallow water for a great way," which put them out of all hopes for getting any higher with their ships, which then "road at the mouth of the River."

    They rowed to a point of land on the opposite side of Hamton Roads, where they found a channel "with 6, 8, 10, or 12 fathom ," which put us in good comfort. Therefore we named that point of Land Cape Comfort."This is now known as" Old Point Comfort,"situated at the entrance to Hampton Roads.

    "The nine and twentieth day we set up a crosse at Chesupioc Bay, and named the Cape Henry.

    The colonists brought their ships into the James River and were the invited guests of the Indians to a feast, a dance, and a "smoker," at the village of Kecoughtan, now the town of Hampton. Here the colonists for the first time came in friendly contact with their new neighbors, and witnessed many strange things. To men reared in the civilized precincts of London, these must have been novel scenes.

    The thirtieth day, we came with our ships to Cape Comfort; where we saw five Savages running on the shoare; presently the Captaine caused the Shallop to be manned, so rowing to the shoare, the captaine called to them in signe of friendship, but they were at first timersome until they saw the Captaine lay his hand on his heart: upon that they laid down their Bowes and Arrowes, and came very boldly to us, making signes to come a shoare to their Towne, which is called by the Savages Kecoughtan (now Hampton). Wee coasted to their Towne, rowing over a River running into the Maine, where these Savages swam over with their Bowes and Arrowes in their mouthes.

    "When we came to the other side, there was a many of other Savages which directed us to their Towne, where we were entertained by them very kindly. When we came first a Land they made a doleful noise, laying their faces to the ground, scratching the earth with their miles. We did thinke that they had beene at their idolatry. When they ended their Ceremonies they went into their houses and brought out mats and laid upon the ground, the chiefest of them sate all in a rank: the meanest sort brought us such dainties as they had, and of their bread which they make of their Maiz or Genne wheat, they would not suffer us to eat unlesse we sate down, which we did on a Mat right against them. After we were satisfied they gave us of their- Tobacco, which they tooke in a pipe made artificially of earth as ours are, but far bigger, with the bowie fashioned together with a piece of fine copper. After they had feasted us, they shewed us, in welcome, their manner of dancing, which was in this fashion: one of the Savages standing in the midst singing, beating one hand against mother, all the rest dancing about him, shouting, howling, and stamping against the ground, with many anticke tricks and faces, making noise like so many Wolves or Devils. One thing of them I observed; when they were in their dance they kept stroke with their feet just one with another, but with their hands, faces, and bodies, with another, but with their hands, heads, faces, and bodies, every one of them had a severall gesture: so they continued for the space of an houre. When they had ended their dance, the Captaine gave them Beades and other trifling Jewells. They hang through their eares Fowles legs: they shave the right side of their heads with a shell, the left side they wcare of an ell long tied up with an artificial knot, with a, many of Foules feathers sticking in it. They goe altogether naked, but their privities are covered with Beasts skinnes beset commonly with little bones, or beasts teeth: some paint their bodies blacke, some red, with artificiall knots of sundry lively colours, very beautifull and pleasing to the eye, in a braver fashion than they in the West Indies."

    Notwithstanding this hospitable welcome and generous entertainment by these Indians to the white strangers, Sir Thomas Gates in 1610 drove all this tribe from Kecoughtan (Hampton), and took their lands for the use of a colony which he settled there.

    Aside from St. Augustine, Florida, and Santa Fe, New Mexico, Hampton is the oldest continuous settlement of a town in America.

    The colonists next met with the king of Paspiha who lived in what is now James City County, and who later gave the colonists the land of Jamestown. While in his company the king of Rappahanna, hearing of the strangers, came in his canoe to extend an invitation to them to visit his town. They visit the king next day, and for the first time in the new world, as they heard an Indian playing a flute, and they learned much of the customs of their new neighbors during this visit.

    "The fourth day of May, we came to the King or Werowane of Paspihe: where they entertained us with much welcome: an old Savage made a long Oration, making a foule noise, uttering his speech with a vehement action, but we knew little what they meant. While we were in company with the Paspihes, the Werowance of Rappahanna came from the other side of the River in his Cannoa: he seemed to take displeasure at our being with the Paspihes : he would faine have had us come to his Towne, the Captaine was unwilling: seeing that the day was so far spent he returned backe to his ships for that night."

    "The next day, being the fifth of May, the Werowance of Rappahanna sent a Messenger to have us come to him. We entertained the said Messenger, and gave him trifles which pleased him: Wee manned our shallop with Muskets and Targatiers sufficiently; this said Messenger guided us where our determination was to goe. When we landed, the Werowance of Rappahanna came downe to the water side with all his traine, as goodly men as any I have scene of Savages or Christians; the Werowance coming before them playing on a Flute made of a Reed, with a Crown of Deare's haire, colloured red, in fashion of a Rose fastened about his knot of haire, and a great Plate of Copper on the other side of his head, with two long Feathers in fashion of a paire of Hornes placed in the midst of his Crowne. His body was painted all with ,Crimson, with a Chaine of Beads about his necke, his face painted blew, besprinkled with silver Ore as we thought (mica dust probably), his cares all behung with Braslets of Pearle, and in either care a Birds Claw through it beset with fine Copper or Gold, he entertained us in so modest a proud fashion, as though he had beene a Prince of Civill government, holding his countenance without laughter or any such ill behaviour; he caused his Mat to be spred on the ground, where bee sate downe with a great Majestic, taking a pipe of Tobacco: the rest of his company standing about him. After he had rested awhile he rose, and made signos to us to come to his Towne. Hee went formost, and all the rest of his people and ourselves followed him up a steepe Hill where his Palace was settled. We passed through the Woods in fine paths, having most pleasant Springs which issued from the Mountains: We also went through the goodliest Corne fielder that there ever seene in any countrey. When we came to Rappahannas Towne, he entertained us in good humanitie."

    The chief of the Appomattox tribe who lived at what is now Bermuda Hundred, Chesterfield County, bade them defiance, demanding their business upon his territory and desired that they should be gone, but at last permitted their "landing in quietness."

    " The eight of May wee discovered up the River. We landed in the countrey of Apamatica, at our landing, there came many stout and able Savages to resist us with their Bowes and Arrowes, in a most warlike manner, with the swords at their backes beset with sharpe stones, and pieces of iron able to cleave a man in sunder. Amongst the rest one of the chiefest standing before them crosse legged, with his Arrow readie in his Bow in one hand, and taking a Pipe of Tobacco in the other, with a bold uttering of his speech, demanded of us our being there, willing us to bee gone. Wee made signs of peace, which they perceived in the end, and let us land in qnietnesse."

    They were almost determined to settle at Archers Hope, but finally decide upon a point of land which they afterwards named Jamestown.

    "The twelfth day we went backe to our ships, and discovered a point of Land, called Archers Hope, which was sufficient with a little harbour to defend ourselves against an enemy. The soile was good and fruitfull, with excellent good Timber. There are also stores of Vines in bignesse of a mans thigh running up to the tops of the Trees in great abundance. We also did see many Squirrels, Conies, Black Birds with crimson wings, and divers other Fowles and Birds of divers and sundrie colours of crimson."

    "We found store of Turkee nests and many Egges, if it had not beene disliked, because the ship could not ride neere the shoare, we had settled there to all the Collonies contentment."

    The thirteenth day, we came to our seating place in Paspihans Countrey, some eight miles from the point of Land, which I made mention before; where our shippes doe lie so neare the shoare that they are moored to the Trees in six fathom water."

    The fourteenth day they completed the landing of men and stores and set to work building fortifications "which they did not finish until the middle of June following.

    Thus began at Jamestown on May 14th, the first permanent settlement of English speaking people upon the continent of America, and with this small beginning, and upon this small plot of ground sprang the first aspirations for the freedom which culminated in our present form of government.

    They took possession of this land without leave, or license, other than their doubtful chartered authority from the King of England, notwithstanding the lands were occupied by a nearby tribe, known as the Paspihas, whose chief or king generously sent them word by his messengers, who were gorgeously decorated by him for the occasion, that he was coming to visit his white neighbors, and bring them a fat deer and be merry with them.

    When he last met them, on May 4th, he did not know they would settle upon his lands, nevertheless it does not appear that he objected, for on the fourth day after their seating, Paspiha came to Jamestown accompanied by one hundred of his scantily clothed warriors, but each of them gorgeous with feathers, and paint, to make merry with the whites. The colonists mistrusted the object of the visit because they came armed and instead of making merry with him and his followers, they soon quarreled with one of his men, and beat him severely because he picked up one of their hatchets, perhaps from curiosity. Their treatment so disgusted Paspiha that he "went suddenly away with all his company in great anger." Before leaving, however, he "made signes that he would give as much land as we would desire to take." Two days later he sent them a deer. A trick was played upon one of the Indians who came with the deer, by one of the whites setting up a target of wood through which he boastfully shot his arrow; they next set up a target of steel, and upon shooting again he "burst his arrow all to pieces," at which he was so maddened that he drew another arrow and "bit it in his teeth, and seemed to be in a great rage, so he went away in great anger."

    This hospitable Savage subsequently, at the instigation of Powhatan, and because of some injustice inflicted upon his tribe by the colonists, laid in wait at the glass house near Jamestown for the purpose of assassinating Captain John Smith. On this occasion, Paspiha nearly succeeded in drowning Smith, but the latter finally conquered the Indian, and was upon the point of running his sword through him, when the savage begged piteously for his life. Smith forced him to march to Jamestown, where he was put in prison, but in a few days he effected his escape.

    In 1610, the colonists under Lord Delaware drove the tribe of Paspiha off their lands, burnt their houses, took the wife and children of this chief prisoners and slew them.[8]

    The Colony selected an inland seating place according to "Instructions." The colonists overlooked and passed by regions of plenty, where the lands were fertile, and the forests were filled with wild game, and the salt waters teemed with the bounteous stores of nature, and seated instead upon a barren island where the surrounding waters were neither salt nor .fresh. They doubtless were guided in their selection of this seating place by their "Instructions" from the Company, "to be followed on landing."

    Where it shall please God to send you on the Coast of Virginia, you shall do your best endeavour to find out a safe port in the entrance of some navigable river, making choice of such a one as runneth farthest into the land. When you have made choice of the river on which you mean to settle, be not hasty in loading your vituals and munitions, but first let Captain Newport discover how far that river may be found navigable, that you make selection of the strongest, most wholesome and fertile place, for if you make many removes, besides loss of time, you shall greatly spoil your vituals and your casks.

    "But if you choose your place so far up as a bark of 50 tons will float, then you may lay all your provisions ashore with ease, and the better receive the trade of all the countries about you in the land, and such a place you may perchance find a hundred miles from the rivers mouth, and the further up the better, for if you set down near the entrance, except it be in some island that is strong by nature, an enemy that may approach you on even ground may easily put you out; and if he be driven to seek you a hundred miles the land in boats, you shall from both sides of the river where it is narrowest, so beat them with your muskets as they shall never be able to prevail against you.

    "Neither must you plant in a low or moist place, because it will prove unhealthful. You shall judge of the good air by the people, for some part of the Coast where the lands are low have their people blear eyed, and with swollen bellies and legs, but if the naturals be strong and clean made it is a sign of a wholesome soil."

    Jamestown Island, the final seating place, and the first capital of the colony,[9] lies on the north side of James River, in James City County, within the Tidewater Division known as "The Peninsula," about thirty-two miles from the mouth of the river. It averages two and a half miles in length and three-quarters miles in breadth-about 1,700 acres. It is surrounded on three sides by James River, and on the north side by Back River, which separates it from the mainland. The island itself, and the surrounding country contains little evidence of the struggles of its early inhabitants. There is standing the ruins of the brick church; a lonely monument to the drudgery, the toil, and the labors of the ninety-one years spent by the colonists in their endeavors to build up and maintain a capital city.[10]

    It was in the "Peniusula Division" of Tidewater Virginia that the colonists laid their greatest hardships and struggles, and the most depressing as well as the most successful and joyous periods of their early history as a colony. It was while Jamestown was the seat of government that they experienced all the sensations of famine, disease, despair, and massacre by the savage natives, to which was added civil war amongst themselves through Bacon's rebellion which destroyed many homes and made the town a waste place.

    Captain John Smith in one of his narratives, describes the first days of settlement upon Jamestown island: "When I went first to Virginia, I well remember we did hang an awning which is an old sail to three or four trees to shadow us from the sun; our walls were rails of wood, our seats unhewed trees till we cut planks; our pulpit a bar of wood nailed to two neighboring trees; in fine weather we shifted into an old rotten tent, for we had no better. The best of our houses were of the like curiosity but for the most part, much worse workmanship that neither could well defend wind or rain."

    The great abundance which the colonists found in their new home was described by George Percy, one of the gentlemen colonists in his letter relative to the James River:

    This river which we have discovered is one of the famousest Rivers that ever was found by any Christian, it ebbes and flower a hundred and three score miles where ships of great burthen may harbour in safetie. Wheresoever we landed upon this River, we saw the goodliest Woods as Beach, Oke, Cedar,[11] Cypress, Walnuts, Sassafras, and Vines in great abundance which clusters on in many Trees, and all the grounds bespread with strawberries, mulberries, Rasberries, and Fruits unknowne, there are many branches of this River which runne flowing through the Woods with great plentie of Fish of all kinds, as for Sturgeoon, all the World cannot be compared to it. There is also a great store of Deere both Red and Fallow. There are Bearer, Foxes, Otters, Beavers, Muskrats, and wild beasts unknowne." Notwithstanding this great abundance, the colonists during their first few years of settlement suffered much for want of food. This was due to the fact that the greater number of them were unfitted by experience, or inclination, to the new surroundings. The majority of them was brought up in cities or towns of England, with no experience in rural life. Many of them were registered as gentlemen-a class between the nobles and peasants,-some of wham were too proud to work and too poor to live without labor. Others were named as mechanics or laborers, but none were experienced in woodcraft, nor in the labors of rural life, nor as sailors nor fishermen.[12]

    When Smith became president, he put the gentlemen and others to work. He told them "the sick shall not starve, but equally share of all our labours, and every one that gathereth not every day as much as I doe, the next daie shall be set beyond the river and be banished from the fort and live there or starve."

    One of the colonists, himself a gentleman no doubt, describes the pleasure, and recreation which some of the gentlemen colonists who came with the second expedition to Jamestown, had in chopping trees in the woods under the chosen direction of Captain Smith.

    "Amongst the rest he (Smith) had chosen Gabriel Beadell and John Russell, the only two gallants of this last supply, and both proper gentlemen; strange were these pleasures to their conditions, yet lodging, eating, drinking, working, or playing they doeing but as the President, all these things were carried on so pleasantly as within a weeke they became masters (proficient), making it their delight to hear the trees thunder as they fell, but the axes so oft blistered their fingers that every third blow had a loud oath to drowne the echo, for remedy of which sin the President devised how to have every man's oath numbered, and at night for every oath to have a can of water poured down his sleeve, with which every offender was so washed (himself and all) that a man should scarce hear an oath in a week."

    Sir George Percy wrote more of conditions at Jamestown:

    "Our men were destroyed with ceverell diseases as Swellings, Fluxes, Burning Fevers, and by Warres, and some departed suddenly, but for the most part they died of famine. There were never Englishmen left in a foreign Countrey in such miserie as wee were in this new discovered Virginia. Our food was but a small can of Barlie sod in Water to five men a day, our drinke cold water taken out of the River, which was at a flood verie salt, at a low tide full of slime and filth, which was the destruction of our men. Thus we lived for a space of five months in this miserable distress. It please God, after a while, to send these people which were our mortall enemies to relieve us with victuals, as Bread, Corne, Fish and Flesh in great plentie, * * * otherwise we had all perished."

    Out of 105 colonists living in June, 1607, sixty-seven died during the following six months. Out of the total of more than 14,000 persons who came to Virginia, from the years 1607 to 1622, only 1,258 were surviving at the time of the Indian massacre by Opechancanough, in 1622. This massacre reduced the colony from 1,258 persons to 911, who survived it.

    They drank the briny, sickening waters from the James River for more than twelve months before digging a well. Their failure to guard and take care of their ship's cargo of food resulted in its destruction by decay and by rats, and their consequent starvation followed. They paid little or no attention to sanitary precautions within the town, and diseases followed their neglect. They were totally lacking in the experiences required in their new surroundings.

  • CHAPTER VI - Captain John Smith

    Of the whole number who adventured among the first few colonists to Virginia, Captain John Smith appeared to be the one best fitted to the hardships and dangers which befell them during these first years of settlement. His past experience as a sailor, a soldier, and a traveler in foreign lands, and his undaunted courage and daring, and ready wit were the qualities of manhood most needed in the new world at that period.

    The greater number of those who adventured during the first few years of the settlement were born and raised in the English cities or towns. They knew not how to accommodate themselves to the new and rough life incident to the pioneer in such an enterprise. They were ignorant of woodcraft, and could "neither fish nor cut bait," else they should not have starved in this region where the waters, and the forests teemed with great abundance of food.

    On the voyage from England, Smith was accused of insubordination by Wingfield, who later was the first President of the colony. Smith was placed under guard for nearly six weeks. He was finally exonerated and released, and from that date until he left Virginia in October, 1609, he was the busiest and most useful of all the colonists in seeking and procuring food from the natives for the colony, and in exploring and discovering the country in accordance with instructions from the Company to find an outlet to the "East India Sea." He was the most central figure in all the important events which transpired in Virginia during his stay.

    His history before and after coming to Virginia is interesting and exciting. He was born in Lincolnshire, England, in January, 1579, and was therefore little more than twenty-eight years of age when he reached Virginia. From early youth he was a soldier of fortune, and the most fortunate of men in being granted the assistance of the gentler sex whenever and wherever needed in his greatest perils. In one of his books descriptive of New England and Virginia which he dedicated to the Duchess of Richmond and Lenox, he pays the following beautiful compliment to the "Ladies."

    "Yet my comfort is, that heretofore honorable and vertuous Ladies, and comparable but amongst themselves, have offered me rescue and protection in my greatest dangers; even in foreine parts. The beauteous Lady Tragabizanda, when I was a slave to the Turkes did all she could to secure me. When I overcame the Bashaw of Kalbrits in Tartaria, the Charitable Lady Caliamata supplyed me necessities. In the utmost of many extremities, that blessed Pokahontas, the great Dings daughter, of Virginia, oft saved my life. When I escaped the cruelties of Pirates and most furious storms, a long time alone in a small boat at sea., and was driven ashore in France, the good Lady Madam Chanoyes bountifully assisted me."

    The most perilous of Captain John Smith's many voyages of discovery through Virginia occurred up the Chickahominy River. On December 10, 1607, Captain John Smith with a crew of nine men went up the Chickahominy River to discover a passage to the South Sea, and to obtain corn for the colony. The explorers proceeded in a barge about ten miles beyond Apocant, an Indian village on the Chickahominy, and finding the river impeded with fallen timber, they returned to Apocant where Smith left seven of the crew with instructions to remain on board the barge and be on guard against surprise by the Indians. He hired two Indian guides, and with two of his crew, Robinson and Emery, went about twenty miles farther up the river. Here he went ashore to shoot some game for food. He left the two whites and one Indian guide in the canoe, and took with him the other Indian guide. The crew of his barge at Apocant disobeyed his command and went ashore where one of them, George Cassen, was captured by Opechancanough, who with three hundred of his men was there on a hunting expedition. They learned from Cassen where Smith had gone, and then put him to death in a most cruel and barbarous manner, after which they went in pursuit of Smith. When Smith left the canoe, Emery and Robinson went ashore, built a fire and went to sleep. Here they were found by Opechancanough and shot to death with arrows. The Indians then followed Smith and his guide through the forest. When Smith discovered the Indians he "bound his Indian guide to his arm for a buckler and received their attack so smartly with his fire arms that he soon laid three dead upon the spot, and so wounded and galled divers others, that none of them cared to approach him" In attempting to return to his canoe "he suddenly slipped up to his middle into an oozy creek. Altho' he was thus hampered, yet none of them durst come near him, till, being almost dead with cold, he threw away his arms and surrendered. Then drawing him out, they carried him to the fire where his men were slain and carefully chafed his benumbed limbs. When Smith recovered from his chill he was conducted to Opechancanough to whom he presented a round ivory double compass dial, and explained its use. In this the Indians were much interested and they were much surprised to see the fly and needle in emotion, and yet they could not touch them because of the glass covering. Yet within an hour after, they tied him to a tree, and drew up in order to shoot him. But Opechancanough holding up the compass in his hand, they all laid down their arms.[13]

    Smith was led about by his captors throughout the several settlements between the James and Potomac rivers before being brought to Powhatan at Werowocomoco in Gloucester County.

    Smith has narrated that he was carried "from place to place, and to Topahanocke, a kingdom upon another river (Rappahannock) northward; because the year before a ship had been in the river Pamunke (York), who having been kindly entertained by Powhatan their Emperor they returned thence and discovered the river of Topahanocke (Rappahannock) where being received with like kindness, yet he slew the king, and took of his people, and they supposed I were he, but the people (of Tappahannock) reported him a great (large) man that was Captain, and they using me kindly, the next day (Dec. 28, 1607) we departed" out of Tappahannock.

    Thos. Studley, the first Cape Merchant of Virginia, who was at Jamestown when Smith returned wrote: "At last they brought him (Smith) to Werowocomoco where was Powhatan their Emperor. Here more than 200 of those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had been a monster; till Powhatan and his trayne had put themselves in their greatest traveries. Before a fire upon a seat like a bedstead, he sat covered with a great fur robe of Rarowoun (Raccoon) skinnes, and all the tayles hanging by. On either hand did sit a young wench of 16 or 18 years, and along on each side the house, two rowes of men, and behind them as many women, with their heads and shoulders painted red, and many of their heads bedecked with the white downe of Birds; but every one with something: and a great chayne of white beads about their necks. At his entrance before the Ding, all the people gave a great shout. The Queene of Appamattuck was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought him a bunch of feathers, in stead of a Towell to dry them: having seated him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan then as many as could, layd hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs to beate out his braines, Pocahontas the Kings dearest daughter, when no intreaty could prevaile, got his head in her armes, and laid her ovine upon his to save him from death: Whereat the Emperour was contented he should live to make him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all occupations as themselves, for the King himselfe will make his ovine robes, shooes, bowes, arrowes, pots, plant, hunt, or doe anything so well as the rest."

    Smith was released and sent to Jamestown with an escort of twelve guides to bring back a grindstone and two great guns (cannon) to Powhatan, in return for which he (Powhatan) promised Smith "the country of Capahowsick, & to love him as his own son, Nantaquasas."

    Upon their return to Jamestown "the guides were kindly treated, and Smith showed Rawhunt, the favorite warrior of Powhatan two demiculverins (long slender cannon), and a grindstone, which he told him they were at liberty to take to their master. Having vainly attempted to lift the pieces, Smith discharged them, loaded with stone, against the branches of a tree hung with icicles. The Indians were so terrified at the report, and at the crash of the shattered and faking ice and branches, that they fled. But being assured of their safety, by the messengers despatched after them, they returned, and were sent back with various toys for Powhatan his wives and children."

    After Smith's release, his rescuer, Pocahontas, continued to show her friendship for him. She was a frequent visitor to Jamestown, always bringing with her some substantial evidence of friendship. Studley said of her: "Ever once in three or foure dayes, Pocahontas, with her attendants brought him (Smith) so much provision that saved many of their lives, that els for all this had starved with hunger." Upon many occasions she gave Smith warnings of the hostile intents of her father Powhatan, towards the colony, thereby often saving it from destruction.

    So long as Smith remained in Virginia, she continued her friendly visits, but upon learning of his departure she never again went there until as a prisoner in the hands of Argall, in 1612. When the latter was trading up the Potomac for corn, he learned from Japazaus, an Indian chief, that Pocahontas was visiting with his tribe. Argall persuaded this chief to entice her aboard the vessel. For this treachery he was rewarded by a copper kettle for himself and some toys for his wife who aided him. The object of her capture was to induce her father to make peace with the colony. She was carried to Jamestown where she was well treated by all. While there she renounced the idolatrous faith of her people, and was baptized into the Episcopal faith and named Rebecca. In 1613 she married John Rolfe, a colonist widower. They resided at Varina on the James fourteen or fifteen miles from Richmond City. Rolfe was the first to plant and cultivate tobacco for export. In 1616 in company with his wife, he sailed in Dale's ship to Plymouth, England, arriving there June 12.

    During her visit to England, and especially in London, she was entertained by the King and Queen and the nobility, and much ceremonial attentions were paid her as the daughter of an Emperor, though an Indian.

    Her meeting again with Captain John Smith in England was romantic and affecting because she was led to believe he was long since dead. Upon their meeting she was so overcome with surprise that for a long while she could not find utterance for her feelings, but laid her head in her hands and wept. She then indignantly accused the English as "great liars," and told him she had heard he was dead. She was greatly surprised to learn that Smith was not as big a man in England as in Virginia.

    Upon the eve of her return to Virginia, she was taken sick, and died, leaving one son, named Thomas Rolfe, who later came to Virginia. His descendants, many of whom distinguished themselves otherwise, proudly claim kinship to his mother, the "Queen of the Wild Woods of America."

    Pocahontas was buried at St. George Parish, Gravesend, England, March 21, 1616. Her husband, John Rolfe, again married. He was probably killed in the Indian massacre of 1622.

    Captain John Smith subsequently made a voyage to New England, after which he was called "Admiral of New England." He died in England June 21, 1631, and was buried at St. Sepulchre Church, London. His whole life was full of adventure.

  • CHAPTER VII - The Place of Smith's Rescue

    In the previous chapter has been told the story of Smith's rescue by Pocahontas. This event occurred in Gloucester County, upon what is now known as "Rosewell" plantation, the former home of Governor John Page,[14] but now the residence of Judge Fielding L. Taylor.

    At the date of Smith's capture, this land was one of the principal places of residence of the Indian Emperor Powhatan, and was called "Werowocomoco." Smith in his book says: "At Werowocomoco, on the north side of the river Pamaunkee (York) was his (Powhatan's) residence when I was delivered him prisoner, some 14 myles from James Towne, where for the most part he was resident." The York was then called Pamaunkee. The historian Stith describes its position as follows:

    "Werowocomoco lay on the north side of York River, in Gloucester County, nearly opposite to the mouth of Queens Creek, about twenty-five miles below the fork of the river." The fork of the river referred to is now known as West Point where the Mattaponi and Pamunkey rivers join and form the York River.

    Queens Creek is in York County on the south side of the York River. It empties into that river nearly opposite but above the mouth of Carters Creek, Gloucester County, upon this Carters creek is situated Rosewell mansion and lands. Until the marriage of one of the daughters of "King Carter" of Lancaster with one of the Page family, Carters Creek was called Rosewell Creek.

    Werowocomoco, now "Rosewell," is situated upon one of the most lovely of nature's quiet beauty spots to be found in the whole of Tidewater Virginia. Rosewell lawn, and the mansion built upon it, have a most romantic connection with America's early history. The grounds of this lawn are connected with the birth and naming of Pocahontas, the rescue of Captain John Smith, and with later incidents of Smith's meeting with Powhatan, and with Captain Newport's endeavor to crown this great Indian as Emperor.

    The mansion has interesting historical value as the home of Governor Page and as the place of frequent visits of Thomas Jefferson.

    The lawn is a point of land jutting out into Garters Creek which winds around it and forms a little bay or bight upon its southern end. The surrounding lands, and the waters of Garters Creek mingle so harmoniously as to play hide and seek until they reach the inner shores of "Blundering Point," at the mouth of this creek, where they become entangled with the waters of "Cedar Bush Creek," and there the two streams noiselessly empty their clear waters into the beautiful and quiet York River, to flow on, and on until they reach the broad Chesapeake Bay, called by the Indians "Mother of the Waters," distant some fourteen or fifteen miles. Ships pass before the eye on these waters like phantom figures floating in the air. They come and go, and are seen, but no echo reaches these shores to disturb nature's repose.

    There is a charm of quietude and rest pervading such places which pen cannot describe. Here are the homes of the wild mocking birds which, with their delightful chants, so pleasing to the ear, will lull to rest the weary when the task is done. The writer, during a visit there in August, 1906, counted seven wild mocking birds at one place within a stone's throw of Rosewell house.

    Rosewell mansion is substantially built of brick, three story and basement. The foundation walls are three and one-half feet thick. The reception hall is large, the ceilings lofty, and the whole mansion is indicative of refined taste and wealth. From the upper windows, a magnificent view is had of the surrounding level lands and the waters of the creeks and the York River.

    During the life of Governor Page, Thomas Jefferson was a frequent and welcome visitor there. While on one of his visits he wrote the rough draft of the Declaration of Independence in what is now known as the "Blue Room," situated on the northwest corner of the second story of this house.

    In a small grove of trees within sight of the mansion is the family grave yard, containing several grave stones. Upon these stones are chiselled the figures representing "Grief," "Immortality," "Eternity," "Resignation," etc. Upon one of the stones is chiselled the coat of arms of the Page family and the following words:

    "Here lyeth Interred the body of
    Mary Page of Honble Matthew
    Page Esq one of her Majesteyes Council
    of this Collony of Virginia and Daughter
    of John and Mary Man of this Colony
    who departed this life ye 24th day of
    March in ye year of our Lord 1707 in
    ye Thirty sixth year of her age.

    In the many written accounts of Smith's rescue, reference is always made to the "two great stories" on which his body was laid when Powhatan ordered his execution. At the foot of the lawn of Rosewell mansion; on its Western end are the "two great stones" upon which tradition says Captain John Smith's body was laid preparatory to his attempted execution. Both together would probably weigh nearly a ton. They lie upon the creek shore a few feet from the bank which formerly extended into the creek, but long since caved in and were washed away by the waters of the southerly gust tides which left these stones to be partly covered by the waters at high tides. They are the largest, and the only large stones known to be in this or the surrounding counties where clay, sand, gravel, and very small stones only are found.

    On the west side of the lawn is a pretty cove known as "Rescue Cove." It is filled up so much by the debris washed during the centuries from its surrounding banks, that its bed is nearly on a level with the waters of Carters Creek, so that the tide does no longer flow, and ebb through it. It was doubtless a harbor for Powhatan's canoes. At the head of the cove, and upon a line with the mansion is a gushing spring of clear, pure water flowing down this cove until it empties into Carters Creek, a few hundred yards distant. Its flow is strong and at the rate of several hundred gallons an hour, indicating by its force that its origin is far distant in the higher lands, amid the hills and their hard rocky bottoms. On this lawn Pocahontas was born, and it is tradition that she was named after this spring. Her true name was "Matoaka" or "Matoax," the definition of which is "Bubbling Waters Between Two Hills," or "Bright Waters Between Two Hills." Pocahontas was the favorite child of Powhatan, and the Indians at first concealed from the whites the real name of Pocahontas, fearing that if they knew her true name they could do her some harm.[15]

    Where the banks of Rosewell lawn have broken down, and caved in by the action of the waters of the Creek, there is exhibited successive layers of ashes, charcoal, oyster, and clam shells, alternating with slight layers of earth between. These layers of shells and debris are several feet in depth, indicating that this place was an Indian settlement during very many years.

    There are about two hundred acres in the Rosewell estate at present, though the lands belonging to this original estate extended to what is now known as the "Shelly" plantation, on the east side of Carters Creek, distant in an air line about three-quarters of a mile. At "Shelly" plantation are found the usual indications of an Indian settlementshell banks. This site was probably occupied by the "Werowance" or King of the tribe inhabiting that section of Gloucester County at the date of Smith's rescue.

    Some writers have asserted that "Shelly" was the principal residence of Powhatan at the date of Smith's capture and rescue. They base their assertions mainly upon the fact that there are larger Indian shell banks at "Shelly" than at "Rosewell," and that it is within plain view of the waters of York River. The arguments set forth by these writers are conclusive evidence in favor of "Rosewell" being Powhatan's seating place instead of "Shelly." Powhatan was the Indian Emperor who ruled over more than thirty different tribes, extending from the "falls of the James River," at Richmond City, to the "falls of the Potomac," above Georgetown, D. C., including the greater part of the Maryland shores of the Potomac. To maintain this control, he must have been always upon his guard against enemies within, as well as beyond his dominions. A man so shrewd as he, though a savage, would not select an exposed outpost for his seating, but instead would leave such a position to one of his subordinates, a Werowance, King, of the tribe inhabiting that section. The Indians living near the tidal waters always traveled in boats when going to war with one another. To reach Powhatan at "Rosewell," the enemy would first have to pass "Shelly" through a comparatively narrow creek, within sight of the occupants of "Shelly," and within bow shot of their arrows. Powhatan had several places of residence provided for him throughout his dominions. He spent but a part of the year at either of these places. "Shelly" being permanently occupied by the Werowance--King--and his tribe, accounts for the greater abundance of shells found there than at "Rosewell," which Powhatan occupied only at intervals. It was a more secure spot, with an easier outlet to the inner parts of the main lands; and the outlook from "Rosewell" lawn, of the waters leading from the York River, is sufficiently plain to admit a timely view of all comers through these waters. Such natural advantages could not be overlooked even by a savage Indian.

    Captain John Smith, after his rescue and release from Powhatan, made a bargain with this chief to have log cabins built for his use at selected places, notably at the place known at this day as "Powhatan," on the James River a couple of miles below Richmond City; another at Timberneck Creek, in Gloucester County, a few miles east of Rosewell (Werowoeomoco). The chimney to the cabin at Timberneck Creek was built of lumps of hardened clay and shells intermixed, resembling marl. This was standing until the Charleston (S. C.) earthquake in 1898, at which time it fell. Its ruins now lie in heaps on the ground upon which it formerly stood. The Dutchmen sent by Smith to do the work of building the cabins proved traitors to the colony, and entered into a conspiracy to betray it into the hands of Powhatan. They stole arms and ammunition from Jamestown for Powhatan's use. Their purposes were frustrated by Smith who failed to punish them fearing greater revenge. They were induced into this conspiracy upon viewing the power and plenty which the great chief possessed in comparison with the weakness and poverty of the Jamestown Colony. Smith had built for Opechancanough a log cabin with a door to which was a lock and key. The lock interested this Indian so much that he spent the greater part of a fortnight in locking and unlocking the door, going inside and locking himself in, and going outside and locking himself out. Fortunately, he did not have any "Virginia Apple Jack," and could therefore always find the key hole.

  • CHAPTER VIII - Virginia Firmly Planted

    In the fall of 1609 Smith was wounded by the explosion of a bag of gunpowder, and forced to return to London for medical treatment. George Percy was left in charge of the colony. Smith left in Virginia three ships and seven boats, a supply of commodities ready for trade with the Indians, a goodly supply of corn newly gathered, provisions in store for the colony, three hundred muskets with other arms and ammunition, nets for fishing, tools of all sorts for work, apparel to supply their wants, six mares and a horse, more than five hundred hogs, as many hens and chickens, and some sheep and goats.

    Percy, after Smith's departure, was taken sick and unable to attend to his duties, and the colony was in such confusion that twenty or more men attempted the duties of president. The provisions were wasted, idleness and neglect followed, and so desperately poor and needy was the condition of the colony that within six months after Smith's departure, of the four hundred and ninety odd persons left there by Smith, not above sixty remained alive in May, 1610. This period is known in the history of the colony as "The Starving Time" So terrible was the time that some even ate the flesh of the dead.

    On May 24, 1610 Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers reached the colony from the West Indies where they had been forced in their vessels by adverse winds and wrecked while on their voyage formerly to Virginia. Seeing the deplorable condition of the colony, they consented to embark upon their vessels all those who survived the famine, and determining to abandon the settlement and return to England, they started in their vessels down the James River to desert Virginia forever. When they reached Mulberry Point, a few miles above Newport News, they spied the long boat of Lord Delaware's fleet, and later his three ships which were loaded with provisions and other necessaries for the colony, on June 9, 1610. Lord Delaware persuaded the colonists to return to Jamestown, which they did, and began again their final settlement with many prayers of thanksgiving and much rejoicing for their rescue. Thus Virginia was saved.

    At the present day, one would deem it incredible that sane men should starve to death in a section of Virginia which was then, and is yet, so bountifully supplied with nature's edible products. In the surrounding woodlands at that date, there was game of many species at all seasons of the year, and in great abundance. A short distance from Jamestown, down the James River, there was excessive abundance of fish, oysters, clams, crabs, and terrapin in the waters always within reach of the industrious, intelligent, and provident seeker.

    Their failure to obtain sustenance from these numerous and ample stores of nature, is accounted for by Capt. John Smith in his letter to the Treasurer and Council, in London, in reply to their threat to desert the colony unless Newport's ships were returned loaded to pay the Company for their expense of the voyage, or unless important information relative to discovery of mines, or the discovery of a passage way to the South Sea, or some word of knowledge as to the lost colonies, should be sent to the London Company. Smith wrote the Company to send over emigrants who would be producers before they could expect much in return, and in terse sentences informed them of the helpless condition of those already seated in the colony. Said he, "Though there be fish in the sea, fowles in the ayre and Beasts in the moods their bounds are so large, they so wilde and we so weake and ignorant, we cannot much trouble them."

    If laziness was one of the attributes of some of the gentlemen colonists, as charged by some writers, it should be recalled that the conditions under which the early colonists were governed in their labors were not such as to induce them to be diligently industrious. Under the rules and regulations prescribed by the London Company, no individual controlled the products of his own labors. They shared it as a community, in "Joint Stock." The Cape Merchant (Treasurer) had under his care and control the food and everything else which the whole colony produced, or which was sent them. The industrious and thrifty shared no better in the division of the commodities than the lazy and shiftless. Under this arrangement, the colony worked during the first five years.

    "And wee doe hereby establish and ordaine, that the said colonies and plantations, and every person and persons of the same severally and respectively, shall within every of their several precincts, for the space of five years, next after their first landing upon the said coast of Virginia and America, trade together all in one stocke or divideably, but in two or three stocks at the most, and bring not only all the fruits of their labours there, but alsoe all such other goods and commodities which shall be brought out of England, or any other place into the same Colonies, into several magazines or store houses, for that purpose to be made, and erected there, and that in such order, manner and form, as the council of that collony, or the more part of them shall sett downe and direct."

    A Cape Merchant chosen annually by the President and Council was "to take charge and managing of all such goods, wares, and commodities, which shall be brought into or taken out of the several magazines or storehouses."

    "Those who paid their own passage to Virginia had always been as free as men serving in a joint stock are apt to be," states a writer of these times. But those sent at the expense of the Company had to work out the debt by serving a term of years-they were known as indented servants. These terms began to expire after May, 1614, and lands were granted them.

    In 1619, every man was free to pursue his own individual labors, and for this purpose certain portions of land were given, to the individual person for his own use, though a portion of his products were to be placed in the general store horse for emergencies. This was the first step towards individual liberty and property rights ever in America.

    To avoid the burden of taxation for maintenance of officers of the government, a certain number of acres of land were assigned for their benefit to be worked by servants owing passage money, etc.

    It appears that the colony was instructed by the London .Company sufficiently to meet any emergency. The former expeditions which the English made, through Sir Walter Raleigh's aid, to the North Carolina coast, were misled by the Indians into the belief that there was an open way to the Indies by water, and that the country was rich in minerals. Therefore one reads such instructions as the following:

    "You must observe, if you can, whether the river on which you plant doth spring out of mountains, or out of lakes; if it be out of any lake, the passage to the other sea will be more easy, and is like enough that out of the same lake you shall find some spring which runs the contrary way to the East India Sea."

    "The other forty men you may employ for 2 months in discovery of the river above you * * when they do espie any high lands or hills Capt. Gosnold may take 20 of the Company to cross over the lands and carrying a half dozen pickaxes to try if they can find any minerals."

    "The other twenty may go on by river, and pitch up boughs upon the banks side by which the other boats shall follow by the same turnings"

    "And when any of you shoots before them (the Indians) be ante that they be chosen out of your best marksmen."

    "Above all things do not adventure the killing of any of your men, that the country people (natives) may know it."

    "You should do well also not to let them see or know of your sick men."

    To follow the Colonists as they advanced beyond the narrow confines of Jamestown would make a lengthy but most interesting story. While farming their new homes in the wilderness of America, they were forced to battle with the wily savage man, and drive before them the wild beasts of the forests, and to fell the giant timber which stood guard over the soil that was coveted for the harvests of corn, wheat, tobacco, and other bounteous products that later blessed the industry of the intrepid settler on some lonely but lovely point of Tidewater Virginia lands, overlooking the salt sea waters which bore him, or his forefathers to this "fair land of freedom." Picture generations of such men.

    Little wonder then will be
    That America is free.

    The seat of government of the colony was removed from Jamestown to Williamsburg in 1698, and retained there until 1779, eighty-one years; making one hundred and twenty-seven years in all in which the capital city of the colony was situated within "The Peninsula Division" of tidewater.

    Before the seat of government was removed from this peninsula, the colony had reached the condition of such great prosperity that princely entertainments, and generous "Virginia hospitality" became synonymous terms. Williamsburg is in James City County, seven miles inland from James River, in a north easterly direction from Jamestown. It is the oldest incorporated town in Virginia, and was first settled as a town in 1621. Its vicinity was first known as Middle Plantation.

    During the ninety odd years in which the seat of government was maintained at Jamestown the colony had largely increased in population and extended its settlements from the Capes of the Chesapeake to the "falls of the James," on both sides of the river, and into the "Northern Neck," in all comprising twenty-three organized counties. During these years, the settlers had felled enough of the forest, and cleared sufficient lands to insure prosperity for the many.

    During this period, there came to the Southern Colonies, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, a class of men called "Cavaliers:' This appellation was given to the partisans of Charles I in his contest with parliament. The great exodus of Cavaliers to Virginia began in 1649, after the execution of Charles I. Then Governor Berkeley sent a message to England inviting the Royalists to the Colony, and in less than a year more than a thousand of them reached Virginia. They were a pleasure loving set of men. It is said they had a keen appreciation and liking for the luxuries and refined pleasures of the Old World.

    It is estimated that from 1649 to 1670, the population of Virginia increased from 1,000 to 40,000 whites.

  • CHAPTER IX - Old Williamsburg

    In 1724, Reverend Hugh Jones, Chaplain to the Honorable Assembly of Virginia, wrote a description of Williamsburg, then the largest and best built town in the colony. His narrative indicates the great prosperity which the colony then enjoyed.

    Said he: "When the state house and prison were burnt Gov. Nicholson removed the residence of the governor, with the meetings of the general courts and general assemblies to Middle Plantation, 'Y miles from Jamestown, in a healthier and more convenient place, and freer from the annoyance of mosquities. Here he laid out the city of Williamsburg-in the form of a cipher, made of W and M on a ridge at the head springs of two great creeks" (King and Queen).

    "The William and Mary College building is beautiful and commodious, being first modelled by Sir Christopher Wren, and since it was burnt down it has been rebuilt nicely contrived, altered and adorned by the ingenious direction of Gov. Spottswood. The royal foundation was granted and established by charter (1693 ), by King William and Queen Mary, and endowed by them with some thousand (20,000) acres of land, with duties upon furs and skins, and a penny a pound for all tobacco transported from Virginia and Maryland to the other plantations; to which have been made several other benefactions: There were donations made for the education of Indians, and to purchase negroes for the college use and service."

    He describes the Capitol Building as "a noble, beautiful and commodious pile, as any of its kind. In it is the Secretary's office, with all the courts of law and justice, held in the same form and near the same manner, as in England. Here the governor and 12 counsellors sit as judges in the general courts, whither trials and causes are removed from monthly county courts. Here are also held the Oyer and Terminer Courts:"

    "Here are also held Court martials, by judges appointed on purpose for the trial of pirates; likewise courts of admiralty for the trial of ships for illegal trade:"

    The building is in the form of an H nearly; the secretary's office and the general court taking up one side below stairs; the middle being a handsome portico leading to the clerk of the Assembly, and the House of Burgesses on the other side; which last is not unlike the House of Commons. In each wing is a good stair case, one leading to the council chamber, where the governor and council sit in very great state, in imitation of the King and council, or the lord chancellor and House of Lords. Over the portico is a large room where conferences are held, and prayers are read by the chaplain to the general assembly; which office I have had the honor, for some years to perform. At one end of this is a lobby, and near it is the clerk of the councils office; and at the other end are several chambers for the committies of claims, privileges, and elections; and over all these are several good offices for the receiver general, for the auditor, and treasurer, &c., and upon the middle is raised a lofty cupola with a large clock."

    "The whole surrounded with a neat area encompassed with a good wall, and near it is a strong sweet prison for criminals; and on the other side of the open court another for debtors, when any are removed from the other prisons in each county; but such prisoners are very rare; the creditors being there generally very merciful, and the laws so favorable for debtors that some esteem them too indulgent"

    "The cause of my being so particular in describing the Capitol, is because it is the best and most commodious pile of its kind that I have seen or heard of. Because the State house, James Town, and the college have been burnt down, therefore is prohibited in the Capitol, the use of fire, candles, and tobacco.

    "Parallel to the main street mentioned is a street on each side of it, but neither quite so long nor so broad; and at proper distances are small cross streets, for the convenience of communication. Near the middle stands the church, which is a strong piece of brick work in the form of a cross, nicely regular and convenient, and adorned as the best churches in London. This from the parish is called Bruton Church, where I had the favor of being lecturer. Near this is the large octagon tower, which is the magazine or repository of arms and ammunition, standing far from any house except James Town Court House, for the town is half in James Town county, and half in York county. Not far from hence is a large area for a market place; near which is a play house and a good bowling green.

    "From the church runs a street northward called Palace street; at the other end of which stands the palace, or governor's house, a magnificent structure, built at the public expense, finished and beautified with gates, fence, gardens, walks, a fine canal, orchards, &c., with a good number of the best arms, nicely posited, by the ingenious contrivance of the most accomplished Col. Spotswood. This likewise has the ornamental addition of a good cupola or lantern, illuminating most of the town upon birth nights and ether nights of occasional rejoicings. These buildings here described are justly reputed the best in all English America, and are exceeded by few of their kind in England."

    "At the Capitol, at public times, may be seen a great number of handsome, well dressed, compleat gentlemen; and at the governors house upon birth nights, and at balls and assemblies, I have seen as fine an appearance, as good diversion, and as splendid entertainments in Gov. Spotswoods time, as I have seen anywhere else.

    "Williamsburg is now incorporated and made a, market town and governed by a mayor and alderman, and is well stocked with rich stores of all sorts of goods, and well furnished with the best of provisions and liquors. Here dwell several good families, and more reside here at their own houses in public times. They live in the same neat manner, dress after the same modes, and behave themselves exactly as the gentry in London; most families of any note having a coach, chariot, berlin, or chaise. The number of artificers here is daily augmented, as are the convenient ordinaries or inns, for the accommodation of strangers. The servants here, as in other parts of the country, are English, Scotch, Irish, or negroes."

    "The town is regularly laid out in lots or square portions, sufficient for a house and garden, so that they don't build contiguous, whereby may be prevented the spreading of fire; and this also affords a free passage of air, which is very grateful in violent hot weather. Here, as in other parts, they build with brick, but most commonly with timber lined with ceiling, and cased with feather edged plank, painted with white lead and oil, covered with shingles of cedar, &., tarred over at first; with a passage generally through the middle of the house, for an air draught in summer. Thus their houses are lasting; dry and warm in winter, and cool in summer; especially if there be windows enough to draw the air. Thus they dwell comfortably, genteelly, pleasantly, and plentiful in this delightful, healthful, and, I hope, thriving city of Williamsburg."

    Reverend Mr. Jones continued: "The habits, life, customs, &c., of the Virginians are much the same as about London. The Planters and even the negroes, generally talk good English, without idiom or tone, and can discourse handsomely on most common subjects. They are much civilized and wear the best cloaths, according to their stations; nay, sometimes too good for their circumstances, being for the generality comely, handsome persons, of good features, and fine complexions-if they take care-of good manners and address. The climate makes them bright, and of excellent sense, and sharp in trade; an idiot or deformed native being almost a miracle. They are more inclinable to read men by business and conversation than to dive into books, and are for the most part, only desirous of learning what is absolutely necessary, in the shortest and best method. As for education, several are sent to England for it, though the Virginians, being naturally of good parts, as I have already hinted, neither require as much learning as we do."

    "The common planters leading easy lives, don't much admire manly exercise, except horse racing; nor diversion, except cock fighting, in which some greatly delight. This easy way of living, and the heat of the summer, makes some very lazy, who are then said to be climate struck. The saddle horses, though not very large, are handy, strong, and fleet, and will pace naturally and pleasantly at a prodigious rate. They are such lovers of riding that almost every ordinary person keeps a horse; and I have known some to spend the morning in ranging several miles in the woods to find and catch their horses, only to ride 2 or 3 miles to church, to the Court house, or to a horse race, where they generally appoint to meet upon business, and are more certain of finding those that they want to speak or deal with them than at their home."

    "No people entertain their friends with better cheer and welcome, and strangers and travellers are here treated in the most free, plentiful and hospitable manner, so that a few inns or ordinaries on the road are sufficient."

    Mr. Jones concluded: "If New England be called a receptacle of Dissenters and an Amsterdam of religion, Pennsylvania a nursery of Quakers, Maryland the retirement of Roman Catholics, North Carolina the refuge of runaways, and South Carolina the delight of Buccaneers and Pyrates, Virginia may be justly esteemed the happy home of the true Briton, and true Churchman for the most part, neither soaring too high, nor dropping too low."

    "The first printing press erected in Virginia was in 1692, at Williamsburg, and the first Newspaper published in Virginia was the" Virginia Gazette,"the first edition of which was issued at Williamsburg, August 6, 1736. It was a sheet12 inches by 6 inches, printed by Wm. Parks, price 15 shillings per annum. In 1671, Sir Wm. Berkeley had thanked God there were no free schools nor printing presses in Virginia and hoped there would be none for hundreds of years to come. The printing press came in twenty-one years, and there were schools also.

    The first capitol building erected in Williamsburg was burned in 1746. The second one erected was burned in 1832. It was in this latter building that Patrick Henry made his first speech, in the House of Burgesses.

    Wirt relates an incident that occurred in this building when Washington was complimented for his gallantry by the speaker of the House of Burgesses: "After his glorious career in the French, and Indian Wars (he) was complimented by the Speaker, Mr. Robinson, for his gallantry; but in such glowing terms, that when he arose to express his acknowledgements for the honor, he blushed, and stammered, and trembled unable to give distinct utterances to a single syllable; when the Speaker observing his trepidation relieved him by a masterly stroke of address, saying with a conciliating smile. Sit down, Mr. Washington; your modesty is equal to your valor, end that surpasses the power of any language that I possess.'"

  • CHAPTER X - Marrying in Old Virginia

    The first permanent settlement in Virginia was begun as a bachelor kingdom, without the sound of the gentle voice of woman, and the cooing notes of infants.

    The conditions under which the colonists began to found a settlement in the new world precluded the introduction of womankind in the enterprise. And these conditions did not change until the date when lands were granted the colonist to cultivate, and to build upon, and to claim as his own individual property. Then it was that the bachelor housekeeper, when seated by his lonely fireside, discovered the need of a helpmeet to complete his happiness, and to render him content. He discovered that man's earthly paradise is only where woman dwells.

    The first white women to reach the colony were Mrs. Thos. Forrest and her maid, Anne Burros. They came in 1608, and shortly thereafter Anne Burros was married to Thos. Layton, who came to Virginia in 1607. In 1609, their first child, named Virginia Layton, was born and baptized at Jamestown. Three other daughters-Alice, Katherine, and Mary-were born to this couple.

    In 1632, the colony made a gift of five hundred acres of land to John Layton, situated in Elizabeth City County, in recognition officially of the birth of the first white child upon Virginia's soil.

    The first marriage between the English and the Indian races was that of John Rolf'- and Pocahontas at Jamestown in 1618.

    Governor Yeardley soon after re aching Virginia, in 1619, proposed to the London Company to send one hundred boys and girls as servants and apprentices; he also advised that one hundred young maids be sent as wives for the inhabitants; that wives, children and families might render them less moveable, and fix and settle them together with their posterity in the soil."He recommended that such of these maids as were married to the public farmers should be transported at the Company's expense; but if any were married to others, that those who took them to wife should repay the Company their charges of transportation. In consequence of this proposition, ninety maids were sent the following spring.

    In 1621, sixty young and handsome maids were sent to Virginia. Recommendations and testimonials of their behavior accompanied each one so that the purchaser might be enabled to judge how to choose a wife. Boys were sent to be apprentices to those who married these maids.

    It was stipulated that these maids should be married with their own consent to such freemen only as could support them handsomely. It was also stipulated that they were to be well used, and their marriage to servants was forbidden.

    The Company granted the adventurers who subscribed to the coat of shipping the maids and boys, a ratable proportion of land, according to the number of maids sent. The lands were to be laid off together, and foraged into a town, to be called Maidstown.

    The price of wives was filed at cue hundred pounds of tobacco, and afterwards advanced to one hundred and fifty pounds, and proportionately more if any of them should happen to die on the passage to Virginia. A debt for a wife was of higher dignity than that of other debts, and to be paid first. As an inducement to marriage, married men were preferred in the selection of officers for the colony. Contentment followed this introduction of wives to Virginia, and soon thereafter whole families, including wives, daughters, and sons came, and the necessity of shipping maids no longer existed, and the seeker for a wife no longer lugged his tobacco crop to the matrimonial market, but instead resorted to the custom of his forefathers, and planned a seige of old fashioned courtship to win his bride.

    In old Virginia men and women married early in life. To the young man befell the task of the first introduction-getting acquainted. To the observer the trials of the young man in his courtship are always amusing, but in early days they attracted even more attention than today. Custom upon the part of man, and modesty upon the part of woman have settled upon man the duty of making the first overtures towards a courtship. The man must make the first formal call upon his intended bride, and to a young man it is a perplexing problem how to frame an excuse for making this first visit. During the time spent in solving this problem, he devotes many hours to the combing of his hair and to the neat arrangement of his garments, and the family looking glass is in great demand. He reaches the "moping stage," and becomes serious and thoughtful, and has "doubtful spells" like unto the sinner who is debating within himself, during a "powerful religious revival," whether he shall go to the "mourners' bench," or hang back among the sinners and lose salvation.

    Love finally surmounts all obstacles, and the young man after making a few calls, settles down to courtship in earnest.[16]

    Primitive man captured his bride and took her by force instead of persuasion. His "best man" then was the friend who aided him in the capture. The "honeymoon" was the hasty flight of the man and his captured bride. In Ireland, hatch makers "aided in forming matrimonial engagements, and in Virginia the old negro mammy house servant was often great aid to the young master or mistress during courtship.

    In the years after the colony became prosperous, a wedding was a great social affair, whether celebrated in the "Great House" of the rich, on a big plantation by the river side, or in a log cabin in the Forest.[17]

    The weddings of the wealthy were occasions of stately etiquette, and much formal ceremony. Many of the middle classes were scholarly and refined in their manners, and their marriages were equally ceremonious with those of their more wealthy neighbors. The marriages in the "Forest" were celebrated with less formality, and greater liberties for fun making were allowable.

    After the marriage ceremony and the wedding dinner, dancing followed. The figures of the dances in the Forest were three or four handed reels, or square sets and jigs. The commencement was always a square four, which was followed by what was called "jigging it off ;" that is, two or four would single out for a jig and were followed by the remaining couple. The jigs were often accompanied with what was called "cutting out;" that is, when either of the parties became tired of the dance, on intimation the place was supplied by some one of the company without any interruption of the dance. In this way a dance was often continued so long as the fiddlers could play.[18]

    Among the old time tunes are "Money Musk," "I had a Dog and His Name Was Rover , When He Had Fleas He Had 'Em All Over," "Leather Breeches," "Won't You Come Out To-night," "The Devil's Dream," "Hop Light Ladies," "Mississippi Sawyer," "Old Zip Coon," "Arkansas Traveler," "Clear the Track," "Billie In The Low Ground," "Virginia Reel,". Irish Washwoman," "Come Haste To The Wedding." Any of these tunes when played by an old time Tidewater Virginia fiddler would cure a case of chronic rheumatism at least for the time being.

    A marriage and dance in the Forest were sure to bring a large attendance, and if seats were scarce, which was often the case, every young man, when not engaged in the dance, was obliged to offer his lap as a seat for one of the girls; and the offer was sure to be accepted.

    After the wedding, if not sooner, a house was built for the newly married couple, upon the lands of the bride's, or the bridegroom's parents, and when it was ready for occupancy, the friends and neighbors who assisted in the building were invited to the "house warming," which consisted of a dinner and dancing.

    In days of slavery, the negro did not bother himself about a marriage license. He received the consent of his master to take a wife. In case of disagreement with his chosen spouse, he did not apply to divorce courts, but he simply said "Goodbye Liza Jane," and if his master was willing left his wife for good and all. The newspapers did not record the event; consequently, there were not so many public scandals as among the whites in many of the states at the present day.

    The favorite house servants were frequent exceptions to these customs. These chosen favorites were married in the master's home with all the formality and pomp which their master and mistress delighted to extend. Such servants were well instructed beforehand in their several parts, and the ceremonies were therefore entirely devoid of absurdities, and as solemn and imposing as were the same rites when partaken by the whites. The young white members of the family took great delight in contributing their quota of instructions, and added such articles of apparel to the wardrobes of the bride and groom, as were necessary to "sot 'em off" in good style.

    There was a certain social distinction between the "house servants," and the "cornfield niggers," as those who worked in the field on large plantations were styled among their own race. The manners of these two classes were very marked. The house servants generally partook more or less of the dignified manners of the white household, and in public places seldom engaged in boisterous and rough amusements so common with the "cornfield niggers," such as wrestling, kicking, loud singing, and jig dancing.

  • CHAPTER XI - The Growth of Virginia in Colonial Days

    The story of the settlement of Jamestown in 1607 and of its suffering for three years until Lord Delaware came to the colony as Governor General, appointed by the London Company has already been told. For the next nine years the colony grew gradually under Sir Thomas Dale and Sir George Yeardley and other governors.

    The year 1619 was the turning point in the history of Virginia. It marked the introduction of African slavery; the establishment of the first Legislative Assembly and of permanent home building by the importation of maidens to become the wives of the settlers. Its growth was now accentuated by the cultivation of tobacco for exportation the first tobacco having been shipped to England by John Rolfe in 1614. This one article of commerce was the means of bringing numbers of settlers to the colony. The rapid growth of the colony was checked by the Indian massacre of 1622, but under the wise hand of Sir George Yeardley, the Indians were driven into the interior, and soon the colony was again flourishing.

    For the next eighteen years-from 1622 to 1640, Virginia had quite a number of governors; some of more or less merit, but among them of especial note was Dr. John Pott, supposed to have been a doctor of medicine, though others said that he was a doctor of letters, who, after his career as governor was convicted of cattle-stealing. He was succeeded by Sir John Harvey, who was the first governor to be deposed by the people of Virginia. The people regarded his administration as too harsh, and the Council met and removed him from office. This was just ten years after James I had issued his Quo Warranto proceedings, by which the charter of the London Company had been repealed, and Virginia had become a Royal Province. Hence the tendency of the Virginians to resist the royal representative was interpreted as an act against the king himself, so the then monarch, Charles I, very promptly reproved his subjects in Virginia, and reinstated Harvey as Governor. Finally, however, the king yielded, and removed Harvey and the trouble was at an end.

    A few years later there came to Virginia a character destined to figure prominently in its history-no less a person than Sir William Berkeley, a gentleman of culture and scholarship; a play-wright and courtier; every inch a ruler, with many of the qualities essential to the make-up of a tyrant. Berkeley came at the time that England was about to engage in a civil war. It was the period when Parliament was making demands of the king on questions of taxation; demands which the king was slow to satisfy. The Civil War came on and the king's party was defeated, which resulted in a number of persons fleeing to Virginia so that the period from 1640 to 1650 marked rapid growth in the colony and by the time that Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector, there were some fifteen thousand people firmly planted on Virginia soil. After the establishment of the English Commonwealth a commission of three, containing two Virginians-Richard Bennett and William Claiborne-were appointed to demand the surrender of the Virginia colony to the Lord Protector. In 1652 they reached Jamestown, where Berkeley was in command. It seems that Berkeley wished to give battle to the commissioners of Cromwell, but that the Assembly which was then in session was opposed to such action, so that the final result was that an agreement was reached between the commissioners representing the Protector and the Assembly of Virginia, by which the Lord Protector and the Commonwealth of England were duly recognized, with the understanding that Virginia should enjoy free trade and that no impositions of taxes were to be permitted within the colony, save by the consent of the Assembly. This was a wonderful concession for so weak a colony to secure from the Mother Country at that day and time.

    Berkeley quietly retired from the governor-ship to Green Spring, his plantation some six miles from Jamestown, and the Assembly immediately elected Richard Bennett, the Puritan, as Governor of Virginia. For seven years the colony was ruled by the Assembly and governors chosen by it, after which, on the restoration of Charles II to the throne of England, Sir William Berkeley resumed the reins of government, and Virginia again passed into the hands of the king. It now numbered some twenty odd thousand inhabitants.

    From 1660 to 1676, Berkeley was the autocrat of Virginia. It was a period of rapid growth in population and in industries. Virginia soon had twenty counties, none of which were settled beyond the Tidewater region. The population by 1680 was forty thousand, of whom some two thousand were slaves and six thousand white indented servants. There were forty-eight parishes supplied with ministers of more or less learning. The Indians had gradually been driven back beyond the head of Tidewater, but they were giving trouble to the whites by harrassing the settlers on the frontier. The conflict between the Indians and the whites brought on Bacon's Rebellion, when young Nathaniel Bacon demanded of Berkeley a commission to go against the Indians and to exterminate them, or to drive them from the frontiers. Berkeley refused to grant the commission, for fear that the Virginians in arms would turn against him and his government, for he had forgotten that the people had any rights, and had kept the same Assembly in power for fifteen years; was enforcing obnoxious taxes, and in many ways proving himself a tyrant. He was finally forced to yield, and he granted Bacon his commission and called another Assembly, but the result of it all was a dispute between Berkeley and Bacon which resulted in Bacon's arrest, then his release and finally his flight from Jamestown and the raising of a force which marched against Berkeley. No serious battles ensued, but. Jamestown was taken and burned, after which Bacon proceeded to Gloucester County, where he was taken sick with a fever and died. Berkeley then regained control of the government, and put to death twenty-three of Bacon's followers. Charles II was so disappointed with Berkeley that he finally removed him in 1677. We are told that the old Governor, on his return to England, died of a broken heart.

    For the next thirty-five years the growth of the colony was steady from the head of Tidewater to the foot of the mountains. In this period the College of William and Mary was chartered in 1693 by William and Mary, the Sovereigns of England. This college soon came to be the institution from which many of the sons of prominent Virginia planters were soon to be graduated though numbers of them also went to England.

    In 1710 came Spotswood as governor. At once he revived the iron industry of Virginia which had been first begun some ninety years before. He established an iron furnace at Germany, not far from the present city of Fredericksburg. Soon after that he began his famous expedition across the mountains. With some members of his staff he left Williamsburg and drove in his coach to Germanna. Here he left his coach and with other gentlemen who joined him, proceeded on horse along the Rappahannock River, and in thirty-six days from the time he left Williamsburg, he scaled the mountains near Swift Run Gap. The company descended the mountains on the west side and reached the Shenandoah River. Proceeding by the river, they found a place where it was fordable, crossed it, and there on the western bank, the governor formally took possession for King George I, of England. After eight weeks, he returned to Williamsburg, having traveled in all four hundred and forty miles.

    It is hard for us to believe that less than two hundred yearn ago, when Spotswood entered the beautiful Valley of Virginia, it was the haunt of bears, wolves, panthers, wild cats and buffaloes. The Indians did not live there, but preserved it for their hunting grounds. Those who accompanied Spotswood on the famous expedition have been known in history as the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe. At that time in eastern Virginia, on account of the sandy soil, few horseshoes were used; but, when Spotswood and his expedition set out from Fredericksburg over the rocky, untraveled wilderness, it was found necessary that the horses should be shod. Upon the return from his journey, the governor presented "each of his companions with a golden horseshoe, . . . covered with valuable stones resembling heads of nails with the inscription on one side, `Sic juvat transcendere montes!" The climbing of the mountains was regarded in those days as a dangerous and wonderful undertaking, and it was noised abroad throughout the colony.

    In this expedition was an ensign in the British army, John Fontaine, who wrote an account of the trip. After telling of crossing the Shenandoah River, he said, "It is very deep. The main course of the water is north. It is four score yards wide in the narrowest part. We drank some health on the other side and returned, after which I went a swimming in it . . . . I got some grasshoppers and fish, and another and I, we catched a dish of fish, some perch, and a kind of fish they call drub. The others went a hunting and killed deer and turkeys . . . . I grayed my name on a tree by the river side, and the governor buried a bottle with a paper enclosed on which he writ that he took- possession of this place in the name and for King George I. of England."

    In 1722 Spotswood retired from the governorship, and was succeeded by Drysdale, who later turned over the reins of governor to William Gooch, who was governor for thirteen years. During Gooch's administration, settlers came into the Valley of Virginia, and the northern Shenandoah Valley became a section of thrift and industry. Into it came Scotch, Irish and Germans. These people were granted religious toleration, and after a few years they pushed southward, even to the boundaries of North Carolina. Prominent among the settlers of the Valley was the Lewis family, composed of the sons of John Lewis-Thomas, William, Charles and Andrew. Charles Lewis was killed at the battle of Point Pleasants, in 1774. Thomas Lewis was a prominent member of the House of Burgesses in 1765, and voted for Henry's famous Stamp Act Resolution. His home was in that part of Augusta which was made into Rockingham County in 1773. William Lewis was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, at the time Tarlatan raided Charlottesville. On account of sickness, he was unable to go to the defence of his state, and the story is told that his wife prepared her three sons, of the ages thirteen, fifteen and seventeen to go in his stead, saying to them: "Go, my children, keep back the foot of the invader from the soil of Augusta or see my face no more." When this story was reported to Washington, he said, "Leave me but a banner to plant upon the mountains of Augusta, and I will rally around me the men who will lift our bleeding country from the dust and set her free." Andrew Lewis was a great Indian fighter, and to him more than anyone else is due the credit of having gradually driven the Indians westward across the Allegheny mountains and finally across the Ohio River, for it was he who met the Indians under Cornstalk at Point Pleasance in 1774 and inflicted upon them a defeat from which they never recovered.

    The time from Bacon's Rebellion to the battle of Point Pleasants was in round numbers one hundred years. During this period the population of Virginia had increased more than five fold, and at least one-half of the population was west of the Tidewater Virginia line. The progress westward is indicated by the formation of the following counties:

    1. Brunswick County formed in '1720 from Surry and Isle of Wight, and named for the Duke of Brunswick.

    2. Goochland County formed in 1727 from Henrico, and named for Governor Gooch of Virginia.

    3. Prince William County formed in 1730 from Stafford and King George and named for Prince William, one of the sons of George I.

    4. Amelia County formed in 1734 from a part of Prince George, and named for Princess Amelia. It was the home of William B. Giles and Major Joseph Eggleston. A noted Negro preacher, by the name of Uncle Jack, who lived in Amelia, was a well known character in this county. Howe in his history says of Uncle Jack, "He was kidnapped, and brought from Africa at seven years of age, and landed at Osborne's on James River, from what it is supposed was the last slaveship which deposited its cargo in Virginia. Such was his worth of character, that, on the death of his master, several benevolent individuals, by their contributions purchased his freedom. One, who knew him well, said, `I regard this old African as a burning light, raised up by Christian principles alone, to a degree of moral purity seldom equaled, and never exceeded in any country.' The late Rev. Dr. Rice also remarked," The old man's acquaintance with the scriptures is wonderful. Many of his interpretations of obscure passages of scripture are singularly just and striking. In many respects, indeed, he is the most remarkable man I ever knew."

      "His views of the leading doctrines of Christianity were thorough and evangelical. His preaching abounded with quotations surprisingly minute, and his illustrations were vivid and correct. His knowledge of human nature was profound; and hence his extensive usefulness among the African population, as well as an extensive circle of whites. His language was pure English, without the vulgarities of the blacks. In his intercourse with all classes he was governed by Christian humility, and he abhorred cant and grimace. He uniformly opposed, both in public and private, everything like noise and disorder in the house of God. His colored audience were very prong to indulge themselves in this way. But, whenever they slid, he uniformly suspended the exercises until they became silent. On ore of these occasions, he rebuked leis hearers substantially as follows: `You noisy Christians remind me of the little branches alter a heavy rain. They are soon full then noisy-and as soon empty. I had a great deal rather sea you like the broad, deep river, which is quiet because it is broad and deep.'

      "Of this worthy and strong,-minded old man, we take the liberty of annexing a few anecdotes, drawn from his memoir in the Watchman of the South. In speaking of the excitement and noise at a protracted meeting, he remarked, `I was reminded of what I have noticed in the woods: when the. wind blows hard, the dry leaves make a great deal more noise than the green ones .' When persons scoffed at his religion, his usual diffidence and reserve would give way to a firm and dignified defence, and most happily would he `answer a fool according to his folly.' A person addicted to horse-racing and card-playing stopped him one day on the road, and said: `Old ruse, you Christians say a great deal about the way to heaven being very narrow". Now, if ibis be so, a great many who profess to be traveling it will not find it half wide enough.' `That's very true,' was the reply, `of all who have merely a name to live, and all lime you.' 'Why refer to me?' asked the man; `if the roach is wile enough for any, it is for me.' 'By no means,' replied Uncle Jack; `when you set out you will want to take along a card-table, and a race-horse or two. Now, there's no room along this way for such things, and what would you do, even in heaven, without there?' An individual accustomed to treat religion rather sportively, and who prided himself upon his morality, said to him, `Old man. I am as good as I need be; T can't help thinking so, because God blesses me as much as he does you Christians, and I don't know what more I want than he gives me.' To this the old preacher replied, with great seriousness, `Just so with the hogs. I have often loomed at then, rooting among the leaves in the woods, and finding just as many acorns as they needed; and yet I never saw one of them look up to the tree from whence the acorns fell.' In specking of the low state of religion, he said, `there seems to he a great coldness and dead ness on the subject of religion everywhere; the fire has almost gone out, and nothing is left but a few smoking chumps, lying about in places.'

      "The laws of Virginia prohibit religious as well as other assemblies of slaves, unless at least two white persons are present. Such, however, mss the universally acknowledged happy influence of Uncle Jack's meetings, that in his case it was not deemed necessary to enforce the law. On once occasion, some mischievous persons undertook to arrest and whip him and several of his hearers. A-iter the arrest, one of the number thus accosted Uncle Jack: 'Well, old fellow, you are the ringleader of all these meetings, and we have been anxious to catch you; now, what have you got to say for yourself?' 'Nothing at all, master,' was the reply. 'What! nothing to say against being whipped! how is that?' 'I have been wondering for a long time,' said he, `how it was that so good a man as the Apostle Paul should have been whipped three times for preaching the Gospel while such an unworthy man as I am should have been permitted to preach for twenty years, without ever getting a lick.' It is hardly necessary to add that these young men immediately released him."

    5. Orange County formed in 1731 from Spotsylvania and named after Orange in Holland. This county was the home of James Madison, Governor .Tanker Barbour, Judge Philip Pendleton Barbour, and the birth place of Zachariah Taylor and General Wingfield Scott. (6) Augusta County formed in 1738 from Orange and named in honor of Princess Augusta. Previously, all that part of Virginia lying west of the Blue Ridge was included in Orange; but in the fall session of this year it was divided into the counties of, Frederick and Augusta. Frederick county was bounded by the Potomac on the north, the Blue Ridge on the east, and a line to be run from the head spring of Hedgman to head spring of the Potomac, on the south and west; the remainder of Virginia, west of the Blue Ridge, to constitute Augusta. As the population increased, the limits of Augusta were reduced until it reached its ' present boundaries in 1790. It was in the limits of this county that John Lewis dwelt.

    6. Frederick County formed in 1738 from Orange and named in honor of Prince Frederick. In 1752 the town of Winchester was established by Act of Assembly. It was in this town that General Washington procured baggage horses, etc., in 1753 when on his misson to the French on the Ohio.

    7. Louisa County formed in 1742 from Hanover and named in honor of Queen Louisa.

    8. Albemarle County formed in 1744 from Goochland and named in honor of the Duke of Albemarle. It was the birth place of Thomas Jefferson, who always made his residence at Monticello, in this county. It was also the home of Meriwether Lewis, and the birth place of George Rogers Clark.

    9. Lunenburg County formed in 1746 from Brunswick and named after Lunenburg, Germany.

    10. Chesterfield County formed in 1748 from Henrico and named after Lord Chesterfield. It is the county in which John Randolph spent his boyhood days. At Falling Creek was the first iron furnace in America.

    11. Culpeper County formed in 1748 f rom Orange and named for Lord Culpeper, governor of Virginia. In 1749 Washington was appointed by the President and Masters of William and Mary College surveyor of this county. It was this county which sent out the famous Culpeper Minute men, in 1775, to join Patrick henry with a banner having upon it the words, "Culpeper Minute Men," and in the centre a rattlesnake coiled ready to strike with the words "Liberty" on one side and "Or Death" on the other, and beneath the snake the words "Don't Tread On Me."

    12. Cumberland County formed in 1748 from Goochland and named for the Duke of Cumberland.

    13. Dinwiddie County formed in 1752 from Prince George and named in honor of Governor Dinwiddie. Its main town Petersburg was named after Peter Jones who accompanied Col. William Byrd on his expedition to survey the dividing line between Virginia and North Carolina.

    14. Halifax County formed in 1752 from Lunenburg and named after Halifax in England.

    15. Bedford County formed in 1753 from Lunenburg -and named after Bedford in England. In this county are the celebrated Peaks of Otter.

    16. Prince Edward County formed in 1753 from Amelia and named after one of the sons of George II. In this county is Hampden Sidney College, which began as an academy before the Revolutionary days under the support of the Presbyterians of the south side of Virginia.

    17. Hampshire County formed in 1754 from Frederick and Augusta. It was the first county in that part of Virginia which is now included in West Virginia. It was named after Hampshire in England.

    18. Loudon County formed in 1757 from Fairfax and named in honor of the Earl of Loudon, at that time commander of the English forces in America.. In this county at Oakhill resided President Monroe.

    19. Fauquier County formed in 1759 from Prince 'William and named after Governor Fauquier. This county was the birth place of John Marshall.

    20. Amherst County formed in 1761 from Albemarle and named after Lord Amherst.

    21. Buckingham County formed in 1761 from Albemarle and named after Buckingham in England. In this county lived the renowned soldier of the Revolution, Peter Francisco. Howe in his history says of him: "His origin was obscure. He supposed that he was a Portugese by birth, and that he was kidnapped when an infant and carried to Ireland. He had no recollection of his parents, and the first knowledge he preserved of himself was that he was in that country when a small boy. Hearing much of America and being of an adventurous tern, he indented himself to a sea captain for seven years, in payment for his passage. On his arrival he was sold to Anthony Winston, Esq., of this county, on whose estate he labored faithfully until the breaking out of the revolution. He was ther at the age of sixteen, and partaking of the patriotic enthusiasm of the times, he asked and obtained permission of his owner to enlist in the army. At the storming of Stony Point he was the first soldier, after Major Gibbon, who entered the fortress, on which occasion he received a bayonet wound in the thigh. He was at Brandywine, Monmouth, and other battles at the north, and was transferred to the south under Greene, where he was engaged in the actions of the Cowpens, Camden, Guilford Court-house, etc. Ile was a very brave man, and possessed such confidence in his prowess as to be almost fearless. He used a sword having a blade five feet in length which he could wield like a feather, and every swordsman who came in contact with him, paid the forfeit of his life. His services were so distinguished that he would have been promoted to an office had he been enabled to write. His stature was six feet and an inch, and his weight 260 pounds. His complexion was dark and swarthy, features bold and manly, and his hands and feet uncommonly large. Such was his personal strength, that he could easily shoulder a cannon weighing 1,100 pounds; and our informant, a highly respectable gentleman now residing in this county; in a communication before us, says: `He could take me in his right hand and pass over the room with me, and play my head against the ceiling, as though I had been a doll-baby. My weight was 195 pounds!' The following anecdote, illustrative of Francisco's valor, has often been published:

      "`While the British army were spreading havoc and desolation all around them, by their plunderings and burnings in Virginia, in 1781, Francisco had been reconnoitering, and while stopping at the horse of a Mr. V______, then in Amelia, now Nottoway county, nine of Tarleton's cavalry came up, with three negroes, and told him he was their prisoner. Seeing he was overpowered by numbers, he made no resistance. Believing him to be very peaceable, they all went into the house, leaving him and the paymaster together. `Give up instantly all that you possess of value,' said the latter, `or prepare to die.' `I have nothing to give up,' said Francisco, `so use your pleasure.' `Deliver instantly,' rejoined the soldier, `those massy silver buckles which you wear in your shoes.' `They were a present from a valued friend,' replied Francisco, `and it would grieve me to part with them. Give them into your hands I never will. You have the power; take them if you think fit.' The soldier put his sabre under his arm, and bent down to take them. Francisco, finding so favorable an opportunity to recover his liberty, stepped one pace in his rear, drew the sword with force from under his arm, and instantly gave him a blow across the skull.`My enemy,' observed Francisco, `was brave, and though severely wounded, drew a pistol, and in the same moment that he pulled the trigger, I cut his hand nearly off. The bullet grazed my side. Ben V_____ (the man of the house) very ungenerously brought out a musket, and gave it to one of the British soldiers and told him to make use of that. He mounted the only horse they could get, and presented it at my breast. It missed fire. I rushed on the muzzle of the gun. A short struggle ensued. I disarmed and wounded him. Tarleton's troop of four hundred men were in sight. All was hurry and confusion, which I increased by repeatedly hallooing, as loud as I could, Come on my brave boys; now's your time; we will soon dispatch these few, and then attack the main body! The wounded man flew to the troop; the others were panic struck, and fled. I seized V and would have dispatched him, but the poor wretch begged for his life; he was not only an object of my contempt, but pity. The eight horses that were left behind, I gave him to conceal for me. Discovering Tarleton had dispatched ten more in pursuit of me, I made off. I evaded their vigilance. They stopped to refresh themselves. I, like an old fox, doubled and fell on their rear. I went the next day to V______ for my horses; he demanded two for his trouble and generous intentions. Finding my situation dangerous and surrounded by enemies where I ought to have found friends, I went off with my six horses. I intended to have avenged myself on V______ at a future day, but Providence ordained I should not be his executioner, for he broke his neck by a fall from one of the very horses."'

    22. Mecklenburg County formed in 1764 from Lunenburg and named after Mecklenburg in Germany. It was at Boydton that the Randolph Macon College was established in 1832.

    23. Pittsylvania County formed in 1767 from Halifax and named after William Pitt.

    24. Botetourt County formed in 1769 from Augusta and named after Governor Botetourt. It was in this part of Augusta county that Andrew Lewis had his home.

    25. Berkeley County formed in 1772 from Frederick and named after Lord Berkeley. It was the second county to be organized in what is now West Virginia. Many of the early settlers in this locality were Scotch Presbyterians. There were many Indian troubles in this locality in the early days. There is an interesting anecdote, related by Kercheval, in his account of Indian incursions and massacres in this region, of a young and beautiful girl, named Isabella Stockton, who was taken prisoner in the attack on Neally's Fort, and carried and sold to a Canadian in Canada. A young Frenchman, named Plate becoming enamored with her, made proposals of matrimony. This she declined unless her parents' consent could be obtained-a strong proof of her filial affection and good sense. The Frenchman conducted her home, readily believing that his generous devotion and attachment to the daughter would win their consent. But the prejudices then existing against the French, made her parents and friends peremptorily reject his overtures. Isabella then agreed to elope with him, and mounting two of her father's horses, they fled, but were overtaken by her two brothers in pursuit, by whom she was forcibly torn from her lover and protector and carried back to tier parents, while the poor Frenchman was warned that his life should be the forfeit of any farther attempts.

    26. Shenandoah County formed in 1'72 from Frederick, and first named Dunmore. In 1777, on account of the odium attached to the name of Lord Dunmore, it took the name of the river which flows through it. This county was settled chiefly by Germans from Pennsylvania, a hard working, industrious people. Howe narrates, "In the year 1758, a party of about fifty Indians and four Frenchmen penetrated into the Mill Creek neighborhood, about nine miles south of Woodstock and committed some murders, and carried off forty-eight prisoners. Among them was a young lad of the name of Fisher, about thirteen years of age.

      "After six day's travel they reached their village west of the Allegheny mountains, where they held a council, and determined to sacrifice their helpless prisoner, Jacob Fisher. They first ordered him to collect a quantity of dry wood. The poor little fellow shuddered, burst into tears, and told his father they intended to burn him. His father replied, `I hope not; and advised him to obey. When he had collected a sufficient quantity of wood to answer their purpose, they cleared and smoothed a ring around a sapling to which they tied him by one hand, and then formed a trail of wood around the tree, and set it on fire. The poor boy was then compelled to run round in this ring of fire until his rope wound him up to the sapling, and then back until he came in contact with the flame, while his infernal tormentors were drinking, singing and dancing around him, with `horrid joy: This was continued for several hours, during which time the savage men became beastly drunk, and as they fell prostrate to the ground, the squaws would keep up the fire. With long poles prepared for the purpose, they would pierce the body of their victim whenever he flagged, until the poor and helpless boy fell, and expired with the most excruciating torments, while his father and brothers, who were prisoners, were compelled to be witnesses of the heart-rending tragedy.

      "In 1766, two men by the name of Sheetz and Taylor, had taken their wives and children in a wagon, and were on their way to the fort at Woodstock. At the Narrow Passage, three miles south of Woodstock five Indians attacked them. The two men were killed at the first onset, and the Indians rushed to seize the women and children. The women, instead of swooning at the sight of their bleeding, expiring husbands, seized their axes, and with Amazonian firmness and strength almost superhuman, defended themselves and children. One of the Indians had succeeded in getting hold of one of Mrs. Sheetz's children, and attempted to drag it out of the wagon; but with the quickness of lightning she caught her child in one hand and with the other made a blow at the head of the fellow, which caused him to quit his hold to save his life. Several of the Indians received pretty sore wounds in this desperate confict, and all at least ran off, leaving the two women with their children to pursue their way to the fort."

      In Shenandoah County lived, at the opening of the Revolution, General Peter Muhlenburg. Of him Howe says: "Gen. Peter Muhlenburg vas a native of Pennsylvania, and by profession a clergyman of the Lutheran order. At the breaking out of the revolution, he was a young man about thirty years of age, and pastor of a Lutheran church at Woodstock. In 1776, he received the commission of colonel, and was requested to raise his regiment among the Germans of the valley. Having in his pulpit inculcated the principles of liberty, he found no difficulty in enlisting a regiment. He entered the pulpit with his sword and cockade, preached his farewell sermon, and the next day marched at the head of his regiment to join the army. His regiment was the Eighth Virginia, or as it was commonly called, the German regiment. This corps behaved with honor throughout the war. They were at Brandywine, Monmouth, and Germantown, and in the southern campaigns. In 1 777, Mr. Muhlenburg was promoted to the rank of brigadier- -general. After the war he returned to Pennsylvania, and was appointed treasurer of that State, where he ended his days. In person Gen. Muhlenburg was tall and yell proportioned, and in his address, remarkably courteous. He was a fine disciplinarian, an excellent officer and esteemed and beloved by both officers and soldiers."

  • CHAPTER XII - Some Observations on Tidewater People

    The greater percentage of the direct descendants of the original families who made the first permanent settlement of the English speaking people in America a success, are more likely to be found in rural Tidewater Virginia than in any locality of equal size elsewhere in the United States. Up to the ending of the Civil War, there were few accessions to the population of this section of Virginia, and very few foreigners resident there.

    The United States Census of 1900 credited the State of Virginia with ninety-nine per cent. of native born population, and one per cent. of foreign born population, then resident within its limits. The one per cent. of foreign born residents were largely within the cities and big towns of the State.

    In some counties of Tidewater Virginia, one may travel for continuous days without meeting other than native residents whose ancestors came direct from Europe many years ago.

    Immediately upon the formation of the several counties in Tidewater Virginia, the best spots, and the most ferthe soils were selected and appropriated into vast estates, in the midst of which was the owner's mansion, probably far away from the public road, and the public gaze. Such homes needed not the attraction of a passing procession. They held within their walls, and their surrounding wide fields sufficient attraction for the mind and body of him who was content to lead a decent life.

    The most coveted lands were those to be found situated contiguous to navigable streams, wherefrom their products could be readily and cheaply forwarded to market. The nest choice of lands were those situated upon the outskirts of the big estates, where grew heavy timber. The choice spots of heavily timbered lands were also the property of the agricultural "barons of the waters side." The owners of the large estates never thought of putting a price upon them. In fact it would have been an inexcusable affront for one to suggest such a contingency as "sell the home." There was no place else for them upon this broad earth other than where their ancestors dwelt. Under these conditions there were no lands for sale, other than the remoter, poor, sandy soils in the interiors of the peninsulas, much of which were settled by the poorer classes, who also were greatly attached to the soil where they forefathers also lived and died. Thus it was that the lands of Virginia became "The Sacred Soil."

    Because of this manner of appropriating the soil, and the lack of rapid communication, and transportation facilities throughout this section, there was left but little or no inducement for an outsider to "come in and stay." The newcomer had but one choice left him-the poorest lands; thus one sees why this territory had not increased its population proportionately with other less favored sections of the United States.

    When the Civil War ended, and emancipation changed the old established forms of labor, there were left many "land poor" landlords. Since then many of these big estates have been curtailed in their dimensions by sales to the former servants, and to outsiders who are thus encouraged in the opportunity to build up and foster industries hitherto denied this section.

    After about its first century of settlement, it was never again the territory to which immigrants from the old world came to settle, as they did to other parts of the United States. The fact that its southern and eastern boundaries are covered with wide waters-the Chesapeake Bay, and Potomac River and that there are no railroad facilities in its interior sections, may account for the loss of even transient travel throughout its limits. It is therefore less known, by means of direct intercourse through its territory, than perhaps any other locality of its size in the United States, notwithstanding its history is the earliest and most interesting of all that territory which comprised the original thirteen States.

    The extension of railroad facilities throughout these counties would facilitate the transportation of their commodities more rapidly to market, and would also bring their lands within easy reach and notice of the outside public, thereby enhancing their values which under present conditions and surroundings are justly believed to be greatly undervalued.

    Tidewater Virginia is nature's sanitarium for the nervously wrecked humanity of city life. There are numberless points of land-little peninsulas-overlooking pretty streams, throughout all that section which are suited to make the ideal home. for the nerve wrecked business man, who, because of the necessities of the modern life, is so frequently the victim.

    There are numerous suitable locations for such hones within less than one hundred miles from the Capital City of the United States. Many of these spots are yet in the primitively quiet condition in which Captain John Smith first viewed them on his voyages of discovery throughout this section in the year 1608, in search of a passage way to the Indies. They are enlivened only by the echoing whistle of some passing steamer as she plows a watery furrow on her voyage up or down their quiet streams, and blows a warning of steam to the drowsy wharf master, to get himself in readiness to "grab her bow line" and "snub her," era she slips into the dark of the overhanging pines, and is lost in the wilderness of shadows and waters, and made a wreck on the shore.

    The points of land, jutting out between rivers or creek, were the seats of the largest land owners, and wealthiest planters, and were the more remote spots from the public gaze. In such places often were found the cradles of profound thought, and the seats of learning, as well as wealth. From these locations came the famous men of Virginia, and of the nation during the earliest and later years of history.

    To characterize a people is to give an account of their distinguishing personal qualities. An extraordinary proof of the orderly condition of the people inhabiting this section may be had by reference to the report of the State Auditor of the criminal expenses of the counties comprising it, during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1905. A few extracts from this report are herewith appended:

    Charles City County, criminal expenses $174.27
    Essex County, criminal expenses 172.28
    King and Queen County, criminal expenses 79.50
    New Kent County, criminal expenses 142.33
    Northumberland County, criminal expenses 162.99
    Stafford County, criminal expenses 159.46
    York County, criminal expenses 116.67
    City of Fredericksburg, criminal expenses 434.20
    City of Williamsburg, criminal expenses 44.80

    These are the criminal expenses of a county or city during a whole twelve months. Criminal expenses increase throughout the several counties only in proportion to the number of alien, or non-native persons either permanently or temporarily resident therein. The increase of criminal expenses is rarely caused by offences committed by the native residents. The man, white, or black, who should become a menace to the peace and quiet of society there would not. be tolerated. Heinous crimes against one's fellow man are things almost unknown in many of these sections. Very many of the county jails are untenanted for successive months, and others have been vacant for succeeding years.

    The people of Tidewater have developed and practiced these traits of honorable character in their dealings with one another, and with strangers within their gates, which approach as near to the "Golden Rule" as can be found in the same aggregate of population anywhere else in the United States.

    Without fear or trepidation, one is able to travel during the darkest nights over the lonely public roads, notwithstanding the many favorable spots within the dense woods which could be found suited to commit dark deeds, free from the sight and hearing of all but a dastardly villian and his victim.

    These people are proverbially courteous to one another and to strangers. The abrupt manner often so prominent in many other sections of the United States, and especially in the densely populated communities, is not in evidence in Tidewater Virginia. When they meet, they take time to greet each other, and the frequent and sociable answer to the personal inquiry is "I'm tol'able, thank you."

    The most common manner of salutation with the "black mammy" is: "Howdy Sis' Jane," or, addressing one by the Christian name only, and the answer may be: "I'm right smaht pohly, thank de Lawd. How is yo' ?" "Sistah Jane" means by her reply that she thanks the Lord she is not worse than poorly.

    The negro men are usually less serious in their greetings, and will frequently answer such inquiry in a mirthful tone "I'se right smaht an' sha-ap fo' an of man, thank you'." This manner of reply is more frequently heard from the younger men. The old man may tell you of the miseries in his body and limbs, with a precision which would do credit to a practitioner of medicine.

    There is an ease and grace about Virginia hospitality which cannot be imitated. It is acquired only as the infant acquires the use of its limbs--step by step-in long and patient practice. It is devoid of the profuseness of "company manners," which wearies both guest and host. If one is accepted as a guest he is "at home" during the visit, whether it be within the log cabin in the Forest, or the colonial brick mansion on the river's shore.

    The social life of these people prior to the Civil War was most agreeable. Among the wealthier classes, invitations to "come and dine with us" followed whenever an extra fat lamb was found among the flock, or when a goodly supply of wild birds, wild ducks or geese fell before the hunter's gun.

    The custom of "spending the day," which might mean a week or more, was of common occurrence amongst those of leisure. Well trained servants, and abundance of home raised food products lessened the burden of entertainment.

    When ladies met and saluted each other in the usual form, they completed their greeting by an invitation to each other to "come and spend the day and bring your knitting." or an invitation to "a quilting" followed. Since the Civil War, knitting by hand is fast becoming one of the lost arts of the grandmothers. The quilting was one of the many friendly and social features of country life, in which young and old participated. A home-made quilt in which the neighbors joined to fashion was a work of art and patience combined. It was composed of scraps from wedding gowns, and other garments, cut into all manner of shapes and devices. Each scrap had its own history in connection with the wearer of the original garment from which it was cut. Some "patches" in the quilt were cut to represent hearts, birds, animals, and such devices as might suit the fancy of the worker. Monograms were tastefully and artfully worked with silken threads, with the date added in which the work was done. From such a quilt could be boil t up a memory history of good neighbors and friends. The male members of the respective families attended the quilting in the evening in time to partake of the bounteous supper and the dance which followed.

    Quiltings were continued until after the Civil War; they have now become a memory only of "old times in old Virginia."

    In the salt water sections "oyster roasts" and "fish-frys," were amongst the social pleasures. These festivals were conducted upon the shores of some river where the oysters or fish were procured. Such entertainments were frequently conducted during political campaigns, or for church aid.

    The professors of voice culture throughout the nation should bring their pupils to this section to hear the human voice from the lips of a Tidewater Virginia lady. Virginians are remarkable for the modulated sweet tone of their voices. But nowhere in the United States is the human voice so charming to the ear as in the lower peninsulas. The women especially, have such an easy, graceful, and charming tone and flow of language as to be captivating. One would surmise that it would be an impossibility for such people to utter a harsh, violent scream under any provocation. Excessively vulgar conversation, or viciously vulgar epithets, even when in angry moods are seldom uttered by any class of these people.

    There never was in Tidewater Virginia a class of people such as is known and classified-sometimes humorously, and often seriously-as "poor white trash." The "poor white trash" are supposed to be those persons who lived in certain isolated sections of the late slave holding States, remote from the improved and enlightened communities, and are said to be devoid of education and common information, crude in manner of address and means of living.

    There are no islolated sections in Tidewater Virginia, in the sense referred to here. The several counties are small, and narrow in breadth of territory, and therefore few homes can be located far from the regular routes of travel, or from the villages where the respective seats of justice are located.

    The frequent and genteel intercourse of these people with one another at all public festivities, political speakings, religious services, etc., keep bright and smooth the otherwise dull and rough edges of human nature, which are said to be the outgrowth of absolute isolation and seclusion.

    There is little envy or jealousy between the classes of rich and poor. They mingle on an equality during all public occasions. The "Golden Calf" was not originated, neither is he "tethered" in Tidewater Virginia. The individual is respected because of his good qualities, and not because of his worldly possessions. The learned judge of a Court carries his head no higher-in distain of his less favored fellow man-than does the "Forester," who can neither read nor write his name, but is a decent citizen. Neither of them have disdain for their fellow man unless the individual forfeits his self respect through his own seeking.

    Wealth is a comparative term which changes with the years of prosperity and adversity. Before the emancipation of the negro, persons in that section who had several hundreds of acres of land and servants to work it, were classed as rich and independent, though the total values of all their possessions were less than the sum of fifty thousand dollars. Following in the order of property values were, "the well to do," "the fairly well to do," and "the tolerably well to do." Beyond these grades of riches were many whose whole possessions would value less than one thousand dollars; nevertheless, such persons were enabled to live upon and reap many more comforts from these meagre possessions than could be had elsewhere for many added hundreds per cent. greater values of property.

    The Tidewater Virginia farmer who is out of debt, and possesses one or two hundred acres of "tolerably good land," convenient to a salt water stream, of which he can add the products to his table, is more independent of the world than the city dweller who is possessed of countless thousands of wealth in stocks or bonds, liable to become "dead sea fruit" upon his hands.

    The rich and the well to do persons usually sent their children from home to be educated at such institutions as the University of Virginia, the Virginia Military Institute, William and Mary College, and to the many other colleges and prominent academies which were established in the State in the 19th Century. When the students completed their education, they returned to their homes, some to enter the prefession of law, or medicine, or to engage in pursuits other than labors which tended to harden and make callous their fingers and palms. The white man of Tidewater Virginia, if possible to prevent, did not often endanger his health by hard, manual labor, neither did his servant, the negro, "befo' de wah."

    The young men of the present generation resident in Tidewater do more manual work than did the "cavaliers of the olden time;" and will grasp a plow handle, or other implement of honest toil which gives assurance of prosperity. Many of them are successfully conducting extensive fisheries for fertilizer of the soil, and others are engaged in the canning of oysters, fruits, and other commodities that had no market value there prior to the Civil War because of the absence of transportation facilities to reach a market.

    Tidewater Virginia people are conservative to the verge of stubbornness. They must have time for full deliberation before they act. They "feel the jerk on the fish hook," and determine whether it be a "bite," or "a nibble" before pulling it up.

    The many fishery and canning and lumber industries, and other industries which originated since the Civil War were introduced, encouraged and successfully maintained by nonnatives long before the Tidewater people could be induced to make investments therein. The conservatism of these people was inherited from their forefathers. The early colonist preferred the independent life upon his own lands and waters to that of any other occupation, and refused to encourage, or engage in trading, or manufacturing, or in the building up of towns within his section.

    In 1680, the assembly passed an act to encourage the building of towns, and offered inducements to mechanics and others to settle in them.

    "An act for cohabitation and encouragement of trade and manufacture.

    "This present general assembly haveing taken into their serious consideration the greate necessity, usefulnesse and advantages of cohabitation in his Majesties country of Virginia, and observing and foreseeing the greate extremeties his Majesties subjects here must necessarily fall under by the present and continued loweness of the price of tobacco; the only commodity and manufacture of this country (if the same be not by all prudential meanes and wayes prevented) and considering that the building of store houses for the reception of all merchandizes imported and receiving, secureing and laying ready all tobaccos for exportation and for sale and disposall of all goods, merchandizes and tobaccoes imported and exported into or from this his Majesties colony of Virginia will be one greate means for advancement thereof, doe pray your majestie that it may be enacted, and be it enacted by the king's most excellent majestie by and with the consent of the general assembly, and it is hereby enacted by the authority aforesaid that there be within two months next, and immediately after the publication hereof in every respective county within this his majesties colony 50 acres of land purchased by the ffeoffoes of the several counties at the rates hereafter sett downe and measured about, layd out and appointed for a towne for store houses &c. for such county as is hereafter sett downe and expressed, that is to say:

    "In Henrico county at Varina where the court house is.

    "In Charles Citty county at Fflower de hundred over against Swiniares (Swinyards).

    "In Surry county att Smith's Ffort.

    "In James Citty county at James Citty.

    "In Isle of Wight county at Pates Ffield att the parting of Pagans Creeke.

    "In Nansemond county att Coll Dues point also Huffs point.

    "In Warwick county att the mouth of Deep Creek on Mr. Mathews land.

    "In Elizabeth county on the west side of Hampton River on Mr. Thos. Jarvis his plantation where he now lives.

    "In Lower Norfolk county on Nicholas Wise his land on the Capital Eastern Branch on Elizabeth River at the entrance on the Branch." Now a part of Norfolk City.

    "In Yorke County on Mr. Reeds land where the Ship Honors store was including the low beach for land, wharves, &c., and the old field where Webber dwelt for cohabitation.

    "In New Kent county att the Brick house along the high land from marsh to marsh." This is now known as Brick House landing-a plantation.

    "In Gloster county at Tindalls point on Tindalls creek side on John Williams land." Now known as Gloucester Point.

    "In Middlesex county on the west side of Ralph Wormeleys Creek against the plantation where he now lives." Now known as Urbanna.

    "In Rappahannock county att Hobses Hole." Now known as Tappahannock, Essex County.

    "In Stafford county att Pease Point at the mouth of Aquia on the north side.

    "In Westmoreland county att Nominie on the land of Mr. Hardwicke.

    "In Accomack county att Colverts Necke on the northwest side att the head of an Anchor Creeke." (Onancock Creek). This is now known as the town of Onancock, which in 1900 had a population of 938.

    "In Northampton county at the north side of Kings creeke beginning at the mouth and so along the creeke which divides Mr. Chewnings and the court-house.

    "In Northumberland county, Chickacony," Cone River Landing, now containing one store, and canning establishment.

    "The price to be paid by each county for each respective 50 acres shat be teen thousand pounds and caske, which summe the owner or owners thereof shat be and are hereby constrained to accept take and receive as a full and valuable price and consideration for the said land forever, and for which he shall acknowledge and pass an authentique deed in law to such person x x x as shall be nominated by the justices of the county court as ffeoffoes in trust to and for the use of the county. Such person x x x whatsoever as will build a dwelling house and ware house thereupon x x shall have assigned him x x by deed 1/2 acres of the said land in fee simple, he to pay to the county 100 pounds of tobacco and caske and building such dwelling house and ware house thereupon as by this act is enjoyned. All tobacco whatsoever which shall be made within his majesties colony from and after the first day of Jany. next (1681) ensueing, and alsoe other goods and merchandizes whatsoever of the growth of this colony to be exported shal be brought to the aforesaid appointed places where all such tobaccoes and all other goods and merchandizes whatsoever of the growth and production of this colony are to be brought, sould, shipped and freighted, and whosoever shall presume to buy, sell, freight or ship of any tobaccoe or other goods or merchandizes aforesaid next after the tyme aforesaid, before the same is brought to such appointed places upon due proofs thereof made shall forfeit and loose all such tobaccoes or other merchandizes whatsoever. All goods imported, servants negroes and other slaves &c to be landed at the town only.

    "Mechanics, tradesmen and labourers who shall inhabit the towns, be wholly freed from any arrest of their persons or seize of their estates for such debts as were formerly contracted, and for and during the tyme of ffive years to come next after the publication of this law. That all such tradesmen and labourers cohabiting in the places aforesaid and not planting tending or makeing tobacco, shat be freed and acquitt from paying any publique largos during the terms of ffive years from the publication of this act:'

    Notwithstanding all these inducements to build, and penalties for shipping their products or importing their goods elsewhere than at these "towns," the people refuse,] to aid in "building up towns for the benefit of such idlers as might congregate there."

    Many of the planters destroyed their tobacco in preference to being compelled to ship it from these places.

    There are steamboat landings at several of the localities herein named, but the writer does not know of any towns now existing in any of the places specified in the act, excepting Norfolk, Urbanna, Tappahannock, and Onancock, as hereinbefore noted.

    There were towns built up by the tobacco trade in localities not mentioned in this act. Yorktown was one of these places. Its early history shows that it was the chief port for the entire trade of Virginia and was during that period a busy scene of commerce and wealth. In the year 1900, it contained but 151 inhabitants. Hanovertown, on the Pamunkey River was built by the tobacco trade before Richmond was laid out, and about the date of the Revolutionary War was a place of more importance; it needed but one or two votes in the General Assembly of being chosen as the Capital of Virginia. Its site is now a ploughed field.

    Leedstown in Westmoreland County, on the Rappahannock River was founded in the same year with Philadelphia, Pa., (1681) and in its beginning was far more prosperous. Its warehouses were better filled and its intercourse with England was greater and more profitable than that of Philadelphia. It is now a wharf on the Rappahannock River. It is not populated sufficiently to make it even a voting precinct.

    When Tidewater Virginians become convinced that a change is needed, and the same is once made, they are equally determined in maintaining their new position.

    Every Tidewater Virginian is intensely proud of his native State, whether he was born in a log cabin there and quenched his youthful thirst at the "sweep pole well" from the "drinking gourd" which got its first training in the "gyarden truck patch," or whether he was born in a "colonial brick mansion," where the sideboard is graced by the silver "stirrup cup" a treasured heirloom to him through a long line of noble English ancestry. Because of this pride, he will "stick by old Virginia," and "never tire."

    "Breathes there the man, with soul so dead,
    Who never to himself hath said,
    ' This is my own-my Native Land!'
    Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned
    As home his footsteps he hath turned
    From wand'ring on a foreign strand?
    If such there breathe, go-mark him well:
    For him no minstral raptures swell;
    High though his titles, proud his name,
    Boundless his wealth as wish can claim
    Despite those titles, power and pelf,
    The wretch, concentrated all in self,
    Living, shall forfeit fair renown;
    And, doubly dying, shall go down
    To the vile dust from whence he sprung,
    Unwept, unhonored, and unsung."

  • CHAPTER XIII - The Commonwealth of Virginia, 1776-1860

    In the first seventy-five years of the eighteenth century, Virginia's population trebled. It went from the head of Tidewater, through the Piedmont, across the Blue Ridge into the Great Valley and finally across the Allegheny mountains, even to the borders of the Ohio River.

    England had in her first American daughter, a great commonwealth which would have been to her a source of incalculable benefit had she known how to handle her own children in the new world. Unfortunately, she was unwilling to give to them in America the same rights and privileges that they would have enjoyed had they resided in England. She proposed, after the French and Indian War, in which Virginia had taken so active a part under Washington at Fort Duquesne, and in which Virginia thus showed her entire loyalty to England, to tax the American colonies for the support of English troops on American soil. In 1765, the English Parliament passed the Stamp Act, from which sprang the serious trouble in American colonies. It raised the ire of the liberty-loving Virginians who were led by Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses in 1765, to adopt the famous Stamp Act resolutions which declared that the right to tax the colony of Virginia lay in the General Assembly of the colony, and in no other power. When the Stamp Act was repealed, and the tea tax imposed, Virginia again adopted a series of famous resolves. The Assembly was dissolved for this action that was regarded as treasonable. The members of the House of Burgesses, among them George Washington, immediately assembled in the famous Raleigh Tavern, at Williamsburg, and entered into a non-importation agreement, by which they bound themselves not to buy any tea from England as long as the tax was imposed. One measure after another followed. The Virginians smypathized with the people of Boston when their harbor was closed. They became distrustful of their governor, Lord Dunmore. They, therefore, accepted the invitation of Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress in 1774. The colony had already appointed a committee of correspondence to correspond with all of the colonies on the conditions prevailing in them. Her son, Peyton Randolph, was president of the first Continental Congress; her Jefferson presented to that Congress a famous paper known as the summary view of the rights of British America; and her Henry in that Congress declared "British oppression has effaced the boundaries of the several colonies, the distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers and New Englanders are no more. I am not a Virginian but an American." In the meanwhile matters were reaching a crisis in Virginia. Lord Dunmore marched with a force to the West to meet the Indians, but instead of joining General Andrew Lewis, left that pioneer to fight alone with Cornstalk and his warriors at Point Pleasant. It was generally thought that Dunmore did this with the hope that the Virginia army might be destroyed. Then it was that the Virginians called a convention, and in March, 1775, in Old St. John's Church in Richmond, Patrick Henry made his famous speech, asking that troops be raised to defend Virginia against British oppression. Hardly had a force been raised before word came from New England of the battle of Lexington and Concord. In the meantime, Lord Dunmore seized the gun-powder that was stored in the powder magazine at Williamsburg; whereupon Virginian troops marched against him; and forced him to pay for the gun powder. Thereupon the governor fled from Williamsburg, and open war was begun between the colony Of Virginia and its royal governor. In the meantime, the second Continental Congress (1775) had met in Philadelphia, and Washington had been elected as commander-in-chief of the American army.

    Dunmore seized Norfolk, and was driven out by Colonel William Woodford. He then retired to Gwynn's Island, off the coast of Matthews county, from which he was finally driven, in July, 1776. While war was raging, great events had taken place at Williamsburg. The famous convention of 1776 had met, of which Edmund Pendleton was president. Resolutions had been adopted, instructing the delegates in the Continental Congress to declare the colonies free and independent. Virginia then proceeded to adopt the famous Bill of Rights drawn by George Mason, which set forth that all men are equally free and independent. On the 29th of June, she adopted her first constitution, five days before Jefferson's famous Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress. On the 30th of June, the Convention elected the first governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and for this position, in the trying times of the rebellion against the Mother Country, Henry was selected. For five years Virginia occupied a prominent place in the councils of the united colonies and on the battle-field, and it was on her soil that the final great struggle-the battle of Yorktown-- took place.

    The history of Virginia from 1 , 7 6 to 1860 deals chiefly with matters relating to home, development and the relation of the State to the Federal government. Following the adoption of her constitution, under the direction of Jefferson, the General Assembly of Virginia disestablished the church and declared for religious freedom. It abolished the primogeniture and entail system, by which lands were held in the family and handed down from the father to the oldest sop.

    From 1780 to 1850 a struggle was made for the extension of suffrage. Under the constitution of 1776 a relic of colonial government, no man could vote who did not possess as much as twenty-five acres of land with a house on it, or fifty acres of unimproved land. After a long struggle, suffrage was extended in 1830 to certain lease-holders and householders, but not until the famous Deform Convention of 1850-51 was every free white man allowed to vote. During the same period, there was a struggle for the equalization of representation in the General Assembly. The Western counties of the State became more populous than the Eastern, but yet, under the system of representation, established by the Constitution of 1776, each county had two representatives, without regard to population: Loudon County, for example, in 1829, with forty-two times the white population of Warwick had only two representatives. This was especially obnoxious to all the western part of the State, and it was with the hope of equalizing representation that the Convention of 1829-30 was held. This convention did something towards improving the system of representation, but not to the satisfaction of the Western people. The result was that twenty years later, another convention was called, which made it possible for the western counties to be better represented in proportion to population. The people of the East, however, had more wealth, and they claimed that it was not just to base representation upon white population alone, but that ,the basis of taxation should likewise be considered. During this period, also, a struggle was made for a change in local government in the counties and towns. In 1776, the people of any county in Virginia were allowed to vote for no officer except their member of the General Assembly. All other officers were appointed by the governor. This system practically remained in use until 1850, as the Convention of 1829-30 made few changes, but the famous Reform Convention of 1850-51 gave to the people the right to elect the governor, and the judges and all local officers as well as members of the General Assembly. Thus, the voice of the people was to be taker. on all official matters. During this whole period, however, the people voted by the viva voce system, and secret ballot was never introduced into Virginia elections until after the Civil War.

    About 1800 a great fight arose in the State for internal improvements. A demand was made in the western part of the State for the building of turnpikes and for canals. Eastern Virginia did not clamor so much for internal improvements, as there were so many navigable streams in that section. For this reason, as much as anything else, Eastern Virginians were unwilling to allow too much representation in the General Assembly to the people of the West, fearing that if the western part of the State controlled the Assembly, it would vote away too freely the money in the treasury for internal improvements. During this same period, some trouble arose with the slaves, and an insurrection arose in Southampton known as the Nat Turner Insurrection. The result of it was that a movement set on foot for the abolition of slavery lacked only one vote of passing the Lower House of the General Assembly of Virginia.

    The relation of the State to the Federal Government was also an important matter. As a rule, the Virginians claimed that no law could be passed by Congress unless the power to pass such law was specifically granted to Congress by the Constitution of the United States. The famous Virginia resolutions of 1798-99 declared the alien and sedition laws unconstitutional. Every step towards broadening the powers of the Federal Government was fought by the State of Virginia. Her statesmen saw that eventually trouble would come over the question of how to construe the Constitution and how the Federal government might deal with the Slavery question. When the John Brown Insurrection occurred in 1859, and the election of Lincoln as President in 1860, Virginia did its utmost to preserve the Union. She cast her electoral vote for the Constitutional Union party, and after a number of Southern States had seceded, in the early Dart of 1861 she called for a Peace Commission to meet in Washington, to try to bring about a reconciliation between the Union and the seceding states, and it was her son, ex-president John Tyler who presided over this conference.

    During this period, from 1776 to 1860 Virginia furnished the Union seven presidents - Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler and Zachary Taylor. This is enough to give her the name of Mother of Statesmen. She likewise gave to the Union in the early part of this period a large territory from which six States have been carved-the Northwest territory which had been conquered for Virginia by George Rogers Clark, and Kentucky which in 1792, she voluntarily allowed to become a State in the Union. This entitles her to be called the Mother of States. The increase in her population was great, though not in proportion to some of the other States of the Union.

    During this period the following counties were organized:

    1. HENRY, formed in 1776, from Pittsylvania, named after Patrick Henry.

    2. MONONGALIA, formed in 1776.

    3. MONTGOMERY, formed in 1776, from Fincastle County, and named after General Montgomery. In this county is situated Blacksburg, the seat of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

    4. OHIO, formed in 1776, and named after the river. In this county is situated Wheeling.

    5. WASHINGTON, formed in 1776, from Fincastle County (now Botetourt). In this county is located Emory and Henry College. The settlers of this county had to fight with the Cherokee Indians in the South. To protect this country, even before it was made into a county, General Andrew Lewis led a force as far south as Knoxville, Tennessee.

    6. FLUVANNA, formed in 1777 from Albemarle, and named after James river above the falls, which for a long time was called Fluvanna.

    7. GREENBRIER, formed in 1777, 7, from Botetourt and Montgomery, and named for its principal stream.

    8. POWHATAN, formed in 1777, from Cumberland and named after the old Indian chief.

    9. ROCKBRIDGE, formed in 1778, from Augusta and Botetourt, and named after Natural Bridge, which is in the county. The county seat is Lexington, in which is located Washington and Lee University and Virginia Military Institute. In this locality, the chief settlers were Scotch-Irish. Howe says:

      They had no sooner found a home in the wilderness, than they betook themselves to clearing fields, building houses, and planting orchards, like men who felt themselves now settled, and were disposed to cultivate the arts of civilized life. Few of them ever ran wild in the forests, or joined the bands of white hunters who formed the connecting link between the savage aborigines and the civilized tillers of the soil. They showed less disposition than the English colonists to engage in traffic and speculative enterprises. Without feeling dull or phlegmatic, they were sober and thoughtful, keeping their native energy of feeling under restraint, and therefore capable, when exigencies arose, of calling forth exertions as strenuous and as persevering as the occassion might demand. In their devotion to civil liberty, they differed not from the majority of their fellow colonists. Their circumstances, in a new country planted by themselves, far remote from the metropolitan government, fostered and strengthened their ancestral spirit of freedom. As Presbyterians, neither they nor their forefathers would submit to an ecclesiastical hierarchy; and their detestation of civil tyranny descended to them from the convenanters of Scotland. Hence, in the dispute between the colonists and the mother country, the Presbyterians of the valley-indeed of the whole country-were almost unanimously Whigs of the firmest and most unconquerable spirit. They were among the bravest and most effective militia, when called into the field. General Washington signified his opinion of them when, in the darkest day of the revolutionary struggle, he expressed his confidence, that if all other resources should fail, he might yet repair with a single standard, to West Augusta, and there rally a band of patriots who would meet the enemy at the Blue Ridge, and there establish the boundary of a free empire in the west. This saying of the father of his country has been variously reported; but we have no reason to doubt that he did, in some form, declare his belief that, in the last resort, he could yet gather a force in western Virginia which the victorious armies of Britian could not subdue. The spirit of these sires still reigns in their descendents, as the day of trial, come when it may, will prove.

    10. ROCKINGHAM, formed in 1778, from Augusta, named after Rockingham, in England. This hart of the valley was settled chiefly by Germans from Pennsylvania. Of their home life Kercheval says:

    11. The first houses erected by the primitive settlers were log cabins, with covers of split clap-boards, and weight poles to keep them in place. They were frequently seen with earthen floors; or if wooden floors were used, they were made of split puncheons, a little smoothed with the broadaxe. These houses were pretty generally in use since the author's recollection. There were, however, a few framed and stone buildings erected previous to the war of the revolution. As the country improved in population and wealth, there was a corresponding improvement in the erection of buildings.

      When this improvement commenced, the most general mode of building was with hewn logs, a shingle roof, and plank floor, the plank cut out with the whip-saw. Before the erection of saw-mills, all the plank used in the construction of houses was worked out in this way. As it is probable some of my young readers have never seen a whip-saw, a short description of it may not be uninteresting. It was about the length of the common mill-saw with a handle at each end transversely fixed to it. The timber intended to be sawed was first squared with the broadaxes and then raised on a scaffold six or seven feet high. Two able-bodied men then took hold of the saw, one standing on the top of the log and the other under it, and commenced sawing. The labor was excessively fatiguing, and about one hundred feet of plank or scantling was considered a good day's work for the two hands.

      The introduction of saw-mills, however, soon superceded the use of the whip-saw, but they were not entirely laid aside until several years after the war of the revolution.

      The dress of the early settlers was of the plainest materials generally of their own manufacture; and if a modern "belle" or "beau" were now to witness the extreme plainness and simplicity of their fashions, the one would be almost thrown into a fit of the hysterics, and the other frightened at the odd and grotesque appearance of their progenitors. Previous to the war of the revolution, the married men generally shaved their heads, and either wore wigs or white linen caps. When the war commenced, this fashion was laid aside, partly from patriotic considerations and partly from necessity. Owing to the entire interruption of the intercourse with England, wigs could not easily be obtained, nor white linen for caps. The men's coats were generally made with broad backs, and straight short skirts, with pockets on the outside having large flaps. The breeches were so short as barely to reach the knee, with a band surrounding the knee, fastened with either brass or silver buckles. The stocking was drawn up under the knee-band, and tied with a garter (generally red or blue) below the knee, so as to be seen. The shoes were of coarse leather, with straps to the quarters, and fastened with either brass or silver buckles. The hat was either of wool or fur, with a round crown not exceeding three or four inches high, with a broad brim. The dress for the neck was usually a narrow collar to the skirt, with a white linen stock drawn together at the ends, on the back of the neck, with a broad metal buckle. The more wealthy and fashionable were sometimes seen with their stock, knee and shoe buckles, set either in gold or silver with brilliant stones. The author can recollect, when a child, if he happened to see any of those finely dressed "great folk" as they were then termed, he felt awed in their presence, and viewed them as something more than man. The female dress was generally the short gown and petticoat, made of the plainest material. The German women mostly wore tight calico caps on their heads, and in the summer season they were generally seen with no other clothing than a linen shift and petticoat-the feet, hands and arms bare. In hay and harvest time they joined the men in the labor of the meadow and grain fields. This custom of the females laboring in the time of harvest, was not exclusively a German practice, but was common to all the northern people. Many females were most expert mowers and reapers. Within the author's recollection, he has seen several female reapers who were equal to the stout. est males in the harvest-field. It was no uncommon thing to see the female part of the family at the hoe or the plow; and some of our now wealthiest citizens frequently boast of their grandmothers, ay, mothers too, performing this kind of heavy labor. The natural result of this kind of rural life was to produce a hardy and vigorous race of people. It was this race of people who had to meet and breast the various Indian wars, and the storms of the revolution.

      The Dutchman's barn was usually the best building on his farm. He was sure to erect a fine large barn before he built any other dwelling-house than his rude log-cabin. There were none of our primitive immigrants more uniform in the form of their buildings than the Germans.- Their dwelling-houses were seldom raised more than a single story in height, with a large cellar beneath; the chimney in the middle, with a very wide fireplace in one end for the kitchen; in the other end a stoveroom. Their furniture was of the simplest and plainest kind; and there was always a long pine table fixed in one corner of the stove-room, with permanent benches on one side. On the upper floor, garners for holding grain were very common. Their beds were generally filled with straw or chaff, with a fine featherbed for covering in the winter. The author has several times slept in this kind of bed; and to a person unaccustomed to it, it is attended not unfrequently with danger to the health. The thick covering of the feathers is pretty certain to produce a profuse perspiration, which an exposure to cold, on rising in the morning, is apt to check suddenly, causing chilliness and obstinate cough. The author, a few years ago, caught in this way the most severe cold, which followed by a long and distressing cough, he ever was afflicted with.

      Many of the Germans have what they call a drum, through which the stove pipe passes in their upper rooms. It is made of sheet iron, something in the shape of the military drum. It soon fills with heat from the pipe, by which the rooms become agreeably warm in the coldest weather. A piazza is a very common appendage to a Dutchman's dwelling house, in which his saddles, bridles, and very frequently his wagon or plough harness, are hung up. The Germans erect stables for their domestic animals of every species; even their swine are housed in the winter season. Their barns and stables are well stored with provender, particularly fine hay, hence their quadrupeds of all kinds are kept throughout the year in the finest possible order. The practice of housing stock in the winter season is unquestionably great economy in husbandry. Much less food is required to sustain there, and the animals come out in the spring in fine health and condition. It is a rare occurrence to hear of a Dutchman's losing any part of his stock with poverty. The practice of housing stock in the winter is not exclusively a German custom, but is common to mast of the nothern people, and those descended from immigrants from the North. The author recollects once seeing the cow-stabs adjoining a farmer's dwelling.

    12. CAMPBELL, formed in 1'18I, from Bedford and named in honor of General William Campbell, an officer of the revolution. In this county is situated Lynchburg, named after a member of the Lynch family, which has been perpetuated in the well-known Lynch Law. Howe says:

    13. Colonel Charles Lynch, a brother of the founder of Lynchburg, was as officer of the American revolution. His residence was on the Staunton, in the southwest part of this county, now the seat of his grandson, Charles Henry Lynch, Esq. At that time, this country was very thinly settled, and infested by a lawless band of tories and desperadoes. The necessity of the case involved desperate measures, and Colonel Lynch, then a leading Whig, apprehended and had them punished without any superficus legal ceremony. Hence the origin of the term "Lynch Law." The practice of lynching continued three years after the war, and was applied to many cases of mere suspicion of guilt, which could not be regularly proven.

      It was at old Campbell Court house that the celebrated case of John Hock was tried. According to Howe:

      Hook was a Scotchman, a man of wealth, and suspected of being unfriendly to the American cause. During the distresses of the American army, consequent on the joint invasion of Cornwallis and Phillips in I581, a Mr. Venable, an army commissary, had taken two of Hock's steers for the use of the troops. The act had not been strictly legal; and on the establishment of peace, Hook, en the advice of Mr. Cowan, a gentleman of some distinction in the law, thought proper to bring an action of trespass against Mr. Venable, in the District court of New London. Mr. Henry appeared for the defendant, and is said to have deported himself in this cause to the infinite enjoyment of his hearers, the unfortunate Hook always excepted. After Mr. Henry became animated in the cause, says a correspondent, he appeared to have complete control over the passions of his audience; at one time, he excited their indignation against Hook; vengeance was visible in every countenance; again, when he chose to relax, and ridicule him, the whole audience was in a roar of laughter. He painted the distresses of the American army, exposed almost naked to the rigor of a winter's sky, and marking the frozen ground over which they marched with the blood of their unshod feet; where was the man, he said, who had an American heart in his bosom, who would not have thrown open his fields, his barns, his cellars, the doors of his house, the portals of his breast, to have received with open arms, the meanest soldier in that little band of famished partiots? 'Where is the man? There he stands but whether the heart of an American beats in his bosom, you, gentlemen, are to judge. He then carried the jury, by the powers of his imagination, to the plains around Yorktown, the surrender of which had followed shortly after the act complained of: he depicted the surrender in the mast glowing and noble colors of his eloquence--the audience saw before their eyes the humiliation and dejection of the British, as they marched out of their trenches-they saw the triumph which lighted up every patriotic face, and heard the shouts of victory, and the cry of Washington and liberty, as it rung and echoed through tine American ranks, and was reverberated from the hills and shores of the neighboring river-"but hark! what notes of discord are these which disturb the general joy, and silence the acclamations of victory-they are the notes of John Hook, hoarsely bawling through the American camp, beef! beef! beef!" The whole audience were convulsed: a particular incident will give a better idea of the effect, than any general description. The clerk of the court, unable to command himself and unwilling to comma any breach of decorum in his place, rushed out of the court-house, and threw himself on the grass, in the most violent paroxysm of laughter, where he was rolling, when Hook, with very different feelings, came out for relief into the yard, also. "Jemmy Steptoe," he said to the clerk, "what the devil ails yo, men?" Mr. Steptoe was only able to say, that he could not help it. "Never mind ye," said Hook, "wait till Billy Cowan gets up: he'll show him the la'." Mr. Cowan, however, was so completely overwhelmed by the torrent which bore upon his client, that when he rose to reply to Mr. Henry, he was scarcely able to make an intelligible or audible remark. The cause was decided almost by acclamation. The jury retired for form sake, and instantly returned with a verdict for the defendant. Nor did the effect of Mr. Henry's speech stop there. The people were so highly excited by the tory audacity of such a suit, that Hook began to hear around him a cry more terrible than that of beef; it was the cry of tar and feathers; from the application of which, it is said, that nothing saved him but a precipitate flight and the speed of his horse.

    14. FRANKLIN, formed in 1784, from Bedford and Henry, and named after Benjamin Franklin.

    15. GREENESVILLE, formed in 1784, from Brunswick.

    16. HARRISON, formed in 1784, from Alonongalia, named after Benjamin Harrison, Governor of Virginia.

    17. HARDY, formed in 1786, from Hampshire, named after Samuel Hardy.

    18. RUSSELL, formed in 1786, from Washington County, named after General William Russell.

    19. RANDOLPH, formed in 1787, from Harrison, and named after Edmund Randolph.

    20. NOTTOWAY, formed in 1788, from Amelia, and named after the Nottoway tribe of Indians.

    21. PENDLETON, formed in 1788, from Augusta, Hardy and Rockingham, and named from Edmund Pendleton.

    22. KANAWHA, formed in 1789, from Greenbrier and Montgomery.

    23. MATTHEWS formed in 1790, from Gloucester, named in honor of a Virginia revolutionary officer, afterwards governor of Georgia.

    24. WYTHE, formed in 1790, from Montgomery, and named after George Wythe.

    25. BATH, formed in 1791, from Augusta, Botetourt and Greenbrier. In this county are located the Warm Springs and Hot Springs. This county was the home of General Samuel Blackburn, one of the most famous orators and criminal lawyers of his time in Virginia. Of him Howe wrote:

      He was the father of the anti-duelling law of the state, which we believe was the first passed in the country after the war of the revolution. Among other penalties, it prohibited anyone who had been engaged in a duel from holding offices of trust in the gift of the state. Some years after, a gentleman who had challenged another, was elected to the legislature. When he came forward to take the customary oath, his violation of this law was urged against him. Some, however, contended that the circumstances of the case were so aggravating that its provisions ought to be disregarded, and fears were entertained that this sentiment might prevail. Then it was that General Blackburn, who was a member, came forward with a speech of great power in opposition. The result was the triumph of the law in the rejection of the member.

    26. PATRICK, formed in 1791, from Henry, and named after Patrick Henry.

    27. LEE, formed in 1792, from Russell, named after Henry Lee, governor of Virginia. The following account of a duel reported in a newspaper of the year 1823 is given by Howe:

      A remarkable duel took place in Lee County, on Sunday, December 7th, which has been the subject of much conversation here . . . . . Two negro men, belonging to two gentlemen, had been bitten by the charms of a sable beauty, and neither being willing to yield to the other, they determined, like gentlemen, to decide their pretentions by a duel. The arrangement was accordingly made, and they met in a distant and retired wood, unattended by seconds, and without the knowledge of any other person-each armed with a trusty rifle. Their proceedings appear to have been conducted with a strict honor, the more remarkable in such case as it was exhibited by slaves. The ground was measured off about fifteen paces; the antagonists took their posts; the word was given by one of them, and both instantly fell-one shot through the heart, and the other through the right breast. The former expired immediately; the latter, with great difficulty and pain, crawled to a small path not far from the scene of combat; but unable to go further, he remained by it, in the hope that someone would pass and find him. He lay there, under all the suffering which his wound and exposure inflicted, until the following Tuesday, before he was found. Depressed and debased as that unfortunate race is, there are occasional instances in which they exhibit traits of character which elevate them above the sphere to which our policy compels us to confine them. The strict observance of honorable conduct, and the cool determined courage of these negroes, afford an example which ought to make some gentlemen of high condition blush.

    28. MADISON, formed in 1792, from Culpeper, named after President Madison.

    29. GRAYSON, formed in 1793, from Wythe, and named after William Grayson, a member of the Virginia Convention that ratified the Federal constitution.

    30. CHARLOTTE, formed in 1794, from Lunenburg, named after Princess Charlotte. Charlotte was the residence of Patrick Henry in his latter days, of John Randolph of Roanoke, and of Judge Paul Carrington. Henry lived at Red Hill and John Randolph at Roanoke.

    31. BROOKE, formed in 1797, from Ohio county. It lies in the "panhandle" of what is now West Virginia. It was in this county that the Rev. Dr. Alexander Campbell established Bethany College under the direction of the Disciples of Christ. It was the home of Philip Doddridge, who was the leader of the western element of the Convention of 1829-30.

    32. MONROE, formed in 1799, from Greenbrier, and named after President Monroe.

    33. TAZEWELL , formed in 1799, from Russell and Wythe, and named after Senator Henry Tazewell.

    34. WOOD, formed in 1799, from Harrison, and named after Governor James Wood, of Virginia.

    35. JEFFERSON, formed in 1801, from Berkeley, and named after Thomas Jefferson. In this county is situated Harper's Ferry, the scene of John Brown's raid. In this county was also the home of Rumsey, the inventor of the first steam-boat.

    36. MASON, formed in 1804, from Kanawha, and named after George Mason. In this county is situated Point Pleasant, famous for the battle with the Indians tinder Cornstalk.

    37. GILES, formed in 1806, fro-In Monroe and Tazewell, and named after General William B. Giles. In this county the celebrated Salt Pond.

      It is a natural beautiful lake of pure fresh water, on the summit of the Salt Pond mountain, one of the highest spurs of the Alleghany. This pond is about a mile long and one-third of a mile wide. At its termination it is dammed by a huge pile of rocks over which it runs, but which once passed through the fissures only. In the spring and summer of 1804, immense quantities of leaves and other rubbish washed in and filled up the fissures, since which it has risen full 25 feet. Previous to that time, It was fed by a fine, large spring at its head; then that disappeared, and several small springs now flow into it at its upper end. When first known, it was the resort of vast numbers of elk, buffalo, deer, and other wild animals, for drink; hence its name of salt pond. It has no taste of salt, and is inhabited by fine trout.

    38. NELSON, formed in 1807, from Amherst and named after Governor Thomas Nelson.

    39. SCOTT, formed in 1814, from Lee, Washington and Russell, and named after General Winfield Scott.

    40. TYLER, formed in 1814, from Ohio, and named after John Tyler, Sr.

    41. LEWIS, formed in 1816, from Harrison, and named after Colonel Charles Lewis. 40. NICHOLAS, formed in 1828, from Kanawha, Greenbrier and Randolph, and named after Governor Nicholas.

    42. PRESTON, formed in 1818, from Monongalia, and named for Governor James B. Preston.

    43. MORGAN, formed in 1820, from Hampshire and Berkeley, named after General Daniel Morgan.

    44. POCAHONTAS, formed in. 1821, from Bath, Pendleton and Randolph, and named for the Indian princess.

    45. ALLEGHANY, formed in 1822, from Bath, Botetourt and Monroe. The county is named for the mountains which traverse it. During the early part of the nineteenth century, this was a wild country, frequently traversed by Indians and outlaws. An interesting story is told of an eccentric female named Ann Bailey who lived in this locality. Howe says

      She was born in Liverpool, and had been the wife of an English soldier. She generally went by the cognomen of Mad Ann. During the wars with the Indians, she very often acted as a messenger, and conveyed letters from the fort, at Covington, to Point Pleasant. On these occasions she was mounted on a favorite horse of great sagacity, and rode like a man, with a rifle over her shoulder and a tomahawk and a butcher's knife in her belt. At night she slept in the woods. Her custom was to let her horse go free, and then walk some distance back on his trail, to escape being discovered by the Indians. After the Indian wars, she spent some time in hunting. She pursued and shot deer and bears with the skill of a backwoodsman. She was a short, stout woman, very masculine and coarse in appearance, and seldom or never wore a gown, but usually had on a petticoat, with a man's coat aver it, and buck-skin breeches. The services she rendered in the wars with the Indians endeared her to the people. Mad Ann and her black pony Liverpool were always welcome at every house. Often she gathered the honest, simple-hearted mountaineers around and related her adventures and trials, while the sympathetic tear would course down their cheeks. She was profane, often became intoxicated, and could box with the skill of one of the fancy. Mad Ann possessed considerable intelligence, and could read and write. She died in Ohio, many years since.

    46. LOGAN, formed in 1824, from Giles, Kanawha, Cabell and Tazewell, and named after the Indian chief.

    47. FAYETTE, formed in 1831, from Logan, Greenbrier, Nicholas and Kanawha.

    48. FLOYD, formed in 1831, from Montgomery, named after John Floyd, governor of Virginia.

    49. PAGE, formed in 1831, from Rockingham and Shenandoah, and named after Governor John Page. In this county is situated the celebrated Luray Cave, that attracts the admiration of visitors from all parts of the world.

    50. RAPPAHANNOCK, formed in 1831, from Culpeper, and named after the river.

    51. SMYTH, formed in 1831, from "Washington and Wythe, and named after General Alexander Smyth, an officer of the War of 1812.

    52. Marshall, formed in 1835, from Ohio County, and named after Chief Justice Marshall.

    53. BRAXTON, formed in 1836, from Lewis, Kanawha and Nicholas, and named after Carter Braxton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, from Virginia.

    54. CLARKE, formed in 1836, from Frederick, and named after George Rogers Clark. In this county lived General Daniel Morgan, at "Soldiers' Rest" only a few miles from Berryville. Morgan subsequently built another, a beautiful seat, in this county, which he very appropriately named Saratoga. It was erected by Hessians taken prisoners at Saratoga. According to Howe:

      About 200 yards from Soldiers' Rest stands an old log hut, which well authenticated tradition states was occupied by Washington while surveying land in this region for Lord Fairfag. It is about twelve feet square, and is divided into two rooms; one in the upper, and the other in the lower story. The lower apartment was then, and is now, used as a milkroom. A beautiful spring gushes up from the rocks by the house and flows in a clear, crystal stream, under the building, answering admirably the purpose to which it is applied, in cooling this apartment. Many years since, both the spring and the building were protected from the heat of the summer's sun by a dense copse of trees. The upper, or attic room, which is about twelve feet square, was occupied by Washington as a place of deposite for his surveying instruments, and as a lodginghow long, though, is not known. The room was lathed and plastered. A window was at one end, and a door-up to which led a rough flight of steps-at the other. This rude but is, perhaps, the most interesting relic of that great and good man, who became "first in the hearts of his countrymen."

      In this county also was Greenway Court, the seat of Lord Fairfax. Howe says:

      His lordship lived and died in a single story and a half-house, which stood just in front of the modern brick dwelling of Mr. Kennerly, and was destroyed in 1834. There are now several of the original buildings standing at the place; among them is a small limestone structure, where quit-rents were given and titles drawn of his lordship's domains. Fairfax had, probably, 150 negro servants, who lived in log huts scattered about in the woods. A few years since, in excavating the ground near the house, the servants of Mr. Kennerly discovered a large quantity of joes and halfjoes amounting to about $250.00; they were what is termed cob-coin, of a square form, and dated about 1730. They were supposed to have been secreted there by Lord Fairfax. Under a shelving rock, nine feet from the surface, there was also found a human skeleton of gigantic statue; supposed to be that of an Indian. When Lord Dunmore went on his expedition against the Indians in 1774, he came on as far as this place with a portion of his troops, and waited here about a fortnight for reinforcements. His soldiers encamped in what was then a grave-now a meadow-about three hundred yards north of Mr. Kennerly's present residence. The spot is indicated by a deep well, supposed to have been dug by them; an old magazine, destroyed in 1843, stood near the well. Washington, when recruiting at Winchester, often visited this place. Lord Fairfax had but little cultivated ground around his premises, and that was in small patches without taste or design. The land was left for a park, and he lived almost wholly from his rents. The following, as well as much of the foregoing, respecting him, is traditionary: His lordship was a dark, swarthy man, several inches over six feet in height, and of a gigantic frame and personal strength. He lived the life of a batchelor, and fared coarse, adopting in that respect the rough customs of the people among whom he was. When in the humour, he was generous-giving away whole farms to his tenants and simply demanding for rent some trifle-for instance, a present of a turkey for his Christmas dinner.

    55. WARREN, formed in 1836, from Frederick and Shenandoah, and named after General Warren.

    56. MERCER, formed in 1837, from Giles and Tazewell, and named after General Hugh Mercer.

    57. GREENE, formed in 1838, from the western part of Orange, and named after General Nathaniel Greene,

    58. ROANOKE, formed in 1338, from Botetourt. The name is probably derived from an Indian word, meaning shell-money.

    59. PULASKI, formed in 1839, from Montgomery and Wythe, and named after Count Pulaski.

    60. CARROL, formed in 1842, from Grayson, named after George Carrol, a member of the Legislature from Grayson.

    61. MARION, formed in 1842, from Harrison and Monongalia, and named after General Francis Marion.

    62. WAYNE, formed in 1842, from Cabell County, and named after General Anthony Wayne.

    63. BARBOUR, formed in 1843, from Harrison, Lewis and Randolph, and named after Philip and James Barbour.

    64. RITCHIE, formed in 1843, from Harrison, Lewis and Wood, and named after the well-known editor, Thomas Ritchie.

    65. TAYLOR, formed in 1844, from Harrison, Barbour and Marion, and named after John Taylor, of Caroline.

    66. ALEXANDRIA, formed in 1846, from that part of the district of Columbia which was given by Virginia to the National Government, and afterwards returned to the State.

    67. HIGHLAND, formed in 1847, from Bath and Pendleton.

    68. CRAIG, formed in 180, from Botetourt, Roanoke, and Giles.

    69. WISE, formed in 1846, from Russell, Scott, and Lee.

    70. BUCHANAN, formed in 1858, from Russell and Tazewell.

    71. BLAND, formed in 1860, from Wythe, Giles, and Tazewell.

    The preceding account of the formation of the counties of Virginia shows that the State was growing toward the west.

    Of the seventy counties herein named, twenty-nine are now a part of West Virginia. Virginia has to-day 100 counties.

  • CHAPTER XIV - The Negro Slave in Virginia

    The want of labor to help fell the forests, and to clear and cultivate fields for the needed harvests were perplexing and vital questions in the 17th century with the new colony. Indented white men, boys, and girls were shipped from England for this purpose. This help was but temporary as the indented service was limited to a few years at most, and at its expiration this imported labor was given a certain number of acres of land for their own use, and thus they became masters, and would be hirers themselves, thereby adding to the perplexity of the question which their original introduction into Virginia was intended to settle.

    The negro reached Virginia nearly as soon as the white man. In April, 1607, the first colony landed there, and in August, 1619, the negro followed. About two months before this first cargo of slaves reached Jamestown the people of the colony were granted the right of suffrage, for the first time in the new world, through the election of a House of Burgesses. Thus did "the Fates decree," that while the white man in Virginia, was enjoying his first rights there as a freeman, the negro, as a slave, was offered him, and accepted as a Godsend. Whether the introduction of slavery was a God-send to Virginia has long been a mooted question.

    This first cargo of negro slaves to reach Virginia was pirated from the Spanish West Indies by a "Dutch Man o' War," so called. It is stated that this "Man of War" was a pirate ship-a class of vessels common in those yearsmanned in part by Englishmen, and that Capt. Samuel Argall, Lieut.-Governor of Virginia from 1617 to 1619, was largely interested in this adventure of shipping slaves to Virginia.

    At the period of the introduction of slavery into Virginia the colony was confined mainly to small settlements along the banks of the James River. The negro helped to fell the primeval forests to make way for fields of tobacco and golden headed grain. He heaved out the highways for his master's vehicle through the dense woods, and shared with him the dangers and privations of the early life in the wilderness, and accepted the ill luck, or the good loch which came to the pioneer, and was generally fairly treated in all things but his freedom. In fact his lot was frequently a happier one than that of many of the white indented servants in whom their masters had no pecuniary interest beyond the cost of their transportation to the colony. Very many of these were forced to harder tasks than befell the slave.

    Slavery, even of the white race, was in existence from the earliest days of history. "Joseph," whose coat of many colors excited the envy of his brethren, was sold by them to the traders who trafficked in human flesh, as well as in the other commodities demanded in that day. Later we read of the Egyptian taskmasters under whom the Israelites-the chosen people of God-worked at hard tasks, made the more severe by reason of the prejudice and jealousy of the task master against that race. Later history records the slavery of prisoners captured in the wars of all nations. In those ages color of the skin was no bar to slavery.

    Tidewater Virginia was virtually the slave's paradise. The largest farms, and consequently the largest owners of slaves were usually located in the river bottom lands, or convenient to the affluent streams which led into the larger navigable waters. As nearly all these streams were abundantly supplied with oysters, and fish of every variety, the thrifty were enabled to add to their allowance from "the store house of nature:" The early riser could have his fish for breakfast fresh from his own net. In the fall and winter, he might have wild fowl, and he could find small game in the dense timbered lands, which worded a dietary change as well as amusement. Added to these was the regular ration of meal and meat, and the products of a "garden patch" which all were allowed to cultivate for their own benefit. The farmers who were morn remote from the navigable streams were the owners of smaller tracts of land, and fewer servants. The servants of these farmers generally fared quite as well as their owners, and in the absence of their masters were in full control of their business. In the writer's experience of mere than twenty-five years' travel through the several counties of Tidewater Virginia, he has never heard a complaint from the former slaves of ill treatment at the hands of their former owners. On the contrary all references to their former master and mistress were affectionate, and to their great credit.

    The owners of slaves never referred to them other than as "servants." The master's residence was called by the negroes the "Great House," without regard to its size. The young "white folks" were always welcomed in their visits to the "negro quarters" and were especial favorites with the "Black Mammys," whom they were taught to respect and to give evidence of their appreciation of courtesies received at their hands.

    A "Black Mammy" was one of the servants reared within the "Great House," beginning service as a child, and servant to some one of the children of her owner. It was frequently the case that she was provided with a bed within the same room wherein slept her child mistress or master.

    There were no secrets of the family with which this descendant of Ham was not conversant, and few of those to whom these secrets were known kept them more inviolable. As she grew in years she was burdened with the care of the white children, often to the extent of nursing them from the milk of her own breast. She loved her "lil chillun" and they loved her, and why should they not love one another when their lives were thus so closely combined. The Black Mammy was fond of the recital of the traditions of her owners and a zealous defender of their family honor.

    Slavery in Virginia differed greatly from that of the cotton States. In many instances in those States the owners had little or no intercourse or acquaintance with their slaves. They were in such instances managed and worked by overseers who lived upon the plantation, and had supreme control, and it depended upon the humanity of such overseers as to how the servants were treated.

    In Virginia the. Owner of less than half a dozen male servants usually worked with them at their several tasks in the field, or forest, or in the rivers. Those who owned a greater number of servants, and themselves pursued some occupation, as county officer, or the profession of law, or medicine, or other business undertaking which occupied their time, usually hired an overseer, more as an aid than a supreme controller of their servants. In many instances the place of white overseers was servants.

    Those who had more servants than were needed frequently hired them out. In that event the servants were usually permitted to seek their employers. If a servant disliked his former employer, and made known his displeasure to his master, he was permitted to seek service elsewhere. It was difficult for any hirer of servants who had incurred their ill will to again hire one. "Hiring time" was usually during the Christmas holidays. All hired servants returned to their owner's homes during the Christmas holidays, where feasting, frolicking and dancing was the custom. The negro was a great frolicker during slavery. Female servants often helped filled by a "head man," who was himself one of the in the field at such labors as plowing corn, binding grain, pulling fodder and shucking corn.

    It was the custom of many negroes to wrap their hair in little knots with strings of various colors. This custom was more frequently followed by the young female servants; it was usually a Sunday job to "look the hair over," and wrap it. This custom was based upon the belief that it would induce the hair to grow straight, and for this purpose they would stretch the lock until the scalp rose with it, and then wrap each lock of hair so tight, and cover it so thickly with cord that it stood aloft like the quills upon an angry porcupine, and lead one to wonder how the wearer could shut her eyes without jerking the hair from its scalp by the roots.

    The matrons of the homes were the angels of the households in Old Virginia. They watched over all, nursed, advised and comforted both black and white. The "Misses" was profoundly respected by the servants and worshipped by the white members of the family. Nowhere in the world were women shown more respect and courtesy than in Virginia. Their soft, gentle voices and their easy, graceful, and courteous manners forbade that none other than the best of treatment should be accorded them.

    Because of the numerous servants subject to their call they were exempt from the menial duties of life. Their duty was to manage the household and cultivate their minds and manners.

    The nears of Virginia took his captivity lightly. He is by nature endowed with a happy disposition. His laugh is hearty, extending over his whole face, and is so surely contagious that it would crack the skin of a hypochondriac who dared to venture within its bounds. Like their masters they had no use for "an or'nary white man," and were appreciative of favors and courtesies. The negro has two prominent, commendable traits, a short memory for a wrong, and a quickness to be gratified to his joy.

    Greed of riches forces men to commit crimes and outrages against humanity, and the greater the sum of wealth involved the greater becomes the outrages in its seeking. Perhaps when the Tidewater Virginian acquires the greed of riches he may commit its consequent crimes to accomplish his end. Had these owners worked their servants as laborers are worked in many of the densely populated cities of the world they would have heaped up riches. On the contrary, these people led a life of ease and comfort in which their servants participated. The tasks of the servants were usually light; the chopping of four or five cords of wood was a whole week's task. Poverty and want, such as is frequently the experience of the white laborer in sweat shop, or factory, was never known in tidewater by the master or slave. There were no profligate expenditures for gaudy show, neither was there miserly, grovelling poverty. There were no care-worn wrinkles in the faces of the master, or his servant, induced by poverty's unrelenting laws. These people were not very rich, neither were they very poor. The following is an interesting account of the conditions existing between the master and his slave written more than twenty years prior to the Civil War.

    "Slaves not allowed to keep or carry military weapons. Not allowed to leave home without written permission. Not to assemble at any meeting house or other places in the night, under pretence of religious worship-nor at any school for the purpose of being taught to read or write-nor to trade and go at large as freedmen-nor to hire themselves out-nor to preach or exhort. Some of the penalties for a violation of these laws are imposed upon the master, for permitting his slave to do certain acts; in other cases, the slave is liable to be taken before a justice of the peace, and punished by stripes, never exceeding thirty-nine. Slaves emancipated by their master, are directed to leave the State within twelve months from the date of emancipation. These and every other law having the appearance of rigor towards the slaves are nearly dead letters upon the statute book unless during times of excitement. It is rare to witness the trial of a slave for any except very serious crimes. There are many offences committed by them, for which a freeman would be sent to the penitentiary, that are rot noticed, or punished by a few stripes under the direction of the master. When tried for a crime, it is before a court of at least fig-a magistrates, who must be unanimous to convict. They are not entitled to a trial by jury, but it is acknowledged on all hands that this is a benefit, and not a disadvantage. Slaves may be taught, and many of them are taught in their owner's family. They are allowed to attend religions worship, conducted by a white minister, and to receive from them religious instruction. In point of fact, they go where they please on Sundays, and at all times when they are not engaged in labor.

    "The rights and duties of slaves, as a distinct class, are not defined by law. They depend upon usage or custom, which controls the will of the master. Thus, the law does not recognize their right to hold property, but no instance is brown of the masters interfering with their little acquisitions; and it often happens, that they are considerable enough to purchase themselves and family. In such cases I have never known the master to enact from the slave the fill price that he might have obtained from others. In the same manner, the quantity and quality of food and clothing, the hours of labor and rest, the holidays, the privileges, &c., of the slave, are regulated by custom, to depart materially from which would disgrace the master in public opinion.

    "The intercourse between the master and slave is kind, respectful and approaching to intimacy. It must be recollected that they have been brought up together, and often form attachments that are never broken. The servants about the house are treated rather as humble friends than otherwise. Those employed differently have less intercourse with the white family; but, when they meet, there is a civil, and often cordial greeting on both sides. The slaves generally look upon their masters and mistresses as their protectors and friends. The slave of a gentleman universally considers himself a superior being to `poor white folks.' They take pride in their master's prosperity; identify his interest with their own; frequently assume his name; and even his title; and speak of his farm, his crops, and other possessions as their own.

    "In their nature the slaves are generally affectionate; and particularly so to the children of the family, which lays the foundations of the attachments spoken of, continuing through life. The white children-if they had the desire-are not permitted to tyrannize over the slaves, young or old. The children play together on terms of great equality, and if the white child gives a blow, he is apt to have it returned with interest. At the tables you will find the white children rising from them, with their little hands full of the best of everything to carry to their nurses or playmates, and I have often known them to deny themselves for the sake of their favorites. These propensities are encouraged, and everything like violence or tyranny strictly prohibited. The consequence is that when the young master (or mistress) is installed into his full rights of property, he finds around him no alien hirelings, ready to quit his service upon the slightest provocation, but attached and faithful friends, known to him from his infancy, and willing to share his fortunes, wherever they may carry him.

    "The old gray headed servants are addressed by almost every member of the white family as `uncles' and `aunts.' The others are treated with as much respectful familiarity as if they were white laborers. They never hesitate to apply to their masters or mistresses in every difficulty. If they have any want they expect to be relieved. If they are maltreated they ask redress at their hands. Injury to the slave from any quarter, is regarded as an injury to the master.

    "When the slave is not at work he is under no restrictions or surveillance. He goes where he pleases and seldom asks for a pass. If he is on the farm at the appointed hours no inquiry is made how he has employed the interval. The regular holidays are two at Easter, two at Whitsuntide, and a week at Christmas. These he enjoys by prescription, and others, such as Saturday evenings, by the indulgence of his master. The time is generally spent visiting from house to house and in various amusements. His favorite one is playing the fiddle, the jews harp, and dancing, and wrestling and cracking the bones. They have no anxiety about their families or the failure of crops, or the horrors of debt. Those who are provident employ their liberty hours in working for themselves or others who may need their services. Near their cabins (quarters) they have ground allotted for their gardens and patch of corn. They are allowed to raise a hog and fowls. The latter they sell to their masters or others. They make brooms, baskets and flag chairs, corn shuck collars and corn shuck door mats, etc., which they sell for their own purposes. Provision was made for those who were too young or too old to labor. Their allowance of clothing was generally a hat, blanket, 2 suits clothes, 3 shirts or shifts, and 2 pair shoes a year. The winter suit is of strong linsey cloth, the summer, of linen for the men, and striped cotton for the women. The children have linsey and cotton garments, but no shoes or hat until they are 10 or 11 years old, and begin doing something.

    "On large farms the doctor for the slaves was paid by the year. When sick they are nursed by the white family, and whatever is necessary they are supplied with. The moral sense of the community would not tolerate cruelty in a master. I know of nothing that would bring him more surely into disgrace.

    "Negro traders are despised by the master and detested by the slaves. Their trade is supported by the misfortune of the master, and the crimes or misconduct of the slaves, and not by the will of either party except in few instances. Masters will not part with their slaves but from sheer necessity, or for flagrant delinquencies, which in other countries would be punished by severity. Thousands retain them when they know full well that their pecuniary condition would be greatly improved by selling, or even giving them away. Sometimes a slave, after committing a theft or other crime, will abscond for fear of detection. If caught he is generally sold for the sake of the example to other slaves. From these sources the negro buyers are supplied, but it does not happen in one case out of a thousand that the master willingly sells an honest faithful slave. The man doing so would be looked upon as a sordid, inhuman wretch, and be shunned by his neighbors and countrymen of respectable standing. Notwithstanding the law to the contrary thousands of emancipated slaves remain in the State incurring the risk of being sold as slaves."

    Prior to the Civil War there was no migration of the free negro race to any of the Southern States. It is therefore to be presumed that all the free colored residents in Virginia at the period of the Civil War were manumitted slaves or their descendants, who were permitted to remain, notwithstanding laws to the contrary. It is safe to say that all the slaves who were manumitted-except the very few who purchased themselves-were granted their freedom through motives of humanity, and not through economy, as there was always a ready market for them. Many a master in Tidewater Virginia was deeply concerned as to what would become of his servants after his demise, and it is said of them that they would have provided for manumission but for the fact that they feared the freed servants could not provide for themselves.

    The Virginia servants were the most intelligent of their race who were in bondage in America. This was owing largely to the fact that they had greater opportunity to mingle with the whites than had the servants of the Cotton States, many of whom rarely ever saw a white man other than the ignorant overseer. Many of them were permitted to follow their young master in the hunt, and were with him in many of his other frolics. Many instances are recorded in which the servants followed their masters into the Confederate Army, and continued to render faithful and constant service, and share the dangers and privations incident to army life until the war closed, or their beloved master's body was laid in the grave. The great diversity of their labors in the field, the forest, and the waters was of much advantage in the training of their minds and muscles. They were handy as plowmen, axemen, and sailors, and many were skilled enough to perform the several mechanical labors needed on the plantation.

    Because of these qualities the "negro traders" valued him highly, and if opportunity offered would give the highest market price for "the servant raised in Tidewater Virginia."

    The price of the average slave was from $1,200 to $1,500. There was but one serious uprising of the negro slaves in Virginia, excepting the endeavor of John Brown to free the slaves, know-n in history as the "John Brown Raid," which occurred in 1859, during the period in which the famous Henry A. Wise was Governor of the Mate. This insurrection was suppressed by him, and is a matter of history too well known to repeat here.

    In 1831, Nat Turner, a negro slave of Southampton County, Virginia, together with his brother, rallied many negro slaves in a band, who with stolen firearms and clubs, murdered several whole families, men, women and children, before they were apprehended by the State militia and citizens. Nat Turner was a favorite servant, well treated, and trusted by his master, and therefore had no personal cause for his evil work except that of obtaining his freedom. It was said he was induced to the insurrection by superstitious beliefs based mainly upon the unusual appearance of the sun at that period. Nat Turner left a son named John, who was later sold to a negro trader and taken to St. Louis, Mo., -where he became the trusty servant of a master there who permitted him to hire his own time, paying the master therefor. He was known in that city as "Uncle John Turner, the veterinarian and horse trader," and kept horses and vehicles for hire. He purchased his own freedom and that of his wife. He died in St. Louis, leaving a son, James Milton Turner, who was for eight years minister to Liberia, and subsequently held other positions of honor and trust.

  • CHAPTER XV - Secession and Civil War

    The secession of the slave holding States was the means of settling the fate of the negro slave in America.

    The writer will not discuss the wisdom, or the folly of secession, but mentions it as one of the great events in the history of Virginia, and will dismiss this question with the statement that the right of separation or secession of States from the Union was not first suggested by the people of the States which exercised the right of secession.

    The first public, distinct avowal of disunion was made upon the floor of the United States House of Representatives, by Josiah Quincy, a distinguished member of that body from Boston, Massachusetts, who, in opposition to the "Louisiana Purchase," said:

    "I declare it as my deliberate opinion that, if the bill passes, the bonds of this Union are virtually dissolved; that the States which compose it are free from their moral obligations; and that, as it will be the right of all, so will it be the duty of some, to prepare definitely for a separation amicably, if they cams, violently, if they must."

    Had Massachusetts followed the advice of this famous leader, perhaps history would have to record how the troops of Virginia fought to beep Massachusetts in the Union.

    During the war with Great Britain, 1812-15, some of the most ardent Federalists of New England advocated secession at the convention held by them at Hartford, Connecticut.

    On December 20, 1860, the people of South Carolina passed an Ordinance of Secession in the following words:

    "We the people of the State of South Carolina, in convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the Ordinance adopted by us in Convention, on the twenty-third day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States was ratified, and all Acts and parts of Acts of the General Assembly of the State, ratifying Amendments of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed, and the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of the United States of America is hereby dissolved."

    Other Southern States seceded in the following order:

    (1) Mississippi, January 9, 1861 (2) Florida, January 10, 1861
    (3) Alabama, January 11, 1861 (4) Georgia, January 19,1861
    (5) Louisiana, January 26, 1861 (6) Texas, February 1, 1861
    (7) Virginia, April 17, 1861 (8) Arkansas, May 6, 1861
    (9) Tennessee, May 7, 1861 (10) No. Carolina, May 20, 1861

    The six first named States, along with South Carolina, sent delegates to a convention which met at Montgomery, Alabama, on (February 4, 1861, to form the "Confederate States of America."

    Following close upon secession, came the war for the preservation of the Union. Both adherents to the contest were terribly in earnest to defend their views, and during four weary years, death and destruction through a civil war stalked defiantly throughout this hitherto peaceful brotherhood of States.

    Men differed upon this great subject, and because of this difference of opinion, the friendships born of the same hearthstone, and cemented by the nearest and dearest ties of kindred, were torn asunder and cast aside that man's most violent passions might have full sway.

    Lay down the axe, fling by the spade,
    Leave in its tracks the toiling plow;
    The rifle and the bayonet blade
    For arms like yours were fitter now."

    When President Lincoln made an attempt to re-enforce Fort Sumter the people of the South on April 12, attacked the fort. This was the real beginning of the war.

    The first shot at Fort Sumter, was fired from Cummings Point, Morris Island, by Edmund Ruffin, a Tidewater Virginian, then about seventy years of age. He was born in Isle of Wight County, Virginia. He implored this privilege, and was assigned to duty in the Palmetto Guards.

    The firing upon Fort Sumter was accepted as the first hosthe engagement between the forces of the Confederacy and the Federal Government. Sumter was evacuated by the Federal forces on April 14, 1861. On the following day, April 15, 1861, President Lincoln issued a call upon the several States for their quota of militia to aid in maintaining the National Union. This call of President Lincoln precipitated action on the part of Virginia, and two days thereafter, on April 1'7, 1861, an Ordinance of Secession was passed. The Governor, John Letcher, thereupon issued a proclamation announcing the accession of Virginia to the Confederacy. Immediately after this, a military league was formed of the people of Virginia with the "Confederate States of the South." By this treaty, the latter were bound to march to the aid of Virginia against the invasion of the Federal Government.

    The first Federal troops to reach the Federal Capital, Washington, D. C., in response to President Lincoln's call, were five companies of Pennsylvanians, composed of five hundred and thirty troops, from Pottsville, Reading, Lewistown, and Allentown. They reached Washington on the evening of April 18, 1861. The writer, then a lad of seventeen years of age, a runaway from school, was one of the five hundred and thirty troops above referred to.

    On the evening of April 18, 1861, the five hundred and thirty Pennsylvanians reached Washington from Harrisburg, Pa., by way of Baltimore City, and camped in the Capitol Building, that same evening, occupying both the Senate and House of Representatives chambers. They were accompanied from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, by forty troops of the Regular Army, under command of Lieutenant John C. Pemberton, who, upon reaching Baltimore, resigned his command at Fort McHenry, went South and subsequently was placed in command, as Lieutenant-General, of the Confederate Army at Vicksburg, Mississippi, where it was the fortune of the writer, while with the Federal Army, in July, 1863, to again meet this officer.

    On the evening of April 19, 1861, the 6th Massachusetts volunteers also reached Washington City. In passing through Baltimore City, Maryland, several of the Massachusetts men were killed.

    The Pennsylvania and Massachusetts troops, above mentioned, were the only Federal soldiers in the city of Washington until April 25, 1861, when the 7th Regiment New York volunteers arrived there by way of Annapolis, as all the railroad bridges had been burned, and all the telegraph lines leading into Washington had been cut, thus completely isolating that city with less than two thousand Federal troops to guard it.

    Had Virginia been active following the Ordinance of Secession, passed by her Legislature on the 17th of April. 1861, her troops could have entered and taken possession of Washington City, as there were no Federal troops there until the evening of April 18th, 1861, except a corporal's guard of regulars, and a small quota of District militia to oppose, and less than two thousand Federal troops there until the evening of April 25, 1861.

    The "Richmond Enquirer" of April 23, 1861, said: "The capture of Washington City is perfectly within the power of Virginia and Maryland, if Virginia will only make the proper effort by her constituted authorities."

    At midnight, on May 23, 1861, the first Federal troops to invade the State crossed to Virginia by way of Aqueduct Bridge, at Georgetown, D. C., near the head of tidewater. There were three columns, each to cross the Potomac River into Virginia at different points; they moved almost simultaneously. The one by way of Aqueduct Bridge, which was the first to reach Virginia, was commanded by General Irwin McDowell. As it advanced to the Virginia end of the bridge, they forced the State pickets to retire. The second column crossed at the Long Bridge, from Washington City; the third column, destined for Alexandria City, embarked on two schooners from the Eastern Branch, a tributary of the Potomac which enters that river on the southern part of Washington City.

    This last column, which embarked on the two schooners, was composed of the New York Fire Zouave Regiment, under Col. E. E. Ellsworth. Through the coming of Ellsworth to Alexandria was shed the first blood of the men of the North and the men of the South, during the Civil War, upon the soil of Tidewater Virginia. Upon entering Alexandria, Ellsworth seeing a Confederate flag floated from the "Marshall House," on King Street, went in person and took it down, and when deseending a staircase with it, he was shot and killed by Jackson, the proprietor of the hotel. The killing of Ellsworth was followed by the immediate killing of Jackson by one of Ellsworth's soldiers. Jackson was not an enlisted man.

    Alexandria City was taken by the Federal army without battle, other than a few stray shots from the Virginia sentries as they retired before the advance of the Federal forces.

    The first battle fought upon the land, during the Civil War, was at Big Bethel, York County, in "The Peninsula" division of Tidewater Virginia, on June 10, 1861; and the first soldier of the Confederate army- killed during the War in a land battle, was Henry Lawson Wyatt, a private of Company K, First North Carolina Regiment of Volunteers, at Big Bethel, on the date above named. Major Theodore Winthrop, of Massachusetts, Aide and Military Secretary to Gen. B. F. Butler, was the first Federal soldier shot in this battle. He was killed by a shot from a North Carolina drummer boy as he climbed on a stump to reconnoiter. It is said of him that "the first suggestion of arming the black man in this war came from Theodore Winthrop."

    Thus began the battling of the Civil War within "The Peninsula" section, and almost within sight of the spot where the first colony seated to form the nucleus of this mighty nation. This early battle ground, where brothers of the one Nation first fought each other to the death, during the Civil War, was made sacred by the early pioneers of a new civilization, through their suffering of famine and disease, and through their struggles with the wild men, and the wild beasts of a new world, and through their own hardships and labors, they brought forth a garden spot from a wilderness of forest and swamp, in the hopes that their offspring might dwell therein in peace, and thrive therein in plenty.

    Virginia at once became tire chief State in the Confederacy, and its principal battle ground during the entire war. All parts of the State are dotted throughout with the sites of battle fields, excepting the two counties of the "Eastern Shore" peninsula which, during the whole war, were in the possession of the Federal forces.

    It is said to be manifestly impossible to secure absolutely correct statistics of the Civil War which continued for four years, from 1861 to 1865.

    The Adjutant General's office gives the following statistics of the Civil War: The statistics for the Confederate troops are only partially given. Federal troops killed in battle, 67,058; died of wounds, 43,012; died of disease, 199,720; other causes, such as accidents, murder, in Confederate prisons, etc., 40,154. Total, 343,944. Deserted, 199,105.

    Confederate troops who died of wounds or disease (partial statement), 133,831; deserted (partial statement), 104,428. Number of Federal troops captured during the War, 212,608; Confederate troops captured during the War, 4'i6,169; Number Federal troops paroled on the field, 16,431; Confederate troops paroled on the field, 248,599 ; number of Federal troops who died while prisoners, 30,156; Confederate troops who died while prisoners, 30,153, a difference only of three men in a total, 60,309.

    Aggregate number of men credited in the several calls for troops, and put. into the service in the Federal Army, Navy and Marine Corps, from the first call of President Lincoln, April 15, 1561, to April 14, 1865, was 2,656,553.

    The total number of men put into the service in the Confederate States cannot be definitely ascertained. It is estimated between 700,000 and 1,000,000.

    There were mustered out of the Federal Service in 1865, when the war closed, 786,000 officers and men.

    There were 1,882 battles fought, being an average of more than one battle for each day of the entire war. About one-half of these were fought in Virginia. Of this number, in 112 battles, there were more than 500 men billed in each battle. The killed in battle would average more than fourteen hundred men in each month of the war, from its beginning to the close.

    It is estimated that the cost of the Civil War, to the North and the South, irrespective of the money value of the slaves, was in expenditure of money, loss of property, etc., about eleven billions of dollars.

    The Revolutionary War cost $130,193,703, and 30,000 American soldiers' lives.

    The War of 1812 cost $107,150,000, and 2,000 American lives.

    The Mexican War cost $74,000,000, and 2,000 American lives.

    Indian wars and other minor wars cost $1,000,000,000, and 49,000 American lives.

    The eastern portion of Tidewater Virginia, bordering on the Potomac River, the Chesapeake Bay, and the lower James River, was in possession of and within the lines of the Federal armies early in the war.

    The inland portions of Tidewater Virginia were the scenes of many desperate conflicts between the Federal and Confederate forces.

  • CHAPTER XVI - The Negro and His Former Master

    It is not the purpose of the writer to record in detail the history of emancipation. Before the Civil War, the question of the extension of slavery was warmly discussed and its boundaries in part were settled by a compromise, known as the Missouri Compromise, and the question of manumitting the slaves was also earnestly discussed by men of the South, many of whom were prominent and influential in state and nation. Among these men was Thomas Jefferson, who earnestly advocated the emancipation of slaves by the State of Virginia. His plan was to provide by law that all children born after a certain date were to be free, though their parents might be slaves. This was the plan pursued by some of the Northern States. Many other prominent men in the South felt as did Jefferson, that at some day the States should provide for emancipation. Following the Nat Turner insurrection, the sentiment for emancipation of the slaves grew greatly. Some proposed to colonize the negroes, and societies composed of the best people were formed in all parts of the State for this purpose. The question of setting free all the slaves was warmly debated in the Legislature of Virginia and a bill to abolish slavery was offered and was defeated in the lower house by a small majority. The fact that many prominent men must have favored emancipation is proven by the large number of "free negroes" resident in the Southern States in 1860, who were either ex-slaves or their descendants, notwithstanding the laws to the contrary which provided for their removal when freed.

    Number of Slaves and Free Colored in the United States in 1790 and in 1860.

    The First and Last Census of the Slaves.

    CENSUS OF 1790 CENSUS OF 1860
    State Slaves Free Colored Slaves Free Colored
    Alabama ...... ....... 435,080 2,690
    Arkansas ....... ....... 111,115 144
    Connecticut 2,764 3, 899 .. 8,627
    Delaware 8,887 3,899 1,798 19,829
    Florida ........ ......... 61,745 932
    Georgia 29,264 308 462,198 3,500
    Kansas ... 2* 625
    Kentucky 12,430 114 225,485 10,684
    Louisiana ..... 331,726 18,647
    Maryland 103,036 8,043 87,189 83,942
    Mississippi .... .... 436,631 773
    Missouri ...... 114,931 3,572
    Nebraska 15* 67
    New Hampshire 158 630 ...... 494
    New Jersey 11,423 2,762 18* 25,318
    New York 21,324 4,654 ........ 49,005
    North Carolina 100,572 4,975 331,059 30,463
    Pennsylvania 31737 6,537 ....... 56,942
    Rhode Island 948 3,407 .. 3,959
    South Carolina 107,094 1,801 402,406 9,914
    Tennessee 3,417 361 275,719 7,309
    Texas 182,560 355
    Virginia 292,627 12.866 490,865 58,042
    District of Columbia ...... ....... 3,185 11,131
    Utah Territory ....... .. .... 29* 30
    Totals 697,681 50,447 3,953,760 406,985

    The above table includes all the .slaves in the United States as enumerated by the United States Census, during the years 1790 and 1860, respectively, and the free colored only in the States in which slaves were enumerated during one or both of the census years above named. This table indicates a large increase of free colored in the respective slave-holding States between the years 1790 and 1860, notwithstanding the fact that very many of the slaves upon being freed, removed to the non-slave holding States. The States marked with a star, in the Census of 1860, were non-slave holding. The slaves enumerated therein happened to be there with their masters at the time the census was taken, except in the case of New Jersey, where they were "colored apprentices for life," by the act to abolish slavery, passed by New Jersey, April 18, 1804.

    In 1790, slaves were held in every one of the seventeen States then in the Union, excepting Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont. History accredits New England Rum, Yankee Skippers, and English Captains of ships with supplying the slave markets of America until suppressed by law.

    The total cost of the Civil War was a sum more than equal to the payment of $2,000 for every slave, male and female, old and young, in the United States in the year 1860.

    Before the Civil War was far advanced, the question of granting freedom to the slaves was first brought to the attention of the Federal Government through the practice by many of the commanding officers of the Federal army returning captured fugitive slaves to their owners.

    On July 9, 1861, a resolution was passed by Congress that it was "no part of the duty of soldiers of the United States to capture and return fugitive slaves."

    On August 10, 1862, a joint resolution was passed by the Federal Congress "That the government cooperate with any State whose inhabitants might adopt measures for emancipation and should give to such State pecuniary aid, to be used by it, at its discretion, to compensate it for the inconvenience, public and private produced by sack change of system."

    On February 3, 1865, a peace commission from the Confederate States met on beard a steamer anchored in Hampton Roads, Virginia, at which were present Alexander Stephens, R. M. T. Hunter and J. A. Campbell, of the Confederate aide, and President Lincoln, and Secretary of State, Seward, on the Federal side. At this conference, it is said that President Lincoln made the following remarks to Mr. Stephens: "Your people might after all, get $400,000,000 for the slaves, and you would be surprised if I should call the names of some of those who favor such a proposition."

    On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation of emancipation. He then declared that on the first day of January next ensuing, the slaves within every State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof should then be in rebellion, should be declared "thence forward and forever free." He also declared that any State in which "rebellion" had existed that should have in Congress at that time-January 1, 1863representatives chosen in good faith, at a legal election by the qualified voters of such State should be exempted from the operations of the proclamation.

    On January 1, 1863, the issued a Proclamation of Emancipation, designating the States and parts of States wherein the people were in rebellion, and among the places excepted from the operations of this proclamation were the following counties and cities of Tidewater Virginia: "Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Anne, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, and which excepted parts are, for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued." This proclamation did not interfere with the slaves within the territory above named, neither did it interfere with the slave States outside the Confederacy, viz: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. Slavery was abolished in the District of Columbia by bill approved April 16, 1862.

    Freedom was extended to all slaves within the United States and Territories by Article XIII, section 2, of the Amendment to the United States Constitution. The amendment was proposed at the second session of the 38th Congress, passing the Senate April 8, 1864, and the House January 81, 1865. It was officially announced to the country December 18, 1865, that it had been ratified by three-fourths of the States, and was therefore a part of the supreme law of the land.

    Freedom was accepted by the negroes according to their natural temperament. Some of then were loud and demonstrative in their joys. Such was "Aunt Dorcas," a portly, dark yellow woman, whose former master and mistress were extremely lenient and kind to their servants. Her mistress died many years preceding the Civil War a-ad her master died a short while after the war began, and his estate being in an unsettled condition, "Aunt Dorcas, together with the other servants, were deeply concerned as to whose hands they might fall into, and greatly relieved when the war ended with their freedom. She was the principal servant about the house, and recognizing her responsibilities, she refused to take advantage of the many opportunities offered here to escape to freedom; thus she remained true to the last. After the war she settled at the Court House village, and made her living by laundry work for its inhabitants. That she was anxious and grateful for her freedom, was manifest in her actions during the first two or three years following her entry into the village. When the spirit moved her-at intervals of two or three times a week-she would walk into the middle of the public road, raise here eyes and her hands Heavenward and cry out in loud, beseeching tones:" Th-aank Je-e-sus I'se free-e! Ya-a-s my Je-eus I'se free-e!"after which she would go into her house, get her laundry basket and collect her day's work from the white residents of the village. Such was the innate good manners of the white residents of this village-both old and young-that" Aunt Dorcas "was never disturbed, by act or voice, while in her moods of rejoicing. The whites were civil in their manner towards the negroes, and the negroes were also civil to the whites.

    "A soft answer turneth away wrath;
    But grievous words stir up anger."

    Very many of the negroes made no demonstration whatever to indicate their feelings upon the subject of freedom, but went about stolidly as before without change of manners or conduct.

    The elderly negroes were somewhat dazed by their freedom, and were at a loss to determine its full scope. Owing to rumors of repeated bondage, which were idly circulated by the thoughtless, some of these old servants were shy of remaining upon the old homestead to which their former master and mistress had kindly invited them and hospitably offered a shelter for life. Some of them after accepting these hospitable offers, would suddenly leave their homes as if to determine fully their freedom. Very often this sudden determination to make a change was brought about by the twitting of others of their race in charging them with yet belonging to their former owners. Especially was this the case where the servants continued to address the former master or mistress in the courteous manner of their former bondage, as "Marster," or "Missus," but notwithstanding these upbraidings of the younger ones, many of these old servants continued this courteous manner of salutation for several years after their freedom, and finally the appellation "Boss" was substituted for "Marster" and "Mam" for "Missus."

    When the Civil War ended and emancipation of the slave became a fact throughout the whole United States, both the former master, and his former servant, were met with new problems in the labor market. From the position of absolute owner and master of his laborers to that of landlord only, and from absolute bandage-without cares or responsibilities-to that of a freeman, with all its perplexities and responsibilities, were the conditions forced upon the white man, and the negro of the Southern States, without a personal experience for either to guide then. The majority of the masters never before had occasion to rent their lands, or to use any labor outside of what they owned, except perhaps, for some high grade mechanical work. The slave and his family were cared for by the owner, whether the servant were industrious or indolent, and when he :vas freed, the value of his services were to be measured by his own industry and capability. Generations of bonded servitude made the bondsman dependent upon others for guidance. He had no occasion to exercise brain power, other than in performing his daily set tasks regardless of the profits or losses which might follow success or failure.

    During the first few years following freedom, it was difficult to induce the servants to make binding bargains for a year's services upon the plantation, owing to the dread that such promises were binding bargains against their liberty. Very many left their homes during the war, and many of those who remained, or returned, were undetermined what to do; thus there developed a serious uncertainty in the labor market. There was also a "spell of idleness" pervading the air which laid its microbe upon young and old, as it attacks the school boy who is not well enough to attend his school, but is quite hearty enough to spend the idle day in active sports with companions of his kind. During these periods of idleness, many of the servants would refuse a day's labor with remunerative pay and ample food, and instead would prefer to carry a peck of their own corn, worth ten cents, to the grist mill, distant perhaps several miles, and while hungrily awaiting "their turn" to have it ground into meal, for which one-eighth was deducted therefrom for "toll;" they would spend the day upon the banks of the mill pond, nodding in the sunshine, while they held in their land a fishing line baited for "mill pond suckers."

    These were trying tines for the farmer who had managed to seed his crops upon his lands, and which now needed "laying by" -the finishing furrow to the corn crop. Many of those who never before had done a day's labor in the field, now took off their coats, and went manfully to work.

    It is related that a certain dignified old gentleman, who heretofore had an abundance of servants, and therefore unused to labor himself, finding his corn fields needed plowing, and unable to obtain labor, determined, against the remonstrance of his tender-hearted wife, to "lay- his corn by" himself. With this purpose in view, early the following morning, he hitched to his plow a young, sprightly mule. About the hour the sun had arisen well up in the heavens and heated the atmosphere, owing to the quick movements of his young mule, he had made progress enough through the tall corn to fatigue him, and warm him, so much that he was compelled to shed some of his garments at the end of each corn row. One by one went his garments, first his coat, then his vest at the other end of the row, then followed his cravat, his collar, his dress shirt, his shoes and socks, and his hat-distributed front end to end of the field. Nevertheless the perspiration was increasing on his body, notwithstanding he had shed the last garment he could with propriety spare therefrom. Deciding to view the result of his labors, he mounted the fence, and with mortification and disgust, beheld the small space of cornfield which he had so laboriously "laid by;" he then glanced over the larger remaining unplowed portion which was a greater surprise to him. Upon taking a second glance of the unplowed lands, and then viewing the reeking condition of his lone nether garment, and his smoking hot mule, he waved his hand in the direction of the unplowed field and cried aloud with determined and indignant voice, "I'll lay you all by yet, if it kills me."

    His anxious wife had sent her only servant, a faithful old black mammy cook, to the f field wish a jug of cool, fresh water for the old gentleman. The servant reached the cornfield just as he had finished his view of the unplowed lands, when he began to heap imprecations upon the "lazy niggers," the "Yankees," and "emancipation." Upon her return to her mistress she was asked how her master was getting on in his work. "I tells you Missus," she replied, "I'se feered of Marster don' loss his mind. He don' flung away mos' ev'ry stitch uv his clothes, an' he was rarrin' an' pitchin' 'bout de lazy, sorry niggers, de Yankees, an' 'mancipation. It's de truff ef evah I tol' it Missus, dat de words of Marster was a sayin' was jes' mos' laik of time 'tracted meetin' preachin' as evah I heerd in all ma bo'n days."

    The problem of labor was finally solved in the majority of instances by the owner of the lands "sharing the crops" with the laborer. Under this method, a certain part of the crops were to be set aside for the hire of the lands, the team, and the implements, and the remainder was to be divided between the owner and the tenant. This plan was known as "working on shares," and under the conditions prevailing at that date, if probably was the better plan, as the owner of the lands was not at that period prepared with ready money to hire labor, and the negro was in the same condition as to the means to purchase teams, implement, and food to last until the crops were harvested.

    This arrangement continued for many successive years, and is yet the plan followed in many instances.

    It is related that there was a certain close-fisted farmer who persuaded a negro away from his former master's service by making him the liberal offer of one-half of the crop, reserving the other half for the use of the lard and team.

    After the crop was harvested this old servant was met on the road by his former master, and inquiry was made as to how he succeeded in farming on such liberal sharing of the crop. "Ice gittin' on mighty slow Boss," said he, "I wucked Mistuh C _____'s co'n crap on half char's, an' kaze uv de drouf dar war'nt mo' dan half a crap rais', an' Mistuh C_____ he say to me dat dar's no use 'sputin' 'bout it, kaze de half crap dat wuz raise mus' sholy go fo' de Ian' an' de mules. I don quit 'sputin' wid him, an' I don quit wuckin' on sick char's as dat."

    Whenever an industrious negro desired to obtain a home of his own, he was usually helped by the whites, selling him a portion of their lands upon easy terms. By this means many homes have been secured by negroes.

    The negro is appreciative of praise for tasks well done. Very few of them have the initiative to meet sudden, unexpected emergencies. This may be due to their training in days of bondage awaiting instructions or orders from others. Many, or repeated instructions, or orders, relative to his task are apt to confuse instead of aiding him. The negro is naturally more inclined to jollity than to seriousness, and is quick to perceive and appreciate the humor of the ridiculous in one of his own race, and upon occasions, gives boisterous vent, instead of suppression to his humor.

    A negro might hate a slow, shambling gait when at his work, but when he danced, there was "nothing slow about him." Nearly every young negro dances, and always to lively tunes, whether they are played upon the fiddle, banjo, jewsharp, or mouth organ, or if they are "patted" to him, ha will keep excellent time, and cut more "pigeon wings" than any professional minstrel of the present day.

    Few whites can equal his performances, and none can surpass him in shaking his feet. The following is one of the old time popular "jig" songs.

    De hen an' chickens vent to roos'
    De hawk dew don an' bit de goos'
    He bit de of hen in de bac'
    I do b'lieve dat am a fac',

    . O Jinnie git yo' hoe cake den' ma dear,
    O Jinnie git yo' hoe cake don'.

    As I was gwine 'long down de road,
    'Pon a stump dar sot a toad,
    De toad he winked to tadpole's daughter
    An' kicked a big frog in de water.

    O Jinnie git yo' hoe cake don' ma dear,
    O Jinnie git yo' hoe cake don'.

    This was a lively tune, and needed sprightly limbs to keep time to it.

    During these later years, the negroes are giving up their singing, dancing, wrestling or kicking bouts in public, which were the chief pastime of their fathers in the days of slavery and immediately after the Civil War.

  • CHAPTER XVII - County Courts in Tidewater Virginia

    The origin of government, and of the courts of law from their first beginning in Virginia is a lengthy and interesting study for the student at law, and because of its voluminous proportions will not be closely followed by the writer. It is said that, "as every new law is made to remove some inconvenience the State was subject to before the making of it, and for which no other method of redress was effectual, the law itself is a standing, and the most authentic evidence we can require of the state of things previous to it."

    From the very beginning of the settlement, and for at least five years following, the colonists were but the servants of the London Company who transported them to Virginia in its own vessels, and maintained them there at its cost. When they reached Virginia they were divided into groups to work under the supervision of men chosen to direct them in their labors. They were to carry out the orders of the Company "To build and fortify the town, to clear and prepare ground for planting, to explore the rivers," etc. The advice was: "The way to prosper and achieve good success is to make yourselves all of one mind for the good of your country and your own." The colony was begun "a kingdom without written laws," and so continued until the meeting of the first House of Burgess in 1619. Until then they were supposed to be governed by the laws of England, but when the three ships conveying the colony weighed anchor and set sail from Black= wells, the laws of England like many other home comforts were left behind.

    From 1607 to 1609 the colony was under the immediate control of a president and a council who administered such justice as their wills dictated. The great power vested in this first council and president was manifest upon the return of Captain John Smith to Jamestown after his rescue from death by Pocahontas, in January, 1608. The council then held him responsible for the death of his crew by the Indian Chief Opechanchanough; for this the council condemned him to die, and but for the timely arrival of Capt. Newport from England upon the morning set for smith's execution, they would have carried their design into effect.

    Until the colony increased red in numbers and expanded in territory, and the individual member could lay claim to the products of his own industry, there was no need for courts of justice such as now exist, because there were neither property nor individual rights to settle.

    The colony from its first settlement in 1607, up to the year 1624 was under the control of the Virginia Company of London-a proprietary government. After that it was a royal government under the control of the Crown of England.

    In 1609 the Company chose the first governor and lieutenant-governor, who superseded the former president; there was also a council. The Company continued to appoint governors until the revocation of its charter in 1621, after which the Executives of Virginia were appointed by the Ding, excepting during the period from 1652 to 1660 when they were elected by the house of Burgesses. The Council were the governor's advisers in executive matters. They constituted the General Court-the Supreme Court of the Colony-and were also members of the General Assembly, corresponding to the present Senate of the Mate. Sometimes they acted as county lieutenants or commanders-in-chief of their county.

    The first election for a legislative body on the American Continent was held in Virginia, in 1619, when the planters were given a hand in governing themselves through the election of Burgesses-the lower house of Assembly.

    In 1619 Governor Yeardley issued a proclamation in accordance with his "general instructions establishing a Commonwealth," known as the "Great Charter:" "That all those that were residents at the departure of Sir Thos. Dale (April 1616) should be freed and acquitted from such publique services and labours which formerly they suffered, and that those cruel laws by which we had so long been governed were now abrogated by these free laws which his majesties subjects live under in Englande." And that they might have a hand in the governing themselves, it was granted that "a general assembly should be held yearly once, whereat were to be present the Governor and Counsell, with two Burgesses from each Plantation freely to be elected by the inhabitants thereof; the Assembly to have power to make and ordaine whatsoever laves and orders should by them be thought good and profitable for our subsistence."

    The exact date of this first election in America is not known; it is supposed to have been some time in June, 1619.

    In 1619 each town, hundred and plantation was to be incorporated into one body corporate (a borough), and each borough had the right to elect two Burgesses to the General Assembly, hence their name of Burgesses, from Borough.

    One of the Burgesses describes this first meeting of the General Assembly at Jamestown on July 30, 1619, as follows:

    "The most convenient place we could find to set in was the Quire of the Church, where fir Geo. Yeardlcy, the Governor, being sort downe in his accustomed place, those of the Council of Estate sat nest him on both halides, except only the Secretary, then appointed speaker, -who sat right before him: John Twine, clerk of the General Assembly, being placed next the Speaker; and Thos. Pierce, the serjeant, standing at the bane, to be ready for any service the Assembly should command him. All the Burgesses took their places in the Quire till a prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the minister, that it would please God to guide and to sanctifie all our proceedings to his owne glory and to the good of this Plantation. Prayer being ended the Burgesses retired to the body of the church, where they were called by order and by name, and so every man (none staggering at it) took the oath of Supremacy, and then entered the Assembly. The Council had been previously sworn, the first business before the Assembly was to decide who were entitled to sit as members. The Speaker, John Pory was one of the Council of State."

    The General Assembly consisted of the House of Burgesses and the Council together with the Governor. They sat as one body until the time of Lord Culpeper who brought about the separation of the Council from the Burgesses. They all kept their hats on in session in token of authority. All the acts of Assembly during the control of the London Company were first sent to England for their approval before they became laws. The Company lad the power to confirm or annul the acts of the Assembly.

    The legislature of Virginia has ever been free from scandal excepting during the short period of "Reconstruction," when there were some adventurers, known as "carpet buggers," seated in that body. The members from the rural districts are chosen from the more intelligent and highly respected classes, many of whom are lawyers, or country gentlemen. Such men as have no political axes to grind, and who would scornfully refuse to turn the "grindstone of legislation" for purposes of sharpening the venal tools of others, are the men as a rule, selected for the legislature from the county districts.

    From its first session to the present day, its membership has had upon its rolls the names of men famous as orators, statesmen, and jurists. It has often been made the school through which were graduated some of the Nation's most distinguished citizens.

    County Courts had their origin in 1623 when commanders of plantations first held court under Act of Assembly passed in that year, empowering them to hold monthly courts in the corporations of Charles City, and Elizabeth City. The commanders were styled "judges" of monthly courts. In 1628, Commissioners succeeded commanders as judges of monthly courts. County Courts were first established by Act of Assembly in 1642. The jurisdiction of the Court was then further extended to sixteen hundred pounds of tobacco, and the monthly courts were to be thereafter called "County Courts." By Act of November, 1615, because of the great distance of many parts of the colony from James City, where the (quarter Courts were held, jurisdiction was given to the County Courts, in all cases of law and equity, and trial by jury secured to those who desired it.

    In 1661 the office of Justice of the Peace was first named such by Act of Assembly. They were originally called Commissioners. The County Courts continued under the jurisdiction of justices of the peace until after the Civil War. The justices of the peace prior to and during the Civil War, were selected from the best citizens of the county-the dignified, educated and often wealthy gentlemen.

    During Reconstruction days pending the adoption of a new Constitution, the old Court System was continued, but the justices were appointed by the military officer in charge of the State. Owing to the disfranchisement clauses in these acts, which disqualified many of the most intelligent men of the State, it was difficult in some neighborhoods to obtain suitably intelligent men to fill these offices.

    The writer was present at a trial conducted during Reconstruction Days before a justice of the peace who received his appointment from General Canby, then commanding in Virginia. The case was a trivial assault upon a constable, by throwing a bucket of slop water upon his head from a second story window as he was about to enter a carriage maker's shop to serve a summons. The trial was an amusing instance of ignorance of law by all parties engaged in it. The justice before whom the trial was held lived in a two-room weather-boarded log house. This dwelling was in the midst of a big corn field through which a narrow road led from the main highway.

    At the appointed hour all parties interested in the case, together with numerous friends of the defendant, presented themselves at the door of the justice's dwelling, where it was ascertained that he was "out in the low ground a' grubbin' an' burnin' bresh." The party were cordially invited into the house and told to "rest your hats upon the bed." The crowd filled the small room and overflowed to the threshold upon which two or three found a resting place.

    The hostess said she would call her husband, and thereupon blew two long blasts in a "conch shell horn" which she took from a shelf close to the doorway. Soon thereafter the man of law made his appearance with a grubbing hoe under his arm, his hat in one hand, and a big, red cotton bandanna handkerchief in the other with which he mopped the sweat o f honest toil from a bald head. He cordially shook hands with each one-all of whom be knew personally-and civilly inquired about the health of their families.

    This gentleman was a typical poor white man of Tidewater Virginia; an honest, industrious, independent, orderly citizen, but totally illiterate, and therefore unfitted for the responsible position assigned him. During the trial, his opinion was asked in a certain matter of law, and he humorously replied: "I don't know much about the book laws. I never went to school but two days in my life. It rained like all scissors both days, and the teacher didn't come nary day of the two, so I quit wastin' time and went to work, and I've been at work ever since. I'll think this thing over, an' let ye know,"

    He was the owner of a considerable number of acres of poor land which had been in the possession of his ancestors for generations and was worked by all of these several generations without adding anything to improve the soil. He made a living for himself and wife by his own industry and frugality, but was too poor to own servants. He took no part in the war, and was not an advocate of secession; neither did he hold office before the war; therefore he was eligible under the Reconstruction Acts.

    The Commonwealth attorney who represented the plaintiff in the case was also a military appointee; a native of a western State, fresh from his graduating class in a law school, and without knowledge of law other than "book larnin'." This was his first case in a "real court of justice:' Unfortunately for him, his" law library "consisted of his answer to the" Quiz "of the Court before whom he was first licensed, together with a copy of" Blackstone's Commentaries,"and a book on" Evidence:'

    As the weather was warm and pleasant outdoors, and accommodations within the house were too limited for the assemblage, it was suggested that the trial be held in the shade of a big pine tree that stood nearby and adjoining the "worm fence" which enclosed the "cuppen." ' The top rails were withdrawn from the fence and inserted between the lower rails which form "the worm" of the several panels, and the crowd was then invited to seat themselves upon these rails where they could rest their backs against the fence. The justice, in his shirt sleeves, sat himself upon the front board of a "steer kyart" which stood under the pine tree. As soon as he steadied himself with his feet upon the tongue of the cart, the Court was in session and ready for business regardless of a crier.

    The case was opened by the young Commonwealth attorney who stated that "the assault was made by wilfully and maliciously casting upon the garments which the plaintiff then wore, upon his head and body, the contents of a" soak bucket,"in v-hick a painter used to soak his brushes. He declaimed in earnest voice upon the respect due an officer of the law, and called upon the constable to exhibit the hat and coat which he wore upon the occasion of the assault. The hat--an old time straight sided beaver-shoved up like a barber's pole, with alternate streaks of red, white and red, and red, white and blue paints upon it. The colors on the coat were so closely blended and widely spread about as to unfit that garment for future wear.

    The defendant was not represented by a loyal attorney, but trusted to his assembled friends, one of whom ;vas the brother of the former Commonwealth's attorney, and because of this close kinship alone, he was accredited with much knowledge of law. He bravely and vigorously maintained his suddenly acquired fame as a "horseback lawyer," by interrupting and correcting the prosecution as frequently as opportunity offered, but his greatest success was made when the young attorney proceeded to quote from his copy of "Blackstone." At once objection was made to quoting "Blackstone on the laws of Virginia.," and the Court was told that "everybody in the county knows that Blackstone is no lawyer, but only the keeper of a summer resort on Blackstone's Island, up the Potomac River, on the Maryland side," and the Court was appealed to for confirmation of this fact. To this the justice assented, as he had often passed Blackstone's Island in his trips up and down the Potomac while on his way to and from town.

    The young prosecuting attorney was too much dazed by this unlocked for and sudden turn in the case to discover the humor in it, and before he could recover his wits and make reply, the attention of the justice was called to the fact that his wife was making frantic efforts to drive back six young, lively shoats which had broken loose from their pen, and were working destruction in the young corn patch. Here was the golden opportunity for the defendant and his friends, and after a hasty whispering, they suggested to the justice that he adjourn court awhile and they would "run the shoats down and pen them." To this proposition he thankfully agreed. Fearing that the prosecution might benefit by their absence, they appointed one of their number to aid the justice in building anew the pig pen, and shedding their coats, they gave chase to the fleety shoats. Of all the domestic animals with which man is blessed, or distressed, there are none so difficult to catch and hold, as young, healthy shoats when loose in a big level field. It is said "they can beat a streak of greased lightning in zigzagging," and are as difficult to lay hold of as the Irishman's proverbial flea. After repeated trials to corner and capture all six shoats at once, the crowd finally centered their chase upon one animal at a time, and after numerous upsets, and tumbles over one another, and amusing slips of "tail holds," the six shoats were at last landed within the pen by the perspiring crowd amid the grateful acknowledgments of his honor, the justice, who was not aware of the fact that the men had done more damage to the young corn than did the shoats.

    As it was then late in the afternoon, and all parties to the trial were several miles from their respective homes, it was suggested to the justice that the case be postponed until some more convenient date. To this the obliging magistrate readily agreed, much to the disgust and annoyance of the prosecution, and thus ended one of the trials before a justice of the peace during Reconstruction days, in one of the counties of the "Nor thorn Neck of Virginia." The young "carpet bag" Commonwealth attorney, when the State was readmitted into the Union, returned to his western home, and was last heard of as a candidate on the Democratic ticket for Commonwealth attorney. The old, obliging "scalawag" justice of the peace has long since passed to the Higher Court, and it is yet undecided whether the assault was accidental, or with malice aforethought.

    After the State was re-admitted, County Judges were elected by the legislature. In some instances they had more than one county within their jurisdiction. In the year 1904, the system was changed to a meeting once in every two months-six courts a year, under the jurisdiction of a Judge of the Circuit Court.

    The custom of holding court in each county every month was a great advantage to the people of Tidewater Virginia. As stated elsewhere, these several counties are intersected by numerous rivers, creeks, or coves, which extend far into their interiors, and divide the lands into peninsulas, great and small. Very few of these streams are crossed by bridges, or have regularly kept ferries, and can therefore be crossed only at their heads by long detours. Therefore, the county court days, and the "Court House Bounds" were most frequently selected as the more convenient times and places to meet the many with whom to transact business.

    The "Court House Bounds" is usually the largest village of a county, and generally contains at least one or two, or more taverns, several stores, and blacksmith, wheelright and harness shops. These conveniences, together with the business of the court, brought together vast assemblages of the inhabitants of the respective counties, and many others from the adjoining counties where they were sure to meet neighbors, friends and acquaintances from far and near. They came from all directions and in all kinds of vehicles, some afoot and many on horseback.

    On court days, the "Court House Bounds" looked like a cavalry camp. Many of the riders came there with their animals' noonday rations of ten bundles of fodder and six ears of corn tied behind their saddle. They "hitched" their horses or mules to the fences and "horse racks" in the village. In the summer months many of the ne-roes came to court in their bare feet, with their footwear slung over their shoulder, and when within sight of the "Bounds" would halt by the roadside and "shoe up."

    It was a holiday for the people generally, especially before planting time, in the spring, and after the harvests, in the fall. It was entertaining to a stranger to see this great assemblage of decent, orderly citizens, conducting their several transactions in the most quiet, deliberate manner, without show of haste, or nervousness, or disorder. Perhaps nowhere else in America could such a sight be witnessed of gentlemanly order amongst all classes.

    This custom of meeting monthly was in practice from the earliest years of the settlement of the respective counties, and therefore was an important, time-honored factor in the business life of these people. While the business of the Court was being held inside the Court House, the "Court green" was occupied by the multitude assembled in small crowds throughout the whole village, some of whom were buying or selling their lands, timber, and other commodities, paying off old debts, or contracting new ones; others with more leisure were discussing important events, or telling yarns-humorously denoted as "swapping lies."

    Candidates for office met on these occasions and greeted the voters, and debated with one another in the Court house, if the business before the court was not too urgent to adjourn, and if so, the candidates were provided with an improvised platform of dry goods boxes, turkey coops, or barrels. Candidates readily accommodate themselves to any emergencies when seeking the suffrage of their fellow citizens. The improvised platform was not always constructed with due regard to the avoirdupois of the occupant, or the tests to which he might put it, and there were numerous instances of amusing, though not fatal casualties resulting therefrom. During one of the exciting elections, a candidate of heavy weight was making his speech from the head of a whiskey barrel, across which was placed a narrow board for his safety. In his ardor to impress a certain fact upon his hearers, which he emphasized by the statement: "As sure as I stand upon this barrel-," and with this sentence unfinished, he leaped with both feet from the narrow plank upon the yielding barrel head, and disappeared "up to his neck in spirits" which the anxious crowd had hoped to put into their own necks, and to test in a more convivial manner. Through this awkward incident of his canvas, he lost his election, but thereby acquired fame as "Old Soak," which name ever afterwards identified him. A Virginia audience listens well, is courteous to strangers, and appreciative of humorous wit or salient points of speech, even though it be at their own expense. They love to "see the fur fly."

    The following lines express the sentiments of a freedman voter:

    LOOKIN' FO' DE CANDEEDATE

    Jes' befo' de 'lection
    He cum soon an' late,
    Now I'se gittin' lonesome
    Wa.itin' at de gate.
    Mistuh! can yo' tell me
    Whar is dat Can-dee-date?

    Hope de Lawd will spar' him,
    His talk was powerful great.
    I 'sped he'll do a heap
    Now fo' dis of state.
    Mistuh! please do tell me
    Whar is dat Can-dee-date?

    Public vendues (auctions) were held out in the open court green, where horses, oxen, mules, cows, and "busted merchants"' goods were bid upon by the many, and but few of whom knew their intrinsic value. Auction bids are seldom correct indexes of values. Snits of clothing were purchased on these occasions without opportunity to "try the fit," and therefore without due regard to the size of the contemplated wearers, the result of which was that the purchaser of a suit of vendue clothing attended the following Court in a coat he could not button around him, and a pair of "high water pants," too sheet by many inches.

    "Swapping" horses is a custom which is almost exclusively confined to the rural sections of the United States. This custom prevails to a greater extent in the States south of Mason and Dixon's line than elsewhere. In the sections of Virginia remote from a railroad, nearly every man, white and colored owns either a horse, or male, or yoke of steers, and the majority of the owners will make a swap of either animal, if good opportunity offers.

    "The swapping" was conducted usually in the tavern "horse lot," after score "sharp talk," and a few gallops of the animals, up the road and back again. A wily "swapper" from an adjoining county, would ride though the "Court House Bounds" upon his "new, jaunty tail, frisky hoss," that betokened "go in him," and "hard to hold." Such a swapper was sure to attract act the attention of the younger owners of horses. None but the poor animal., and its shrewd rider knew that a dried chestnut burr under the crupper was the main cause of its frilliness, and if a. "swap" were made and the dried chestnut burr were shed, the animal's sudden loss of friskiness, and an inspection of his mouth, would disclose the fact that he had "cat leis eye teeth" many moons antedating the birth of his new owner. The loser in a horse swap at one court was a winner at the next court, else he had made such a "bad swap" that it "broke him up." Every young horse owner, at some time or another, is desirous to make a swap. The earlier in life he makes the swap and "gets stuck good" the more he may profit in after years by this experience. The "Court House Bounds" on a court day, is a good place for the young swapper to begin, for there he is sure to meet with friends who will do for him that which his newly swapped horse may refuse to do-carry him home.

    It is said there are tricks in all trades, and a few in horse swapping. Here are some of the tricks of unscrupulous traders. To make a true pulling horse balk, mix corrosive sublimate and tincture of cantharides and apply it to his shoulders. To make a sound horse appear lame, a single hair is taken from his tail and run through the eye of a needle; the front leg is lifted, the skin pressed between the middle and outer tendon, and the needle shoved through. The horse will go lame in twenty minutes. To make a horse stand by his food and not eat it, grease his front teeth with tallow, and he will not eat until it is washed out. A fine wire fastened tight around the fetlock between the foot and heel will make a horse appear as if badly foundered. When a horse goes dead lame in one shoulder, it is disguised by creating a similar lameness in the corresponding leg by taking off the shoe and inserting a bean between it and the foot. Black spots are put on a horse by applying a mixture of lime and litharge. To put a star on a horse, a piece of cotton cloth the size of the star desired, is spread on the part and warm pitch applied. After two days it is washed until the hair grows out white.

    Court day was a holiday for many of the negroes, especially for those living nearby the Court House village. The young negroes had no serious cares for the future, and therefore enjoyed themselves in wrestling, and kicking bouts, and in dancing "Juba patted tunes," and keeping step to the lively "hoe down" tunes played upon a jewsharp.

    The elderly and thrifty negroes-some of whom their masters permitted to "fish for themselves" brought fresh fish, oysters, and chicken to supply the hungry crowds. Their wives did the cooking in the open Court House green, upon a fire of dry "light wood knots" and faggots which they carried in ox carts from their homes for the occasion. Every Court was attended by several "black mammies," who came in "steer kyarts," loaded up with fish "jes' fum de watah dia mawnin'."

    Oysters fresh from their watery beds: "I 'clay sub, dey didn't hav' time to dry darselves 'fore I fotch 'em yere." They had young tender chickens "dress'd by can'el light dia mawnin', so nice dar mammys wouldn't know 'em suh."

    "Cose I fix yo' one!" "Honey, yo' sot yo'se'f down on dat bog dar, an' yo' won't stahve to death waitin' wile I'se fryin' dis yere one fo' yo'. Does yo' laik ash cake or co'n pope wid yo' chicken? We mos' in gin'ral eats ash cake wid our fried chicken, an' an' co'n pope wid our b'iled wittlea. Yas suh ! Dats de way of Missus she fotch us up suh."

    "It's heap o' wuck to raise chickens; dey needs lots of nussin' 'fore dey's able to care fo' deirselves. Dey has a sight o' pips, an' gapes, an' wums a troublin' 'em. We mos' in gin'ral makes 'em swaller dar pips, an' den dey won't hev' gapes so bad. An' yo' got to watch out fo' dem prowlin' ornary chicken hawks Vat flies 'bout in de yair, an' pounces down 'pon de little ones 'fore yo' 'spects dey's any whar's 'bout yo' place. W'en dey grabs a chicken, 'taint no use fo' de of hen to make a racket, kase dat chicken's sho' gone fum 'bout yere.

    "My of man Isaac he fixes contraptions to skeer de hawks, but, Honey, dey aint no good, dem hawks cum an' sot down an' res' darselves right dar on top o' Isaac's fixins laik it war made fo' dem to res' on. Ef Isaac evah seed one o' dem hawks a settin' dar, I 'spect he'd cuss ef he warn't a church member, kase he's mighty easy upsot."

    The rumor that the dry goods box, which an obliging storekeeper loaned for the occasion as a "dining table," was covered with "Aunt Tilda's" clean, bed sheet, in lieu of a table cloth, did not appear to diminish her trade. The food and cooking of these "black mammies" was excellent. They were patronized by white and colored.

    Crime and commerce are the principal subjects which bring business to all courts. Owing to the general orderly condition of its people, the courts have few cases of crime upon their dockets, and seldom are these of a seriously vicious character.

    During the first few years after the Civil War, there was some petty pilfering by a few of the negroes. They would take a few fowls, or a "turn of fodder" or corn, or some trifling amount of food to tide them over some "resting spell," during the period they were determining whether freedom meant all play or some labor. The white people who suffered from these annoyances were generally lenient when the culprit was detected and often would go bail for the release and future good behavior of the prisoner. Some of the magistrates' trials of these offences were amusing instances of the simplicity of Tidewater Virginia justice, and of the forbearing nature of the whites toward the colored kindly, during these years.

    A certain negro named "Major"-no one ever knew him by any other name-was haled before a magistrate for stealing a turkey, and when confronted with the evidence of his guilt, the magistrate said: "Well boy, (forty years old,) what have you to say about this?" to which Major replied:

    "Jedge, it happen'd dis yere way. I was tukken down wid a misery in ma side, an' I want able to go to cuttin' no co'd wood laik I'd bin a doin', an' jus as I wuz a gwine to de sto' to ax Mistuh B_____ to lemme hav' a few poun's o' bacon 'twill I gits rid o' de misery in ma side, an' den as I cu ms pas' Mistah C -'s cuppen fence dar sot dis yere young turkey right dar, suh, and I sez to mase'f, ef de Lawd me I shore gwine cut Mistah C _____ a co'd an' a ha'f uv good wood fo' dis yore tukkey. Dat's jes' wat I say, I aint tellin' yo' no lie, suh. I suttinly will wo'k out dat tukkey, shore's I live. W'en I tuk dat tukkey I didn't hav' grease enuff in ma cabin to grease a spider. I don et it all up 'fore I seed dat tukkey. Dat's how cum I taik dat tukkey. I clar 'fore de Lawd dis is de fust time I evah was kotched takin' tukkey in ma life."

    Major's bail for future apearance at court when called and for his future good behavior, was fixed at a small sum, and an old ex-Confederate soldier-who knew that turkeys roosting on a nearby fence are great temptations-joined in the bond, and Major was again a free man and his future trial was never fixed. He "fined" the church, and ever after was an orderly citizen. In recognition of his future good behavior, the writer loaned him a newly painted wheelbarrowto which he had taken a great fancy-to wheel his child to "'traded meetin'," some four or five miles distant. Thus it is that virtue receives its reward in Tidewater Virginia.

    The judges of the courts are selected from amongst the members of the local bar. They are usually natives of that section over which they have jurisdiction, and are therefore well informed as to the character of its people, and conversant with their daily modes of life. In the administration of justice, information of such character is an aid to a judge in tempering justice with mercy, especially if the Court has the heart like unto a Tidewater Judge. All courts of law are hedged with technicalities more or less, but the people of thin section, and the courts are more anxious to reach the truth of a legal problem by a just and righteous inquiry than through technicalities of law which may distort and pervert the ends of justice.

    There is a genteel, quiet dignity in the Virginia Judge, but it partakes nothing of the overwise, and solemn countenance which so often betokens the "man of law" in many other sections of the United States. "The judge" is one of the people's choice, and respected accordingly. When not in his court "he is one of the people." In addition to his court duties he is frequently the owner of lands which claim his attention, and often his personal aid in their cultivation.

    The laws are administered in Virginia with the least degree of harshness, and to all classes alike. No taint of dishonor has ever been justly made against the judiciary of this section.

    The Tidewater Virginia Judge of the rural districts, is well-known and readily recognized by all persons, white and black, young and old, within his circuit, and when passing along the public highways, he is constantly being saluted by the passers-by as "Judge."

    To one accustomed to such familiar and friendly recognition it is a shock for him to reach a place where he is totally unknown and the oldtime friendly recognition ceases.

    One of those courtly Virginia judges, named C-1 from one of "The Peninsula" counties, had occasion to visit New York City, and upon his return to his native heath was asked how he liked the big city, to which he replied New York City, suh ! I was there nearly two days, sub, and not a single person stopped to say "Howdy" to me, nor even recognized me. I want nothing more to do with such an uncivil place, suh! I'm glad to be back amongst people who have time and inclination to be decent."

    The lawyers and doctors of Virginia, outside of the cities, are usually land owners, and like the judges, they may be found with their hands to the plow, or in directing their employees where to "run the furrow."

    The country lawyer, and country doctor need to be generally well informed in their respective professions. The "specials ties" of law, or of physic in that section are not of sufficient magnitude as to induce one to confine himself to "special practice." The rural life, therefore, forces the practitioner to efforts which city life does not demand.

    Country lawyers, and country doctors, unlike their city brothers, take active parts in the social and industrial conditions which surround them, and are, therefore, useful members in the life of their respective communities for advice, counsel, and aid in matters of import outside of their respective schools of thought.

    The doctor seldom engages in political debate; he leaves that field open to his more combative brother of the bar. The doctor will draw blood only in the effort to save life. The lawyer will seek eye for eye, and tooth for tooth when hip client is wrathy and demands the Levitical law.

    The lawyers of America, especially those born and reared within the rural sections, and in the smaller towns, and who might be classed as "country lawyers," have taken prominent places in the councils of this nation from its foundation to the present day. They were signers of the Declaration of Independence, and many of them have filled the chair of the Chief Executive of this nation.

    Nearly every lawyer in Tidewater Virginia is a politician, at least to the extent of speech making for their political party. They are the class of men from amongst whom came Patrick Henry, Henry Clay, Henry A. Wise, and other orators, and statesmen, as well as jurists of historic renown. The lawyers frequent many county courts. They "ride the circuit" in search of business, and it is of frequent occurrence that upon entering a distant court house, they may be engaged to take charge of a case in court without a moment's preparation, other than a hurried consultation, but their wide and extensive acquaintance with the people of all classes resident within their practice, together with their general knowledge of law, are their aids in such emergencies. They are usually good judges of human nature, and can lay bare its frailties and weaknesses in open court with eloquent tongue. As a rule they reside at the court houses.

    The lawyer of early years of the colony was paid his fees in tobacco, and when he got a case in court, he probably tried to "make things smoke."

    If the court session was prolonged until late in the evening, the members of the court and bar spent the night at the village tavern.

    Before the introduction of stoves-they were not in general use in the rural sections until several years after the Civil War-the big fire place of the tavern, which emitted bright and cheerful glows, was the scene of much comfort and enjoyment during the winter court nights. Then it was that the judge, the lawyers, the summoned jurymen, and officers of the court, and persons whose business detained them over night, assembled around the capacious hearth and engaged in friendly discussions, and relations of witty and humorous stories. Every Virginian is fond of a story, provided it is devoid of gross vulgarity. The lawyers are usually good story tellers, and it is said the judges of Virginia are able to hold their end up when occasion arises. It was rumored that the late hours of the nights spent at the tavern were often enlivened by "a gentleman's game" of draw-poker-played for sport and not for gain.

    It is said there is a chapel in Rome dedicated to one Saint Evona, a lawyer. He came to Rome to entreat the Pope to give the lawyers of Brittany a patron. The Pope replied that, he knew of no saint but what was disposed of to other professions, and he had none to spare for the lawyers, at which Evona was very sad, and begged so earnestly that at last the Pope proposed to him that he should go around the church blindfolded, and after he had said so many prayers, that the first saint in the group which he might lay hold of while blindfolded, should be the patron of lawyers. The good old lawyer started in his round, and at the end of his prayers he stopped at an altar, reached out his hand and laid hold of the image of the devil which lay at the feet of St. Michael, and cried out in his blindness "This is our Saint; let him be the patron of my profession-the law." Upon the removal of his blindfold, and observing what a patron he had chosen, he was shocked to death, and coming to Heaven's gate, he knocked hard, whereupon St. Peter asked "who it was that knocked so loudly;" he replied that it was "Evona the advocate." "Away, away," said St. Peter, "there is but one advocate in Heaven; there is no room for you lawyers." "O! but," said Evona, "I am that honest lawyer who never tools fees on both sides, or ever pleaded in a bad cause, nor did I ever set my neighbor by the ears, or lived by the sins of the people." "Well then," said St. Peter, "come in," and thereupon St. Peter sent an angel to the earth to inscribe upon the tombstone of St. Evona:

    "God works wonders now and then,
    Here lies a lawyer, an honest man."

    It is agreed that this epitaph is suited to Virginia lawyers. In 1643, the first act was passed for regulating lawyers. No attorney was permitted to plead without a license, which was granted by the court in which he practiced. Their fees were twenty pounds of tobacco in the county courts, and fifty pounds in the (quarter Courts, and no attorney could refuse to be retained unless employed on the other side.

    In 1647, that act was amended by adding a clause to it declaring that no attorneys should take any fees, and if the Court should perceive that either party, by their weakness, was likely to lose his case, they themselves should either open the case "or appoint some fit man out of the people to plead the cause, and allow him a reasonable compensation." No other attorneys were admitted. This act was repealed in 1656.

    Act of 1680 declared that "no licensed attorney should demand or receive for bringing any cause to judgment in the general court, more than 500 lbs. of tobacco and cask; and in the County Court, 150 lbs. of tobacco and cask; which fees are allowed him without any pre-agreement." "If any attorney shall refuse to plead any cause in the respective courts aforesaid, for the aforesaid fees, he shall forfeit as much as his fees should have been."

    The attorneys of those days could hardly "pocket their fees;" they had to "bag them."

    In many of the counties are preserved curious wills and orders of Court. The following copy of a will for probate in York County, Virginia, in 1637, is interesting:

    "At a court holden att ye house of Mr. Richard Townsend Ye 25th day of May 1637. Present Capt. Christopher Wormsley, Capt. Robt. Fellgate, Mr. John Chew, Mr. Richard Townshend, Mr. John Cheeseman, Mr. Will Pryor, Mr. Hugh Owen.

    In the name of God Amen. This will and Testament being the last Will and Testament of Andrew Whorvell, made the tenth of March 1631, being in his perfect senses as ever he was in his life time. Witnesseth That I make Christopher Stokes my lawful overseer to see that the tendure of this my will be performed as followeth

    First. I bequeath my soul to Almighty God, my maker, and my body to be buryed in the Ground and for my worldly Wealth that itt hath pleased God to endow me with as followeth

    --Item. I give unto my brother Nathaniell Clarke one sow pig the whitch my father doth owe me and one Barrel of Corn when he is one and twenty years of age and two hens presently.

    Item. I give unto my Sister Bettie Clarke three barrels of Indian corne and one pullett and one sow.

    Item. I give unto my father Joseph Jolly one sow pigg, and one barrow pigg.

    Item. I give unto my mother Margaret Jolly one barrow pigg.

    Item. The three barrels of Corne that I give unto my Sister Bettie Clarke is to be put to use till that she cometh to age and the sow that I give her they that keep her till that she cometh to age are to have of the increase all the bore piggs and the sow piggs to be putt to the best use till that she cometh of age. Witness my hand this day and year first above written.

    Andrew Whorvell, his X mark."

    Will of Richard Coles of Westmoreland, proved in 1674.

    Item. It is my will and desire that my body be interred upon Poynt Pleasant, upon my plantation, in a neat coffin of black walnut, if conveniently be had, and that a grave stone of black marble be with all convenient speed sent for out of England, with my Coat of Arms engraven in brass, and under it this epitaph:

    Here lies Dick Cole, a grevious sinner,
    That died a little before dinner,
    Yet hopes in Heaven to find a place
    To satiate his soul with Grace.

    Item. I will that my grave stone be raised with Dutch brickes above three foot from the ground, and my grave be paled in with posts and rails of locust, and white oke boards of a double substance, and under them locust sills, and if my wife think it expedient to sell ye land that the vendee or vendees be obliged forever to keep my grave in repair."

    The following order, celebrating the birth of a Prince of Wales, in Old Rappahannock County, now Essex and Richmond counties, is interesting:

    "At a court held for Rappahannock County the 2d day of Jany Anno Dom, 1688.

    Present-Col. Jno. Stone, Capt. Geo. Taylor, Capt. Saml. Blumfield, Mr. Jno. Rice, Justices.

    It having pleased Almighty God to bless his Royal Majesty with the birth of a son and his subjects with a Prince of Wales, and for as much as his Excellency hath sett apart the 16th day of this inst. Jany, for solemnizing the same; To this end, therefore, that it may be done with all expression of Joy this county is capable of, This Court have ordered that Capt. George Taylor do provide and bring to the North Side Court House for this County (now Richmond) as much Rum and other strong liquor, with Sugar proportionable, as shall amount to six thousand five hundred pounds of Tobacco, to be distributed amongst the Troops of horse, company of foot and other persons that shall be present at the solemnitie, and that said sum be allowed him at the next laying of the levy; as also, that Cap. Saml. Blumfield provide and bring to the South Side Court House for this County, (now Essex) as much Rum or other strong Liquor, with sugar proportionable, as shall amount to 3500 lbs. of Tobacco, to be distributed as above, at the South Side Court House and the said sum to be allowed him at the next laying of the levy."

    Note also the following:

    "A court at James citty the 17 Sept. 1627 present Sir George Yeardley, Knt, Governor, Dr. Pott, Capt. Smyth and Mr. Secretary, Divers examinations being taken and had concerning the unquiett life wch ye people of Archers Hope lead through the scoldinges raleings and failings out vath Amy the wife of Christopher Hall and other abominable contentions happening between them to the dishonour of God and the breach of the Kings peace, the Court hath thereupon ordered that the said Amy shall be toughed (towed) round about the" Margarett and John "and ducked three times."

    The "Margaret and John" was a vessel anchored near Archers Hope, the place where the colony would have first settled upon but for the shallow waters near the shore.

    Some of the laws of the early days are also interesting:

    "The court in every county shall cause to be set up near the Court house, a pillory, a pair of stocks, a whipping post, and a ducking stool, in such place as they shall think convenient.". . . . Laws of 1662.

    "In actions of slander occasioned by a man's wife, after judgment passed for damages the woman shall be punished by ducking, and if the slander be such as the damages shall be adjudged above 500 pounds of tobacco, then the woman shall have ducking for every 500 pounds of tobacco adjudged against her husband; if he refuse to pay the tobacco." Laws of 1662.

    Lord Culpeper, writing in 1683 said the Secretary (of State) was a patent officer, from the first seating of the country, the very next in dignity to the Governor, or Commander-in-Chief. He had the right to appoint all County Clerks. He was keeper of the colonial seal and exofficio clerk of the Council and General Court, though the duties of these offices were actually performed by the titular clerks of the respective bodies. The clerks of the courts in Tidewater Virginia are among the most competent and obliging of its officials, and mainly for these reasons are the less affected-of the county officers-by the political changes which occur at the regular elections. Many of them went into these offices as deputies to their fathers in their first years of manhood, and were continued there as long as they lived.

    "Well done thou good and faithful servant" can truthfully be inscribed upon the tombs of the clerks of courts in Virginia.

    The old time court house buildings which were usually but one story in height are being supplanted either by entirely new structures, or by additions to them of modern improvements and shapes, which in many cases have obliterated all semblance of their original style of architecture. The court rooms of the old time buildings were upon the first floor, large and airy in summer, and cold and draughty in winter. In the improved buildings,. the court rooms are generally situated upon the upper floors, which are well lighted and heated, and comfortable during all seasons. The walls of some of the court rooms are decorated with tablets of stone and portraits, containing the names and services of local officials; they also contain the portraits of many distinguished men of both state and national fame, who were born within these several counties, or who made their homes therein during a period of their lives.

    The judicial circuit presided over by Hon. Judge T. R. B. Wright, which comprises the counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Richmond, and Westmoreland, in the "Northern Neck" peninsula, and the county of Essex, in the "Middlesex" peninsula, contains the largest collection of tablets and portraits perhaps, of any circuit in the State. The collections within this circuit include Presidents of the United States, Cabinet officers of the Chief Executive, Judges, Jurists, and Statesmen of renown. There are also portraits of distinguished soldiers of every war in which the nation has been a participant, from the Revolutionary to the Civil War.

    Among the more prominent portraits are those of George Washington, and Robert E. Lee, upon the walls of Westmoreland Court House.

    Roger Jones, Adjutant General of the United States Army, and Edwin Bates, Attorney General in President Lincoln's Cabinet, are found upon the walls of Northumberland Court House.

    Upon the walls of Essex Court House are many tablets of stone containing the names of soldiers of the Confederacy, among whom are several of Pickett's famous Division. Among the portraits is that of Hon. R. M. T. Hunter, a distinguished member of the United States House of Representatives for many years, and a member of the United States Senate from his native State (Virginia) when the Civil War began. Whilst a member of Congress, he originated the bonded warehouse system, under which imported goods were permitted to remain in Government warehouses until the owners desired to put them upon the market, paying the duties at the time of withdrawal. He was a prominent candidate for the Presidency in 1860. When Virginia seceded, he resigned his seat in the Senate and was afterwards Secretary of State of the Confederacy in President Davis' Cabinet. He was one of the three Confederate Commissioners appointed by President Davis to treat for peace with President Lincoln and Secretary Seward at the Fortress Monroe Convention. In 1874 he was elected Treasurer of Virginia. He died in Essex County, July 18, 1887.

  • CHAPTER XVIII - Country Roads in Tidewater Virginia

    When the colonists reached Virginia there were no roads, public or private, laid out upon this continent. There was no necessity for such openings through the lands and forests of America as are now known as public roads or highways. The Indians trafficked only in such articles as they could shoulder. They did not know the use of metals and therefore had no weighty material to transport such as at the present day, and if necessity arose for roadways they had no implements with which to construct them. They were content to march in single file when journeying. They had no draft animals, nor vehicles for carriage or transportation other than boats, many of which were constructed of material so light in weight as to admit of their portage from stream to stream upon the shoulders of men.

    When the colonists extended their settlements into the interiors of the peninsulas, away from the navigable streams, and when public places were established, such as churches, court houses, and grist mills, there arose a necessity for roads, but such roads as were constructed in the early years of the settlement, though their construction was forced by acts of assembly, were, nevertheless, nothing more than bridle paths.

    Act. L, 1632 provided: "Highwayes shall be layd out in such convenient places as are requisite accordinge as the Governor and Council, or the Commissioners for the monthlie cons shall appoynt, or according as the parishioners of every parish shall agree."

    Act IX, 1657 provided for surveyors of "High Waise." "That surveyors of highwaise and maintenance for bridges be yearly kept and appointed in each Countie Court respectively, and that all generall wages from county to county and all churchwaies to be laid out and cleered yeerly as each county court shall think fit, needful and convenient; respect being had to the course in England to that end."

    In 1661 Act LXXXIX provided for the yearly appointment of surveyors of the highways by the justices of the peace to "lay out the most convenient wages to the church, to the court, and make the said wages 40 foote broad, and make bridges where there is occasion."

    The surveyors were also directed to keep the "wages" clear from fallen logs, and the bridges in good repair. They were empowered "to order the parishioners everyone according to the number of tithables he bath in his family, to send upon the dayes by the surveyors appointed to help them in cleering the wages and making and repairing the bridges according to the intent and purpose of this act" There were penalties attached payable in tobacco for neglect to perform these duties.

    Building roadways through the primeval forests, and over low bottom lands, and marshy grounds, and bridging numerous streams, was a mighty laborious undertaking at the early period of Virginia's settlement, especially if this task were to be done by the single individual and not by the collective community.

    As a matter of fact, each seating place of a planter when first settled upon was devoid of any passageway or roadway to or from his home in the primeval wilderness connecting him with the outside world, and because of the gigantic task of road building many of the settlers postponed this work, thus placing their homes remote from all intercourse with the public highways and beyond the reach of their fellow man. So common was this condition that the general assembly deemed it necessary to enact laws compelling the opening of roads to "houses and plantations." Such was Act V, 1667, "For Roades to Houses." "Whereas the despatch of business in this countrey is much obstructed for want of bridlewayes to the several houses and plantations: It is enacted by this grand assembly and the authority thereof, that every person haveing a plantation shall, at the most plaine and convenient path that leads to his house make a gate in his ffence for the convenience of passage of man and horse to his house about their occasions at the discretion of the owners."

    In 1705, there was passed an act for constructing roads "to and from city of Williamsburg, the court house of every county, the parish churches, and such public mills and ferries as now are, or hereafter shall be erected, and from one county to another county, at least 30 ft. wide." All male tithables when called upon by the surveyor were to assist in the work. The condition of the public roads of Tidewater Virginia were never a source of very grave anxiety to its people until very recent years. So long as there was a hard spot in the road to straddle upon, or a rut so shallow that its bottom was within reach of the cart-hub, the repairing of the road was postponed.

    This condition was owing mainly to the fact that the largest shipment of agricultural products, were usually from the wealthier planters located convenient to some stream where a vessel or lighter could be reached by a short haul. Many planters had vessel landings upon their own lands. The farmers located at the greater distance from rivers or creeks, were generally the less wealthy class. Their main products for shipment were such as "could walk off" horses, mules, cows, calves, yearlings, steers, hogs and sheep. What corn or wheat they raised was consumed at home, or trafficked with neighbors who were engaged in occupations other than tilling the soil.

    Including the high and dry and level areas, there are hundreds of miles of the roads throughout that whole section which need no work upon them other than to trim out the intruding bushes, which, if left to thrive, would eventually narrow the roadway beyond usage. The hills and the soft bottom places in the "low grounds" have ever been a source of much labor to keep in good order.

    The public highways of Virginia were formerly worked by the inhabitants living within the several road precincts, who were "called upon the road" by the overseer of the roads, an elective officer who was empowered by law to summon the residents of his district to work the roads a certain number of days during each twelve months. Those who failed to put in an appearance when called, either sent a substitute or paid a certain sum of money to the road-fund. This mode of repairing roads was unsatisfactory, and they are now worked by contract and paid for by a road-tag fund.

    Owing to the fact that many of the road-beds are composed of sand or clay, with few or no stones or gravel, the heavy rains rapidly form deep gulleys on the sand hills, or quagmires on the clay hill roads.

    There are hundreds of thousands of acres of Tidewater Virginia lands that do not contain a stone large enough to "chunk a squirrel."

    Clay hills and boggy bottoms are usually corduroyed for want of better material. A corduroy road is made by laying a bed of poles across it, side by side, and covering them slightly with soil. In the event of rains washing the soil from the poles, the vehicle traveling over such road is jostled, bumped, and jerked across a small pole, and against a larger one alternately, with an up and down and sidewise motion, like a small boat in a "choppy sea." A fractious horse driven on a dark night down a steep corduroy hill road, after a heavy rain storm, is apt to alarm the driver lest he be thrown upon his head; it will at least force him to make uncomplimentary remarks about the road overseer.

    There are many small streams "Runs" crossing the roads, which are not bridged. During very heavy rains, these streams widen out suddenly, and cover the road bed, and the surrounding lowlands, with a wave of w water which greatly confuses the stranger on a dark night, and I. ay put him in a plight of "landing up the creek" in some boggy, oozy bottom to sink beyond the sound of Gabriel's horn. Even though it be a dark night, an experienced traveler will discover by the movements of his horse's feet when the animal leaves "hard bottom," and by a speedy pull of the proper rein, may save himself from a muddy grave.

    Some of the "Runs" between low banks are narrow, and during heavy rains, wash out "chuck holes" across the roads, which are at least alarming to the stranger traveler in a dense piney woods road v, hen the stars are hidden by lowering clouds. Meeting one of such places, his horse and vehicle, without warning, suddenly plunges through the darkness with an abrupt jolt into the water almost oat of sight-he imagines. At this stage of Isis journey, the traveler is undetermined whether he kept the "straight road," as directed-notwithstanding its many twists and turns-or whether he is on his way across some deep mill pond, or navigable stream whose pitying waters may wash his remains to its distant shores, to form a fit subject for the "coroner to sit on," and determine whether the "stranger committed suicide," or was waylaid and dropped in the stream. Before he has located himself, or determined in his mind as to where his remains may be found, his horse gives a snort and a bound, and carries vehicle and traveler on dry ground. Just then he forgets his former peril in giving vent to his former nervousness by saying something about the people in that neighborhood being "too lazy to mend the roads."

    It is frequently found that a darn across a mill pond is used as a public road. Many such dams are winding, and thus obstruct the view of the road from end to end, and such road beds are often too narrow to admit of vehicles passing each other upon the dam.

    Before the Civil War, very many persons, male and female, rode horseback, and thus could shun the worst parts of the road. The more wealthy rode in their family coach; the doctors and lawyers used gigs, a two wheeled vehicle now entirely out of usage.

    A clipping from "The Free Lance," a newspaper published in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia, shows the condition of some of the public roads at the present day.

    "DUNNSVILLE, ESSEX COUNTY, Oct. 23, 1906

    The roads are continued mud holes, and the creeks swollen above the bridges over them. The water was nearly knee deep on Ware's creek bridge Saturday, and the cause-way leading to it almost past fording. Trible swamp, on the road from Dunnsville to Cox's store, is a menace to life and limb, and should be bridged at once. Mr. E. M. W., Jr., reports that the water was up to his buggy body even before the last heavy rain. With such conditions before us at this season, what may we expect the roads to be by Christmas, and for patience sake, what in February? The mail driver from Tappahannock to Walkerton had to swim his horse today, and the same may be said of the driver from Dunnsville to Daisy."

    Deep sandy roads during a dry spell are as tedious and tiresome to travel through as would be a deep bed of snow. Roads of this character are sometimes corduroyed.

    The roads containing the deepest sand beds are more frequently found in the interior of the peninsulas, remote from the navigable streams. There is one such noted place in Caroline County, humorously nicknamed "Sandy Lane." A traveler passing through that section asked an old negro resident whom be met on a hot summer's day, laboriously plodding through its deep, dry sands: "How come so much sand here, Uncle?"

    "Well, Boss," said he, "I've hearn it happen'd dis yore way: On de Saturd'y evenin' w'en de worl` wuz mos' finish'd dar wuz a right smaht heap o' san' lef' ovah dat want no use, an' de Lawd He say to Rime% 'I mus' fin' a place fur d is yore heap o' San'; an' w'en He look down 'pon de yearth, lie spied a right smaht big hole right yere. (fell, sub, dey say de Lawd sot up all dat Saturd'y night shuv'lin' san' right yore in Sandy Lane, an' w'en Sund'y mornin' cum, Ile wuz tired an' He say to Hisse'f ` I mus' take a res' dis day shore.' I tells yo' Boss, ef it hadn't bin Toy Sandy Lane in of Kal-line County, de wite folks would a wucked us poh Di09g seben days in ev'ry week, an' dar wouldn't bin no Sund'y but Toy Sandy Lane. Dat's how cum Sund'y 'pinted de day to res' yo'se'f. Thank de Lawd To' Sandy Lane."

    Where the public roads lead across rivers and deep creeks, they are crossed in many places by means of "flat boats," which are propelled by a rope stretched across the stream from bank to bank, and fastened to stakes or logs embedded in the earth. The flat boats have two parallel upright standards at either end, and some of them a wheel or block between the standards upon which the rope "travels" as the boat is pulled from shore to shore.

    To permit a ready entrance of vehicles and animals into the boat, it is provided with an "apron" at either end. The aprons are hinged platforms attached to the ends of the boat, and projecting outward from the ends several feet. When the boat reaches the shore, the outer side of the apron is lowered until it reaches the earth, thus affording a gradually inclining passage to and from the boat. While crossing the stream, the aprons, are held up above the water by means of "sweep poles" run through rings upon each of the outer sides of the aprons, and through other rings upon the floor of the boat. The aprons are swung, as it were, upon the ends of the sweep.

    On the country roads of Tidewater Virginia, no one passes another without some show of courtesy, or familiar recognition. Acquaintances exchange greetings by inquiry about each other's health, and that of their families, and engage in discussing the latest important or interesting event relative to their section, state or nation. This takes time, but every Tidewater Virginian has time always for courtesies. The negroes, during slavery, when meeting the whites raised their hats, bowed and politely replied "Sarvint, suh."

    It was ill bred manners to overtake and drive past another vehicle containing ladies or gentlemen without making some apology. There is good reason for this courtesy, especially during dry weather, because the roads during that period are stifling with fine dust which is readily started into motion from a passing vehicle.

    The customary rule of the road is to pass to the right. This rule is observed wherever practical.

    There are hundreds of miles of the public highways too narrow to admit two vehicles going in opposite directions, to pass each other in the beaten path of travel. If two such vehicles meet on a level spot "it is easy," as one or the other can "take to the woods," or bushes; if they meet upon a narrow hill road between steep banks, then "comes the tug of war."

    Virginians never took time to form proper width roadbeds over the hills, where most needed. In many places where the hills are crossed, the road beds are but wide enough between steep banks for one vehicle to pass. When two vehicles meet upon such a place, the one going down the hill has the right of way by custom. The one coming up the hill must back down to where the road is sufficiently wide to permit of passing. Such contingencies are the only instances in which a Tidewater Virginia gentleman will consent to back down.

    There are not many country road; in Virginia which have continuous miles of "straight travel;" many of them are as crooked as the streams to which they lead.

    The numerous rivers, creeks and other inland streams found there, together with the hills, which are always ascended by the roundabout, and not the straightest grade, make it difficult, if not impassible to construct straight roads.

    Neither are the public highways always indicated to the traveler by the show of "well worn roads:' There are many localities where the main highways indicate signs of less usage than do the private roads to some saw mill, or "timber Betters"' or cord wood choppers' camps. Where the public and private roads of this character join, it is a puzzle to determine one from the other, as there are so many instances in which the public roads are substituted by short cuts through the woods to avoid bad places. where the public highways form "forked," or "cross roads," they crook and bend into one another with such suddenness and mystification that the traveler is at a loss to determine whether he is coming from, or returning to his first starting point by some more direct route-he almost meets himself coming back. There are sign board posts at nearly all forked, or cross roads, and but few of them have sign boards, and these few are pointed either upward or downward-suggestive only of the direction in which the righteous and the unrighteous mast eventually go. In such contingencies, the traveler should retrace his steps to the nearest dwelling house, even though it be a mile or two, where he is sure to find the people, -white and colored, very courteous and obliging when directing a traveler, but he will most likely be told to " keep the straight road," regardless of his destination.

    In some of the counties bordering on the Chesapeake Bay, nearly every other man resident, whether he be the owner of a "dugout" a canoe dug cut of a single log-or the master of a coasting schooner, has the title of "Captain." There are other less numerous titles, such as Major and Colonel. Some of these latter titles were deservedly won in the Civil War, and others are reminders of the patrols and militia of days "Befo' de Wah." Those with titles are best known by their abbreviated Christian name, and are thus spoken of and addressed by even their most intimate friends. Captain Patrick Henry Clay is known and addressed only as Captain Pat Clay.

    A stranger to these customs, asked an old time negro where Mister Patrick Henry Clay lived:

    "Deed I dunno Boss! No sich gentleman named dat livin' bout yere as I knows of. Is he a white gentleman or a colored gentleman?"

    Upon being asked if there were any persons named Clay living in that neighborhood, he replied:

    "Plenty uv 'em, suh ! Plenty uv 'em. Captain Pat Clay lives across de crick yonda. Ef I had ma dugout I'd take yo' dar 'dreckly, but ef yo' has to go roun' de head uv de crick, I dunno w'en yo' gits dar, lease it's right smaht ways, an' de wust road in de county." "Well, I tells yo' how yo' gits dar. Keep de straight road 'twell yo' comes to a "new cut" road. Do'an yo' turn in dar, lease dat aint de road yo' takes. W'en yo' gits right smaht ways fum dat place whar yo' sees de new cut road, yo' keeps de straight road pas' Captain Jim Lanes "wintah cuppen" (cowpen) ; it's right in de pines whar he shelter his cattle in the wintah time. Den yo' turn dar an' keep de straight road 'twell yo' gits to a pole gate made outen pine saplin's. Do'an yo' go in dar, lease dat whar Captain Tom Jinkins live. Den yo' keep de straight road 'twell yo' comes to a big sycamore, right smaht size, an' straight down de road fum dar is a right smaht skirt o' pines, some on 'em right smaht size an' yuther ones jes' young saplin's, kase dar whar de saw mill war las' year, an' dey cut all de bes' timber outen dar 'fore dey move de mill. Dey suttinly mus' use a heap o' timber in town, kase dat mill wuz a sawin' mos' night an' day, an' dey sent ev'ry blessed stick o' dat timber to town, an' dey axed fo' mor'."

    "W'en yo' gits outen dat clearin' whar de saw mill war, yo' comes in sight o' Captain Ned Daingerfields house, right down on the crick she'. Den de nex' house yo' sees straight down de crick she,' yo' knows it's Captain Pat Clays. I 'spect he's de gentleman yo' is lookin' fo'. W'en yo' gits to his gate. you'd bettah holler, kase he keeps a passul uv de wust houn' dogs yo' evah seed, an' dey aint got no use fo' a niggah laik me."

    Many of the roadsides of the cultivated lands present the appearance of hedges, as the fences are hidden from view by pretty cedar trees, and chinquopin, sassafras, holly, dogwood, and sumac bushes, intermingled with wild grape, Virginia creeper, honeysuckle, and trumpet vines. The seeds of these trees, bushes, and vines are carried to the fences by the birds which alight upon the rails with the seeds in their beaks, and there drop them. Many of the division fences between the fields, are also lined with cedar trees, the seeds of which were also carried there by birds. As there is "land a plenty," the fields are seldom cultivated close to the fences, and these several growths are therefore left undisturbed to thrive. What is known as the "worm fence" was most commonly in use. It was formed of pine, oak, or chestnut split rails, or poles placed one upon another in the form of an elongated, endless capital W. It is said a Virginia worm fence might be made of rails "too crooked to lie still."

    A claimant for trespass upon his fenced land was obliged to prove his fence was "pig tight, steer high, eight rails and a rider."

    Many of the counties now have what is known as a "no fence law," that is, no one need fence against trespass of other persons' stock as liability follows for trespass upon unfenced lands.

    One can travel for continuous miles through sections of wooded lands, and find the country roads lined upon both sides with young, and old timber, and so dense may be the growth that only a vista of the Heavens may be seen.

    More than half the land surface of Tidewater Virginia is covered with timber, the greater part of which is pine of every species, except white, and Norway pine.

    A dense pine forest is usually clear of other undergrowth, and therefore presents much more the appearance of a city park than an uncultivated wild woods. It is also one of the most quiet places upon earth, as the foliage of the pine makes no rustling sound when agitated by light breezes. During heavy wind storms, they emit a sound as if a broom were swept violently through the air, a swishing sound.

    The woods, with their sweet and healthful odors, and their restful quietude, make the ideal home for small game. Along these forest roads may be seen during the spring and fall months, thousands of redbreasted robins, and the song of the wild mocking bird is often heard there to the delight of his mate who is attending to her maternal duties on some adjacent bush.

    THE BUILDING OF THE NEST

    They'll come again to the apple tree,
    Robin and all the rest,
    When the orchard branches are fair to see
    In the snow of the blossoms drest;
    And the prettiest thing in the world will be
    The building of the nest.

    Weaving it well, so round and trim,
    Hollowing it with care;
    Nothing too far away for him,
    Nothing for her too fair;
    Hanging it safe on the topmost limb,
    Their castle in the air.

    Ah, mother bird, you'll have weary days
    When the eggs are under your breast,
    And shadows may darken the dancing rays
    When the wee ones leave the nest;
    But they'll find their wings in a glad amaze,
    And God will see to the rest.

    So come to the trees with all your train
    When the apple blossoms grow;
    Through the April shimmer of sun and rain,
    Go flying to and fro,
    And sing to our hearts as we watch again
    Your fairy building grow."

    Squirrels may cross the path of the traveler-tails up-in quest of the acorn or chinquopin to lay up for "a cold day." The "Old Hare" the "Mollie-Cotton-Tail" of the youngsters-may be seen "scampering her level best" in an effort to keep her carcass from the jaws of a greedy old fox that follows closely behind her.

    A few years ago, in many of these counties, might be seen the daintily limbed Virginia deer, leaping across the road to disappear in the thicket beyond the sight of the baying hounds and the hunter who follows in hot pursuit.

    The wild turkey was often seen in the "old field clearings," scratching for a living, accompanied in the spring time by her brood of young ones.

    The deer have nearly all disappeared, but the wild turkey, in many places, yet "roosts high."

    During the early spring and late fall months, the "Cohonk," "Cohunk," of the wild geese in their annual migration, from sundown to break of day, were familiar sounds throughout that region of Virginia. Since the introduction, and frequent trips of the local steamboats to many of these streams, the wild goose and the wild duck seek the more quiet places.

    From the earliest days of settlement of this nation, oxen were in demand for slow, heavy draught work, either upon the public highways, or in the woods and new ground clearings, where tree stumps and roots were numerous. At such work, the patient, slow and steady tread of the ox made him the favorite in comparison with the quick, nervous, and excitable horse.

    The ox team needed no harness other than a yoke with a ring attached to its center, and strengthened by an iron band, and two bows. Neither of these required a very high degree of mechanical art to form.

    The yoke was made of light, tough, close grained wood, usually swamp maple. It was long enough to reach over and project beyond the necks of both cattle. Where it rested upon the necks, it was rounded out to fit each, and holes were bored to receive both ends of the bows, which were made of young, straight grained hickory, or white oak rounded smoothly, and bent U-shape to fit under the throats of the cattle, then up into the holes in the yoke, fastened by a key in each, thereby securing the oxen together.

    When the ox was worked single, he was driven with bits in his mouth, attached to a halter which passed over his head, and was guided by rope lines. To each end of a single yoke were fastened rings which passed through eye bolts to support the shafts of a vehicle, or to hitch traces to while plowing, or at other work.

    It was often the self-imposed and much enjoyed task of the youngsters-white and colored-on a plantation to "break the yearlings to the yoke."

    A team composed of a bull and a jackass, or a bull and a mule was humorously dubbed "Virginia Rag Bag team." Such team was seldom seen elsewhere than in the forest section, and was more frequently the property of "free negroes."

    The ox team is being rapidly relegated to the rear of the procession of the present day progress, and soon will be ranked with the tallow candle age curiosities of the grandfather's day. In pioneer days the ox team was a highly prized necessity. They lightened the burdens of the American pioneer in his long and tedious march "Westward Ho" from the Atlantic to the Pacific in advance of the locomotive.

    He was worked as long as he was able, and when no longer fit for burdens, his flesh was meat for his matter's sustenance, and his hide consoled many a weary foot. He has been in service from the earliest record of history. His useful and patient service has earned for him a notice in the Proverbs of Solomon: "Where no oxen are, the crib is clean; but much increase is by the strength of the ox."

    The Tidewater Virginia ox is not large, but "when pushed, will get a move on him" that would leave the larger cattle of other sections far behind in the race. Like all his species, he will move but slowly unless urged, but "he gets there just the same."

    On a hot summer's day may yet be seen on these country roads, the typical ox team and negro driver of "Buck and Bright," hauling cord wood, railroad ties, or going to, or returning from a grist mill with "a turn of meal."

    There is an air of quiet and leisure suggested by the meeting of a yoke of oxen in charge of an old Tidewater Virginia negro on a country road there, which is not found elsewhere. The oxen more leisurely along with their burden, chewing their quid with evident satisfaction, turning neither to the right nor to the left, but "keep in the middle of the road," as they were early taught.

    The driver sits perched upon the load with whip in hand, and both eyes closed to all the world and its cares-fast asleep. He puts his trust in his well-trained cattle and the good Lord who watches "even to the fall of a sparrow." If the road is wide enough, the Virginia gentleman traveler "turns out" without a murmur of complaint, slumbers of the drowsy driver.

    Ninety-nine out of every hundred ox teams in that section or without disturbing the are named "Buck and Bright." Buck is the "nigh" ox, Bright is the "off" ox.

    As a steady, useful draught animal, the mule ranks with the ox, and is preferred for work on the plantation. The mule learns his work more quickly than does the horse, and is more patient and less timid.

    He requires less grain food and less grooming than does a horse, and thrives if permitted after his day's work to roll upon the ground and fill his hide with sand, which he afterwards delights in shaking of by a romp and a kick or two. A mule or an old time negro may look drowsy, but either of them can fling their feet with astonishing rapidity. A mule will permit his driver to take certain liberties with him which a stranger may take only at great peril to his own safety:

    "Stan' cl'ar o' dat Pete mule's hin' laigs 'less yo' wants yo' fune-ral preached," is the frequent admonition of the negro mule driver to intruding strangers who do not know "a mule's ways." The negro is usually a patient and merciful driver.

    The negro as a mule driver, has a cinch on the white man. A Tidewater Virginia mule is like an inquisitive, healthy boy. He wants someone talking to him all the while. If a mule balks, or shies, or travels too sloww, the white man has neither time nor patience to talk to him in other than sulphurous language, and frequently will resort to the whip, which only adds to the stubbornness of the mule. The old time negro driver had more time to spare, and consequently more patience with the halting or fractious mule than the white man, and he talked to the mule in a peculiar inflection of the voice calculated to shame the mule: "W'at's de matter wid yo' muil? Look at him now; w'at I feed yo' fo', suh? I'se not gwine stan' yere all day pesterin' wid yo'! Yo' yere me muil? Git up here muil 'fore I war dis yere switch outer yo' hide, suh !"

    While this talk is going on, in a deliberate way, the mule is resting, and when it ceases, off goes the mule, and the negro and the mule at once forget the incident.

  • CHAPTER XIX - Lands and Products

    I. SEASONS

    There are two beautiful seasons of the year in Tidewater Virginia. First is the early spring time when the forests bud and the flowers blossom; then the air is filled with the sweet odors exhaled by nature, in her efforts to encourage verdure to wake from the cold slumbers, and to smile upon the earth and spread its green mantle over the landscape, and free the waters from their frigid chill, that they may romp and run free from the mountains to the sea shore undisturbed. This is the most welcome season of the year. It is then the busy time for the tiller of the soil, and the fisherman hastens to prepare his nets for the harvest which the warm waters will bring to them. The following is typical of the negroes' thought of Spring time.

    O, Miss Spring time,
    We's glad to see 'taint so,
    We's fear'd dat of Miss Wintah
    Had kiver'd yo' up wid snow;
    But dar cum spry Miss April,
    She done jes' dried huh eyes,
    An' bresh'd away de heavy clouds
    W'at hid de shiny skies,
    Den we seed 'long de road side
    De flowers yo' use to bring,
    An' we know'd it by de "Daises"
    Dat yo' wuz sho'ly spring.

    We he'erd of Mistah Bullfrog
    A hoppin' to his home,
    An' steddy shoutin' to hissef
    "Jug-o-rum", "Jug-o-rum"
    Lissen w'at dat young frog say
    -He's jes' woke up from sleep
    I knows he's in some trubble
    -- "Knee deep", "knee deep", "knee deep"

    O, Yas, it's sho'ly spring time
    W'en frogs keep up sich noise,
    A singin' to dar lone selves,
    -A racket-jes' laik boys.

    The other pretty season of the year is the late fall when the summer's heat has expended its force, and the atmosphere fills the human lungs with its healthful breaths of cool air. Then the oak leaves change their emerald hue, and lose their hold upon the parent tree, to drop at its feet and form mold to nourish the roots for future needs, while the Heavens are casting their weighty coats of glittering frosts upon the earth, as a warning to nature to prepare its slumbering couch for winter's visit. This is the second welcome season of the year. Then the industrious farmer and the lucky fisherman have already reaped their harvests and gathered them for protection against winter's icy hand, which is sure to search the lands where harvests bloomed, and the rivers where the waters romped and made merry with their finny visitors.

    Winter soon makes a struggle to settle itself upon the earth, and sends its windy messengers from the North, with trumpets full of chilly air to blow upon the face of nature and thus force its eyes to close before the expected storms.

    This wintry struggle is interrupted usually about the middle of November, when the weather again becomes warm, enabling the belated wayfarer to seek shelter, who, but for its aid would be "left out in the cold."

    This change in the weather, with its hazy atmosphere, is a delightful season. It was named "Indian Summer" from the following circumstances: During the first settlements of the West, the pioneers to that region were continually harassed by the Indians. These people enjoyed no peace excepting in the severe winter weather when the Indians were unable to make their raids into the settlements. The onset of winter was therefore hailed as a relief from these annoyances by the settlers who throughout the spring and early part of the fall had been forced for their own safety to live in little uncomfortable forts. At the approach of winter, therefore, all the farmers excepting the owner of the fort, removed to their cabins on their farms. It sometimes happened, after the apparent onset of winter, that the weather became warm, the "smoky time" commenced, and lasted for a considerable number of days. This was Indian Summer, because it afforded the Indians another opportunity of visiting the settlements with their destructive warfare.

    At morn, along the woodland stream,
    A film of ice, brief as a dream,
    Gleams in the sun,
    And frost gems in the woods and grass,
    Like trinkets wrought of polished glass,
    Or myriad points of burnished brass
    That shine as one.

    A dreamy haze, half fog, half smoke,
    Above the red tops of the oak
    Hangs like a pall;
    Incasing all the hill tops gray,
    And valley stretching far away,
    Where regal Indian Summer's sway
    Transfigures all.

    The winters are especially mild in the lower tidewater section; very seldom is ice formed upon its streams more than two or three inches thick. Snows are usually light, and last upon the earth but a few days after falling. Weather suitable for planting garden vegetables is often found in the middle of February, or the beginning of March. There is usually an abundant rainfall in the spring time, and the summer's drought ends about July.

    II. LANDS OF TIDEWATER VIRGINI

    The lands and waters of America were claimed by the Christian monarchs of Europe by right of discovery through their subjects. These Christian monarchs held many bloody disputes with one another over these doubtful titles by discovery. The colonists who settled Virginia had no title to the lands or waters other than what was given them in their charter from the King of England. Under this doubtful right, they landed and set up the emblem of Christianity-the Cross-and claimed the lands and waters for their king.

    When America was first discovered, its lands were held in common by the several tribes or nations of the aborigines. Those tribes who were nomadic, moving from place to place in pursuit of game, laid no particular claim to any section, but looked upon all as free for their purposes. Such tribes made no fixed habitation upon the soil.

    When the colonists reached Virginia, they found the Indians settled near the best fishing shores, and upon the most ferthe spots of land. The island upon which the colony first seated was part of the territory occupied by a tribe of Indians whose chief Paspiha welcomed the new comers, and shared with them his lands. This was the first undisputed, quiet title from an aboriginal inhabitant of the new world to the white man of the old world, and to Tidewater Virginia belongs this honor. The territory which the Spaniards already occupied at St. Augustine, Florida, and Santa Fe, New Mexico, was taken from the Indians without leave, or bargain, or price.

    Until the massacre of 1622 by the Indians, the colony with some few exceptions, bargained for, and purchased from the several Indian kings, such lands as they occupied up to that date. The purchase price was often in trifling articles, such as grindstones, blue beads, copper kettles, and hatchets.

    "Parahunt" near the falls of the James was the birthplace of Powhatan. This was purchased from him by Smith, and called " None Such:' The price was in part an English boy named Henry Spelman.

    There was another white boy given to Powhatan, though not in exchange for lands. This boy's name was Thomas Savage; he came to Virginia in the ship John & Francis, in 1608, when Newport took with him to England a young Indian, named Namontuck, who undertook to count the English by cutting a notch in his stick, when he entered London. Savage was given as a hostage for the return of the Indian. Thomas Savage eventually settled in Accomac County at a place called Savages Neck.

    In 1612, seventy acres of land were cleared near Farrars Island on James River, and laid off for corn. It was claimed that this tract of seventy acres could produce enough grain to supply the existing population of Virginia. This clearing was begun in September, 1611, with three hundred men.

    Lands were purchased by Yeardley and other governors from the Indians in exchange for corn, after the colony began to produce more than it needed for its own uses.

    In the treaty entered into by Sir George Yeardley and Opechanchanough, the English were granted permission to "reside and inhabit" at such places on the banks of certain rivers, which were not already occupied by the natives. After the massacre of 1622, the Indians were driven off such lands as the colony needed. They receded before the white man, further away from the rivers, into the dense forests.

    The London Company offered to those who would go to Virginia "That for the present they shall have meate, drinke and clothing, with an horse, orchard and garden for the meanest (smallest) family, and possession of lands to them and their posterity, 100 acres for every mans person that bath a trade, or a body able to endure day laboure, as much for his wife, as much for his child, that are of yeares to do service to the colony, with further particular reward according to their particular merits and industry."

    The above information was written to the Lord Mayor of London about 1609, as an advertisement of the scheme of colonization. Everyone who had adventured his own person, or had sent, or brought others over to Virginia, at his own expense, was entitled to one hundred acres of land, personal adventure for each.

    These grants were called "Great Shares," or "Shares of Old Adventure." This was subsequently reduced to fifty acres which, upon being "peopled or settled upon" and cultivated, would entitle the holder to another fifty acres. There were two other methods of acquiring lands in Virginia. The one was upon merit. When any person had conferred a benefit, or done a service to the Company or Colony, a certain number of acres was bestowed upon him, not to exceed twenty "Great Shares," or two thousand acres. The other was called "Adventure of the Purse." Every person who paid twelve pounds ten shillings into the Company's Treasury, was given a title to one hundred acres of land anywhere in Virginia, that had not been before granted to or possessed by others.

    Lands were granted by the Company for many purposes. In 1619, 3000 acres were laid off for support of the Governor, 12,000 acres for the Company, and 10,000 acres for the use of the University at Henrico. Each boy, and girl apprentice was entitled to land at maturity.

    The settlement of Virginia beyond the Blue Ridge, war made principally from the grants of land upon condition of occupying, improving and defending them. Up until the date Virginia ceded her title to lands to the United States, she possessed more than four fold as much territory as any other of the thirteen colonies.

    The first share of land granted from the Company according to the King's letters patent, which promised to divide the lands at the end of seven years, after 1609, was issued to Simon Codrington, on March 16, 1616, during the Quarter Court, Hilary Term.

    In 1613, Sir Thomas Dale allotted to each man three acres. This was to those persons who had been brought to Virginia at the Company's expense. This was really no good title to the land, as the colonist to whom it was given had to work eleven months for the store (warehouse), and had but two barrels of corn from thence.

    The settlement at Bermuda Hundreds (in 1613) enjoyed more favorable terms.

    "For one month's labor for the company, which must neither be in seed time nor harvest, they were exempted from all further service, and for this exemption they only paid 21 barrels of corn as a yearly tribute to the store."

    During the first two centuries succeeding the settlement at Jamestown, the navigable streams were necessarily the main highways of commerce and of intercourse between the several settlements, which at that period did not extend far inland. The settlements were extended along the coast line for hundreds of miles, and inland not more than one hundred miles from the sea shore, around the head waters of the streams. Beyond this was a wild wilderness of dense forest.

    The colony of Virginia at first confined its settlements to the banks of the James River, thence extending along the affluent streams of the Chesapeake Bay, and the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers.

    Surveys were required by laws as per act of the General Assembly, March 5, 1623-4, following:

    "13 Act. That every privatt planters devident shall be surveyed and laid out in several and the bounds recorded by the survey; yf there be any pettie differences betwixt neighbors about their devidents to be divided by the surveyor if of much importance to be referred to the governor and council. The surveyor to have 10 lbs of tobacco upon every hundred acres."

    "Act LXIII. Every man shall enclose his ground with sufficient fences-uppon his owne perill." Certain lands were allotted to Indians as per following:

    "Act LI March 1657-8. No grants of land to issue to any Englishman until the Indians be first served with the proportion of 50 acres of land for each bowman, and the proportion for each particular towne to lie together, with libertie of all waste and unfenced land for hunting for the Indians."

    According to the census of 1900, there were in that year three hundred and fifty-four Indians in Virginia, as follows 108 in Elizabeth City County, 24 in Hanover County, 152 in King William County, 1 in New Dent County, 52 in Norfolk County, 8 in Prince George County, 1 in Prince William County, 6 in Washington County, 1 in city of Bristol, and 1 in city of Richmond. Probably all together they do not now own enough of Virginia's soil to give each one much more than enough for a garden patch.

    The most extravagrant grant of Virginia's land was made by King Charles II, to Lords Arlington and Culpeper, two favorites of the King. The grant was dated February 25, in the year 16'Y3. It granted for the term of thirty-one years "the entire territory, tract and dominion commonly called Virginia, with the territory of Accomac, with all rivers, waters and royalties whatsoever; are granted, as aforesaid, and bounded on the north, with the dominion of Maryland, on the east, with the sea, on the south with Carolina, with all the islands within the said bounds, and within 10 leagues of the shore."

    This was the cause of great dissatisfaction in the colony. The General Assembly passed an act for its repeal and agents were sent to England for that purpose. Finally after failing to sell this right to Virginia's agents, Lord Arlington conveyed his right to Lord Culpeper, who was Governor and Captain General of Virginia from May 10, 1680, to September 10, 1683. Culpeper finally relinquished his right to the King in 1684, and Virginia was again under the protection and control of the Crown. This grant, together with that of the Northern Neck, heretofore mentioned, gave the early colonists an experience of monopolies and monopolists.

    III. FARMING

    Prior to the Civil War, the people of Tidewater Virginia got their living by tilling the soil, by fishing and oystering, and from the products of the forests.

    The larger farms were conducted on the "five field system," that is, one field in clover, two fields in wheat, and two in corn. The clover was for pasture and improvement of the soil. Except in localties contiguous to the cities, there was no attempt to produce garden vegetables for marketing.

    The main agricultural products of the counties remote from railroad facilities were corn, wheat, oats, and in some counties tobacco, together with the several vegetables, only for home uses.

    The first cultivated crop of the soil of Virginia offered to the old world was tobacco, the cultivation of which it is said was begun in 1612 by John Rolfe, who married Pocahontas. It soon became the staple crop to the exclusion of all others, so much so that laws were enacted limiting the number of plants to be cultivated by each hand, and the number of leaves to be gathered from each plant, the price at which it was to be sold, etc. To prevent a scarcity of corn, each master of a family was compelled to plant and sufficiently tend two acres a head, for each laboring person in his family, and as an encouragement to cultivate that article "every planter might sell it as dear as he could."

    In 1617, Capt. Argall returned to Virginia from England as Deputy Governor; he found "the market place and other spare places in Jamestown planted in tobacco." Tobacco was then selling in London at ten shillings a pound, equivalent to $2.50.

    Rev. Dr. Jas. Blair, the first president of William and Mary College, went to England in 1691 to secure funds to train young men for the ministry. He applied to Sir Edward Seymour, the treasury Commissioner, and in his argument for aid stated that "the people of Virginia had souls to save as well as the people of England." To this Seymour exclaimed: "Damn your souls! Grow tobacco!"

    The opinions of three centuries ago concerning tobacco are interesting. Harlot wrote of tobacco as follows:

    "There is an herbe called by the inhabitants" Uppowoc. "In the West Indies it bath divers names according to the sevrall places and countries where it groweth and is used. The Spaniards call it Tobacco. The leaves thereof being dried and brought into powder; they use to take the fume or smoke thereof by sucking it through pipes made of elate into their stomachs and heads; from thence it purgeth all the pores and passages of the body by which means thereof not only preserveth the body from obstruction; but also if any be, so that they have not been of too long continuance, in short time breaketh them; whereby their bodies are notably possessed in health, and know not many grevious diseases wherewithall wee in England are oftentimes afflicted."

    "We ourselves during the time we were there used to suck it after their manner, and also since our return, and have found many rare and wonderful experiments of the virtues thereof; of which the relation would require a volume of itself."

    King James I had a different opinion of tobacco. In his treatise entitled: "A Counterblast to Tobacco," he said: "That its fumes resembles the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless."

    Stith in his history states that: "Tobacco, a stinking, nauseous, and unpalatable weed, is certainly an odd commodity to make the staple and riches of a country. It is neither of necessity nor ornament to human life; but the use of it depends upon humor and custom and may be looked upon as one of the znosi singular and extraordinary pieces of luxury that the wantonness of man bath yet invented or given rote."

    There were two noted kinds, Oronoko-the stronger-and sweet scented-the milder. The latter was preferred by the ministers for the payment of their salaries.

    Until comparatively recent years, very few of the farmers made attempt to cultivate hay crops. The long food for cattle and horses was formed from the corn crop. Corn fodder, composed of the corn stalk blades, with the tops of the stalks, and the shucks from the ear of corn, together with wheat and oat straw, formed the main foods of the farm animals.

    When the ears of corn had passed their soft and milky stage, the leaves were stripped off the stalk, bound in bundles by a band of the same material, and hung upon the stalk to season, and afterwards were stacked. Later the tops of the stalks were cut off just above the hanging ears of corn, and bound together in bundles with the same material, and after a few days curing were stacked near the cuppen (cowpen), or barn yard, for winter's feeding. The fodder crop was seldom housed.

    When the ears of corn were shucked in the field, the shucks were left hanging to the stalk for the cattle to feed upon.

    Corn shucking was often made one of the festivals of enjoyment in which the negro was the main participant. In the fall, after the blades were pulled, the tops cut, and all was stacked, the corn in its shuck (husk) was pulled from the stalks, hauled to the barn yard, or "fodder pen," where it was "ricked up" in a high, long row. Notice was widely given by the servants of the appointed time set for "the shucking," which usually began after sundown, and was continued until late in the night.

    Such occasions were largely attended, and as they usually came in squads of two or three to a dozen, across the fields, around the sandy roads, or through the paths in the dark, quiet, piney woods, the night was made joyous by their singing. During the days of slavery, and for several years thereafter, the negroes sang at their several tasks, or even when tramping through the woods, or in the roads.

    The shucking feast was started by some one with a strong, musical voice who, when mounting the corn pile, reached down for an ear of corn, and tossed it up in the air, and started the song, as he walked from end to end of the pile. He was joined in the chorous by the crowd, and followed in rhythmic motions of their bodies in unison with his tune, and when the singing was inspiring and they "got hot," some daring shucker mounted the pile of corn also, and challenged the leader to a wrestle by starting some new song:

    Dis co'n it are good,
    An' dat yo' dem ail know,
    It's on dis yere plantation
    Dis good co'n did grow.
    Shuck co'n,
    O, shuck co'n.

    Yo' dem has money
    An' I'll soon hav' some,
    Cum len' me a dollah
    An' let me go home.
    Shuck co'n,
    O, shuck co'n."

    During their labors, they were served with something to drink by passing the bottle, jug, or decanter, and glass from hand to hand until all who desired the beverage were served. Few of them refused a "dram," but seldom indulged to excess.

    It would daze an advocate of temperance to witness the look of satisfaction and contentment, which was indicated upon the faces, and the upturned eyes of the shuckers as they turned the last drop of a well filled goblet into their wideopen mouths, and grunted a satisfied a-a-h, and smacked their lips to get the last remaining flavor of "fire water" within safe precincts.

    An abundant supper ended the feast, and after the assembly cut a few "hoe downs," in which the aged as well as the youths could "do their stunts," keeping time to lively patted or hummed tunes, they dispersed as they came, laughing and singing as they returned through the woods, the fields, and the roads.

    The negro slave was neither a drunkard, nor a rowdy. Those inclined to either of these vices were kept in restraint by their owners.

    The old-fashioned farming in Tidewater Virginia was not conducted with a view to improving the sail. Peruvian guano was extensively used as a fertilizer for the present crops, and was of little or no advantage to the future improvement of the soils. Much of the lands were not plowed deeper than three or four inches, so as to keep the offal and the fertilizer as near the top as possible.

    Few of the farmers (allowed their lands for corn. They usually "lapped" two furrows, and when planting, they split the ground between them, and covered the corn with the foot. Side hills were "circled" and lapped to prevent washing by the rains. In circling hillsides, their several turns and windings were followed with a view to so arrange the furrows as to distribute the rainfalls as evenly as possible throughout the whole hillsides. Experienced hands were required for this work.

    In the very early years of Virginia the grain crops, such as wheat and oats, were cut with a sickle, a curved knife, twelve or fifteen inches long, with serrated edges, and a wooden handle. It was used in one hand, while the other hand and arm, by a backward motion, gathered and grasped the grain into a bunch to be cut.

    This was succeeded by the cradle, a thin steel blade slightly curved, between three and four feet in length. At the butt end-right hand-was a socket for the mead-along handleto which was attached two "nubs," one for each hand to grasp while rising the cradle. Fastened to the blade, and to the snead, were five or six fingers of wood above the blade, and running parallel with it, to aid in holding up the cut grain while the reaper carried his cradle across the swath and dropped the contents in a row.

    A ripe harvest field with numerous cradlers was a pretty sight, and an inspiring evidence of prosperity. Its golden headed grain waved with slightest breeze like a sea subsiding after a storm. The stalwart harvesters followed each other with their cradles tightly grippled, and in rhythmic motion grappled the standing grain, and with a musical "swish" of the blade cropped the stalks from their hold upon mother earth, and laid them low for the "binders," who followed closely behind with rake in hand to gather the grain against their upturned shins, and hastily grasp from it a wisp to form the band and make a sheaf.

    During the harvest, the farmer's kitchen was a scene o` busy bustle while meals were being prepared for the hearty harvesters. The odors from a Tidewater Virginia kitchen during those days savored of juicy country ham, fresh lamb, and the inevitable fried chicken. Added to these were ever kind of vegetables, together with a bountiful supply of green apple and huckleberry pies, and abundance of sweet milk, buttermilk, and "bonnie clabber."

    A much sought for dish upon such occasions was "pot liquor," a product of the tines of great abundance. "Laws a mossy, Chile, whar has yo' bin all dis time widout knowin' w'at pot liquor is," said an old negro mammy- to an inquisitive ono who was a stranger to the customs of old time Virginia harvests.

    "Ef yo' war to drink a gourd fall uv of Missus pot liquor yo' jes' hanker fo' me'. Dat yo' would!"

    "Pot liquor" was not of as humble origin as its name implies. During occasions whisk demanded "big dinners," a whole ham, or possibly two, were placed in a big pot of water and suspended from the chimney crane over the fire. When the meat was partly cooked, cabbages were added, and later peeled potatoes were placed in the pot, and when these vegetables were partly cooled, corn meal dumplings were added, and after all mere sufficiently cooked 'Loge they were taken out and a handful of corn meal was sprinkled over the pot liquor and allowed to cook a few minutes. The pot liquor was thus seasoned with juicy, fat ham, scraps of the cabbages, potatoes, and corn meal dumplings', army thickened with corn meal. It needed no other seasoning, and was superior in flavor, and strength of nourish m cut to the many soups of ti=e present day cooking.

    These scenes of thrift and abundance have passed from view, and are now succeeded by rattling harvesting machines, which know no pleasure other than the grinding noises which wear them away, and add to the harvest field old the chilling aspect of a machine shop, where before was laughter and joy, mingled with praise for him who "cut the widest swath."

    Before the introduction of threshing machines, the crops of wheat and oats were threshed with flails, or trod out by cattle or horses.

    The threshing by flail was done upon the barn floor, or upon a piece of hard, cleared ground. For purpose of treading the grain out by horses, or cattle, a hard, level spot of ground was fenced in, and after the grain was set up on the butt ends, the cattle or horses were driven around the enclosure at as rapid gait as possible; horses were sometimes ridden several abreast around the enclosure. This was a tedious and expensive method. The treading usually ended with a frolic for the neighbors who brought. their horses to assist, and between them and their teams they ate nearly the full value of their labors.

    There was objection to threshing machines upon their first introduction, as it was believed they broke the wheat grains, and that there was danger of the machine flying to pieces. There was a nervous old gentleman well known in the Northern Neck, who was a good and extensive farmer, but strongly opposed to new methods, and especially to the introduction of farming machinery. He was finally prevailed upon to permit his wheat being threshed by a threshing machine, which was propelled by horses attached to arms of the machine, and moving in a circle. He critically eyed the machine, and its fixtures as they were being put together, and repeatedly cautioned his negro servants to "stand clear," and to keep their eyes and ears open, and not get entangled in the machine.

    When the threshing began, the noise of the iron cog-wheels, the rapid scattering of the straw as it was thrown out by the machine, and the shouts of the drivers to the horses, created a greater confusing din of sounds than the old gentleman could endure. `Pith wild gesticulations of his hands and his walking cane, he ordered his servants away from the machine, and disdaining the haste with which his crop was being disposed of, he shouted to the operator to stop, and take the machine out of his sight and hearing. "It took me twelve months to raise this crop of wheat," said he, "and I'll be damned if I'll let you or any other man thresh it out in three hours with an infernal yankee machine which is liable to fly to pieces at any moment and kill some of my best niggers."

    The owners of numerous servants were also the owners of the best agricultural lands which usually were found near the rivers. The poorer classes were thus forced into the central parts of the respective peninsulas, where they cultivated "patches" rather than extensive fields. These patches of ground were the clearings made in the forests after the saw mill timber, and cord wood were taken therefrom.

    IV. THE FORESTS

    In many of the peninsulas, the lands gradually rise as they advance from the river bottom sections until the central portions of the peninsula are reached. These elevated sections are generally composed of lighter soils than the river bottom lands. Much of these higher lands are "turned out" to the growing of timber for railroad ties, cord wood, and saw mill material. Such localties are usually designated as "the forest.' Certain neighborhoods in the respective forests are humorously nick-named, such as "Quintin Oak" in Northumberland and Richmond counties, "Red Shin" in Westmoreland, "The Barrens" in King George, "Chinquapin" in Essex, "Sandy Lane" in Caroline, "Rabbit Branch" in Fairfax. The southern end of Gloucester is called "Guinea."

    In some of the forest sections, there is more or less local dialect spoken. A "Down East" captain who was loading his vessel with ship timber in one of the interior streams of tidewater, went into one of the forest cross roads stores and asked, in the nasal tones peculiar to his section, for a bushel of "onyions."

    The store keeper after trying to repeat the request of the Yankee captain, shook his head, and replied that he was sorry he could not accommodate him. After the departure of the captain, a native of that section who was present when the request for onions was made and who, in former days had made several trips to Cape Cod with sweet potatoes, told the store keeper: "The gentleman wanted 'ingyions,' I reckon."

    "Ingyions, you say !" replied the merchant. "Ovah yonda in my con crib I've right smaht moan fohty bushel. Call the man back an' teach him how to talk!"

    Notwithstanding these occasional "local breaks of forest dialect," there is probably no place in the 'United States where the English language is spoken with mare purity, and even amongst those whose claims is the higher education are limited.

    The steamboat facilities prior to the Civil War were very meagre throughout some portions of Tidewater Virginia, in comparison with the present day, and because of the tedious journeys by sail vessels, or overland journeys on horseback to the surrounding cities, there were some persons resident there who seldom or ever visited a city, and therefore knew not by experience the utilities of city life, such as the use of gas for lighting purposes. Such people are now known as "gas blowers,`9 ' a class now a'-most extinct.

    "Old man B_____dine" as he was most familiarly known, where he resided, in "Chinquapin precinct," was one of those. For the first time in his long life, he was "obliged" to go to Richmond City, distant sixty odd miles from his home.

    He nervously prepared for his new journey by giving his old horse an extra heavy feed the night previous to his start, and the next morning had his "nigger chap" give the nag an extra rubbing down with corn cobs and a wisp of straw, to "slick the animal's cost.." To keep alive his master's spirit the negro filled to overflowing a black bottle with freshly distilled apple brandy, a product of Mr. B's apple orchard, and securely fastened to his master's saddle eight bundles of bright fodder, within which were stored six ears of corn, for the animal's noonday lunch, and the good wife packed up for him a "big snack" composed of chicken legs, ham, and pigs' feet, surrounded by two goodly chunks of Johnny Cake.

    Thus well equipped, he made his start scanning each cross roads sign board carefully before entering into a new roan, and to ward off the lonesomeness of the journey, he ofttimes drew the cods of his bottle. After scanning the heavens repeatedly, he at last concluded it must be noontime, and turning into a clearing by the roadside, he dismounted, fed his horse, and began his snack, not more than half of which he had appetite for. After prudently pocketing the unfinished "snack," he bridled his horse and resumed his journey. About night fall he reached the city, tired but much buoyed up by the contents of his black bottle, all of which he had now imbibed. Upon inquiry he was directed to one of the best hotels in the city, which upon reaching he boldly rode across the sidewalk to its door, and called in his loudest tones to "send out a nigger to take my horse, give him twelve bundles of fodder and twelve ears of earn, far the critter's had a long journey." He was politely informed that there was no stable attached to the hotel. "Tell," said he, "They can beat yon in Tappahannock. There's two taverns there, and each of 'em keeps a shed for nothing else but horses." It was agreed to send his horse to a livery stable, and as he was already full of "snack" and apple brandy, he declined supper, and was shown to his room by a young negro servant, who before leaving, lighted the 'gas in the room. The old man was so fatigued by his journey that he at once lay dawn upon the bed for a nap before undressing, and as the gas light showed down in his eyes he endeavored to blow it oat from his posture in the bed, but failing to do so, he landed his old felt hat squarely upon the jet and out went the bright flame, but the gas nevertheless escaped into his room and through the transom to the corridor of the house where its odors were detected by the night watchman of the hotel while going his rounds throughout the corridors. Upon his locating the room from which the gas issued, the watchman loudly rapped for admittance. The old man nearly dazed by the escaping fumes, at last opened his door, and was informed that the gas was escaping in his room

    "Don't you smell it," said the watchman. "Yes, I've been, smelling something rotten for some time," said he. "I believe its dead rats in the house. If you'd keep a cat or two here you wouldn't have such a smell." Upon being told of his mistake, and being shown how to close the gas jet, the old fellow impatiently exclaimed,, "Durn your gas lamp to the devil; take it out and send me a tallow candle such as I am used to."

    It was in the forest sections that the "old fields" were most commonly found. An old field was a piece of land containing an indefinite number of acres which had been overworked and become too poor to longer till with profit. On such poor lands, one might see during the "fodder pulling" season, "a six foot man pulling fodder from a three foot corn stalk."

    The first vegetation of the old field after being "turned out," was "broom sedge," which when in full growth mach resembles timothy grass. It is said that broom sedge was first brought to America in the hay for the British army during the Revolution. In the early spring, its dried growth which stood upon the ground was burned off to enable the new growth to appear for pasture. When first it appeared, after the burning, it was grazed by the cattle, though there is little nourishment in it. As soon as it attains a height of yr or eight inches, it becomes so hard, fibry and tough that steel: refuse to graze it.

    In olden time, it was the delight of every good housekeeper in Tidewater Virginia to keep a clean fire hearth, and for this purpose "hearth brooms" were made of wisps of broom sedge tightly bound with yarn string.

    In due time "scrub pines" appear on the old fields and as the fertility of the soil is increased by the forest offal, the scrub pines give way to more valuable timber growth, and then "the old field is lost in the woods" until the ringing echo of the woodman's age is heard felling some mighty giant of the forest as in the days of yore.

    V. SCHOOLS

    It was in the forest section that the "old field schools" thrived. Before the Civil War, the educational facilities of Virginia were maintained at private expense. In the several counties there were private schools, many of which were called "academies." dome of the prosperous families remote from these academies hired governesses. Those living in the "forest" who could not afford the expense of academy schools, or the hire of a governess, clubbed together in the several neighborhoods, built "log cabins for schools in old fields," hired teachers, with the agreement that they should "board round" with the several families whose children they taught the three Rs------"readin'" --"ritin'"--" rithmetic:'

    In order that the burden of caring for the new teacher might be evenly distributed, it was the custom to have a meeting of the pupils' parents at the school house, and there discuss the subject of baring the expense. Those who could knot spare the money ,here allowed the opportunity of contributing their allotted share of the expense by way of providing lodging, and laundering for the teacher. At one of these meetings there were three old widows whose children needed schooling, but whose finances were at such a low ebb they were not able to pay their proportion in cash, but expressed their anxiety to have a teacher and share the burden as far as they were able.

    When the question of providing the cash for salary was settled, the spokesman asked one of the widows what she could do for the teacher, to which she replied:

    "I kin eat him a while if he's as easy as the last one."

    "Well," said the next widow, "If sister Johnson is gwine to eat him, I'll agree to sleep him, 'out I can't wash him."

    "Fell," said the third widow, "I'll do the best I kin to wash him, but I'll tell you now, I ain't much on biled shirts."

    The log cabin schools were furnished with pine benches, formed of heavy beards or slabs without backs, and were supported from the floor by two legs or pine or oak saplings, inserted at either ends, through lush and a half, or two inch augur holes.

    On the sunny side of the cabin, one of the logs was cut out for about two thirds of the length of the cabin, from about midway of the height between the eaves and the dirt floor, ,and the opening thus made was covered with a board hung upon leather hinges, so that it could be lowered to give protection against the storms, or raised to give light to the "writing scholars." This board was called the "flap board." The writing desk consisted of a board fastened along upon pegs immediately under the opening for the flap board, and there the writing scholars sat upon three legged stools. Quill pens, and unruled paper were in common use. The old time teacher was a tyrant to his scholars, and believed in tannin, the hides of the unruly ones with hickory switches.

    Dunce caps, and "dance stools" were frequent instruments of torture to the dull scholars. A "dunce cap" made of paper formed in the shape of a soap, and upon which the word "dunce" was written. This was placed upon the head of the stupid, or negligent scholar, who failed to repeat the lesson. The "dunce stool" was small, and three legged. It was sometimes called the "creepy stool," because the scholars usually "crept," or were slow to mount it.

    This sort of schooling, together with the "College of the Stump" made Virginia famous for its orators.

    A "stump speaker" was one who could get upon a stump of a tree at a "new ground clearing," and give his hearers a "good talk."

    The first public free school system of Virginia was provided for under the constitution of the State which eras ratified July 6, 1869. The legislature of 1870-71 made provisions for putting these schools into operation.

    Notwithstanding the neglect of the Mate of Virginia to earlier maintain public schools, free to all, Tidewater Virginia has nevertheless the credit of establishing the first free school.

    There was an order of the London Company dated November 18, 1618, for the planting of a university at Henrico, on James River. In that same year Rev. Patrick Copland, chaplain of the ship Royal James, while the ship was at Cape of Good Hope, raised from the gentlemen and mariners on this ship seventy pounds, eight shillings, and six pence towards building a free school in Virginia. Other subscriptions were made to this fund, in all about equal to $4,800.

    A carpenter, Leonard Hudson, and five apprentices were sent from England to build the school in 1671. It wag located. in Charles City County at a place row known as City Point, in Prince George County. There were donations of laud for its support.

    In 1634, Ben Sym devised two hundred acres of land on Pocosin River, in York County, "with the milk and increase of eight milch cows, for the maintenance of a learned honest man, to keep upon the land a" free school for the education arid instruction of the children of the adjoining parishes of Elizabeth City and. Kicoutan (now Hampton), from St. Mary Mount downward to the Pocosin River." In 1675, Henry Peaseley established a free school in Gloucester County.

    In 1691, Sir Francis Nicholson established a free school at Yorktown.

    In 1693, the William and Mary College was erected in Williamsburg. This was the beginning of the schools for the higher education in Virginia.

    Before the present free school system was adapted, the State provided a fund for the education of the indigent children. Arrangement was made in each county, usually with the teachers of the private schools therein, for this tuition, so that in nearly every instance, the "pay scholars," and the "poor scholars" were taught together, under the same roof, and by the same teacher, and "licked with the same switch."

    The Virginian from the earliest days of settlement, after the first five years of "joint stock" arrangement, was so forced to depend upon his own resources for every item of convenience, comfort, enlightenment, or amusement, which he had a necessity, or desire for, that he looked upon the plan for the education of his children to be paid for out. of a public fund, as degrading dependence. His willingness to provide a fund for others to be educated upon that plan was evidenced by the fact that such a fund was taxed for and provided from the revenues of the State, but he who was able to provide otherwise wanted none of this. In fact, the position of the well to do Virginian was such that he had everything else under his own individual central, from the raising of his food, and materials for his clothing, to that of his own grist mill to grind his wheat and his corn, and the tan yard for his leather, even to the loom that wove his garments. All he condescended to ask for outside of these conveniences were a few scraps of iron to fashion the tools for his servants. He owned the lands, and the farmer who worked them, also the tanner, the shoemaker, the weaver, the blacksmith, the mason, the carpenter, the painter, the wood chopper, the sawyer, the fisherman, the oysterman, the hunter, and a few more servants whose sole duty was to "kepp de flies off Massa while he dozed, an' fin' Missus specks fo' huh," as evidenced by the following colloquy, which took place when two young negroes sought service away from their former master and mistress immediately after the Civil War. The lady to whom they applied for work asked: "Can you cook?"

    "No'm, we ain't nevah been cook none; Polly cooked:"

    "Can you wash?" said the lady.

    "No'm we aint bon wash none neither, Aunt Sally she wash!"

    "Can you clean house then?" was asked.

    "No'm, bast we nevah been cleanin' none:'

    The lady asked question after question with like negative results is ; finally she asked

    "What have you been accustomed to do ?"

    "Sukey, heah, she keep flies off Marster, an' I hunt fo' of Missies specks"

    Under such conditions, the Tidewater Virginian did not care whether school kept or not. He was a veritable Robinson Crusoe in so far that he was "monarch of all he surveyed."

    VI. TIDEWATER FISHERIES

    Nearly all the waters of Virginia, salt and fresh, are more or less inhabited by fish, but the great "schools" of fish, which sometimes are found assembled together in millions, are found in salt waters, or if found in fresh waters are there only to deposit their eggs. If not. interrupted, many of them find their way to the very falls of a stream, where the rough and difficult ascent forbids their further journey. They were so plentiful in the days when Capt. John Smith made his voyage of discovery up the Potomac to "the falls," that his crew dipped them from the river in frying pans.

    Since the Civil War, the fishes of the sea have had to contend also with new industrial methods as did the oyster and so scarce have they become in the vicinity in which Smith's crew so readily dipped them up with frying pans that one who now should depend upon such method of obtaining a, supply of fish would starve to death in the attempt.

    There are now hundreds of men mounted upon the masts of steam and sail vessels, sailing along the Atlantic Coast, and within the Chesapeake Bay, all of whom have sharp focused spy glasses to their eyes, on the "look out" for the finny visitors, which float in such compact "schools" that the weight of a single "school" would burst through a seine such as would tag the efforts of a strong man to break a single strand of. Such "schools" are not allowed to play the truant, and gambol very far when once they are sighted. They seldom have the chance to reach the falls of any river before they are captured.

    To prevent entire extermination of this fond commodity the United States maintains places where fishes of several varieties are artificially hatched and delivered into the waters for their supply.

    If the fishes of the sea, which require fresh waters wherein to deposit their spawn, are deprved of this privilege their race must become extinct. Wisdom upon the part of man should permit of this privilege to such an extent as to prevent this calamity.

    Before the Civil War there were large "shore fisheries" upon the great rivers to supply the markets Of cities with edible fish. Shad and herring in the season were abundant in all the waters, as there were then few fishermen in comparison with the present day, and fewer steamers traveling those waters to frighten the fish. With the exception of a seine full now and then, seldom were the fish used as fertilizer upon the lands, and those so used were cast upon the land in their raw state, and plowed under

    A "drag seine" was commonly in use for herring and shad. The seine was spread out to cover as much space as possible and then dragged ashore. Some of the larger shore fisheries employed horse power to "wind" the seine ashore. The Chesapeake Bay begins at the Capes,-Charles and Henry-with a mouth twelve miles wide, through which the great Atlantic Ocean forces its clear waters, without noise or struggle, daring each flood tide. This usually quiet, calm entrance is inciting to the fishes of the sea, and they pour through it like school children on a picnic ground, whole "schools" at a time. Here in all directions, when once inside, they find inviting streams in quiet nooks, to shed their spawn, to gambol, feed, and nibble at a hoof, or share the fate of their kind, by being "gills" or led into a "pound," or surrounded by a "seine" on some unsuspecting fishing shore, or "pursed" in a net by some roving fishing boat's crew. The many methods of capturing fish are too numerous to mention here, but the most extensive ways of fishing are by means of stationary nets, floating seines, and purse nets. Stationary nets are filed by driving poles in the bottom of a stream, usually in the form of a square pen, sown as a "pound," to which a net is placed all around and on the bottom, and fastened by means of rings attached to the poles. An open, wide, converging mouth of net leads into the center of the pen to a "false pound," and thence into the "main pound," where it narrows to a confusing point for the fish, when once they get inside it. There are "wings" attached to each end of the pound. The win s are formed by driving pales in the bottom of the stream, in a long, straight row from the line of the pound, and covered with netting, to obstruct the passage of the fish, and lead them along to the mouth of the pound as they endeavor to find a passage-way up the stream. The nets are usually fished each day, by men who attend in small boats, or canoes, and haul up the nets from the bottom, so that the fish are within reach of the fisherman's scoop-net, and thus they are "scooped in," regardless of their struggles to free themselves from the wily fishermen.

    There are also floating nets, known as "gill nets," which are set in a stream and kept afloat by corks. The fish in their migrations through the waters, "strike" these nets, and when once they run their heads through the "meshes" of the net, and extend their gills, they become fastened by the twine of the mesh passing under, or behind the gill.

    The greater fisheries are carried on by "seine fishing" on shores, and by "purse net fishing" from vessels. A "fishing shore" is usually selected because of some natural advantage, either from the nature of the river bottom or of some configuration of the shore limits which would induce the fish to "school" at that point. The seine is carried out in boats and spread as far as possible and then gradually hauled in to the shore, the fishermen wading out to aid in "holding it down" until the ends are brought to land, where the whole seine is emptied on the shore. This fishing is usually during the spawning season, for shad and herring. In fact the best fishing season for all species of fish is during the spawning.

    "Purse net" fishing is conducted on a more extensive and costly plan than "shore fishing," and in connection with a, factory on the land, to boil the fish, and extract the oil therefrom, and to prepare the "scrap" -the bodies of the fish, for fertilizer for agricultural purposes. In some instances, the cooking of the fish is done on steamers which follow the vessels. This industry is particularly a source of great wealth to those engaged in it. The fish caught for this purpose are known as "ale wives," a species not commonly used as human food, though related to bath herring and shad, an d resembling the latter in form and color. It is said they arc mainly the prey for other fishes. "Big fish eat little fish, and little fish eat lesser ones." The ale wives-sometimes called menhaden-are very prolific, shedding between sixty thousand to one hundred thousand eggs during a season.

    Ale wive fishing is one of the industries introduced into Tidewater Virginia since the Civil War. There are about fourteen steamers in one small river alone-Great Wicomico-Northumberland County-engaged in this industry. The average tonnage of the vessels engaged is about one hundred tons each. The purse nets are from one hundred and eighty to two hundred fathoms-1080 feet to 1200 feet-in length. The "purse nets" are used to surround the "schools" of fish. This is done by dividing the net equally between two row boats (purse boats) which are carried for that purpose, and when the fish are sighted by the "lookout," who is stationed aloft with a spy-glass, each boat is then manned with its crew, who row the boats parallel to each other until within "striking" distance of the "school," then they separate and row in a circle to meet each other and surround the fish, each boat "paying out" their part of the net as they advance until they complete the circle, after which the ends of the net are fastened together, and a "Tom" -a ball of weighty lead-is thrown overboard to form a fulcrum with which to "purse" the net at its bottom. This is done by means of a line attached to a ring in the "Tom," and by aid of other ropes passed through rings attached to the net on bottom and sides. Through this means, the bottom of the net, as well as the ends, are brought closely together "pursed" -to form a solid bag, enclosing the fish.

    An important helper in this fishing, is the man known as the "striker" or "driver." When a school of fish is sighted, the "striker" goes off in his own life boat, and by rowing around the "school," he keeps them huddled until the "net men" can encircle them. During heavy seas, when the net boats are tossed up and down upon the waves, and lose sight of the "schools," the "striker" holds aloft his oar as a guide to direct them towards the fish.

    It is said that the oil from the "ale wive" has a market value as whale oil, olive oil, nests foot oil, and cod liver oil, and is found enclosed in diminutive bottles, with suggestive labels, which proclaim its "sure cure" for many ills which annoy mankind.

    The average catch at one haul is said to be between 300,000 and 400,000 fish. The average catch for one steamer in a season's fishing is from eight million to ten million, and the best about fifteen million fish. The fish y field an average of five or site gallons of oil to the thousand. The best average is from twelve to fourteen gallons to the thousand fish. It takes an average of shout 1300 fish to make a ton of " dry scrap fertilizer. This is the fisherman's loch in Tidewater Virginia. The ale wive fishery is conducted nn the shores of the Atlantic Ocean as well as in the inland waters of Virginia.

    The methods of fishing by the Indians differed but little from those of the whites of the present day.

    Capt. John Smith relates: " Their fishing is much in Boats. These they make of one tree by burning and scratching away the coales with stones and shels, till they have made it on the form of a Trough. Some of them are an clue (ell) deep, and fortie or fiftie foote in length, and some will bears 40 men, but the west ordinary are smaller, and will bear 19, 20, or 30, according to their bignesse. Instead of Oares they use Paddles and stickes, with which they will row faster than our Barges.

    "Betwixt their hands and thighes, their women use to spin, the barkes of trees, Deere sinewes, or a kinde of grasse tic": call Pemmenaw, of these they make a thread very even and readily. This thread serveth for many uses. As about their housing, apparell, as also they make nets for fishing. They' make also with it lines for angles. Their hookes are ether bone grated as they nosh their arrowes in the forme of crooked prone or fish hooke, or of the splinter of a bone tyed to the clift of a little sticke, and with tire end of the line the tie on the bate. They use also long arrowes tyed to a line, wherewith they shoote at fish in the rivers. But they of Accawmake use staves like unto javelins headed with bone."

    VII. OYSTERS

    Ousters form a staple product of the salt waters of Tidewater Virginia. They will not live in continuously fresh waters, and in extremely, salt waters, they are usually poor.

    In many of the extremely salt water streams upon the Eastern Shore peninsula of Virginia, the oystermen provide "bogies" or bins, upon the shores for "drinking" the oysters before shipment to market. For this purpose, the oysters are placed in these boxes and fresh waters from wells or cisterns are mingled with the salt waters therein. By this treatment, the oysters soon become plump and solid as they would if grown in medium salt waters, where they attain their greatest perfection.

    The oyster hearing territory of Virginia, and lower Maryland, including lower Chesapeake Rae, is the best in the United Mates for growing finely flavored, healthy oysters, free from contamination of sewerage, and within reach of enough pure, fresh waters to create good growth. From Alexandria, Virginia, down the full length of the Potomac River, to its mouth at Smith's point, and thence continued down the broad Chesapeake Bay to Norfolk, Virginia, a total distance of about two hundred miles, there is not a single city or town within the whole length. of territory, and therefore no sewerage to contaminate these pure, clean waters.

    Oysters are very prolific and it is estimated by authority that a good sized oyster will produce several. millions of spawn-eggs during the season. A very large percentage of spawn fails to mature because of absence of proper fertilisation, or dies before it "catches" in a suitable place. If the locality in which the shaven settles is suitable, then in about four or five years' growth from the time of "catch" they will mature to oysters fit for market.

    Shifting, sandy bottoms, or very soft, oozy bottoms, are net suited to the "catch" of spawn, or the growth of the oyster. Spawn requires a clean, hard, stationary substance to adhere to. To aid in "catching spawn," fresh oyster shells are scattered over the oyster grounds during the spawning season, which usually begins in this section about the first, to the middle of April, and ends about September. Spawn cannon catch upon shells or other substances which have become coated with slime. As many as five to ten spawn may settle upon, and mature upon one empty shell.

    There are about 1,488,000 acres of water surface in the State of Virginia, or within its control, including that part of Chesapeake Bay from Cape Charles and Henry to Smith's Point, at the mouth of Potomac River, and thence across said bay to Pocomoke River, the boundary of Accomac County on the water's side.

    The far greater part of Virginia's water surface is situate:: in the tidewater section, and the larger part of these tidewaters were oyster bearing territory when Virginia was z=1r, settled. The rapid depleting of these immense oyster beds .did not begin until after the Civil War, when the canning u oysters was first introduced. Prior to that period neatly <'y the streams in that section through which the salt waters ebbed and flowed, were most bountifully supplied with this article of food, and in the lowermost peninsulas clams were also abundant. The waters then were open to the public, excepting coves within the survey of private lands.

    Since the Civil War, the State maintains a supervision over the oyster territory by means of a "Board of Survey," and by "Inspectors," who issue licenses upon payment of certain fees for "catching" by tongs, dredges or otherwise; they also allot bottoms to private individuals, upon certain conditions, to plant upon, for which an annual rental per acre is exacted by the State.

    Other portions of the oyster bearing bottoms, known as "Natural Oyster Rock" are open to the public under certain restrictions of law to catch oysters from, but not for planting purposes.

    A natural oyster rock is seldom a rock. It is but a term applied to places where oysters are found in abundance, or ii. clusters which were produced from the spawn settling thereon, and growing naturally, without being transplanted. No part of the Potomac River is subject to individual allotment by either of the two States, Virginia and Maryland. Though Maryland claims the waters of this river to low water mark upon the Virginia shores, nevertheless they are open to the inhabitants of both States for oystering only, and not for individual planting bottoms, subject also to certain conditions made by each State separately for their respective inhabitants.

    Dredging, and tonging are carried on in these waters during certain specified months of the year. Wherever a bed of oysters is found, the dredge boats flock to, and usually scrape its bottom free of all marketable stock before quitting its territory. It is asserted by some authorities that dredging the oyster bottoms has a beneficial effect through scattering them over a wider area, and by others it is asserted that the destruction of young oysters by the dredge is very great.

    As the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay are the main spawning grounds for all their tributaries within both States, Maryland and Virginia, the importance of keeping these waters well stocked with adult oysters should claim the attention of the planters who are engaged in this industry. It would add to the increase of the oysters, if, by agreement by both States, certain defined, limited territory of the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay were closed to dredging during alternate years.

    The increased shipments of this product from Virginia during recent years have largely diminished the supply.

    Before the recent enactment of laws prescribing the size of oysters to be taken from the waters, they were shipped without "culling," both for planting purposes in other States, and. for consumption in the cities. They were culled only after reaching the cities, and those too small for human consumption were dumped upon the shell piles to die, and became waste instead of being returned to their natural beds.

    There has been a woful waste in all of nature's products in America since its first settlement, and Virginia has given its share to form this waste. The wild fowl were so plentiful in that section in comparatively recent years, that they were readily captured by hundreds at a time in single pens, stir rounded by nets, to which they were decoyed by strewing corn over the bottoms of the waters leading thereto, or were killed by dozens at a single shot, with big bow guns while in flocks upon the feeding grounds. This great abundance was then disposed of with little profit to the oysterman or hunter.

    The oyster feeds during flood tide only. This is demonstrated by catching oysters upon the teeth of the oyster tongs while their shells are open during flood tide, and not during tide, except when the oyster is weak and not able to close its shell.

    It is asserted that they throw off their spawn at the conmencement of the flood tide. This inflow of the tide force:. the spawn up stream from. the spawning bed. If this assertion be correct, it would be useful for planters to place their breeding oysters at the months of the streams so as to n::: the incoming tide, which would in the event carry and tribute the spawn throughout their entire waters.

    There are enemies of the oyster besides man, the most destructive of which is the "Starfish," which an authority as being able to surround the young oyster and gradually breaking its tender shell at the mouth, to insert its stomach and absorb the oyster.

    There is a difference of oyster. upon this subject. An old oysterman tells how the starfish kills the oyster:

    "Crawlin' 'round the bottom of the river the star accidentally gets afoul of a bed of oysters. Ile don't know at first mebbe what they are. Pokin' 'round 'mongst 'em he accidentally, as it were, gets the end of one of his arms into an open shell an' the oyster, of course, shets down on him like a thousan' o' bricks. Now sir, the star can't get away even if he's sorry that he got in a hole, but the oyster can't live but a little while with its shell open, an' after a few hours he's dead. Then lie lets up an' the star ;who's bin waitin' all this time for his lunch makes a meal offen him right there, takes him on the half shell in his own gravy as it were."

    The bottoms of Virginia waters are not conducive to the growth of the starfish, and it is therefore not a great pest there. Oysters are "caught" from the waters by dredges, scrapers, tongs, and nippers. Sail boats use dredges, or scrapers. -Men in small boats, such as canoes, or skiffs use tongs, or nippers. Dredges and scrapers are permitted only in the Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River. Tongs are used where oysters are comparatively plentiful, and nippers only where they lie singly and far apart from each other. The tongs have a capacity of a peck or more. But one oyster can be taken at a time with nippers. Nippered oysters are generally of a superior grade, large and fat, and can be caught only in clear, calm, and shallow waters where the oysterman can see the bottom as lie shoves his boat along the waters in search.

    There are many classes of boats engaged in the oyster industry in Virginia, amongst which are schooners, sloops, pungeys, bugeyes, skipjacks, flattys, brogans, and canoes. The first two named vessels are common to all the navigable streams of this country. The last six are generally local to the oyster and fishing sections. They are distinguished by the shape and construction of their hulls, or the cut of their sails. The schooner and sloop have "waists," the last six named have "logs," or " washboards." The bugeye is a flat bottom, center-board schooner of three to fifteen tons, built of heavy timber without a frame, but decked over without a waist. The "waist" consists of a boarded railing extending over the outward edge of the deck. A "log" is a square beam of wood but a few inches in height and width, and like the waist extends around the whole deck. A "washboard" forms a deck but a few inches wide around the upper edges of the boat. It is supported to the sides by suitable small knees underneath.

    Surely if Uncle Sam has urgent need for good sailors, he should send his naval recruiting officers to Tidewater Virginia. A large number of the people inhabiting the tidewater counties, from earliest youth to old age, have had experience with boats of all sizes and shapes, from the "dugout" to the "coasting schooner" while engaged in oystering, fishing, or freighting. Dredging oysters in a fleet of sail boats on a "natural oyster rock" is a good school for teaching one how to maneuver a vessel in a close place.

    VIII. FOOD PRODUCTS OF TIDEWATER VIRGINIA

    No section of the United States of similar extent produces a greater variety of food for human consumption than can be found in Tidewater Virginia. Excepting the citric fruits, all the several classes of fruits, and vegetables which are grow n in any other part of north America, can be, and are grown in some part or other of this territory. The soil is light, and can be cultivated with one horse power, except upon the clay bottom lands, adjacent to the rivers. The winters are mild and. usually short, and the warmth of the Gulf stream is manifested in the early spring vegetation there.

    Some of the "truck farms" almost within sight of Jamestown ship annually each thousands of barrels of early potatoes-sweet and Irish-and other vegetables to the Eastern and Western markets, thereby supplying hundreds of thousands of the inhabitants of the United States with abundance of food from the same lands where the early colonists, though but few in number, starved to death from need of such products.

    The Virginia sweet potatoes are famous for their good flavor. These "sweets" are always selected by the negro to dish with his fattened "possum and gravy." The reader who objects to an excessive accumulation of saliva about his lips, must refrain from witnessing a Tidewater Virginia negro "soppin' sweet 'tater in possum gravy."

    In parts of this section, there is grown a cantaloupe which competes successfully with the "Rocky ford" cantaloupe of Colorado. The Eastern shore of Virginia, and the Norfolk Peninsula are justly famous for "truck farming." There are several hundreds of acres in Lancaster County cultivated by the noted "Landreth firm" of seed growers, which produce abundantly the several varieties of garden seeds to supply their trade throughout the country.

    If all the lands of Tidewater Virginia were devoted to fruit and "truck farming," to which they are best adapted, enough could be raised there to feed the nation. Speedy transportation, connecting the whole section with the outside markets, is in urgent need. As it is now, about one-half of the lands are "turned out" to woods, or in "old fields."

    Tidewater Virginia is famous for fried chicken. The old black mammies of Virginia can prepare fried chicken to "the Queen's taste."

    Thos. Hariot, one of the gentleman colonists to go to Roanoke Island, wrote:

    "Pagatown, a kind of graine so called by the inhabitants; the same in the Nest Indies is called Mayze; Englishmen call it Guiney wheate or Turkie wheate."

    "Wee made of the same in the countrey some mault whereof was brued as good ale as was to be desired"

    Corn meal is a very essential food product in Virginia, and when ground in a country water power grist mill, it is far superior to the meal ground by the heavy and rapid power steam mill. The latter mill grinds the meal too fine, and so rapidly as to heat it unduly, and thereby make it stiff and doughy.

    From corn meal are made many delicious breads, such as corn pope, egg bread, cracklin bread, ash cake, Johnny (Journey) cake, and hoe cake.

    Corn pope consists of corn meal with water sufficient to moisten, and salt sufficient to season it. Egg bread, or as it is sometimes called, batter bread, consists of corn meal, eggs, sweet and sour milk, soda and salt. Cracklin bread was composed of corn meal and cracklins, mixed with salt and water, and rolled in an oval shaped cake. "Cracklins" are the parts left from the boilings of meat scraps while making lard, and when separated from the lard by straining in a colander are dry and crisp.

    These several breads were baked in a "Bread Oven," a thick cast iron, circular vessel, with straight, upright sides, upon which were two loop handles attached, to which pot hooks were inserted when lifted or carried. It sat upon three legs, and was covered with a heavy cast iron lid, upon top of which was also a loop handle to insert an iron "lifter." For purposes of cooking, live coals of wood, and hot ashes were placed beneath the oven and upon the lid, thus enabling the contents to be cooked top, and bottom, at one and the same time. All implements for cookery in the old fashioned fire places had three legs, to lift them above the ashes and coals.

    Ash cake is made with corn meal, salt and water, and rolled its a ball, covered with cabbage leaves and placed in hot ashes and small live coals to bake.

    Johnny (Journey) cake, and hoe cake were of the same composition as the ash cake. The Johnny cake was placed upon an oak board and set up against live coals, and hard baked, for "keeping on a journey," when taverns were few and far between.

    The hoe cake was placed upon the blade of the cornfield, or tobacco billing hoe, with the shank of the hoe down, and set before the live coals. This was the negro bachelor's usual mode of cooking bread.

    All breads were mixed in homemade wooden bread trays, which were gouged out of blocks of gum, or poplar woods.

    Maize or Indian corn is indigenous to America, and is comparatively but little used in Europe even at this date.

    The colonists got their first taste of Indian corn bread at the Indian village of Kecoughtan-now Hampton-on April 30, 1607, "where they were regaled by the Indians with corn bread, tobacco and a dance."

    Captain Smith described the Indian mode of cooking corn bread as follows:

    "Their come they rest in the care green, and bruising it in a mortar of wood with a Polt, lappe it in rowIes in leaves of their come, and so boyle it for a daintie. They also reserve that come late planted that will not ripe, by resting it in hot ashes. Their old come they first steep a night in hot water, in the morning pounding it in a mortar. They use a small basket for their temmes, then pound again the great and so separating by dashing their hand in the basket, recause the flower in a platter made of wood scraped to that forme with burning and shells. Tempering this flower with water, they make it either in cakes covering them with ashes till they bee baked, and then washing them in faire water they drie presently with their own heat; or else boyle them in water eating their broth with the bread which they call Ponap."

    Hog and hominy are associate dishes of food in Tidewater Virginia during the late fall. and winter months. While fresh meats were abundant, it was usually a rainy day job to "beat hominy." The beating was done in a "hominy mortar," a gum log about three and a half feet in height, the top of which was dug out with an adze, and the inside surface then slightly charred with fire, and afterwards cleanly and smoothly scraped. Hard, flinty grains of corn were selected, and when they were placed within the mortar, a small quantity of boiling `eater was poured over them, and the mortar covered with a cloth for a short period to permit of the corn being steamed, and thereby softening and loosening the hush of the grain which soon thereafter sheds during the beating.

    The beating of hominy was done by pounding down upon the mass of corn with a wooden pestle of well seasoned gum wood. After beating sufficiently, the hominy was placed in a wooden tray and thrown up in the air, the falling motion of the grain back into the tray blew the "hulls" out and thus separated the two.

    Hominy prepared in this manner is a delicious food, far superior to that ground in a mill. The grains come out of the operation nearly whole, and cleansed of all their hulls.

    The hog is not indigenous to America, but is the issue of stock brought from England. After the settlements were well extended throughout tidewater many of these animals escaped from the settlers into the forests, and finally became so wild as to prevent capture otherwise than by shooting them. Their increase, which was rapid, was deemed a fortunate circumstance as wild game was rapidly disappearing farther beyond reach. Knowing the experience which the first settlers their forefathers-had with famine and the distress caused by starvation, the general assembly for protection against such calamity forbade by law the killing of wild hogs. except as a reward for killing wolves, wherein "a hog may be shot for every wolf killed." Severe punishments were provided for violations of this law.

    Up to the period of the passage of the "no fence law," there was in every county a large amount of land known as "in the commons," because it was without either fence or tillage. Such lands were used as common pasturage by the public for their cattle and hogs, without protest by the individual owners of these lands.

    Before hogs were "turned out in the commons" they were marked with a "slit" or a "crop" of the ears so as to identify them to their owners.

    His left ear's cropp'd
    His right ear's slit,
    When you see my hog,
    You may know it's it.

    Hogs when left in the commons for a season become quite shy, and are difficult to approach. When needed for penning and fattening they are "tolled" first by scattering corn within their range until they become accustomed to the feeding. A pen of poles is then built in the vicinity with a polegate way, and the gate is so adjusted as to fall when they enter. Corn is then scattered around, and into the pen at a certain hour of the day, and thus continued for several days, or until the animals become accustomed to enter the pen. At a proper time, the gate is adjusted to fall into place and enclose them.

    For a short while after the hog is "turned out in the commons" he is given small feeds of corn. By the time his allowance is shortened to a standstill, the hog has learned that his owner cannot longer be depended upon for a further supply of food, and that he must thereafter "root hog or die." From that day on the animal leads a strenuous life by keeping his nose to the ground in search of wild berries, acorns, chinquopins, and edible roots, and in due time he develops upon his uncertain rations into a bundle of bones, muscle, hide and bristles. As he is too lean to shoot, can outrun a negro, or fight a dog to a finish, he is then classed a "Pine Rooter," and is safe and undisturbed until his owner "tolls" him. When such a hog is alarmed he has the muscular power to raise the bristles upon his back bone, and can keep them in that position at his will. When the "pine rooter" has his bristles elevated on his back to "a fine point" he is then a "Razor Back," because his back appears to be as sharp as a razor.

    The main meat products of a Tidewater Virginia farmer are derived from the hog, and the finest flavored and most healthy meats are produced from "Pine Rooters" and "Razor Backs." When such hogs are penned and given abundance of corn they fatten rapidly into the solid and tender meat which has made an unsurpassed reputation for itself.

    The hams, shoulders, and middlings are cured with dry salt, well rubbed in with a slight admixture of salt petre.

    Meats cured in this manner have not the flabby, and watery condition which are such prominent features of the slaughter house products cured in brine.

    After the meats are sufficiently cured in salt, they are rubbed with black pepper, brown sugar, or molasses, and hickory wood ashes, and smoked with hickory chips, or corn cobs. The smoking is done leisurely so that the curing and smoking may penetrate the whole piece. Meats prepared in this manner will keep sound and wholesome for almost indefinite time.

    There are many other products of the hog, among which are the "country sausage." This is made from "scraps of parings" when shaping hams, shoulders, and middlings, and is composed of fat and lean meats well blended together, and when properly seasoned with salt, pepper, and sage makes a deliciously appetizing and healthy food.

    Unlike the slaughter house product of skin, gristle, muscle, and lean "scraps," the country sausage of Tidewater Virginia does not require an addition of lard to fry it, nor a sharp tooth to masticate it.

    Chittlins (Chitterlings) are composed of the entrails of the hog, well cleansed in repeated solutions of salt and water for several days. They are then thoroughly boiled in clear water, and afterwards laid down in stone jars and covered with apple vinegar.

    When eaten, they were usually fried and served hot with batter bread. Owing to its more or less strong odors, this dish is not relished by some persons.

    A Yankee traveler from "Down East" stopped at a Tidewater Virginia tavern for breakfast, and was handed a dish of hot, fried chittlins which he slightingly refused, and when asked what else he wished, called for "cod fish balls."

    "Stranger," said the landlord, "I've heard of such eatables up in town, but we don't have 'em down yere kase we couldn't bear the smell of 'em."

    There are dishes of food which the Tidewater Virginian would refuse even at the peril of starvation, among them are cod fish, sour krout, limberger cheese, baked beans, or apple pie for breakfast.

    There may be times of scarcity in some of the food commodities in Tidewater Virginia, but never a period of starvation since the first few colonists learned to look beneath the surface of the soil, and into its adjacent waters for Nature's abundant stores which awaited the touch of the industrious, but intelligent hand to bring them within reach.

    A reference to the commodities shipped in the early years from Virginia, would indicate that the colonists had not learned to till the soil to advantage, as there was not one agricultural product amongst these early shipments. They were the products of the forest and the water.

    The first cargo shipped by the colony was glittering dirt sulphuret of antimony-taken by Newport on his return from the second trip to Virginia. Soon after Newport's departure, the Phoenix-the vessel of Nelson who accompanied Newport from England, but was blown back to the West Indies-arrived with some of the provisions which he had saved. The colonists desired him to also load gold dirt for a return cargo, but Smith succeeded in loading the vessel with cedar instead. This was the first valuable cargo sent from Virginia to England.

    On June 22, 1610, the Council in Virginia wrote the Council in London regarding the shipment of sassafras roots by the sailors of the returning ship: "Our easiest and richest commodity being sassafras rootes were gathered upp by the sailors with losse and spoile of our tools and withdrawing of our men from our labour, to their uses againste our knowledge to our prejudice, we earnestlie entreat you (and doe trusts) that you take order as we be not thus defrauded, since they be all waged men, yet doe wee wishe that they be reasonablie dealt withall so as all losse, neither fall on us nor then. I believe they have thereof two townes (tons?) at the leaste wich if they scatter abroad at their pleasure will pull down our price for a long time, this we leave to your wisdomes."

    The colonists were instructed how to prepare things for shipment to England

    "Small sassafras rootes to be drawn in the winter and dryed and none to be meddled with in the summer, and it is worth £50 and better per Towne."

    "Baye beries are to be gathered when they turn blacke Worth per Towne £12."

    "Poccone to be gotten from the Indians, worth per Towne £100.

    "Galbrand groweth like fennell in fashion. You must cat it in May or June, x g to be cut in small pieces and pressed in your small presses which were sent over for oyle, the juice thereof is to be saved and put in casks, which will be wurthe here per Towne £100 at leaste."

    "Sarsaparila is a root that runneth within the ground like unto Licoras. The roote is to be pulled up and dryed and bound up in bundles like Faggott. It is wurthe per Towne £200."

    "Walnut oyle is worth here £30 per Towne and the like is chestnut oyle and checkinkamyne oil" (chinquopin).

    "Wyne a hogshead or two sower as it should be sent for a sample, and some of the grapes packed in sande."

    "Silk grasse, should be sent in quantity."

    "Bever Codd is likewise to be cutt and dryed and will yeald here 5s per lb" -supposed to be yellow pond lily.

    "Beaver skynnes being taken in winter tyme will yeald great profit, the like with Otter skynnes."

    "Oak and walnutt tree is best to be cut in the winter, the oak to be cleavers into clapborde, but the walnutt tree to be let lye" --in logs.

    "Pyne trees, or funs trees are to be wounded within a yarde of the grounde, or boars a hole with an Agar the thirde pane into the tree, and let it run into anything that may receive the same and that which issues out will be Turpentine worthe £18 per Towne."

    "Pitche and Tarre bath been made there. And we doubt not veil be agayne, and some sent for a sample, your owne turnes being first served."

    "Sturgion which was last sent, came ill conditioned, not being well boyled, if it were cut in small pieces, and powdred put up in caske, the heads pickled by themselves and sent hither it would do farr better."

    "Rowes of the said Sturgeon make Cavearie according to instructions formerly given."

    "Sounds of the said Sturgion will make Isinglass worth here £6, 13s, 4d per 100 pounds."

    "Cavearie well conditioned £40 per 100 pounds."

    These instructions veers sent by the Company to Virginia in 1610. Consider the changes in 300 years. According to railroad statisticians, the grain crop of the United States for the year 1905, will aggregate 1,500,000 car loads. Dividing this into trains of forty cars each, there would be required 37,500 locomotives, which together with the cars would extend end to end a total distance of 12,286 miles. These figures are estimates only of the grain which will be moved to market centers on steam roads. It is stated that probably not morn than one third of the grain, consisting of corn, oats, wheat, barley and rye produced in that year will ever enter a freight car. The other two thirds will be hauled to local mills in wagons, or be consumed by live stock on the farms. To haul the corn crop alone would require a train of 21,000 miles in length.

  • CHAPTER XX - Life and Customs

    I. RELIGION

    The first permanent English settlement in America, was begun by Church of England men, and during the age of religious intolerance and persecution throughout the Christian world. Lord Baltimore, a Catholic nobleman, came to Virginia to seat a colony but upon being presented with the "oath of allegiance and supremacy" to the Church of England, he refused, and made the settlement in Maryland.

    Until about the date of the Revolutionary War, the Church of England controlled the colony. Many of the first acts of assembly relate to provision for that church. It was required by law that in every settlement in which the people met to worship God, a house should be appointed for that purpose. Globe lands were laid off and the country divided into parishes, and the minister's salary provided for from the best (sweet scented) tobacco, and corn.

    By an act of the Assembly, 1623-4 it was decreed.

    "That no man dispose of any of his tobacco before the minister be satisfied, upon pain of forfeiture double his part of the ministers means, and one man of every plantation to collect his means of the first and best tobacco and corn."

    Penalties were imposed for absence during divine service on Sunday, without sufficient excuse, and a clause was added forbidding profanation of that day by tray-cling or work.

    The compulsory payment of ministers was abandoned about 1658, though no act of religious freedom was passed until the legislature of 1785 passed an act establishing religious freedom, and subsequently repealed all laws which recognized the "Protestant Episcopal Church" as the legal establishment. The globe lands, and all other church property, was then vested in the overseer of the poor for charitable purposes, reserving only to the living incumbents an estate for life, and exempting the church buildings from confiscation. There are many of the old colonial churches yet standing throughout Tidewater Virginia. They are nearly all of the same style of architecture, substantially built of brick, the mortar between which appears to be nearly as solid and lasting as the brick itself.

    The Baptists are now the most numerous religious sect in Tidewater Virginia. The Methodists are the next in numbers. The Church of England has now a comparative few adherents in that section. The Baptists were said to be very loyal during the Revolutionary War. They tendered the services of their ministers in promoting the enlistment of the youth of their religious persuasion, and were prominent in efforts to secure religious freedom. They sent many petitions to the legislature of their State, asking for religious freedom, amongst which is the following in verse "To the Honorable General Assembly"
    "The Humble Petition of a Country Poet."
    "Now liberty is all the plan,
    The chief pursuit of every man
    Whose heart is right, and fills the mouth
    Of patriots all, from North to South.

    " May a poor bard, from bushes sprung,
    Who yet has but to rustics sung,
    Address your honorable House,
    And not your angry passions rouse?

    "Hark! for awhile your business stop;
    One word into your ears I'll drop;
    No longer spend your needless pains,
    To mend and polish o'er our chains,
    But break them off before you rise,
    Nor disappoint our watchful eyes.

    What say great Washington and Lee?
    Our Country is, and must be free'.
    What say great Henry, Pendleton,
    And Liberty's minutest son?
    'Tis all one voice-they ail agree,
    'God made us, and we must be free'.
    Freedom we crave with every breath,
    An equal freedom, or a death.

    The heavenly blessing freely give,
    Or make an Act we shall not live;
    Tax all things; water, air, and light,
    If need be; yea, tax the night,
    But let our brave heroic minds
    Move freely as Celestial winds.

    Make vice and folly your rod,
    But leave our consciences to God;
    Leave each man free to choose his form
    Of piety, nor at him frown.

    And he who minds the Civil law,
    And keeps it whole without a flaw,
    Let him, just as he pleases, pray,
    And seek for heav'n in his own way;
    And if he miss, we all must own
    No man is wrong'd but he alone."

    The first Baptist church of the colony was at Burley, Isle of Night County, in 1714. In many of the counties, imprisonment was inflicted upon the ministers of this sect almost up to the date of the Revolution. A notable instance was the imprisonment of Rev. John Walter forty-six days in the jail at Urbanna, a town established by law in 1705, in Middlesex County. Rev. John Waller was the first Baptist preacher in that county. He was born in Spottsylvania County in 1741, and in early youth was said to be addicted to every species of wickedness, and was known as "Swearing Jack Waller," and the "Devil's Adjutant." His conversion was brought about through the meekness of a resident of his native county, who was tried and convicted for preaching the Baptist faith, by a jury of which Mr. Waller was a. member. In 1773, Mr. Waller removed to South Carolina where he died in 1802.

    Religious intolerance is a memory only of the long past in Tidewater Virginia, as elsewhere generally throughout the world.

    The quiet of country life is more conducive to morality and to the greater reverence for religion than is usually found in the city life. The evening talks of the assembled family around the country fireside make lasting impressions upon the youthful listeners, and tends to strengthen their morals against temptations which future years may bring before them.

    Religious worship entails self-denial of worldly things. When it is conducted in the open field, or in the forest, there is an added air of sanctity and sincerity which partakes less of the machine worship held in the gilded cathedral of the city where cushioned seats, and many other comforts abound, and fashion displays its best models.

    The groves were Gods first temples Ere man learned
    To hew the shaft, and lay the architrave,
    And spread the roof above them-ere he framed
    The lofty vault, to gather and roll back
    The sound of anthems; in the darkling wood;
    Amid the cool and silence, he knelt down,
    And offered to the Mightiest solemn thanks
    And supplication.

    There are three camp meeting grounds in the "Northern Neck" peninsula. Two of them belong to the Baptists. The one named "Kirkland," in honor of a deceased beloved named "Kirk," is distant from Heathsville, the county- seat of Northumberland, about one and one-half miles. It is situated on a well-drained knoll, in a grove of oak, hickory, chestnut and maple trees. The "tents" are built of wood, two stories in height, fancifully and tastefully designed, and arranged in blocks, or squares with space for walks, or "streets" between each square. The Tabernacle, constructed of wood, in the form of a square, is open upon all sides, and contains comfortable pine benches. The camp is in the midst of a dense forest which is reached through by-roads, and is beyond the sight of a public highway, or dwelling place, and far from all sounds excepting those of primitive nature.

    The "Katy Dids" enliven the scene in the summer's eve by their soft rasping melodies, and the squirrels build their nests in the trees, and scamper through the grounds in the daylight to gather their winter's store of acorns, which in the season are plentifully distributed over the land. Solemnity is added to the prayers of the congregation by the hooting owl, which sits perched upon some monarch of the forest whose limbs are so paralyzed as to shed their bark, and afford a firm foothold for this bird of solemn voice.

    During the moonlight nights, the sweet notes of the wild mocking birds are chanted heavenward from the neighboring forests in unison with the fervent hymns of the congregation.

    "Marvin Grove," the camp of the Methodists, is located in Richmond County, distant from Warsaw, the county seat of justice, fourteen or fifteen miles, and is also within a dense forest. It is located upon one side of a main road, on the ridge, or backbone, of this Peninsula, in what is locally known as the "Forest" or "Quinton Oak." Before the Civil War, this was the principal section in which the less wealthy inhabitants were located, and where the greater number of "Old Field Schools" were found. The main public roads of this section are not deeply worn by constant travel. For many miles in some directions, they resemble "Indian trails" through the woods, and are as quiet, silent, and lonely for succeeding days as when the aboriginal Indian softly trod there in his moccasins, in pursuit of the game which was so abundant in his day.

    Attached to each camp are frame "boarding tents," open upon all sides and containing tables and benches of pine lumber. The floors of these "tents" are kept covered with pine saw-dust, the healthy, and peculiar aroma of which fills the surrounding atmosphere.

    A quiet and orderly deportment is demanded at these sevaral camp grounds as elsewhere throughout Tidewater Virginia.

    MARVIN GROVE CAMP MEETING

    Religious Services.

    Morning Prayers at Six and a-half o'clock. Prayer and Experience Meeting at 9 o'clock. Preaching at II A. M., and at 3 and 8 P. M.

    Order at Religious Services.

    It is expected that no person will sit or talk in front of any tent during any religious service.

    It is expected that there will be no moving or standing about the grounds during any religious service.

    It is expected that there will be no smoking at or around the Tabernacle during any religious service.

    Order on the Grounds

    At sound of the bell at 6 A. M., persons are requested to rise and prepare for morning prayer.

    At sound of the bell, about half an hour after the close of the services at night, it is expected that all persons will retire within the tents and that loud talking and laughter will cease.

    No one will be permitted to remain under the Tabernacle after the close of services at night.

    All persons, who by quiet and orderly conduct and behavior, are willing to lend their aid to the success of the meeting and no others, are respectfully invited to attend.

    An efficient police, appointed according to law, will be constantly in attendance, and while it is confidently hoped and expected that there will be no need for their services, yet should ill disposed persons be present and make it necessary to do so, those in charge of the meeting will not shrink from the duty of enforcing the law; though they think they can trust to the sense of propriety and gentlemanly instincts of their visitors for the maintenance of good order. Such other rules as may be necessary will be made known from time to time.

    Marvin Grove Camp Ground Committee.

    "Wharton Grove" Baptist camp stands. upon the banks of the Curritoman Fiver, in Lancaster County, in a pretty grove of timber. It is easily approached by boats, and therefore can readily be visited by persons on both banks of the Rappahannock Fiver.

    Religious services are held on these several camp grounds by one or the other of the religious sects, during either July or August. They usually end with a goodly number of communicants added to their membership.

    The camps are largely attended by the residents of the adjacent counties, and also by many visitors from the nearby cities in Virginia, and from Baltimore, Alexandria, and Washington.

    The several grounds were well selected for summer use, with abundance of shade, and good water. They would make delightful, healthy summer resorts.

    When camp meetings and protracted meetings begin, then one hears many stories as to food and drink. Every old Tidewater Virginia heir learns wren the season of camp meeting is at hand, and it is irreverently stated that she keeps her weather eye open on t%e loot=out for gentlemen with plain, black raiment, and straightstandsmp collars, and high cut vests. Whenever the Negro chars are seen scampering around the dwelling house lawn in breathless haste, with their heads bowed down, and their arias outstretched each one running in opposite direction to the other, and occasionally squat flat with lightning-like rapidity upon the earth, and grab, as it were, at a shadow, and feathers fly in the air, and a squawk of distress is heard, one may know that. camp meeting is at hand, or there is a preacher in the "Great House," and that fried chicken will be one of the many delicious ingredients of the bountiful repast offered him.

    A negro mammy was asked if fried chicken was healthy food: "Suttin'ly dey is," she replied, "W'y honey, some o' dem Mefodis preachers down nevah eet nothin' else" ceptin' fried chicken an' egg pope w'en dey comes to of Missus table. Ef it war'nt fitten to eet, yo' knows dey wouldn't look so fat an' good looking' as dey is."

    In the olden time camp meeting, the congregation was summoned to prayer by loud blasts of a large tin horn, which awoke the echoes of the forests in tones that suggested strong lungs behind its wide open mouth. It is related that a pranky sinner once played a trick upon the sedate, and pious minister who was officiating at a successful revival held in a primitive "bush arbor" meeting. This sinner secretly conveyed to the camp a can full of soft soap, and while the minister's attention was directed from the platform upon which a big tin horn was placed, he filled it to overflowing with the juicy essence of lye and soap grease, replaced it carefully where found, got beyond its reach, and gleefully awaited results. It appeared that the minister was detained longer than anticipated, and upon noting the hour, he hastily ascended the platform, hurriedly picked up the horn, and with full inflated lungs blew with all his force into it. The assembled worshippers who were already seated contiguous to the platform, received the contents of the horn upon their heads.

    Ignorant of the cause of the dodging commotion of his congregation, he continued to blow until the last atom of seen was cast from the horn over the pretty bonnets of the females, and into the upturned faces of the astonished males, before he discovered the sad mishap of which he was the innocent cause. Scornfully casting aside the soaped horn, he implored his congregation to assemble in earnest prayer for the discovery and conversion of the "great sinner" who was the principal cause of the calamity. He graphically described the punishments meted out to sinners who failed to repent, and with particular emphasis, foretold the "destruction of the sinner who dared soap a camp meeting horn."

    During the course of the revival, it was observed by the minister that a certain young man of the congregation was extremely agitated, and loudly implored forgiveness of his sins. It was the custom during revivals for the minister to go about among the congregation and speak words of encouragement and consolation. When the young man was reached, the deep agony depicted upon his face was observed, and repeated efforts were made to console him. He was reminded that forgiveness of sins was possible after due repentance. But his grief increased with the list of sins which the pious minister enumerated, and as he continued to declare in loud sobbing tones that his sin was greater than all the others yet enumerated, the suspicions of the minister were aroused, and without more ado, he shed his clerical frock, shook his fist, and shouted, "Brother Deacon Sampson, hold my coat while I wallop salvation into this infernal sinner who soaped my horn!"

    Before the introduction of church organs, there were certain "sisters" or "brothers" of the congregation whose duty it was to "raise the hymn." One of these hymn raisers had such a sweet voice that the congregation to which she belonged. usually waited until she sang several verses, before they joined in the singing. During her absence on a certain occasion, one of the brethren, whose voice was said to be attuned to notes between a foghorn sound and a mule braying for his mate, to the great astonishment of the congregation "raised the hymn," and carried it through two or three verses until interrupted by the loud sobs and cries of a "sister" who was seated in the pew immediately in franc of him. Fearing that the sister was sick, lie ceased in his hymn raising and leaning forward, asked her if she were sick, and what could he do for her, to which she replied:

    "Brother Jeems, I couldn't help it. You know what bad luck I've had lately. I lost my poor dear husband just a month ago to-day, and my son john went off last week, and yesterday my old mule `Jennie' that I sot such stare by, shy up and died too. Poor thing! she used to come to the yard gate ev'ry morning and wane me up braying, and when I heard you raise that hymn, your voice was so much like the poor old critter I just couldn't help crying. God bless you brother Jeems."

    It is said that the selection of a "religious faith," is often governed by early training and environments. The negroes in days of slavery, usually followed their owners in selection of their religious worship. Places were provided in the churches of the whites for the colored. In those days, there were no separate houses of worship for the negro.

    At the ending of the Civil War, the colored provided flair own houses of worship In this they were frequently aided through contributions of the whites.

    Directly after the Civil War, many of the negroes who, in days of slavery, had been "exorters" on the plantations, decided they had "a call to preach," and impatient to enter into the good work, they ordained themselves.

    Many of the negroes were superstititious, and earnest believers in ghosts and "ha'nts." To break the spell of a ha'nt, they depended upon the power of certain charms which could ward off ill luck, sickness, accidents, and be ill will enemies. The left hind foot of a. rabbit caught in a grave yard was powerful, especially if caught on a Friday night. A mixture of three hairs from the tip of a. black cat's tail, the upper jaw of a bull frog, and a few drops of the blood from the first hog killing in the fall, when pat. in a black stocking and suspended from a bush in running water, would aid the stream in carrying off with its waters many miseries which flesh is heir to.

    The trials and tribulations of the children of Israel were fascinating stories to many of them. They were especially fond of hearing the story of the Jews in flair struggles to reach the Land of Cancan. At the close of the Civil War, had the United States Government offered to send the negroes to the Land of Cancan in a transport "ship named Zion," very many of them would have consented to go, and would have been delighted at the prospect of being "so near to glory." The Old Ship of Zion,

    Hallelujah,
    The Old Ship of Zion,
    Halle-luljah!

    She landed many thousands,
    And she ;will land as many more,
    O, Glory Hallelujah!''

    A profound knowledge of the scriptures, or a strict adherence to grammatical rules were not necessary qualifications of a negro preacher in the early years following the Civil War. On the contrary, the one who used the apt phrases, and the simple, though ungrammatical dialect of the masses, was the more successful with his hearers.

    To reach the masses, it was necessary to have a rapid flow of words, and a vivid imagination, wit!: a capacity of fitting the every day life of the present. with that of the hereafter.

    Many of them conducted their discourse in a "sing-a-song" tone, and at the end of each three or four words, they would utter an "Ah," as if catching their breath. Some of the "old time" white preachers were addicted to this practice.

    The voice of the preacher was usually intoned to suit his words. When he pictured the misery of the sinners during the hereafter, in their cruel torments of brimstone fire, the inflections were ringing, loud, and warning. This was followed by earnest appeals to the "backsliders" to return, and for the sinners to mend their ways, else the torments so vividly described would be their lot.

    Upon a certain occasion, after a sermon of this description was preached, at a pine bush arbor revival meeting, one of the congregation, a hardened sinner, and a scoffer of religion, asked the preacher: "How far off yo' reckon de devil is fum yere ?"

    "How of is yo' Bre'r Petah?" asked the preacher.

    "Well, suh, I 'spect I'se long 'bout fohty foh"

    "W'en yo' wuz b'on inter dis worl" ' said the preacher, "de devil wuz jes' fohty foh years behin' yo', an' all I'se got ter say is, dat of he aint cotched up wid yo' yit'taint yo' own fau't."

    "Dar, bless de Lam, Bre'r, yo' don't tol' de truth one time," exclaimed one of the congregation.

    When the picture relates to the joys of heaven, the preacher "is at home," because of his vivid imagination. When such joys are being depicted, the weaker sisters get excited and "happy." Then they start to singing, first in crooning, slow tones, followed by movements of the body swaying from side to side in unison with the song: Come, yo' sinners po'r an' needy
    Weak an' wounded, sick an' so'er.
    Jesus ready stan's to save yo',
    Full uv pity, luv, an' pow'r.

    As the preacher pictures the golden streets, the beautifully dressed angels in their golden slippers "climbin' up de golden stahrs," and playing sweet, heavenly music upon golden harps, the congregation gets beyond their own control, and declare their happy mood in voices of appeal to the Throne of Grace, indicating their readiness to leave this cold and distressful world at once and join in those heavenly joys. They intimate their desire to die then and there. When this mood controls, they shake each others hands and embrace each other and use endearing expressions of good will to all mankind. The feebler and more excited sisters scream lightly and fall fainting to the floor or into the arms of those near them.

    In protracted meetings, there are always two classes of worshippers, the silent worshippers, and the "shouters." The former offer their fervent prayers in silence, and are thereby content with the knowledge that the ear of God can as readily be reached from the closed closet as from the house top.

    The "shouters" are equally earnest in their devotions, but a listener, upon hearing their loud and excited exclamation, would likely think that they had determined that the vast expanse of space between heaven and earth, could be overcome only through the greatest eforts of their lungs. The shouter being the more excited and nervous of the two classes of worshippers, was also the more frequent interrupter of the preacher; often when he was in the midst of a prominent and important sentence which he should have been permitted to utter uninterrupted to the ending.

    "Sister Patsey" was a shouter from "way back befo' de wah," and was mortally dreaded by her pious minister who suffered often from her interruptions. On the occasion of a sermon upon "the joys of heaven," which this pious minister had burned many midnight candles to compose, he was abruptly interrupted in the midst of one of his most glowing sentences by Sister Patsey:

    "Lawd, jes' giv me one mo' feath'a in ma wing o' faith, an' I'se gwine flyin' to you'."

    "Deah Lawd," said the preacher, "of yo' has one mo' feath'a to spar' please sen' it to Sistah Patsey soon's yo' kin."

    When the preacher makes a strong hit against the sinner, or vividly describes leis misery hereafter, a ready response is sure to follow:

    "Poh sinnah man bu'n." "Yas 'tis hot dar."

    "No spring wat'a dar honey." "De dchbi1 don' drink it all hisse'f."

    carne of the congregation may raise a hymn like the following:

    I'se got on de back uv de Baptis' mule
    Sinner doan' yo' stan' dar lookin' laik a fule.
    De bridle bit am silva, de saddle am gol'.
    An' I'm boun' fo' to go to Aberhams fol'!
    An' I'll ride
    Yas I will,
    An' I'll ride right on to glory!

    I'se sink ma sins in do savin' pool,
    An' get on de bac' uv de Baptis' mule,
    An' yore I'll stick laik a great big leetz;
    'Till de ol' mule stomp en de golden streets:
    An' I'll ride,
    Yas I will,
    An' I'll ride right on to glory!

    O, I longs fo' to reach dat heavenly sho'
    To meet Saint Petah stan'in' at de do';
    He'll say to me, `O, how does yo' do?
    Cum set right yonda' in de golden pew'.
    Den I'll res',
    Yas I will,
    Den I'll res' right dar in glory.

    A new preacher who was conducting a revival without much success, notwithstanding he pictured to his hearers in glowing language the great joys of heaven, and the tortures of eternal fires, and the imprisonment therein for all eternity. of the condemned souls, at last awakened his congregation to a sense of their danger by asking:

    "Does yo' know w'at all etern'ty is? Yell, I tell yo'. Ef one uv dem li'1' sparrows w'at yo' see roun' yo' gyrden bushes wuz to dip his bill in do 'Lantic Ocean an' taik one hop a day an' hop 'cross de country an' put dat drop uv watch into de 'Cific Ocean, an' den he hop back to de 'Lantic Ocean, jes' one hop a day, an' of he keep dat hoppin' up 'twell do 'Lantic Ocean wuz dry as a bone, it wouldn't be break o' day in etern'ty."

    "Dar now," said one of the brethren, "Yo' see for y o'se'f how long yo' suffer."

    During revivals, it was customary for the brethren and sisters to give their "experience" in order to encourage others who were doubting and hesitating. The "experiences" related by the two sees, male and female, were proofs of the fact that woman is of the wearer sex. When the men related their experience, they warmed up to the occasion, and in loud and defiant tones told of their struggles with temptation, and of their wrestling with the individual devil himself. Their scuffles with the "evil i1 one" were exciting proofs of, the muscular strength of man, and evidence of the mind's power to create beliefs that had no foundation in fact. The Man's experience was more muscular than spiritual.

    The "sisters" told of their little household crosses and troubles, and how they prayed for power to prevent fretting and worrying, and related how they asked for spiritual strength to enable them to bear in silence their petty annoyances. No one of the sisters ever had the courage to face the devil in person and throw him flat on his back and "stomp" on his prostrate form, as did her stronger and more combative "brother in the faith." The sisters were too tender hearted to treat even the devil in such harsh manner.

    There was a hardened sinner who had determined to join the church, but his record for meanness was such that when he applied for admission, he was told to wait awhile and pray for spiritual aid to improve his manners and morals. At length he became tired of waiting for a call from the brethren, and made a new application. The preacher asked him if he prayed and communed with the Lord as to whether he should join the church.

    "Yas indeed, I suttin'ly has prayed, an' I tol' de Lawd dat I don' quit all ma badness an' dat I wants to jine Shiloh Chu'ch."

    "Well," said the preacher, " how'd de Lawd answer yo' pray rs.

    "De Lawd he say to me, I wish yo' bettah luck dan I has Stephen, kris I'se be'n tryin' to jive dat chu'ch fo' me' den fohty years mahse'f !"

    THE OLD TIME RELIGION.

    " It was good for our fathers,
    It was good for our mothers,
    It was good for our sisters,
    It was good for our brothers,
    And 'tis good enough for me.

    Chorus.

    This old time religion,
    This old time religion,
    This old time religion,
    Lord, it's good enough for me."

    II. HUNTING IN OLD VIRGINIA

    When the crops are all harvested, and the corn shucked and housed, and the fodder stacks built, and the season for fishing has passed, it is then time to prepare for oystering, timber getting and hunting. There were few, if any, young men raised in that section who failed at one time or other to engage in a hunt for game of some species. They usually began the custom when mere lads by setting flare boxes. The construction of a bare box requires no greater mechanical skill than is necessary to hit a nail squarely on the head one time out of every three efforts. There must not be any new plank in the construction of a hare- box. The odors of the new wood, and its bright appearance would give the cue that there was something wrong "laying for him," and he would refuse to be "caught in such a trap." A serviceable bog was made from an old, hollow gum log, and baited with apple, and set on the edge of an old field, or near a brush pile in the woods. It would gladden the heart of the youngster when he approached it and found the door dawn, providing it has not shut down on some prowling, thievish, vicious cat instead of the old bare which he expected to lay hand upon as he cautiously raised the door and inserted his arm until in contact with the snarling, spitting mouser. This may be his first experience, and he is apt. not to forget it because he will be told of it, and teased about it by his older brother, or comrade who will relate with gusto, how the young hunter skipped over fences and ditches with his hat in his hand, and a yell flour his lungs equal to an Indian on the war path. Tidewater Virginia has ever been famous as a hunting ground. There are wild ducks and geese on the rivers and creeks during the spring and fall months, and partridges, wild turkeys, raccoons, opossums, rabbits ("old hares" ) and squirrels in the forests, and game birds in the fields and marshes, and in some few sections there are deer and foxes. Dogs are specially trained for these several hunts. The negroes usually trained the dogs for "night varmints," such as 'coons and 'possoms. A good 'coon dog is considered a valuable asset by the negro who is fond of hunting. A negro who was noted for his good coon dogs was asked how many lie had, to which he replied: "I haint got but fob jilt now. I hev sick bad luck wid my pups dat it looks laik I nevah kin git a sta't on dogs agin. Boss has yo' any pups yo' wants to part wid to trade for a "muley cow?" The whites usually trained the dogs for birds, and for running deer and chasing foxes. Each pack had its "leader", dog which could be depended upon to keep the "scent" and the "trail;" he was known as the "harker." The hound dogs were not usually over fed during the hunting season and for that reason were great thieves in stealing food from the kitchen. Hungry, thievish hounds have been known to grab a ham, or shoulder of meat from the scalding hot water in which it was being cooked in the open fire place.

    Every farmer kept several dogs, and the more remote their dwelling house was from the main public highway, the greater the number of clogs. When a stranger approached such dwelling, his coming was announced through the deep baying tones of some watchful hound, whose warning notes were sure to awaken from their slumbers a howling pack of young pups, and older dogs to join this sentinel of the homestead in bidding defiance to the new comer.

    If the road leading to the mansion were winding, so that a short turn brought the stranger in view suddenly, within a few yards of the house, one might hear the master or mistress giving orders to the servant:

    "Sally, run out and see what those dogs are barking at!" and Sally would then hunt for a stick or an oyster shell to "chunk back the dogs who seemed fierce as wolves

    "Git back film yere, yo' yaller debbils, 'fore I chunk yore hide offen yo'," was Sall pr's forceful warning at which the dogs would slink away, and pay no more attention to the stranger, other than to smell of his heels as he gladly advanced into the house beyond their reach.

    To one unaccustomed too such scenes, and ignorant of the fact that .`.`barking dogs seldom bite," great credit would be given Sally for saving their life.

    Since the Civil War there are few large packs kept as the foes and deer have in many places become entirely extinct, and the people have become too industrious to spend much time as formerly in hunting.

    In years gone by it was the desire of every youngster in Tidewater Virginia to own a whole coon dog or a "right smart share" in one. The dog of a youngster was a fortunate animal, as he was sure to share in all the "good casings" of his owner.

    A good coon dog is of medium size. He is either a "yaller dog," or a mud-brown color. He has no pedigree to speak of. He is best described as a "no account lazy dog." When he's lazy "he's jes' restin'," for he knows not what to-morrow's night will bring forth. When he starts "out with the boys" he sheds his laziness in his kennel. A big dog is not fit for a coon hunt because he is too clumsy. A good coon dog must be lively when the occasion arises.

    The coon fights lying flat upon his back. When shaken down from a tree, upon ,which he has taken refuge, and lands upon the ground, he determines at once whether to run or fight. He has sharp claws upon every foot which he works with precision and lightning like rapidity. These weapons of defense, aided by sharp teeth within snappy haws, will make a lazy dog lively and keep him busy to save his hide. An old negro remarked that "de coon suttinly mus' lamed his boxin' tricks sparrin' wid lightin'." A goad hunter never shoots a coon up a tree; he is always shaken down from the limb upon which he has taken refuge, and if he should fortunately land upon the back of a big dog he would have all the fun to himself.

    A coon hunt is not complete without a spry young negro accompanying the party to climb the tree and shake down the coon. The start for a coon hunt is made by getting together two or three dogs along abort bed time. The hunting ground may be reached within a mile or two, or snore of the starting point, in the dense timberd woods, en the edge of a swamp or marshy place. When this is reached the hunter lets the dogs loose, and "whoops," and whistles in low, long tones to encourage the dogs, and sheets "look 'em up," at the same time calling the name of the favorite dog ("Liza" ). When the scent is struck, the dogs "give mouth," and the hunter listens and waits to learn which direction the coon will finally decide upon. The voice of the dogs will indicate to the hunter whether they have the coon "on the run," or whether they have "struck a cold scent." An old man, or a city bred man with starched clothes, and patent leather shoes, had better not engage in a coon hunt. The old man would wear out his bodily strength in following the coon. The city bred man would wear out his "store clothes" and look like a corn field scare crow, and before the hunt is ended the coon's claws may reach his face, and then he will look like an Apache Indian at a war dance. A Tidewater Virginia coon will lead the dogs and the hunters through the thickest of laurel bushes and swamp briars, through marshes, and deep dark gulleys and into mudholes knee deep, and may select a tree for refuge in a spot that would mire a mule.

    When the dogs are "on the run," their baying is open mouthed and prolonged. When they get close upon the coon, the baying is short, sharp, and eager, and when the coon is treed the dogs will raise their heads and bay slowly, as if listening between each breath for the hunter. If the hunter is within hearing, they are encouraged by him with a "whoop," and "Hold him Liza." The hunter can distinguish the voice of each dog in the pack. Only one dog gives voice at a time after the coon is treed. The others whine, or lie down and wait quietly. Often the hunter reaches the tree, a good coon dog will endeavor to point out the coon by going around the tree, and moving backward and forward, his nose pointed upward, and eagerly barking. The hunter scans the tree by walking around it and getting in range of the sky line. If the sky is cloudy, a fire of dry leaves and light limbs is made to burn brightly, the flames from which expose the whole tree to view.

    "Ef Mistuh Coon is up dar I'se gwine shake him down," and up climbs the sprightly negro to his duty. "All coons look alike" to one not accustomed to coon hunting, but they are not all alike, either in disposition or courage. Some will fight upon the ground only, others will fight up a tree. A well trained coon dog will stand a few feet from the body of a tree ready to pounce upon anything that first comes down to the ground from that tree, whether it be the coon, or the negro youngster. It is a matter of "first come first served," and the dogs will do it in a hurry. Many trees are matted with wild grape and "Virginia Trumpet" vines, and dry forest leaves which during the fall months accumulate amongst these vines. Should a coon seek refuge in such a tree and the hunters lose control of the fire, and it should take to the mass of combustibles up that tree while the negro is shaking down a "sassy coon," then matters take a serious turn. If the negro remains up the tree, the fire will burn him and the coon will scratch him. If he comes down, the dogs will get him before the hunters can control them.

    "Is o' de Lawd's sake, Mass' Jack, hol' Liza, fur I'm a comin'," and down comes the negro. "It's too hot up dar fo' me." If he escapes the dog, it is because of the frantic and successful effort of his young master in luckily grabbing the tail of "Liz," when she heard something coming down that tree.

    The most exciting time of a young coon bunter's experience, is when the coon drops upon the ground and the bright flames of fire, which formerly made all things plain, is suddenly extinguished by the dogs in their scuffle and efforts to reach the coon. Then all is blacker than the famed darkness of "Egypt's midnight," and amid the barking of the dogs, and the screeches of the coon, and the scattering of the fire coals and partly burned limbs and leaves, and the sudden and unexpected bumping of each hunter, one against the other, in their wild and sightless endeavors to avoid being bitten by the dogs, or scratched by the coon, business becomes so brisk under the tree that until the fight is finished no one can tell how many coons were shaken out of it.

    If the coon is an old one, he may have learned the trick of fooling the clogs by jumping to the limb of another tree; in that event he leaves the dogs "barking up the wrong tree" to be chided by the hunters as good for nothing, worthless curs. Sometimes a coon will seek a hollow tree; in that event he is "smoked out" by a fire of dry leaves, or the tree is cut down and he is reached.

    A coon is hunted for the sake of his hide, and a 'possum for his meat. The hide of a coon is tanned with the hair and tail upon it. In former years, a coon skin cap, with the tail hanging behind, and a calf skin vest were the envied apparel of a dandy.

    The possum is the favorite with the negro. After capture, the possum is usually pat in a bogy or barrel to cleanse and fatten, then it is roasted and served in its own rich gravy with Tidewater Virginia sweet yams.

    The possum makes no fight when hunted. He usually runs for his hole in some hollow tree. When captured he "plays possum" by shutting his eyes as if he were asleep, or dead, all the while he is watching cut of one corner of his apparently close shut eyes, for an opportunity to escape. While "playing possum" he disguises his breathing as much as possible.

    There is not so much excitement in a possum hunt as there is in hunting coons. Sometimes disappointment follows, as proven by the experience of one of the two negroes who went on a possum hunt together. It appears that two negroes hunted one night together without success until they were very weary. Finally they succeeded in capturing a young possum, and as they were hungry as well as tired, they prepared the possum far roasting, kindled a fire and swung hip?? over the blaze suspended by the tail, after which they decided to take a nap while he roasted. The more crafty of the two lay wide awake, and when the possum was cooked enough he fell to and ate him. Before completing his feast, he carefully greased the fingers and the lips of his sleeping companion with the fattest parts of the possum, then laid the clean picked bones near his hands, and lay down along side of his companion, turned over on his side and was soon asleep. After awhile, his partner in the hunt awoke, and as he was about to raise his body from the ground, his hand struck the possum bones. "Hey dar ! Wot's dis !" said he; then he smacked his greasy lips and tasted his greasy fingers: "Dat suttinly is possum grease!"

    He then looked eagerly towards the bright blazing fire for the possum! "I mus' 'et dat possum in ma sleep, 'base dars de bones and yere's de grease; I has no 'membrane, uv eetin' dat possum. I don't 'spute eetin' dat possum, but I has less fulness fum eetin' dat possum den any possum I evah et befo' in all my b'on days."

    Ef possum's et in reason dar's no 'souse fo' one to cry, Fo' de fattes' possum cotched is in same kin to of mince pie. Yo' knows yo' se'f de trubble dat sick eetin's make de man Wat fills an' crams his appetite wid ev'ry bit he can.

    I tol' yo' Chile, de trubble comes w'en he lies down to res'; Den de biggest, rankest possum jes' sots down 'pon his breas', .An' wauks 'bout sick pusson wid a tromp dat wake de dead, An' a dozen yuther possums jest' stomp down 'pon his head. Sick nonsense he jes' dreaming', kale he et de possum fat Dat wuz sot aside fo' gravy; 'Cose yo' dem all knows dat Sweet 'taters goes wid possum, an' de gravy it goes too.

    So Chile doan' eet de fattes' part w'atevah else yo' do! Jes' save it up fo' gravy, an' to eet wid roasted yam, Den Chile, yo' shore kin 'joy yo'se'f, an' sleep jes' laik a lamb.

    III. LOG CABINS AND BRICK MANSIONS

    The whole Atlantic coast side of North America, when first settled, was covered with forests of big timber. From this material were constructed the first human abodes, called log cabins. They consisted of two or three rooms with a "lean to" -shed-for a kitchen room. The cabin and "lean to" were built of large logs, hewn square on three sides, upper, lower, and outside. The more pretentious were hewn on all four sides. At the four corners of the cabin, the logs were notched nearly half way through to permit fitting evenly and closely together. The open spaces between the logs were "chinked" or "daubed," inside and out, with clay to make them air tight. The roof was supported with poles as rafters, and was covered with "clapboards,"strips of straight grained pine, chestnut, or oak, split from logs evenly and thin, by means of a "f row," a flat piece of iron six to twelve inches long, and three inches to four inches wide, with a circular upright end to admit a wooden handle to guide the frow. The under side of the frow was made sharp, like a chisel, so that it might split the clapboard from the log. A wooden maul was used to strike the upper side of the frow and force it through the wood.

    The clapboards were riven eighteen inches to twenty-four inches long, four to six inches wide, and one-half to one inch in thickness. They were placed on the roof to overlap each other, top and bottom., like shingles, and were fastened to the rafters with pine "weight" poles laid on top, all the way across the roof, on each layer of clapboards. The "weight" poles were tied down to the projecting ends of the rafters by means of hickory or oak wither,-small limbs twisted for use like ropes.

    There were few nails used in the construction of the early log cabins. Nails were hand made in those years, and so scarce as to induce persons when deserting their plantations to burn their buildings for the purpose of getting the nails therefrom. So common was this custom that in 1644 an act of the general assembly was passed forbidding this practice. It provided that those who left their buildings standing should receive in full satisfaction "as many nails as were expended in the building, the number to be computed by two different men."

    The door was made from wide "puncheons," split from a log like clapboards, and hewed down evenly and smoothly with a broad-axe. The pieces comprising the door were held together across top and bottom by strips fastened thereto by wooden pins. The door was hung on the inside of the cabin by wooden hinges, and was fastened by a wooden "latch" also on the inside. To the latch was fastened a "string" which passed to the outside through a hole in the door, immediately above the latch, where it hung ready to be pulled when gaining admittance. The synonym for a hearty welcome was "You will always find my latchstring on the outside." The pulling of the latch string to the inside upon retiring for the night, was the only burglar proof arrangement the early colonist had, aside from the flint and steel rifle which hung over the door of every cabin.

    Where stones were not plentiful-and there are many such localities in Tidewater Virginia,-the chimney was built of "daubin," or logs hewn and fitted together, as in the construction of the cabin.

    The frame of a "daubin chimney" was of ladder like construction, formed with large poles for uprights, through which holes were bored at intervals of a few inches, for the rounds. When these structures were set up on end and fastened to the cabin, the spaces between the rounds were "daubed" thickly inside and outside with a mixture of clay and grass, which, when it became hard and dry, withstood the beat and flames.

    All chimneys were built on the outside of the cabin, and like the old time tavern chimneys, were frequently extended the whole width of the end of the cabin. The log chimney was constructed upon the same plan as were the walls of the cabin, and was securely daubed with clay all the way up inside, and "chinked" with the same material on the outside. When the chimney was building, there was a "lug pole" or "Chimney bar" of iron inserted above the arch, with its ends resting in the chimney sides. To this was suspended chains, and also pot-hooks formed in the shape of an S; both were used to hang Acts high above the fire. There was also a "chimney crane," fastened to the back of the chimney, to which were attached several arms which could be moved forward or backward to hang pots and skillets upon, and to swing them over the fire underneath the chimney bar. The chimney was usually built so large and so low that abundance of light was admitted through it; therefore, many of the cabins had few, if any, windows. To each chimney there belonged a "smoke board." This implement consisted of several pieces of puncheons, each as long as the width of the chimney top. They were fastened to the upper end of a pole, and extended from the top down two or three feet. The smoke board was used to lean against, and just above the top of the chimney on the outside, to prevent the wind from blowing down the chimney, and to aid in making the proper draught to draw the smoke up. Experience taught the housekeeper where to "lean the smoke board." Pegs were driven into the logs of the cabin to form shelves, and to hang clothing and other things upon. Wardrobes were not in use in log cabins.

    There were few cabins built higher than one story and a loft. The "loft" was reached by a pole ladder, which, when not in use, sat up against the wall behind the door. Where the family was large, the loft was often used by the youngsters of the family as a sleeping place who, upon retiring at night, might view the heavens, and count the bright stars between the chinks in the roof.

    The loft was also used to hang up dried "yerbs" (herbs) such as catnip for infants' complaints, mullen for "risings," hops for earache, hoarhound and burdock for colds, boneset for chills, wintergreen for colds and canker, smartweed for soaking sore feet, sage for sore throats and seasoning sausage, thyme for seasoning meats, and rosemary for seasoning lard in frying hominy. In some of the cabins, cured hog meat,hams and shoulders,were hung from the rafters in lieu of a smoke house.

    An amusing instance of unnecessary fright, resulting from the custom of hanging meat in the loft, is related of a pedler who, while traveling in a strange Forest neighborhood, was overtaken by night, and applied at a nearby log cabin for shelter. Ile was cordially invited by an old man and his wife to share the comforts of their cabin.

    When bedtime was reached, the pedler was given a tallow candle and shown up the ladder to the loft, the only other vacant place in the cabin. He slept well until towards day break, when he was alarmed by hearing the rounds of the loft ladder creaking, and while listening most attentively, he saw the head of the old man appear at the top of the ladder, with a big butcher knife in his hand, followed by the wife with a Lighted candle which she shaded with her apron towards the spot where the pedler's bed was spread upon the floor, casting weird and dismal shadows throughout the loft. As the two advanced up the ladder, there was low, but earnest whispering between them, a part of which only could the wide awake pedler hear

    "John, dear," whispered the wife, "if I were you I wouldn't do it.; we have a plenty, and can get along without it Come back, John!" were the alarming sentences which the now thoroughly frightened pcdler heard. He lay perfectly quiet, hardly breathing lest they might discover he were awake. At this juncture, the old wife, in pleading voice, whispered

    "John, are you sure the knife is sharp enough so that one lick will do?"

    All the while the two were advancing stealthily towards the pedler's bed. A step or two more they made, when the pedler threw off his blanket, jumped to his "pack," and with all his force, he flung the pack against the old couple, the effect of which was to lay them both prone upon the floor and extinguish the candle. In the inky darkness, he continued the fight upon the old man until the old lady cried out: "For God's sake stop; we came only to cut down a shoulder of meat for your breakfast, and not to rob or murder-you."

    The furniture of a log cabin consisted of the lug pole, chimney crane, andirons, fire shovel, tongs, fire bellows, potrack, pot hooks, hangers, pots, kettles, bread ovens, frying pans, skillets, pewter plates, blue china, or pewter cups, wooden and pewter spoons, knives and forks, wooden dough trays, noggings, piggies for holding water, and for working butter, china crocks for milk, cedar `eater buckets with long handled gourds therein, three-legged stools, rush bottom chairs, table of pine or oak formed from a log with a broad axe, a "dresser" (china closet) consisting of shelves for storage of china ware, a knife, spoon and ladlebox, spinning wheel, cards for wool or cotton, loom for weaving, the inevitable "hair trunk" which the colonist brought from his English home stored with all the possessions which he most valued. This article was usually stored under the bed, and was the only article within the cabin, or upon the plantation which had lock and key to it.

    It was only the more prosperous of the early colonists that were able to own a clock. The clocks, with their frames, were built wide and high, many of which reached to the ceiling of the cabin loft. They were a much prized piece of furniture, and being constructed entirely by hand, and formed mainly from wood, were therefore very expensive.

    In lieu of clocks many used sun dials, which were less expensive, and during sun shine were quite as accurate in time keeping. The owner of a sun dial was frequently called upon for its loan to a neighbor, that lie might ascertain and mark the several hours of the day by the shadows cast upon the threshold of his cabin door; or upon the cabin window sill which faced the south.

    At night the hours were arrived at by viewing the stars in the bright heavens. The cock crowing at midnight revealed to the superstitious settler whose home was new, within the dense and dark forest where yet no shadows could fall, and whose nearest neighbors were the screech and booby owls, or to the settler upon the banks of some shimmering stream, within the bordering dark and weird shadows, that this was the hour in which ghosts appear, and witches rise from their couch to prepare their cauldron of evil things for "pants," and the same old chickens, at break of day announced in clarion tones that this was the hour to again begin life's toil, and that evil spirits must disappear hastily to whence they came, and that the witch must cool her cauldron and bottle its contents, ere she is dragged to the ducking stool in punishment for her evil practices.

    After the Civil War, many of the freedmen embraced the opportunities offered by their former masters to purchase a part of their lands and make their homes thereon. The majority of these freedmen, for want of better means usually built log cabins, some of which were diminutive in width and height. One of these freedmen who had been enabled to pay for his home through the help of his former master, sorrowfully learned of the sudden death of his benefactor, and hearing that a "vendue" (public auction) of his old master's household effects was to be held, determined to obtain something from "the old home" for a keepsake. The old servant made his bid on very many things, but always was outbid until finally the "old grandfather's clock" was ,knocked down to him at a price he was able to pay. Returning thanks to his white neighbors for Their generosity in permitting him to become the possessor of this heir loom, he loaded the clock on his ox cart with the assistance of some of his friends. Upon reaching his cabin, he summoned his family's aid in unloading the clock, and when it was placed inside his cabin much to his astonishment, he found the clock was taller by two or three feet than the eves of his cabin. Not to be outdone, he cut a hole through the floor of the loft and pointed his clock skyward. Whenever he wanted to know the hour of the day, he was forced to climb the ladder into the loft, and them he kept his treasured time piece until he was "called over the river" to join his beloved master.

    Very many of the most distinguished and illustrious men of America were born in log cabins. " Honor and fame from no condition rise
    Act well your part
    For in that all the honor lies."

    Many of the oldest dwellings are built on points of land, little peninsulas, overlooking the waters of rivers or creeks, on either side, anti presenting to the view magnificent scenery of land and water, intermingling with groves of green pines, cedars and weeping -willows on their banks. These evergreen trees are cheerful and pleasing to the sight at all seasons of the year. In winter time, when covered with light snows, or heavy frosts, and pendant icicles, they are veritable gems of nature's beautiful handiwork.

    During the days of slavery, the "servants' quarters" were within sight of the "Croat House," the owner's residence, and if the servants were many, such homes at the beginning and closing hours of labor, were scenes of active life, while the servants were going to, or returning from their several tasks, either in the cultivation of the fields, or the felling of the forest, and the hauling of the products for shipment. Nevertheless, there was a leisure about all their labors, which was equalled only in localities of similar life, and differed greatly from the hurry and bustle witnessed in the States north of Mason and Dixon's line. Nearly all the old time servants' quarters have disappeared, and thus the dwelling places of the former owners of numerous servants have lost their distinguishing feature which foretold prosperity, and wealth in the number of servants.

    Throughout Tidewater Virginia are many "Old Colonial Homes," handsome, spacious mansions, the majority of which were built during the century prior to the Revolutionary War, and to which large landed estates were attached. They were the birth places, or homes of persons illustrious as actors in some important event in the history of this nation. Because of the historical associations so intimately connected with these dwellings they deserve a better fate than is befalling some of them. A large number of these houses are rapidly falling into decay, and losing all semblance of their former magnificence.

    To name the colonial mansions of Tidewater Virginia, and give such history of them as is worthy of mention would fill a large but interesting volume.

    Many of the older dwellings are built of brick with glazed ends, a peculiarity of the manufacture of bricks in the early days. The opinion is often expressed that such bricks all came from England, but this is doubtful, as the historians of the early period mention the sending to Virginia by the London Company "some Italians, Dutchmen, and others to manufacture glass, and brick" etc.

    The first brick dwelling in America was built at Jamestown, in 1639, for Richard Kempe, Secretary to the Governor. In 1642, Sir William Berkeley brought with him instructions as governor, to promote the building of brick houses, offering "five hundred acres of land to every person who should build a house of brick twenty-four feet fang, sixteen feet broad, with a cellar to it."

    Act of Assembly, December, 1662, made provision for the building of thirty-two brick houses. The price of bricks and wages of laborers were fixed by law. Each of the seventeen counties of the colony were required to build a brick house in Jamestown.

    A prominent piece of furniture in the old time dwellings was the "tester bedstead," with bed posts extending nearly to the ceiling. The bedposts were covered over with a canopy of curtains which extended across the tops of the four posts, and down the sides and ends to the floor, enclosing the whole bedstead. It is related that a resident of the "Forest" section, the occupant of a diminutive log cabin, paid a visit of consultation to the office of a prominent lawyer in one of the Northern Neck Counties, whose home was of princely proportions, and corresponding equipments. As the Forester was detained until late in the evening, he was invited to "spend the night." At the hour of retiring, he was escorted to a bed chamber in which was a "tester bedstead," the first he had ever seen. Doffing his clothing, he prepared himself to rest, but upon pushing the canopied curtains aside, he found the bed covered with a white, smooth counterpane, so snugly and neatly tucked under it on all sides, and with the pillows and bolster on top of it, that he concluded the counterpane was a new fashioned top sheet, and that the curtains were the only covering. As the fire was burning brightly, he, nevertheless, was comfortably warm, while on top of all the bed covering, by tucking the curtains close to his body, and so lie remained until towards the morning when the fire burned low, and the room becoming chilled, he hastily dressed and sat shivering over the embers of the departed flames, until a knock was heard at his door summoning him to breakfast. At the meeting of his host, a polite inquiry was made as to his rest and comfort during the cold right, and a hope was expressed that he found a plenty of bed covering. "Well Kunnell," said he, "thar mout a. been kiverin' a plenty, but they wuz too Burned far off to wrap close. I veer about friz."

    IV. OLD VIRGINIA TAVERNS

    Before the Civil War, there was but little traffic of strangers throughout Tidewater Virginia, and consequently few travelers other than the natives whose business might require a journey from their homes, too distant to return in one day. Should they be overtaken by a storm, or by night, they, or any other stranger, might ask for shelter, and be welcomed by a willing invitation to share what comforts there might be found in any home throughout that section, without thought upon the part of the host, or hostess of recompense in money, or other values.

    The "commercial drummer," the insurance agent, the "lighting rod man," the "patent medicine fakir," and the hosts of the latter day "hustlers" of business enterprises had not made their appearance in that section of Virginia prior to the Civil War. The Jew peddlers were almost the only strangers to invade that territory, to offer their wares, or to ask for patronage. The peddlers carried an assortment of gewgaws, and cheap trinkets which readily took the fancy of the negro.

    Few of the negroes knew that the Jews, and the "Children of Israel" were of the same people. The story of the Children of Israel in slavery to the Egyptians, and their final freedom from bondage, and their possession of the land of Canaan, was a story which deeply interested the negroes. An old, pious, negro mammy who had often heard this story, expressed before her mistress the wish to see some of the Children of Israel, inasmuch as she could not visit the Land of Canaan. To humor her, the mistress, upon learning of the coming of a Jew peddler to the nearby village, told her servant she might pay a visit there, and view the "Child of Abraham." The servant soon returned, and indignantly exclaimed: "Missus ! days no Chillun o' Israel. Dat's de same of Jew peddler w'at sole me dem pisen, brass yearrings las' 'traded meetin' time. deli low down w'ite man as dat, he nevah b'long to no Lan' o' Cainyan."

    With some few exceptions, there was but one tavern in a county until after the Civil war, and that one was situated within the "Court House Bounds." From its earliest history, Virginia has been famed as the home of generous hospitality. A writer about the year 1700, in referring to the scarcity of inns or ordinaries in Virginia, state:

    "No people entertain their friends with better cheer and welcome, and strangers, and travelers are here treated in the most free, plentiful and hospitable manner, so that a few inns, or ordinaries en the road are sufficient."

    The tavern was usually built long and narrow, one and a half stories high, with dormer windows, the roof sloping down until it formed a cover for the porch which ran along the whole length of the house. At both ends of the building were stone or brick chimneys, built on the outside. The main body of a chimney-containing a fire-place within-was extended to cover the entire end of the house. It was a puzzle to the uninstructed, as to which was first built the house or the chimneys-or whether the chimneys were not originally intended for a larger building. The capacious fire-places, extending the whole width of the building, determined the wisdom of the builder. Around these fire-places, gathered the guests in the winter evenings within the warm, and cheerful glows emitted by the heaps of bright, blazing lags of pine, oak, or hickory. Here, in the language of an "Old Timer," yarns were "spun and swapped," and jokes told, the latest news related, while the listeners chewed their "sweet scented" tobacco, or smoked the pipe.

    Tobacco chewing, throughout the country at large, was a much more common custom, fifty or sixty years ago, than at the present day. The "Old Timers" worked their jaws upon a big wad of "home twisted" as rapidly, and constantly as a billy goat chewing upon his quid, and they expectorated the juice of the weed with a precision, and a profusion that was a wonder, and a shock to those whose esthetic taste forbade them to indulge in the habit of "chawin'."

    Cigars and "store tobacco" were not in use in early times. In those days, many of the elderly ladies, as well as the men, smoked the pipe. The pipe of tire elderly persons was either of clay, or corn cob, and from its long usage had the color of an old meerschaum, and the odors of a scorching hot tar barrel. There was fuel in abundance to keep bright fires, as "new ground" was being constantly added to the plantation, the clearing of which afforded an ample supply. The fuel, in logs of various lengths, was hauled to the wood pile and stacked up cane-shaped, to protect it from storms of snow and rain. There was seldom such a thing as a wood shed on a plantation before the Civil War, and rarely was the fire-wood chopped into proper lengths until immediate need required. At bed time, the bright coals were thickly covered with ashes which kept them alive and ready for the morning's fire, which was blown into flame with fire bellows. Fire-pans of iron, with lid and handle, were used to carry live coals from one fire place to another about the house. The open fire is now a rarity, especially in the later built dwellings of the cities. During the coming generation, the "family fire-side" will be but a fiction of the past.

    An Indian upon seeing one of these big fire places, and observing the apparent waste of flaming logs upon the fire, and the people seated at a distance from it, said

    "Ugh! Injure make little fire, sit close to him; white man make big fire, sit way off."

    The tavern floor was kept sanded with white sand neatly swept into fanciful curves. Attached to each tavern was a "horse lot" in which were stalls for horses and sheds for vehicles. In front of each tavern was a "horse rack" to which the animal was tethered awaiting either the guest or the hostler. Close to one corner of the tavern was a post to which was suspended a big bell, with rope attached, to summon the tavern keeper or hustler, or to announce "meal time," to the guests. The ringing of the tavern bell was notice to the whole village of a new arrival within its precincts.

    Court day was the one busy day of each month with a Tidewater tavern keeper, and if the weather was fair, he was assured of a goodly attendance at his table and "horse lot," the receipts from which aided him materially in "tiding over" until the following court, a month hence. In the year 1666, the "Ordinary" (tavern) charges for caring for "man and beast" were fixed by law to be paid in tobacco as follows

    "A meal for a master, 15 pounds of tobacco.
    "A meal for a servant, 10 pounds of tobacco.
    "Lodging for either, 5 pounds of tobacco.
    "Brandy, English spirits, or Virginia dram, per gal. 160 pounds tobacco.
    "Rum per gal. 100 pounds tobacco.
    "Cyder, or Perry, per gal. 25 pounds tobacco."

    In each tavern, there was a room where liquors were sold, which were drawn direct from cask, rundlet, or jug, as called for. There was no display of decanters, bottlers, or glassware, such as is seen in the latter day barroom, nor was the liquor "red liquor" -rectified and ruined. With the exception of perhaps some added water to aid in keeping up what would otherwise be a "short supply," the liquors were sold pure as they came from the distiller. They consisted mainly of whiskeys, rum, apple and peach brandies, and ales.

    The most common method of purchase was to call for a "Tickler." Customers called for their liquors in quantities of either gallons, quarts, pints, or half-pints, which were placed in jugs, or bottles, and after the purchaser imbibed or shared with a friend, the remainder of the "tickler" was set aside by the tavern keeper to be ready at the call of the purchaser, as often as needed until that tickler was exhausted. To "share the tickler" with a friend or acquaintance, is one form of old Virginia hospitality which has long since ceased. As a matter of necessity, every tavern keeper cultivated a "bed of mint," the fragrance of which was best appreciated when mired in a julep. The Virginian usually drank "straight ticker," but when he departed from this habit, it was either to enjoy his julep, or to add a little water to the liquor, and then it became "grog"

    Drinking was quite common in the early days. It is stated that even ministers of the gospel took their drams, often to their great shame.

    Virginia gave birth to very many "first things," amongst them being the "mint julep." The Kentucky Colonel, a prodigal son of old Virginia, when in his best humor, may lay claim to a patent on this famous beverage, but the evidence is against his claim as "first discoverer." It is related that shortly after Virginia consented to part with her claims upon Kentucky, as a "District of Virginia," -to enable her to become a state of the Union-an old Tidewater Virginian went to Kentucky to pay a visit to his son, who had settled there, and while riding along the road on horseback, he was overtaken by a heavy rainstorm. He sought shelter at the nearest dwelling he came to, and as the storm continued until night set in, his host prevailed upon him to spend the night. In grateful acknowledgement of the generous hospitality received, the Virginian mixed a mint julep for his host, and showed him how to drink it by burying his face in the fragrant mint. It is said the two sat up discussing its merits until the dawn of day, by which hour the Kentuckian had become proficient as a "miser." After a substantial breakfast, the Virginian departed on his journey much to the regret of his host. The Virginian remained several months with his son, and on his way back to his home, stopped at the gate of his former host and inquired of the old negro servant as to his master's health.

    "Dead suh ! Dead! T'was dis sere way suh ! Dat grass drink w'at you fix fur Mar's Jack he wuz mightily pleased wid, an' he wuz gittin' on mighty fine wid it, t'well a youngster cum 'long one day 'fum sum o' dese yere big towns in Virginny, an' he tole Mar's Jack dat dey all up in town drinks mint juleps wid straws, an' Mar's Jack he took to drinkin' hissen wid straws, an' de folke's all say dat what kills Mar's Jack-drinhin' wid straws."

    A famous Kentucky colonel is credited with the following remark: "There are two thin Ms a gentleman never refuses; one is a lady's request, and, the other, a mint julep."

    The old time tavern keeper cultivated land more or less extensively and raised food in abundance for his table. "Side dishes" were an unknown quantity in the old time tavern. A whole roast pig, turkey, goose, or ham, a quarter of lamb, or roast of beef, were placed within easy reach of the guest and he was invited, and expected to help himself. The carving knife and fork were placed within reach of the guest.

    Virginia taverns kept no subservient "waiters," who with clean or soiled napkin dangling over the arm, dance attendance only for "a tip." Young negro chaps were trained to "brush away the blue tail fly," and hand such dishes of food as might be beyond the reach of the guest. These duties they quietly performed, usually to the satisfaction of all, provided they did not fall asleep at their task. Old time servants would go to sleep with a suddenness that was appalling to one not acquainted with their habits. The habit of falling asleep was often indulged in by them, regardless of either time, occasion, or place.

    V. "STO' KEE, PIN" ' IN TIDEWATER VIRGINIA

    For several years after the first settlement was made, there was but one store in the whole of the vast territory then known as Virginia. This was kept by the cape merchant (treasurer), and from it the whole colony was supplied. Village and cross roads stores originated long after counties were formed and thickly populated. There was little necessity for stores in the early years of Virginia's history, as the clothing and other articles of wear, and many utensils also, were manufactured at the homes of the settlers. Such other things as they needed, and were unable to make at home, they were supplied with direct from Europe, else they managed to get along without them. The early inhabitants were necessarily resourceful, handy, and self-denying.

    In 1810, the assistant marshals who took the United States population census were required by law to tape an account of the several manufacturing establishments within their several divisions. As there was no formal schedule prescribed, each cue made his reports in his own way. These reports are interesting reading as showing the condition of the people at that late day-203 years after the first settlement at Jamestown. One of the Assistant Marshals reports as follows: "With few exceptions every household employs a common weaving loom, and almost without exception every family tans their own leather. No machines of a peculiar hind are used or belongs in the county. The materials for clothing are raised and consumed by its inhabitants. The quantity as near as may be is twenty-six yards for each person. The weaving with few exceptions is performed by females. There are about three female weavers for every loom."

    Another assistant marshal reports on a whiskey distillery as follows: "This establishment is of a late invention and a considerable curiosity which when in full operation manufactures 11-0 or u0 gals. of whiskey per day. The demand for its manufacture is invariably great, consequently the sale great. Sold for 50c. per gal."

    The great "Department Sores" of the cities must have had their prat conception from a vie,, of a well stocked Virginia country store, situated upon some important navigable stream, where the fisherman, oysterman, timberman, and farmer resorted for their sup supplies. . A well stocked country store must keep everything from a needle to a crowbar, from a piece of ribbon to a counterpane, from a spool of thread to a schooner's hawser, from a necktie to a suit of clothes, froze a tin cup to a set of furniture, from a hame string to a set of buggy harness. Whatever is called for and is not in stock, the merchant will obligingly offer something else, which may be a good substitute-for your money. E1 young negro husband failing to find a pair of shoes for his young son may find a substitute in jewsharps and gingercakes.

    The storekeeper is an obliging man, when a customer from a distance visits his store. Should the visitor be an aged lady, he will invite her to a seat and inquire about her health, and that of her family-for he knows all about her usually, as lie does of all his customers. Life in that section is like an "open book." Everybody knows everybody else "that's worth knowing," and the knowledge they have of one another is not obtained by inquisitive intrusion into one another's affairs. They and their forefathers have lived and mingled together in all the affairs of life so frequently and intimately that there could be no concealment of a "character" such as the noted "Dr. Jekyl and Mr. Hyde." It is both interesting and astonishing to hear the geneaology of families rehearsed with perfect knowledge by those living in far distant counties.

    If the old lady is "given to talk" she will give to the storekeeper a recital of all her troubles before she intimates her desire to trade. The storekeeper will listen attentively, forgetting at the time that he has troubles of his own, a few of which will develop when the old lady calls for many of the articles he is "out of," and of which he cannot convince her he bas good substitutes.

    Virginia folks are generally care to suit, and if they Cannot get what they call for, they will nevertheless often make purchases to the extent of the means which they carry for the occasion. If a customer calls for a pair of long shoe strings, and the storekeeper is "out" of long shoe strings, he may sell a name string instead, and the long shoe strings at a later day.

    The size and fit of many articles of clothing-shoes, Bats, pantaloons, etc., are determined upon by "reckoning" by the parents of the children who were "left at home." The father of a boy who needs a hat or pantaloons will "try the fit" of the hat upon his own head, and will "reckon" the size of the pantaloons of his boy, with outstretched arms, while grasping the bottom hems of each leg of the garment, and will at last "reckon they're all right." Unless these garments are for "Sunday wear," the exact fit is not of great importance. If the pants are "too short for Jim" they "will fit John," and Jim must wait until "Pap" goes again to the village store, at which time the kind mother insists that the child-18 year old Jim-should accompany Pap, and "get a fit." If Jim does not get a fit at the store, his "sweetheart" will surely have one when first she views her Jim in the new "rig" which the obliging storekeeper "put upon him" in lieu of what was called for and which he was "out of."

    It is much easier work to "keep sto"' in Virginia than it is to plough corn on a hot July day, or to chop cord wood on a cold winter's day in the lonely woods, and it is an especially easy job to keep store in the Forest section where the daily customers are few and far between, and so distant from a railroad that they do not ever entertain the notion of having to "catch a train," and therefore have abundance of time. The customer will feed his horse at the horse rack before lie gets ready to trade. The storekeeper will assist him in the feeding by the loan of an empty soap box, and may unhitch one side of the traces and breech band, and "shove the buggy back and give the hoss a chance."

    Barter was a common method of trading until after the Civil War, and is yet to a more limited extent. The merchant would take in trade anything which he could find a market for. He might get a few cords of wood from one customer, and a bag of goose feathers from another. The old lady knitters might barter the products of their busy fingersmittens, socks, and neck comforts-for Sunday "poke" bonnets and hoop skirts for their daughters. A lady attired in an old fashioned full hoop skirt which was in fashion "befo' an' endurin' uv de wah," was approachable only at the risk of upsetting her whole apparel.

    Whenever one side of the old fashioned hoop skirt came in contact with an object of greater resistance the opposite side tilted skyward; and when the wearer of this garment was about to be seated she was forced to fold the rear of the skirt nearly to her waist, else when she sat down the front of the garment would have tilted to an angle sufficiently high as to have exposed to view much of her underwear.

    Much of the business of a Forest store is yet conducted in "barter" the customer exchanging chickens and eggs, and other small products for such commodities as may be needed, or that the storekeeper may have on hand.

    During the first few years after the Civil War, the custom of bartering, or buying and selling, was new to the emancipated negro. Many of the older ones were industrious and successful enough to obtain homes of their own, or to rent land on shares, and thus become possessed of their own chickens, hogs, corn, and other products. These they carried to the nearby stores, and after their value was agreed upon, they exchanged-bartered them-with the merchant for his goods. As the negro was usually totally illiterate, and innocently ignorant of arithmetic, it was a task beyond his skill to keep a tally of "how he stood" after each purchase. Toward the ending of his bargaining, he might call for an article which greatly exceeded the "balance due" him, and upon being informed of his mistake, would generally "right himself," and clear up his account by calling for the balance in cheese and crackers, or ginger cakes and sardines.

    Cheese and crackers were universal favorites with the many, and the "ranker" the cheese the greater the demand. Usually the business of the Forest storekeeper does not warrant the help of a clerk, and when the storekeeper is "pushed with business" he will call upon some one of his customers to "lend a hand." During a "big rush of business" at a certain one of these stores, the merchant was assisted by a willing, but "green one," who was given charge of the cracker barrel and the cheese box, but unfortunately the cheese boy, and the "patent axle grease" bogy were in close proximity, and in a dark corner of the candle lighted storehouse. A negro called for the balance due him, in cheese and crackers, and after being served, he seated himself upon a barrel head, and began his repast. After he had finished his pound of crackers and a pound of cheese, it was discovered by the merchant that the "green helper" had given axle greese instead of cheese to the negro, who upon being asked how he liked the cheese, smacked his lips, and replied: "I 'spect Boss, yo' mus' a had dat cheese on han' a right smaht while; it's a little rankish."

    The Village store, and also the cross roads store in a thickly settled section, are popular resorts in the evenings for young and old. As they assemble, they occupy the stools, benches, nail kegs, barrel heads, and every other available article which will afford a seat, excepting the floor. The "late comers" seat themselves upon the counter, and then the evening's session begins by discussions of "neighborhood happenings," and subjects of important interest, etc., and winds up with laughable yarns by same kcal wit. In the meantime, the "sto' keeper" is complacently located behind his counter, propped up on a cracker, or sugar barrel, enjoying the "session," which is uninterrupted by "sordid traffic" until near "bed time," when there are sudden calls for "sto' tobacco," sugar, coffee, and matches. Thus the Tidewater Virginia storekeeper winds up his busy clays. The writer is indebted to these "nightly sessions" for much information and amusement.

    The store of a village, and prominent cross roads section, are the equivalents of the city social club house.

  • CHAPTER XXI - MISCELLANEOUS

    There are many other things about old Virginia worthy of narrative, and in this chapter the writer has presumed upon the reader to give in a miscellaneous way a number of matters, in which he has become interested.

    I. VIRGINIA FINANCIERING.

    The credit system in America originated in Virginia. In the early years of the Colony there was no money in circulation. Tobacco was the staple crop, the standard of values and the circulation medium, as well as the main article of export, for the planters. It became a necessity for the planter to seek credits for his pressing needs until the harvesting of his tobacco.

    This product was bulky and inconvenient to carry from place to place as a medium of exchange. Therefore, the Colonial Government authorized tobacco warehouses, called "rolling houses," from the method of rolling the tobacco along the road in hogsheads to the shipping point.

    In the early years of the colony, the public highways of Tidewater Virginia were almost impassable for heavily lade: vehicles. The planters therefore, in order to get their tobacco to the shipping point, prepared their hogsheads or casks, for rolling by driving a Ion, wooden spike into the center of each end of the cask, a part of which protected beyond to serve as axletree. A split sapling g was fitted for shafts and extended to rear of cask; the ends of the sapling shafts were there connected with a hickory withe; a few slabs were nailed to these, in front of the cask, forming a foot board or box, in which were stored for the journey, a middling or two of meat, a bag of meal, a frying pan, a hoe, an axe, and a blanket to shelter the driver at night, and fodder and corn for the animals.

    If the distance to market was moderate, the cask was rolled on its hoops, which were stout and numerous, bat if fifty or more miles, rough felloes were spiked to each end to strengthen it.

    There were men who engaged solely in this business. They traveled in parties and assisted each other on the journey. They were sometimes engaged one or two weeks in making the return trip. At night fall, they kindled a fire in the woods by the road side, baked a hoe cake, fried some bacon, fed their team, and rolled their blanket around them and slept, by the fire near their cask. The "tobacco rollers" were a rough set of men generally.

    A furnace stood near each warehouse, and tobacco unfit for export was burned there in accordance with law which forbade the sale of poor tobacco.

    These rolling houses were in charge of government inspectors who iv weighed, stored and sold the tobacco, and after the public dues were deducted, the balance was delivered to the producer.

    Acts were passed providing that the inspectors of the warehouses should be obliged to deliver promissory notes for the full quantity of tobacco received by them "which notes shall be and are hereby declared to be current and paible in all tobacco paiments whatsoever, acording to the species expressed in the note * * and shall be transferred from one to another in all such paiments, and shall be paid and satisfied by the inspector who signed the same upon demand." It was further provided that such notes could be renewed, and to counterfeit them was made a felony. If the notes were renewed and the fees paid, the tobacco was sold and the balance of the proceeds after collecting fees, was turned over to the last holder on demand.

    The fault in this system was the uncertainty and perishableness of its basis, if the tobacco spoiled or deteriorated in quality or quantity. Later acts were passed to guard against these conditions, in which it was provided that no "crop note" older than eighteen months should be legal tender.

    In 1033, an attempt was made, at the instance of the foreign merchants, to force the colonists to settle their debts in money and not in tobacco, and for this purpose an act of Assembly was passed with the following preamble:

    "Whereas it hath been the usual custom of merchants and others dealing intermutually in this colony, to make all bargains, and contracts, and to beep all accounts in tobacco, and not in money" * *. It then goes on to enact that in future they should be kept in money, etc. But it was found so inconvenient to represent value by an arbitrary standard, the representative of which did not exist in the colony, that another act was passed in January, 1641, declaring that:"Whereas many and great inconveniences do daily arise by dealing for money, Be it enacted and confirmed by the authority of this present Grand Assembly, that all money debts made since the 20th day of March, 1642, or which hereafter shall be made, shall not be pleadable or recoverable in any court of justice under this government."

    An exception was made in 1643 in favor of debts contracted for horses or sheep, but money debts generally were not mach recoverable again until 1656.

    For the whole Colonial period there were no banks. The "Bank of Alexandria," in Alexandria City, was the first bank chartered in Virginia by Act of Assembly, November 23, 1792.

    The first organized bank in the United States, and the first one which had any direct relation to the Government of the United States, commenced operation on January 7, 1782. It had its origin as a banking company without a charter, in a meeting of citizens of Philadelphia, on June 17, 1780, at which it was resolved to open a security subscription of 300,000 pounds, the intention being to supply the army which was at that time destitute of the common necessaries of life, and therefore was on the verge of mutiny.

    It was granted a charter by Congress, May 20, 1781, under the name of the Bank of North America. It also accepted a charter from the State of Pennsylvania, which was renewed from time to time until December 3, 1804, when it became a National Bank.

    The second bank of the United States was chartered by Congress, April 10, 1816, limited to twenty years, expiring March 3, 1830.

    Prior to the chartering of the National Banks, during the Civil War, the nation relied mainly upon the issue of State bank notes for the circulating medium of exchange, together with the small amount of gold and silver coins, much of which was of foreign coinage. In the year 1800, the money in circulation was $13.85 per capita. In the year 1905, it was $31.08 per capita.

    Great distress resulted from the floods of unchartered bank currency throughout the nation from 1812 to 1820, and in later years the chartering of banks, especially in the Nest, authorizing the issue of circulating notes without security and in excess of capital was the cause of much trouble. The Governor of Indiana, referring to such banks known as "Wild Cat" -said in his message in the year 1853, "The speculator comes to Indianapolis with a bundle of bank notes in one hand and the stock in the other; in twenty-four hours he is on his way to some distant point of the Union to circulate what he denominates a legal currency authorized by the legislature of Indiana. He has nominally located his bank in some remote part of the State, difficult of access, where he knows no banking facilities are required, and intends his notes shall go into the hands of persons who will have no means of demanding their redemption."

    Much of the money of that period was of such doubtful value that before being accepted in payment, it was subject to a discount of greater or lesser sum, which was graduated by the reputation of the bank of issue. The discount was especially large when the note was exchanged in a State other than that in which it was first issued.

    These financial conditions gave rise to "note shavers," and "money brokers." The former conducted business mainly in the rural sections, and the latter were found in the cities, and big towns throughout the United States, where they kept "open shop," with a display of bank notes and coin in their show windows, like jewelry shops of the present day, ready to exchange one State money for another-always for pay.

    The necessity of seeking credits during the early years of the colony of Virginia became the privilege and custom followed by many Virginia gentlemen up to the close of the Civil War. Court day was therefore a busy day with the "Note Shavers;" a class of men whose business it was to loan money, and to trade in financial paper of every description. They were shrewdly informed as to the ability of every "man of note" in their section, and could determine at a moment's notice the discount or premium at which the man's paper promises should be exchanged or received. The planters' notes passed from hand to hand in their own or the adjoining counties in payment of other debts, and were sometimes accepted, through the local merchants, in payment of their purchases in the nearby cities. The notes of a well-to-do planter-the owner of extensive lands and numerous servants-were as good, and in many cases were prefered to those of many of the bank notes then in circulation. The people were usually slow in making final settlements, many of whom renewed their promises from time to time until their death. This condition gave rise to a class of officers Commissioners-who thrived by the business of settling up such estates.

    Money was never the idol for the worship of Virginians. While they recognized its convenience, to a certain extent, they also recognized the fact, through a long experience, that they could lice and thrive without an abundance of this commodity. The owners of lands and servants procured all the necessaries, and the luxuries of food, which the soil, and the adjacent waters, could supply, and to that extent they were self-sustaining and independent.

    These people entertain no greedy anxiety to pile up dollars at the expense of their conscience, by sharp practices upon their fellow man, nor even at the sacrifice of great self-denial to their own needy comforts.

    A full corn crib, wheat bin and meat house, and enough goodly shaped stacks of blade fodder, to last until "grazing time," insures the thrifty owners an independence, and ease of conscience, which the millionaire possessor of ill gotten gains cannot experience, because these are the fruits of honest toil which none but the holders thereof have just claims upon.

    "Our portion is not large, indeed;
    But then how little do we need?
    For nature's calls are few:
    In this the art of living lies,
    To want no more than may suffice,
    And make that little do."

    Up to the period of the general introduction of machinery for the weaving and manufacture of cloth, and for many years thereafter, "homespun" goods supplied the wants of their household.

    Excepting where the planter was improvident, or a great spendthrift, the greater amount of indebtedness was created for additional lands and servants.

    Frequently the lands were tilled until they were no longer productive; they were then "turned out," and became "old fields," to replenish through years of "rest," while growing timber, after which they were again tilled. Thus it was that more land was needed than was cultivated during a season. Owing to a better system of soil cultivation, together with the many new industries that have been introduced since the Civil War, the "note shavers" ' occupation is now a lost art in that section.

    There is now established throughout the rural sections a system of private banks, known as the "Mumford Banking Co." Its stock is distributed throughout the localities of its several banks which are situated at the Court House villages, and the larger towns of Tidewater Virginia.

    Until within the last two or three decades, there was not a bank, postal money, or registry office, or express office within the whole section of rural tidewater.

    Prior to the establishment of these conveniences, the merchants and others were forced to depend upon the generosity of neighbors, who upon visiting a city were burdened with the money and messages of a neighborhood.

    The greatest financial struggle which the people of Virginia have experienced within a half century was directly after the Civil War. Much of the indebtedness during the four years of war, was in Confederate money, and when the war closed, with a repudiation of that currency, it left the debtor and the creditor in doubt as to how a settlement should be had. For this purpose, a "stay law" was enacted, which gave additional time for settlement.

    The rapid decline of this money is humorously illustrated in a story told of a Confederate soldier who was going to his home on a furlough, during the last year of the war, and while stopping at a village horse trough to water his horse, he was offered $3,000 for the animal. "Three thousand dollars," replied the soldier. "Why man, I just now paid the nigger hostler $1,000 for currying him."

    President Davis in his message of March 11, 1865, refers to the exorbitant prices charged for food for the army, "$50 a bushel for corn, $ 700 a barrel for flour."

    II. THE SUFFERINGS OF THE CIVIL WAR; SOME WAR POETRY.

    Gettsyburg was the greatest battle of the war; Antietam the bloodiest. Vherever the two armies alternated in the possession of a battle ground, the wounded were necessarily neglected, and thus it was that thousands died whose lives could have been saved by slight attention, which was impossible to render at the time of need.

    A battle field, after severe fighting, presented sights too horrible for the human eye. Upon these fields could be seen God's own image, torn limb from limb, and scattered like chaff before the wind, or found drenched in pools of the heart's blood, gory, ghastly, and sickening to the eye and the heart.

    Major General Darius 11. Couch, a Federal officer of the Civil War, in "Battles and Leaders," makes the following statement concerning the suffering and frightful slaughter, touching on the incident of the assault on Marye's Heights, battle of Fredericksburg, February 14, 1562: "The night was bitter cold and a fearful one for the front line hugging the hollows in the ground, and for the wounded who could not be reached. It was a night of dreadful suffering. Many died of wounds and exposure, and as fast as men died, they stiffened in the wintry air, and on the front line were rolled forward for protection to the living. Frozen men were placed for dumb sentries."

    Brigadier-General John B. Imboden, of the Confederate Army, makes the following statement respecting the moving of the wounded from Gettysburg back to Virginia

    " The column moved rapidly, considering the rough roads and darkness, and from almost every wagon for many miles issued heart rending wails of agony. For four hours, I hurried forward on my way to the front, and in all that time I was never out of hearing of the groans and cries of the wounded and dying. Scarcely one in a hundred had received adequate surgical aid, owing to the demands on the hard working surgeons from still worse cases that had to be left behind. Many of the wounded in the wagons had been without food for thirty-six hours. Their torn and bloody clothing, matted and hardened, was rasping the tender inflamed, and still oozing wounds. Very few of the wagons had even a layer of straw in them, and all were without springs. The road was rough and rocky from heavy washings of the preceding day. The jolting was enough to have killed strong men, if long exposed to it. From every wagon as the teams trotted on, urged by whip and shout, came such cries and shrieks as these:

    "Stop. Oh, for God's sake stop just one minute; take me out and leave me to die on the roadside.'

    "I am dying. I am dying. My poor wife, my dear children, what will become of you?"

    "Some were simply moaning; some were praying; and others uttering the most fearful oaths and execrations that despair and agony could bring from them, while a majority; with stoicism sustained by blind devotion to the cause they fought for, endured without complaint unspeakable tortures, and even spoke words of cheer and comfort to their unhappy comrades of less will and more acute nerves. Occasionally a wagon would be passed from which only low, deep moans could be heard. No help could be rendered to any one of the sufferers. No heed could be given to any of their appeals. Mercy and duty to the many forbade the loss of a moment in the vain effort then and there to comply with the prayers of the few. On, on, we must move on. The storm continued and the darkness was appalling. There was no time even to fill a canteen with water for a dying man; for, except the drivers and the guards, all were wounded and utterly helpless in that vast procession of misery. During this one night I realized more of the horrors of war than I had in all of the two preceding years."

    The last volley of the war was fired about sunset, on May 13, 1865, at the battle of Palmetto Rancho, between White's Rancho and the Boca Chica Strait, Texas, just ten days short of four years since the killing of Ellsworth and Jackson at Alexandria, Virginia. On April 2, 1866, President Johnson issued a proclamation declaring the Civil War to be at an end.

    The Civil War virtually ended when Lee and Grant met at 2 o'clock P. M., on Palm Sunday, April 9, 1865, at Wilmer McLean's dwelling, in Appomattox, Virginia, and agreed that the former war horses of the Confederates should thereafter be hitched to the plow instead of to the caisson.

    During the whole of the war, the excitement was intense throughout the whole country, and those only whose hearts were cold and selfish could refrain from taking sides with one or the other parties to this great conflict of arms. All true Americans, North and South, are proud of the valor and heroism displayed by both sides in that mighty struggle for a principle as each viewed it from their own standpoint.

    "Your flag and my flag and how it flies to-day,
    In your land and my land and half a world away;
    Rose red and blood red, its stripes forever gleam.
    Snow white and soul white, the good forefathers' dream;
    Slay blue and true blue, with stars that gleam aright,
    The gloried guidon of the day, a shelter through the night.

    " Your flag and my flag, and oh, how much it holds!
    Your land and my land secure within its folds;
    Your heart and my heart beat quicker at the sight,
    Sun kissed and wind tossed, the red and blue and white;
    The one flag, the great flag, the flag for me and you,
    Glorified all else beside, the red and white and blue."

    A civilization that permits the scenes of war has not accomplished a good mission upon earth. War, the worst survival of savage life, should forever cease, and arbitration of nations, and of communities should assume the responsibilities.

    When the war ended, the soldiers of the two armies returned to their respective homes, and took up anew the pursuits of civil life. The quiet and rapid manner in which these two great armies of veteran soldiers again resumed the duties of private life, was an astonishing lesson to the nations of the earth. Many of the ex-Federal soldiers, charmed with the climate and the people of the South, returned there to make it their abiding home.

    Negroes were employed in the work upon fortifications, in hospitals, and other places under the Confederate war department. The Journal of the House of Representatives of the Confederate States of America, 87th day, Monday, February 20, 1865, states:

    Several bills were introduced to "incorporate the colored people, so called, into the military service, into the Provisional Army of the Confederate States, and to organize them into companies, squadrons, battalions, regiments, brigades, divisions, or otherwise, as to the General in Chief may seem most expedient: Provided, That said organizations shall be commanded only by white commissioned officers," etc.

    Prior to this date, there were several such bills, or resolutions offered, but they failed in providing for negro soldiers for the defense of the Confederate States until March 'Y, 186, when a bill was, passed authorizing the President-Jefferson Davis-to ask for and accept from the owners of negro slaves as many able bodied negroes as he might deem expedient to perform military service in any capacity he might direct. President Davis in his message of March 13, 1865, refers to this bill as follows: "The bill for employing negroes as soldiers has not reached me though the printed journals of your proceedings inform me of its passage. Much benefit is anticipated from this measure, though far less than would have resulted from its adoption at an earlier date, so as to afford time for their organization and instruction during the winter months."

    The historian Pollard, in his life of Jefferson Davis makes the following comment upon this latter bill for arming the slaves: "The fruits of this emasculated measure were two companies of blacks organized from some negro vagabonds in Richmond, which were allowed to give free balls at the Libby Prison and were exhibited in fine, fresh uniforms on Capitol Square, as decoys to obtain sable recruits."

    From Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-186, Vol. VII, page 542, 75th day, Monday, February 6, 1865.

    "Mr. Moore offered the following resolution"

    "Resolved. That the Committee on Military Affairs inquire into the expediency of investing the President with the authority by law to call into the service of the Confederate States all the able bodied negro men within the limits of said States, to be used in such manner and for such purposes as the Commander in Chief of our armies may direct, and on such terms as he may think will render them most efficient in aiding in the military defences of our country."

    Several amendments to this resolution were offered, amongst which was that of Mr. Marshall, by which the President was authorized to "call into the military service of the Confederate States such number of the male colored population, whether free or slave, between the ages of 18 and 45 years as may be called for by the General in Chief commanding the armies of the Confederate States and as the President may deem it expedient and conducive to the public interest to use in defense of the country. He is hereby authorized to incorporate the colored people, so called, into the military service, into the Provisional Army of the Confederate States, and to organize them into companies, squadrons, battalions, regiments, brigades," etc. It provided that these be commanded by white officers, to be appointed by the President. They were to receive the same clothing, pay, rations, etc., as white soldiers.

    "In 1801, 300 free negroes of Petersburg, Va., offered their services to the Confederate Government either to fight under white officers, or to ditch and dig."

    Many servants were voluntary followers of their soldier master. In many cases, they were the faithful nurse, or the heart broken, only friend at the master's death upon the battle field. For such devoted service, the old ex-Confederate would plight his life for his sable friend.

    The favorite song of the Confederacy was "Dixie," which it is said was composed in the year 1860, by Dan Emmett, a famous comedian, born in New York City.

    God made dis worl' in jus' six days
    An' finish'd it in various ways.

    Chorus

    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.
    He den made Dixie trim an' nice,
    When Adam called it "Paradise"
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.

    Den I wish I was in Dixie, look 'way, look 'way
    In Dixie Lan' I'll took my Stan' to lib and die in Dixie.

    Away, away, away down South in Dixie,
    Away, away, away down South in Dixie,

    I wish I was in de lan' ob cotton,
    Old times dar are not forgotten.
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.
    Den I wish I was in Dixie, look 'way, look 'way.

    'Twas Dixie lap' wkar I was born in
    Early on one frosty mornin'
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.

    In Dixie lap' de darkies grow
    If white folks only plant der toe
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.
    Bey wet de group' wid 'bacco smoke
    Den up de darkies head will poke
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.

    Buckwheat cakes an' cornmeal batter
    Makes you fat or a little fatter
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.

    But if yo' want to drive away sorrer,
    Come an' hear dis song termorrer
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.

    Den hoe it down an' scratch yo' grabble
    To Dixie Ian' I'm boun' to trabble
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.

    Den here's de health to my ole Missus,
    An' all de gals dat wants to kiss us
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie lan'.
    Away, away, away down South in Dixie.

    At the beginning of the Civil War the Potomac River was the dividing line between the Confederate and the Federal States.

    The following poem was written by a Confederate soldier from Mississippi, named Fontaine, who was noted for his daring deeds during the siege of Vicksburg.

    It is said it was inspired by having his friend and comrade shot down in his presence by an unseen sharpshooter:

    "All quiet along the Potomac," they say,
    Except here and there a stray picket
    Is shot as he walks on his beat to and fro,
    By a rifleman hid in the thicket.

    'Tis nothing-a private or two now and then
    Will not count in the news of the battle;
    Not an officer lost-only one of the men
    Moaning out, all alone, the death-rattle.

    All quiet along the Potomac to-night,
    Where the soldiers lie peacefully dreaming;
    Their tents, in the rays of the clear autumn moon
    Or in the light of their camp-fires, gleaming.

    A tremulous sigh as a gentle night wind
    Through the forest leaves softly is creeping,
    While the stars up above with their glittering eyes
    Keep guard o'er the army while sleeping.

    There is only the sound of the lone sentry's tread
    As he tramps from the rock to the fountain,
    And thinks of the two on the low trundle bed
    Far away in the cot on the mountain.

    His musket falls back, and his face dark and grim,
    Grows gentle with memories tender
    As he mutters a prayer for the children asleep,
    For their mother-may heaven defend her!

    The moon seems to shine as brightly as then,
    That night when the love yet unspoken
    Leaped up to his lips and when low murmured vows
    Were pledged to be ever unbroken.

    Then, drawing roughly his sleeve o'er his eyes,
    He dashes off tears that are welling,
    And gathers his gun close up to its place
    As if to keep down the heart swelling.

    He passes the fountain, the blasted pine tree,
    His footsteps are lagging and weary
    Yet onward he goes through the broad belt of light
    Toward the shades of the forest so dreary.

    Hark! was it the night wind rustled the leaves.
    Was it moonlight so wondrously flashing?
    It looked like a rifle. "Ha! Mary, good-by!"
    And the life-blood is ebbing and plashing.

    All quiet along the Potomac to-night,
    No sound save the rush of the river;
    While soft falls the dew on the face of the dead-
    That picket's off duty forever.

    III. THE EX-CONFEDERATE SOLDIER

    The Confederate soldier reached his home upon his lean war horse which Grant and Lee both agreed he needed to plow his land. The less fortunate infantryman, who belonged to the "walkin' regiments," came home barefoot, and each and all of them with their clothing full of holes, some of which were made by briars, and some by bullets. The four years of Civil Par, from which they returned, was not a series of pleasant picnics, or of mimic war, but was a serious and shocking endeavor of men of the South and of the North to kill one another or to run big risks in trying.

    The hardships which a soldier endured in the time of war, are almost beyond belief. In the matter of clothing and food, the Federal soldier was better provided than the Confederate. This was due mainly to the fact that the Federal Government had the outside world to draw from while the Confederacy was obliged to depend upon home products, and the few articles brought in by blockade runners. During the last two years of the war, the capture of a big Federal supply train was a matter of as much significance to the Confederates as the victory on a battle field.

    The enormous increase of prices of articles in the Confederate States was so alarming as to force the Confederate Government to an effort to regulate them. All attempt was made in the year 1564 to enforce the following schedule of prices:

    Salt, bush $35.00 Potatoes (Sweet) bus. $4.00
    Axes, each 12.00 Pork (fresh) lb. 2.25
    Bacon, lb. 3.00 Quinine, per oz. 56.00
    Apples (dried), lb 5.00 Cotton cloth, yd. 1.20
    Beef, (fresh), lb 1.00 Steel (cast) per lb 8.00
    Candles, lb. 8.75 Shoes (army) 15.00
    Coffee (Rio) lb 4.00 Soap (rosin) lb. 1.00
    Flour, (bbl.) 45.00 Sugar (brown) lb. 3.00
    Horses or mules, each. 1000.00 Tea, lb 8.00
    Oxen, yoke 1000.00 Tobacco (plug) 3.00
    Iron (pig), ton 350.00 Tallow, lb 2.50
    Iron (wrg't bars) ton.. 1030.00 Duck (10oz.) Yd. 1.50
    Lard, lb. 2.75 Whiskey, gal. 10.00
    Leather, sole, lb 6.00 Wheat, bus. 7.50
    Nails, cut, keg 100.00 Wool, lb 8.00
    Onions, bush 8.00 Wagon 350.00

    It is stated that after the first year of the war, the daily rations of a Confederate soldier when marching or fighting, were one pint of cornmeal, one-fourth poured of bacon. If camping, in addition to this he drew one-fourth pound of sugar, or one-half pint of molasses, threefourths of a pound of black peas, one ounce of salt, and one-eighth of a pound of soap, and on Christmas Day, a "jagger of pinetop whiskey."

    When Confederate General F. Kirby Smith invaded Kentucky in 1862, his army had ten days' rations issued to them and started afoot over the mountains to get in the rear of Cumberland Gap. At the end of the sixth day, there were not six pounds of rations in the whole division. In order to supply his men with something to eat, he bought whole field of corn, which were in the roasting ear stage, and the soldiers were told to help themselves. Having left their wagon and supply train behind with their cooking utensils, they, were obliged to build fires to roast the corn, the result being that it was burned black on the outside and raw on the inside. An ex-Confederate soldier told the writer that his daily ration for more than a week before the surrender at Appomattox, was an ear of corn for himself and three for his horse.

    It is tradition, that there was but one man in the whole of Tidewater Virginia who failed to do his duty when called upon by his mother State, Virginia, and this was an old fellow who had been a lone widower for many years, and just at the date when the State of Virginia issued an urgent call for more troops, which included men of his age, he happily met with a worthy helpmeet in the person of a widow, who had cast off her widow's weeds many years without benefit until this last and fortunate meeting with the hero of this story. His newly made spouse believing in the adage that "he who is in battle slain can never rise to fight again," declared to him in pleading tones that she would die if he went to the war, and to save her life, he consented to submit himself to her guidance. Fortunately for her scheme, she discovered an old, discarded hen's nest full of eggs that had attained an age of strength which made them famous in strong odors. This affectionate wife selected two from the nest which she believed had secreted the most substantial and lasting odors, and with these, she filled both ears of the idol of her eye, then plugged each ear solidly with cotton batting, and accompanied him to the recruiting officer for the physical examination which each new recruit must undergo. Upon being questioned by the examining surgeon as to his ailments, the good wife answered that her spouse was "a great sufferer from a misery in his ears." Upon removing the cotton plugs, and inhaling the pent up odors of the discarded nest, the officer was convinced, and hastily advised the good woman to get her husband home as rapidly as possible as he had "but a short while to live."

    When the Confederate soldier first reached his home after the war, he was angry, but he soon banished this feeling, and discovered there were victories to be won in peace as glorious as any he had participated in as a soldier. Occasionally, he found a proxy, to give vent to feelings such as his, in the person of a noted ballad singer named "Gregory," who, immediately after the war, conducted what was acknowledged by all his audience as "The Best One Alan Show on Earth." Gregory could count on a "full house" and a most boisterous and hearty encore wherever, and as often as he sang "The Good Old Rebel," accompanying his voice with his nimble fingers on a big banjo. The words of this ballad were full of the strength of expression, and the sound of defiance suitable to the times. Gregory's voice in song made many a heavy heart feel light. Peace to his ashes is the wish of all who ever heard him.

    THE GOOD OLD REBEL

    "O, I'm a good rebel,
    Now that's just what I am,
    For this "Fair land of Freedom"
    I do not care a damn;
    I'm glad I fit against it,
    I only wish we'd won,
    And I don't want no pardon
    For anything I done.

    "I hates the Constitution,
    This great Republic too,
    I hates the freedman's Buro,
    In uniform of blue;
    I hates the nasty eagle
    With all its bragg and fuss
    The lyin', thievin' Yankees,
    I hates them wuss and wuss.

    "I hates the Yankee nation
    And everything they do,
    I hates the Declaration
    Of Independence too;
    I hates the glorious Union
    --Tis dripping with our blood
    I hates their striped banner,
    I fit it all I could.

    Three hundred thousand Yankees
    Is stiff in Southern dust;
    We got three hundred thousand
    Before they conquered us;
    They died of Southern fever
    And Southern steel and shot,
    I wish they was three million,
    Instead of what we got.

    I followed Old Ma's Robert
    For four years near about,
    Got wounded in three places,
    And starved at Pint Lookout;
    I cotched the roomaatism
    A campin' in the snow,
    But I killed a lot o' Yankees,
    I'd like to kill some mo'.

    I can't take up my musket
    And fight 'em now no more,
    But I ain't a-going to love 'em,
    Now that is sartin sure;
    And I don't want no pardon,
    For what I was and am,
    I won't be reconstructed,
    And I don't care a damn."

    After a while spent in neighborhood pleasures in which he participated with a zest that proved they were appreciated by him, the Confederate soldier laid aside his tattered uniform of grey and went to work as he had oftentimes gone to battle-determined to win. The cleared fields, the many new industries, and the prosperous happy homes in the "New Southland" tell the story of the success of the "Old Confederate soldier returned from the war."

    Throughout the several counties of Virginia, in nearly every instance, there are erected beautiful monuments of granite or marble shafts, silent but loving tributes to the memory of the "Soldier of the Southern Confederacy." They were paid for and are maintained by the voluntary contribution of the people in the respective counties.

    IV. THE MERRIMAC AND MONITOR

    The several peninsulas into which Tidewater Virginia is divided have each their own interesting history which unfortunately cannot be noted here. In fact, each county of that section is so intimately, and sufficiently connected with incidents of the earliest settlements of America, and with other later important events of America's history as to furnish data for large volumes.

    Virginia guards the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay, as the lands upon both sides of the Capes, Charles and Henry, from the shores of the Atlantic Ocean inland, are the territory of the State.

    On the south side of the entrance is Cape Henry, and there begins the "Norfolk Peninsula." This region in which the colonists first set foot upon Virginia's soil now contains the second largest city in the State. It is named Norfolk, and was first established as a town in 1705. Its location for a town was selected by Act of Assembly, in 1680, which provided for the building of a town in each of the twenty counties then formed: "In Lower Norfolk County on Nicholas `Vise his land on the Capital Eastern Branch on Elizabeth River at the entrance on the Branch." It is one of the few cities of America receiving its charter from the Crown of England. In 10'36 it was formed into a Borough by Royal Charter from George III.

    The U. S. Navy Yard is situated within the same harbor, on Elizabeth River in that portion known as Gosport, within the city of Portsmouth which was established in 1752. The early settlers of this section were mainly Scotch and Irish.

    This vicinity was often the scene of important military events in the wars of the Revolution, and in 1812-15, and also during the Civil War. The most notable event occurring in that vicinity during the Civil War was the fight between the first iron clad vessels ever to engage in battle.

    From out of Norfolk harbor on Saturday, March 8, 1862, there came the first "iron clad" vessel to fight a naval battle in the history of the world. This iron clad was formerly the U. S. steam frigate "Merrimac," which was partly burned and sunk in this harbor in 1861, at the evacuation of the Navy Yard there by the Federals. She had been raised by the Confederates and transformed into an "iron clad," and named "Virginia." On the day above mentioned, this vessel, more frequently referred to in history as the "Merrimac," without serious injury to herself or crew destroyed several large vessels of the Federal fleet near Newport News, and on the following day but for the timely arrival of an "iron clad" vessel built for the Federal Government by Ericsson, and named the "Monitor," she would have swept the seas, as there was then no vessel afloat on the waters of this planet, except the "Monitor," which was her equal or could withstand her attack.

    On Sunday March 9, 1862, the Merrimac returned from Elizabeth River, where she had harbored during the night, and when reaching Hampton Roads to complete the destruction of the remaining vessels of the Federal fleet, she was met by the "Monitor," which had arrived there during the early hours of that morning. The four hours' battle upon this day between these two vessels is world renowned as the first ever fought between iron clad vessels. The Merrimac was the greater sufferer of the two in the engagement which followed with the Monitor.

    The Commander of the Merrimac, Commodore Franklin Buchanan and several others on board were severely wounded and some killed. Two of her guns were broken; her armor damaged; her anchor and all her flagstaffs were shot away, and the smoke stack and steam pipe riddled. This vessel during the two days she was in action, assisted by five other Confederate vessels-the Jamestown, Patrick Henry, Raleigh, Beaufort and Teazer-caused a loss to the Federals, in killed and wounded, nearly 400 men, and the frigates Congress and Cumberland, the tug Dragon, and great damages to the Minnesota. This was the last fight between these two iron clads; the Confederates subsequently destroyed the Merrimac when they evacuated Norfolk.

    McKean Buchanan, brother of the Commander of the Confederate Merrimac, was an officer on board the U. S. frigate Congress at the time she was destroyed by the former vessel which his brother commanded. Thus did brother fight against brother during the Civil War.

    Owing to its shape, the Monitor escaped serious injury to her hull or to her crew in this desperate encounter, excepting her commander, Lieut. John L. Worden, who was severely wounded in the eyes. While viewing the Merrimac through the peep hole in the turret of his ship a shot from that vessel struck fairly in front of his view; it shivered some cement and cast it so violently in his face that it blinded him for several days. Others in the turret were knocked down by the concussion, but no one seriously injured.

    There was very great difference in the shape of these two first iron clad vessels. The Merrimac, or Virginia, appeared when afloat, like a huge roof. Her hull was 275 feet long; about 160 feet of the central portion was covered with a roof of wood and iron inclining about 36 degrees. This and her sides were composed of oak timbers 28 inches thick, covered 6 inches deep by railway iron bars and iron plates. A bulwark or false bow was added, and beyond this was a strong oak and iron beak, thirty-three feet long, for ramming. She carried on each side four eighty pounder rifled cannon. Two of the rifles, bow and stern pivots were seven inch, of 14,500 pounds; the other two were 6.4 inch, of 9,000 pounds each. She had furnaces for heating shot and apparatus for throwing hot water. She was intended to "make the Yankees hot."

    The Monitor was described by the Confederates as a "Yankee cheese box set on a plank." The deck of the Monitor was only a few inches above water. The round revolving turret was twenty feet in diameter and ten feet in height above deck. The smoke stack was made so as to be lowered in action. The hull was double, sharp at both ends; the upper hull five feet in height rested on the lower and extended over it three feet seven inches all around, excepting at the ends where it projected twenty-five feet, affording protection to the anchor, propeller and rudder. It was only six feet six inches deep, with a flat bottom, and was one hundred twenty-four feet in length and thirty-four feet in width at the top.

    The whole was built of three inch iron. Its exposed parts were guarded by a wall of white oak, thirty inches thick in which was laid iron armor six inches thick. The deck contained nothing on it when in action but the turret-"cheese box" -the wheel house, and a box covering the smoke stack.

    The turret was a round revolving iron Martello tower, twenty feet in diameter, and ten feet high; it was composed of eight thicknesses of one inch iron plate. The only entrance into the vessel that boarders of it could find, was from the top of the turret, and then only one man at a time could descend. It contained two eleven inch Dahlgren cannon mounted. The turret was turned by a contrivance connected with the engine that propelled the vessel, which by the turning of a small wheel brought the turret around exactly where wanted to bring the guns to bear upon the other vessel.

    Lieutenant John M. Brooke, of the Confederate Navy, invented or planned the armor of the "Virginia," or "Merrimac," so called. It was considered a wonderful achievement in naval architecture, and would have destroyed the whole Federal fleet but for the more wonderfully constructed "Monitor."

    Notwithstanding that Ericsson (a native of Sweden, but a citizen of New York), constructed the Monitor, and is justly entitled to the high credit due his genius, nevertheless, his work of building such a ship without a turret would have been labor lost.

    The revolving turret on the Monitor was first the invention of an American boy named Timby, in 1841, when he was only 19 years old. He got the idea while passing Castle William in New York Harbor. It then occurred to him that a similar structure of iron, on a revolving base could bring all its guns to bear on any part of the channel. He filed a caveat for his invention in the Patent Office, on June 18, 1843. The same year he exhibited a model before President Tyler, a Tidewater Virginian, and his cabinet. Mr. Jefferson Davis, then Secretary of War, and later President of the Southern Confederacy, was one of the gentlemen who commended the invention, which later checked the career of the "Merrimac." Young Timby went to France with his model and exhibited it to Napoleon III, but nothing more came of the invention until Ericsson applied it in the Monitor.

    A brief sketch relative to the history of the two men, who planned and built these two iron clad vessels, the first of their class ever to engage in battle, may interest the reader.

    The inventor of the "Merrimac," later known as "Col." John M. Brooke, was also the inventor of deep sea sounding apparatus, which has enabled scientists to ascertain the nature of the ocean's bed. It was through his construction of the Virginia, or Merrimac, that the principle of submerged and extended ends was applied to warships which are used at this date by battleships.

    He was a son of Gen. Geo. M. Brooke, of Virginia, a distinguished officer in the U. S. Army during the War of 1812. He was married twice. His first wife was Miss Lizzie Garnett, sister of Gen. Richard Brooke Garnett, who was killed in Pickett's charge at Gettysburg. His second wife was Miss Corbin, of Tidewater Virginia. He was born near Tampa, !Florida, Dec. 18, 1826, and died at his home in Lexington, Virginia, Dec. 14, 1906, while holding the position of emeritus professor of physics at Virginia Military Institute.

    John Ericsson, who planned and built the "Monitor," was a Swedish engineer and physicist, a man of wonderful inventive genius. His inventions are too numerous to repeat here, but amongst them may be mentioned the first idea of successful artificial draft for locomotives, a caloric engine, the application of the propeller to purposes of navigation. In 1839, he came to New York, and in 1841 was employed in the construction of the ship of war Princeton, the first steamship ever built with the propelling machinery under water. He built the Monitor under contract with the Federal Government, and completed it in one hundred days. He was born in the province of Wermeland, Sweden, in 1803, and died in Stockholm, Sept. 8, 1870.

  • APPENDIX

    I. List of Governors of Virginia with Short Biographical Sketches.

    GOVERNORS OF THE COLONY 1607-1776.

    By the terms of the first charter of the London Company, dated April 10, 1606, there were two governing bodies, or councils. The Council resident in England, appointed by the King, had the chief direction of affairs for the Colony. It named the council to reside in and to control Virginia. Each of these two bodies were empowered to elect one of their own number as Chief Executive or President.

    Under the second charter, dated May 23, 1609, the Company was granted the power to choose the Council in England, and select a Governor who was invested with absolute civil and military authority, with the title of "Governor and Captain General of Virginia." This title was the most highly prized honor pertaining to the Colony, and the greater number of its recipients found it purely a sinecure which they had the liberty to enjoy at their leisure, without even the fatigue of a journey across the Atlantic's waters to view their honored charge.

    With few exceptions the actual duties of a colonial governor of Virginia were conducted in person within the Colony by those whose title ranked below that of the "Governor in Chief and Captain General of Virginia."

    The charter provided that in the absence of the Governor and Captain General, authority was to be vested in an appointed Deputy, or Lieutenant Governor, or in the absence of such officers power to act was then vested in the President of the resident Council. The charter of 1612 made no changes in the governorship. When the Company's charter was annulled, in 1624, the governors and the resident Council were appointed by the King, and this mode continued while the Colony was under British rule. Then the Council to reside in Virginia was appointed upon the recommendation of the Governor, or Lieutenant Governor.

    Sir Thomas Smith, a prominent merchant of London, and one of the assignees of the patents granted Sir Walter Raleigh, was the first President of the Council of the London, or Virginia, Company, and its treasurer resident in London, from 1606 to 1618. Sir Thomas Smith was eminently noted for his ability as a merchant and politician.

    The expedition which made the first permanent settlement of the English speaking people in America was under the charge of Capt. Christopher Newport until their seating at Jamestown, May 13, 1607. Newport had in his keeping when he sailed from London, a sealed box given him by the London Company, which contained instructions for the Colony, and the names of those persons whom the Company selected to be the members of the first Council to govern in Virginia. The box was opened upon the arrival of the three ships at Cape Henry, on April 26, 1607, and the names of the Council were read, together with the instructions for selecting a seating place. Newport retained control until the Colony reached Jamestown, then in accordance with their instructions the Council selected one of their number as President, for the term of one year.

    Edward Maria Wingfield, was chosen the first President of the Council resident in Virginia, on Dray 13, 1607. On September 10, 1607, he was deposed from this office because of disagreements with the Council. He returned to England shortly thereafter. He had been a companion of Ferdinando Gorges in the European wars, and was subsequently a captain in the British army in Ireland.

    Captain John Ratcliffe, President of the Council in Virginia, from September 10, 1607, to September 7, 1608. His original name was Sicklemore, which in early life he changed to Ratcliffe. In connection with Captain John Smith he was instrumental in deposing Wingfield from the office of President, and subsequently having quarreled with Capt. John Smith he favored hanging the doughty captain after the latter's romantic release from death by Pocahontas because Smith's crew were murdered by Opechancanough upon the occasion of Smith's capture.

    In December, 1608, Ratcliffe was forced to return to England with Newport, in fear "lest the company (colonists) should cut his throat," is the reason assigned by Capt. Smith for Ratcliffe's departure. In July following Ratcliffe returned to Virginia in the ship "Diamond." In 1610 while trading with the Indians on the York River he was murdered with twenty-five of his men.

    Captain John Smith, President of the Council in Virginia, from September 7, 1608, to October, 1609, when he returned to England to be treated for wounds received by accidental explosion of gun powder while upon his boat in the James River. Elsewhere in this volume is a biographical sketch of this remarkable man.

    Captain George Percy, appointed by Capt. John Smith, President of the Council in Virginia, from October, 1609, to May 24, 1610, and on March 28, 1611, was appointed Deputy Governor by Lord Delaware until the arrival of Sir Thomas Dale, May 19, 1611. He was the younger brother of the Earl of Northumberland, in whose honor one of the counties in the "Northern Neck" was named. He was the eighth son of Henry Percy, eighth earl of Northumberland; born September 4, 1580, and having returned to England on April 22, 1612, he died there in 1632.

    He served with distinction in the wars of the Low Countries, and was the author of "A True Relation of the Proceedings and Occurrences of moment which have happened in Virginia from the time Sir Thomas Gates was shipwrecked upon the Bermudas, 1609, until my departure out of the Country, 1612." During his control as President occurred what is known as "The Starving Time," in the colony.

    Sir Thomas Gates, Lieutenant General and Deputy Governor, from May 24, 1610, until the arrival of Lord De La Warr, or Delaware, on June 10, 1610.

    Sir Thomas Gates was one of the patentees named in the first charter of the London Company, and was a captain in the British army and served in the United Netherlands in 1608.

    In company with a fleet of eight other vessels he sailed for Virginia in May, 1609, but his vessel, the "Sea Venture," was carried to the Bermudas by a violent hurricane and there stranded. During the nine months in which he and his fellow passengers were detained upon the Bermudas they constructed two vessels from the remains of the "Sea Venture" and from cedars found upon the island. When they reached Virginia they found the Colony in a starving condition, and the colonists determined to abandon Virginia. They desired to set sail in Gates' ships for Newfoundland. Their departure was prevented by the arrival of Lord Delaware with his ships loaded with supplies. Gates was sent to England by Lord Delaware for further supplies for the Colony, and in June, 1611, returned to Virginia with six ships, carrying his wife and two daughters, three hundred colonists and supplies. His wife died on the voyage, and his daughters returned to England. He was an earnest advocate of the colonization of Virginia. It is not known where he died.

    Sir Thomas Surest, third Lord De La Warr, or Delaware, was appointed under the new charter of May 23, 1609, "Governor and Captain General of Virginia" for life. He reached Jamestown June 10, 1610, just in time to prevent the few remaining half famished colourists from deserting Virginia forever. He was the first Governor ever appointed for Virginia, and by his timely arrival induced the colonists to return to Jamestown. During his short stay with the Colony he restored confidence, order and contentment. On March 28, 1611, he sailed for the Island of Mevis to restore his failing health. He returned thence to England, where he exerted his influence for the betterment of the Colony and aided in securing the third charter for the Company, which was granted March 12, 1612, by the King. He set sail from England to Virginia in March, 1618, and died on the voyage on June 7, in or near the Delaware Bay, which together with the State and river of that name commemorates his name on this continent.

    Captain George Percy, who succeeded Captain John Smith upon the latter's return to England in 1609, was left in charge of the Colony, as President of the Council, from the date Lord Delaware left for the Island of Mevis-March 28, 1611, until the arrival of Sir Thomas Dale, on May 19, 1611. Elsewhere is a reference to this gentleman.

    Sir Thomas, Dale, Acting Governor, under his appointment. as "High Marshall," reached Jamestown May 19, 1611, and in August, 1611 was superseded by Sir Thomas Gates.

    He was a soldier of distinction in the Low Countries for which he was knighted by King James I. Under his direction a settlement was made named Henrico, on the James River and the first allotment of land-three acres-were made to individual colonists.

    In March, 1613, Gates returned to England, and Dale resumed the duties of Acting Governor, until April, 1616, when he returned to England. It was while he was Governor that John Rolfe and Pocahontas were married. Although he had a wife living in England, it is said he sent a proposal through one of his friends to Powhatan, for the younger sister of Pocahontas to become his wife, which offer Powhatan artfully refused.

    In 1619, while in England, he was appointed commander of six ships of the East India Company. While fighting against the Dutch he contracted a disease which resulted in his death in 1620.

    Captain George Yeardley, as President of the Council in Virginia, upon the departure of Dale was made Deputy Governor from April, 1616 to May 15, 161'7, when he was superseded by Captain Samuel Argall, after which he returned to England, and after the death of Lord Delaware, he was knighted Sir George Yeardley by the King to succeed the former as "Governor and Captain General of Virginia." He reached the colony April 19, 1619, and assumed control until superseded by Sir Francis Wyatt on November 8, 1621, and when Wyatt retired on May 1'Y, 1626, Yeardley for the third time was appointed Governor. During his several administrations as Governor there were many important changes for the betterment of the Colony. He acquired mach territory for the Colony from the natives by reprisal and purchase. During his second administration he called together the first legislative assembly ever convened on this continent, at Jamestown, on July 30, 1619, and on the following August the first negro slaves ever in the British colonies were brought to Jamestown. He successfully urged the London Company to send wives to the colonists. He died November 10, 1627, deeply regretted by the colonists, who publicly extolled his virtues.

    Captain Samuel Argall, succeeded Sir Geo. Yeardley. A sketch of his career before his appointment will be of interest to the reader.

    Capt. Argall was born at Bristol, England. His first appearance in the Colony was in July, 1609, in command of a ship load of liquors and provisions for trade with the Colony at Jamestown, and to fish for sturgeon on his private account-against the regulations of the Company. He made several trips across the ocean back and forth from Jamestown to England, carrying provisions for the Colony, and trading with the Indians in Virginia. Upon his first voyage up the Potomac, for purpose of trading for corn, he discovered that Pocahontas was visiting at the seating place of an Indian chief named Japazaws, said to be her paternal uncle. Argall prevailed upon Japazaws and his wife to entice Pocahontas aboard of his vessel, for which the chief was to receive a copper kettle, and his wife some toys-a looking glass, beads, etc. The plot was successful and Pocahontas was carried to Jamestown, and was so well treated by all the Colony that she became resigned to her captivity, and subsequently married John Rolfe, mention of which is heretofore made. In 1614, under order from Sir Thomas Dale, High Marshal of Virginia, Argall with a vessel of fourteen guns and crew drove the French settlers off Mount Desert, on the Coast of Maine. He carried his French prisoners to England, where he was put upon trial for disturbing peaceful relations between the French and English Colonies. He succeeded in vindicating his actions, and on May 15, 161'x, he is found again in Virginia, with the appointment of Deputy or Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. Upon his arrival at Jamestown he found "the market place, streets, and other spare places planted in tobacco," which had then become the staple crop of the Colony. He rendered himself so odious to the Colony that he was recalled, and secretly stole away from Virginia ten days before the arrival of Sir George Yeardley-April 19, 1619, who had been knighted and appointed Governor and Captain General of Virginia, as heretofore stated. It is related that Argall had a moneyed interest in the first cargo of negro slaves to reach Virginia. The fact that he was a relative of Sir Thomas Smith, the President and Treasurer of the Virginia Company in London may account for his successful defense of his many illegal acts. In 1622 he was knighted by King James I and made Admiral in command of several English and Dutch ships. His attempted unsuccessful exploits against the Spaniards through the desertion of several of his English ships "broke his heart," and in February, 1626, he died.

    Captain Nathaniel Powell, President of the Council in Virginia, was, after the sadden departure of Argall, acting Governor of the Colony from April 9, 1619, until the arrival of Sir Geo. Yeardley, April 19, 1619, as heretofore related. Powell was one of the colonists who came to Virginia in 160'Y. He accompanied Newport on his voyage up the York River, and was with Capt. John Smith when the latter explored the Chesapeake Bay. It is stated that he compiled Smith's maps of this voyage. During the Indian massacre of 1622, he was murdered with his wife and daughter and several others upon his plantation on the James River.

    Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor and Captain General of Virginia, from November 8, 1621-the expiration of Yeardley's term-to May 17, 1626, when he returned to Ireland to attend to his private affairs occasioned by the death of his father there.

    He was accompanied to Virginia by nine ships, containing supplies and immigrants. Amongst those of prominence who came with him were his brother, Rev. Hunt Wyatt, William Claiborne, as surveyor, George Sandys, who subsequently translated the first book ever written in Virginia-the Metamorphoses of Ovid. With Wyatt also came Doctor John Pott, who in a short while became famous as President of the Council in Virginia, and Acting Governor of the Colony, and later was made infamous through being the first person convicted by a jury trial in the colony.

    Wyatt brought to the Colony the new constitution, granted July 24, 1621, by which all former immunities and franchises were confirmed. The opening clause of his instructions were: "To keep up the religion of the church of England as near as may be; to be obedient to the King and do justice after the form of the laws of England, and not to injure the natives; and to forget old quarrels now buried." Trial by jury was first granted under his administration and an annual assembly provided. The most important clause in the new constitution was the stipulation that no act of the assembly was to be valid unless it should be ratified by the Virginia Company in London; and no order of the London Company was to be obligatory in the Colony without the concurrence of the assembly. On March 22, 1622, less than five months after Wyatt assumed the duties of Governor, there occurred the great Indian massacre under the leadership of Opechancanongh. Through the direction of this crafty chief, who professed great friendship for the Colony and thereby gained their confidence, the Indians succeeded in murdering 317 of the 1258 colonists then living in Virginia, and buy for the friendly warning of a converted Indian, who gave notice on the night preceding the massacre the whole colony would have been put to death. The effect of the massacre was to induce the frightened people to abandon their plantations, and force them into, and near Jamestown, thereby causing much destitution and sickness. Capt. John Smith was then in London and upon learning of the massacre made the offer to the London Company to protect all the settlers from the James to the Potomac rivers with 100 soldiers and 30 sailors. To this offer the Company replied they had not the means to send him to Virginia.

    The first "guest house" tavern for "the exclusive accommodation of strangers" was built in 1621, at Jamestown by Jabez Williams.

    Sir Francis Wyatt held three commissions as Governor. During his first administration the Virginia Company of London had their charter annulled by the Ding-June 16, 1624, and the King recommissioned him, and he was therefore the first Royal Governor of Virginia, until May 17, 1626, when as heretofore stated, lie returned to Ireland.

    In November 1639, he again received the appointment of Governor, and served until relieved by Sir William Berkeley, in February, 1642, when he returned to England where he died and was buried at Boxley, bent, in 1644.

    Sir George Yeardley, for the third time was commissioned Governor and Captain General, on March 4, 1626, and resumed the office, May 17, 1626. As stated heretofore, he died the November following.

    Captain Francis West, as President of the Council in Virginia, was acting Governor of Virginia from the death of Sir Goo. Yeardley November, 1626-to March 5, 1629, when he left. for England. He was the younger brother of Lord Delaware, born October 28, 1556. He accompanied Newport to Virginia in 1609, and was elected a member of the Council of the Colony in the following August. In November, 1622, he was appointed Admiral of New England, and while holding this position divided his time between the two colonies. While on a visit to England in 1629 he strenously opposed the project of Lord Baltimore to found a colony in Virginia. He returned to Virginia in 1631, and was a member of the Council there in 1633. It is not known when or where he died, though there is a tradition in the family that he was drowned.

    Doctor John Pott, as President of the Council in Virginia, succeeded Francis Nest, Acting Governor, from March 5, 1629, until the arrrival of Sir John Harvey, in March, 1630. Doctor Pott accompanied Sir Francis Wyatt to Virginia in 1621, as his physician, and soon thereafter he was elected a member of the Council in Virginia. During the July following Sir John Harvey's arrival in the Colony, when he superseded Doctor Pott, there occurred the first trial by a jury, and the first conviction under this new law ever in Virginia, during which Doctor John Pott, the former President of the Council, and who was also the former Acting Governor of Virginia, was tried and convicted before the first jury of the Colony, at Jamestown, for cattle stealing.

    Sir John Harvey, was commissioned Governor and Captain General of Virginia on March 28, 1628, but did not reach Virginia until March, 1630, when he superseded Doctor John Pott, to April 28, 1635, when lie left Virginia for England to answer charges against him made by the Assembly of Virginia. Harvey was said to be the most unpopular of all the royal governors. He made many enemies in the Colony by siding with Maryland in the dispute between that Colony and Virginia for the possession of Kent Island. It was charged that his actions in this contest were venal and dishonestly selfish. Harvey remained in England until April 2, 1636, when he returned to Virginia with a new Commission as Governor and Captain General from the King.

    Captain John West, as President of the Council in Virginia was Acting Governor-from April 28, 1635 to April 2, 1636, when Sir John Harvey came again to Virginia, having been reinstated as Governor by Charles I. Harvey administered as Governor until displaced by Sir Francis Wyatt, in November 1639.

    Sir William Berkeley, was first commissioned Governor and Captain General, August 9, 1641, and reached Virginia in February, 1642. He continued to administer the duties of Governor until June, 1644, when he visited England and remained there until June, 1645. Richard Kempe acted as Governor during Berkeley's absence. Upon Berkeley's return to Virginia in 1645, he resumed the duties of Governor and Captain General until April 30, 1652, when he was superseded by Richard Bennet, who continued to act as Governor under Cromwell until March 30, 1655, Bennet was succeeded by Edward Digges as Acting Governor, from March 30, 1655 to March 13, 1658, when Colonel Samuel Matthews was elected by the Assembly to succeed Digges. Matthews served until his death in January, 166!1

    There was no Governor of Virginia from the death of Matthews until March 23, 1660, when the Assembly re-elected Sir William Berkeley, and the King sent him a commission as Governor, dated July 31, 1660. Berkeley administered the duties of Governor until April 30, 1661, when he went to England at the request of the Colony to protest against the enforcement of the Navigation Act. During his absence upon this occasion Colonel Francis Morryson, or Morrison acted as Deputy Governor. Berkeley returned to Virginia December 23, 1662, and resumed the duties of Governor until April 27, 1676. When he was recalled by the King upon the urgent request of the most influential men of the Colony. In the meantime Thomas, Lord Culpeper was commissioned by the King, on July 8, 1675, Governor and Captain General of Virginia, for life. Among the important events of Berkeley's administration was the second Indian massacre on April 18, 1614, during which it is estimated there were between 400 and 500 of the colonists murdered. "Bacon's Rebellion," the burning of Jamestown, and the hanging of 23 of Bacon's followers by order of Berkeley, are among the events which made his administration so unpopular that his sovereign, Charles II, when recalling him, said: "The old fool has taken more lives in his naked country than I have taken for my father's murder."

    His reply to the Commissioners sent from England to inquire into the condition of the Colony is an evidence of his intolerant character. "Thank God!" said he upon that occasion, "there are no free schools or printing presses, and I hope there will be none for a hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and printing has divulged these and other libels."

    Richard Kempe, who acted as Governor during Berkeley's absence in England from June, 1644, to June, 1645, was a member of the Council in 1612, and its President in 1644. The first fast day, and Thanksgiving day ever In the Colony was ordered during Kempe's administration, at Jamestown on February 17, 1645. It was enacted by the Assembly "For God's glory and the publick benefit of the Collony to the end that God might avert his heavie judgements that are now upon us, That the last Wednesday in every month be sett apart for a day of (fast and humiliation, And that it be wholly dedicated to prayers and preaching." * * "That the eighteenth day of April be yearly celebrated by thanksgiving for oar deliverance from the hands of the salvages."

    Richard Bennett, who acted as Governor from April 30, 1652, to March 30, 1655, was a Burgess from Warrasquoyoke in 1620, and a member of the Council in 1642. Because of his Puritan religious beliefs he left Virginia for Maryland to escape persecution. Fro-1,a thence he .vent to England, and in 1651 returned to Virginia as one of the Parliament's Commissioners to effect the reduction of the Colony under Cromwell. He was elected Governor by the Assembly, and subsequently sent to England as Agent to represent Virginia's interests before Parliament. In 1666 he v,-as made Major General and given command of the greater number of the militia of the Colony. In the following year he served as Commissioner to Maryland in the endeavor to regulate the cultivation and sale of tobacco. The names of Randolph, Lee, Beverley, Bland, and Harrison are among those of his descendants through intermarriages. He was the owner of Wayanoak and Kicquotan plantations on the James.

    Edward Digges, was elected President of the Council in Virginia by the Assembly March 30, 1655, as Governor, under Cromwell, succeeding Rennet until March 13, 1658, when he went to England as one of the agents of the Colony. He was the younger son of Sir Dudley Digges, of Chilham, County Dent, England, where he was born in 1620. He died at his family seat "Bellefield," eight miles from Williamsburg, Va., March 15, 16`Y5. He left a family of seven daughters and site sons. Several of his descendants became prominent members the Colony.

    Colonel Samuel Matthews, President of the Council under Cromwell, was elected Governor by the Assembly on March 13, 1658. He served until his death in January, 1660. He was first a member of the Council in 1620, where he served for many successive terms. He was County Lieutenant of Warwick County. In 1630 he built the first fort at Point Comfort, now known as "Old Point Comfort." He was humorously nicknamed the "ancient planter." He was much esteemed by the Colony for his honesty and capability as a public servant.

    Colonel Samuel Matthews was the last of the Governors under the reign of Cromwell. He was elected by the Assembly on March 13, 1658, succeeding Digges, who together with Rennet, were the trio of Governors of Virginia during Cromwell's reign.

    Major Francis Morryson, or Morrison, was the Deputy, or Lieutenant Governor from the departure of Berkeley to England, April 30, 1661, to the return of the latter to Virginia, December 23, 1662.

    Morrison first reached the Colony from London in November, 1649, and soon thereafter Governor Berkeley gave him the command of the fort at Point Comfort. Subsequently he became a member of the Council. In 1656 he was made Speaker of the House of Burgesses. In 1663 he went to England as the Agent of the Colony. He died in London shortly thereafter.

    Colonel Herbert Teffreys was appointed Acting Governor from April 27, 1676, and Captain Robert Walter appointed his Deputy the day following. On November 11, 1676, in consequence of the death of Captain Walter, Jeffreys was recommissioned as Lieutenant Governor, and continued until his death on December 30, 16'Y8. During his administration he succeeded in effecting a treaty of peace with the Indians in which they acknowledged the power of the Colony by each Indian town agreeing to pay annually to the Governor three arrows for their land, and twenty beaver skins for their protection by the Colony.

    Sir Henry Chicheley was appointed Deputy Governor of Virginia December 30, 1678, to the arrival of Lord Culpeper on May 10, 1680. In the following August Lord Culpeper returned to England where he remained until November, 1682. During this absence of Lord Culpeper Sir Henry Chicheley acted as Governor. In 1667 he married the widow of Captain Ralph Wormeley of "Rosegill," Middlesex County, subsequently clerk of Lancaster County. In 1656 he was a member of the House of Burgesses from Lancaster County, and in 1674 a member of the Council in Virginia. He died in 1692, and was buried at Christ Church.

    Thomas Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thorsway, on July 8, 1675, was appointed Governor and Captain General for life, but did not reach Virginia until May 10, 1680. He administered the office in Virginia until August, 1680, when he went to England, leaving the management of the office in the charge of Sir Henry Chicheley. In this year, 1680, there was an act of Assembly creating towns in each of the several counties, where tobacco for shipment was to be carried. This act created so much dissatisfaction that on November, 1682, Lord Culpeper was sent to the Colony to quell the opposition to this act. He hung several of the ring leaders, and imprisoned others; amongst the latter was Major Robert Beverley, clerk,- of the House of Burgesses. Culpeper returned to England on September 17, 1683, and died there in 1719. He was sole proprietor of the lands known as the "Northern Neck," heretofore described in this volume.

    Colonel Nicholas Spencer, as President of the Council in Virginia, became the Acting Governor from the departure of Culpeper, until April 16, 1684. Spencer was a member of the Council and its Secretary for many successive terms.

    Francis Howard, Baron Effingham, was commissioned Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, September 28, 16<53 ; came to Virginia and exercised the duties of his office from April 16, 1684, to October 20, 1688.On June 23, 1685, he went to Albany to meet the Governor of New York, and to treat with the Indians of the Five Nations, who had been making incursions into Virginia. At this conference the Indians concluded the treaty of peace by presenting to the Governors of New York and Virginia beaver and raccoon skins, and by digging a hole in the earth in which each chief of a tribe buried a hatchet. He returned in about a month. In his absence Nathaniel Bacon, Sr., as President of the Council, administered the duties of Governor. Effingham's administration of the office of Governor caused very great dissatisfaction in the Colony. He endeavored to obstruct the use of the printing press in the Colony. He dissolved the Assembly, and created a new court of chancery, giving himself much power. He greatly increased the number of fees of the Courts, and it is stated that he shared them with the officials. He imprisoned many who complained of his acts. In 1688 upon petitions to the King he was recalled.

    Nathaniel Bacon, Senior, as President of the Council, acted first as Governor during the absence of Effingham in Albany, in 1684. Upon the final departure of Effingham to England, October 20, 1688, he was then President of the Council, and as such became the Acting Governor, until October 16, 1690. He was born in 1620, and died March 16, 1693. Ile was a cousin of Nathaniel Bacon, Junior, who was the leader of "Bacon's Rebellion." during the administration of Sir William Berkeley. Nathaniel Bacon, Senior, held many offices of honor and trust in the Colony. Ile was at one time Commander-in-chief of York County, and a member of the Council more than forty years.

    Sir Francis Nicholson, reached Virginia October 16, 1690, and served as Lieutenant Governor until October 15, 1693, when he was appointed Governor of Maryland, which office he held until December 9, 1698, when he again was commissioned Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, and served until August 15, 1705, when he was recalled by the King. Nicholson's first visit to America was as Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of New York under Sir Edmund Andros in 1656, when all the colonies north of the Chesapeake Bay were formed into one province. His administration of this latter named office was so unsatisfactory that he was forced to leave for England in a hurry.

    While Governor of Virginia he proposed the establishment of a post office, and recommended the building of a college, in honor of William and Mary, he contributing with the Council about 2500 pounds in money for this object. The result was the charter of William and Mary College in 1633. The seat of government of the Colony was removed by him from Jamestown to Williamsburg, in 1698.

    Upon Nicholson's return to England he was commissioned to fight the French in Canada, and subsequently filled the office of Governor of Nova Scotia, from 1712 to 1717, and Governor of South Carolina, from 1721 to 1725. He died in London March 5, 1728.

    Sir Edmund Andros, was commissioned Governor of Virginia March 1, 1693, and reached the Colony October 16, following. He served until December 9, 1698, when he was succeeded by Sir Francis Nicholson, as heretofore stated. He was born in London, December 6, 1637. He was distinguished as a soldier in the Dutch wars, and held several important appointments in the British American Colonies, amongst which were that of Governor of the province of New York from 1674 until 1681. He was appointed Governor of the several colonies consolidated to form New England, which included all settlements between Maryland and Canada except Pennsylvania. He made this administration very unpopular, by interfering with the liberty of the press, levied extraordinary taxes, and forced proprietors of lands to obtain from him new titles at great expense. He revoked the charters of the colonies, and it is stated he went to the Council Chamber at Hartford with an armed force, demanding the charter of Connecticut, which could not be found as it was then concealed in the famous "Charter Oak."

    The Virginians welcomed him as their Governor at first for the reason he had advocated their request for war supplies. During his administration the William and Mary College was established, and an act was passed organizing a postoffice department for Virginia, with a central and sub-office in each county. Thomas Neale was appointed the first postmaster, and the rates of postage fixed.

    An act was passed during his administration establishing the first fulling mills in Virginia. Principally because of contentions with James Blair, the first President of William and Mary College, Governor Andros was recalled December 9, 1698, and was succeeded by Col. Francis Nicholson, as stated. From 1704 to 1706 Andros was Governor of Guernsey. He died in London, February 27, 1713.

    George Hamilton (Douglas), Earl of Orkney, was appointed Governor-in-chief of Virginia in 169'7, which office he held until his death, January 29, 1737. He drew an annual salary as Governor-in-chief of Virginia for forty years, and during that period he never visited America. In early youth he entered the military service, and in 1695 was created Earl of Orkney for his gallantry. He participated in many of the battles in Ireland. He was made a major-general and knight of the Thistle, by (Queen Anne, and was a member of the House of Lords for many years.

    Edward Matt, was the successor of Col. Francis Nicholson, as Lieutenant Governor, from August 15, 1705, to his death, August 23, 1706. Among the notable events of his administration was the passage of an act by the Assembly appropriating 3000 pounds for the building of a palace in Williamsburg for the Governor, and the destruction by fire of the William and Mary College. He was buried at Old Bruton Church, Williamsburg, where the General Assembly erected a monument to his memory.

    Edmund Jenings, as President of the Council, succeeded Nott as Acting Governor, from August 23, 1706, to June 10, 1710. He was the son of Sir Edmund Jenings, a member of Parliament. In 1606 he was the Deputy Secretary of Virginia, and for many years was a member of the Council. Ha married Frances, the daughter of Henry Corbin, a name famous in Virginia. His daughter Ariana married John Randolph, Attorney General of Virginia, and his grandson Edmund Randolph became Governor of Virginia and Attorney General of the United States under Washington.

    Robert Hunter, was commissioned Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, April 4, 1707, and while on his voyage to the Colony was taken prisoner by the French and carried to Paris, France. Upon his release he returned to England, and was commissioned as Governor of New York, reaching that Colony in 1710, with about 200 expatriated Protestants from the palatinate of the Rhine whom he settled on the banks of the Hudson, and as an inducement for a subscription of 1,000 pounds a year for the first two years, he promised that the Colony would send to England tar enough to supply the navy forever. He returned to England in 1710, without ever visiting Virginia.

    In 1727 he was commissioned Governor of Jamaica, where he died in 1734.

    Col. Alexander Spottswood, served as the Deputy Governor of the Earl of Orkney, from June 23, 1710, when he first reached Virginia, until September 27, 1722. His ancestry was of the ancient Scottish family of Spotteswoode, a name which had its origin when surnames first became hereditary in Scotland. His progenitors were distinguished men in the history of Scotland. He was born in 1676, at Tangier Island, Africa; where his father was then physician to the Governor and the English garrison stationed there. When but seventeen years of age, he was an ensign in the Earl of Bath's regiment of foot, and rapidly rose to promotion as Lieutenant Colonel. He was dangerously wounded by the French at Blenheim, while serving under the Duke of Marlborough.

    Spotswood was energetic and accomplished much far the benefit of the Colony. When lie reached Virginia he found her sea coasts defenseless, and a prey to the pirates who levied tribute, and committed dastardly crimes within the Colony with impunity. He ended this condition of affairs by the capture and execution of the famous pirate Edward Teach. He pleased the Colony by granting the benefit of the habeas corpus act, which had formerly been denied them. He made peace with the Indians and thereby prevented : serious uprising of the powerful Five Nations.

    Spotswood was the first of the Governors to encourage the extension of settlements into and beyond the mountain sections of Virginia. With this purpose in view, in 1'Y16, the Governor healed an expedition composed of some of the most prominent gentlemen of the Colony. They spent two months in travel upon horseback, from Williamsburg and return, westward across the Blue Ridge Mountains, and into the beautiful Valley of Virginia. Upon their return the Governor established the "Transmoutane Order," or "Knights of the Golden Horseshoe," he giving to each of those who accompanied him a miniature golden horseshoe bearing the inscription, "Sic Jurat transcendere Montes" (thus he swears to cross the mountains). These were given to whoever would accept them, with the understanding that they would comply with the inscription. Notwithstanding this inducement it was not until 1732 that a permanent settlement was made west of the mountains. 1n that year sixteen families from Pennsylvania under the guidance of a man named joist Rite, made settlement near the present location of Winchester The second. seating west of the mountains was in 1731 by Ben Allan and three ethers on the north branch of the Shenandoah about ten or twelve miles south of the present site of Woodstock. The history of the early settlements of the western parts of Virginia is a continuous story of murderous encounters, captures, and reprisals between the bold, savage Indian and the daring, adventurous white settlers.

    Upon Spotswood's retirement from the governorship, he engaged in the manufacture of iron. In 1730 he was made deputy postmaster general for the American Colonies, which position he held until 1739. Among the names of his descendants are Aylett, Braxton, Brooke, Berkeley, Burwell, Bassett, Chiswell, Carter, Campbell, Colloway, Cullen, Claiborne, Dandridge, Dangerfield, Dabney, Fairfax, Fontaine, Gainer, Gilliam, Kemp, Kinlock, Lloyd, Lee, Leigh, Macon, Mason, Manson, -Marshall, Meriwether, McDonald, d, McCarthy, Nelson, Parker, Page, Randolph, Robinson, Smallwood, Skyring, Taliaierro, Temple, Theweatt, Taylor, Walker, Waller, Wickham, Watkins.

    In 1740 he was commissioned as Major General, and while engaged in collecting his forces for the expedition against; Carthagena he died at Annapolis, Maryland, June, 'Y, 1'740. His body was conveyed to Temple Farm, at Yorktown, his former country residence.

    Hugh Drysdale, Lieutenant Governor from September 22, 1722, until his death, July 22, 1'i20. There was no very important event occurring to mark his administration.

    Robert Carter, as President of the Council was Acting Deputy Governor from July 22, ?723, until October 13, 1727. Robert Carter was for many years agent for Lord Fairfax, the proprietor of the Northern Neck. Carter was the possessor of large landed estates and thus acquired the sobriquet of "King Carter." He was speaker of the House of Burgesses for several years, treasurer of the colony, and a member of the Council for many years, He built Christ Church in Lancaster County, where his body was deposited upon his death, August 4, 1732.

    William Gooch was Lieutenant Governor from October 13, 1727, to June 7, 1 740, when he went in command of the expedition against Carthagena, which Spotswood was in charge of at his death. He returned to Virginia in July, 1741 , and, again resumed the duties of Lieutenant Governor.

    During his absence in command of the expedition, the duties of the office of Lieutenant Governor were performed by James Blair, D. D., the first President of William and Mary College. Through his zeal in obtaining contributions of money and donations of land he was of great assistance in the building of this college.

    Gooch having returned to Virginia in 1741 remained as Lieutenant Governor until June 20, 1'Y413, leaving John Robinson, who was President of the Council, as Acting Governor.

    William Anne Keppel, second Earl of Albemarle, succeeded George Hamilton, Earl of Orkney, as Governor-in-chief of Virginia, September 6, 1737, and held this title until his death in Paris, France, December 22, 1754.

    He was born at Whitehall, in 1702, and received his second Christian name from Queen Anne who was sponsor at his baptism. He was a favorite always with the Crown, receiving many appointments therefrom amongst which were that of Captain in 1717 and Lieutenant General in 1713. During June of the latter year he distinguished himself at the battle of Dettingen, Netherlands. In 1745 he was wounded at the battle of Fontenoy.

    In 1748 was embassador to Prance; in 1750 created a Knight of the Garter; was oracle a member of the Privy Council, and in 1752 was one of the Lords Justices. He eras never in Virginia.

    James Blair, as President of the Council was Acting Governor from June, 1740, to July, 1741. He was the representative of the Bishop of London in Virginia and as such was called Commissary Blair. He also was the founder of William and Mary College in 1693.

    John Robinson, as President of the Council, succeeded Sir William Gooch, as Acting Governor from June 20, 1749, to September 5, 1749, when he died. His ancestors settled near Urbanna, Middlesex County, Virginia, where he was born in 1683. His first wife was Catherine, daughter of Robert Beverley, and his second was Mrs. Mary Welsh, of Essex County, Va. His descendants are connected through intermarriage with many of the famous families of Virginia.

    Thomas Lee, as President of the Council upon the death of Robinson was acting Governor from September 5, 1749, until February 12, 1751, when he died.

    He was a descendant of Richard Lee, who settled in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He was a member of the House of Burgesses for many years. He was the father of six sons who greatly distinguished themselves in the war for freedom. They were Philip Ludwell and Thomas Ludwell Lee, Richard Henry, Francis Lightfoot and William and Arthur Lee. General Robert E. Lee was a descendant in the third generation of Henry Lee, the brother of Governor Thomas Lee, being. a son of "Light Horse Harry" Lee.

    Lewis Burwell, as President of the Council, was Acting Governor from February 12, 1751, until November 20, 1751. Lied in 1752. He was born at the family seat, known as "The Grove," in Gloucester County, Va., in 1710. He was a Burgess from Gloucester County in 1730, and subsequently a member of the Council. His ancestor, Major Lewis Burwell, settled on Carter's Creek in Gloucester County, Virginia, in 1640. In 1640 this ancestor was a member of the delegation sent to invite Charles II. to Virginia as its king.

    Robert Dinwiddie, was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Virginia on July 20, 1751, but did not reach the Colony until November 20, following. He brought with him his wife, Rebecca (nee Affleck) and their two daughters. He served until January, 1758, when he was relieved at his own request, and returned to England. He was born at the family seat, Germiston, Scotland, in 1693, and died at Clefton, Bristol, July 27, 1770. His training in official life began in 1727, as Collector of Customs in the Island of Bermuda, which place he held for eleven years. For his efficiency and vigilance in the discharge of his duties in the latter named office, he was rewarded by the appointment of Surveyor General of the Customs of the Southern Ports of the Continent of America, and was also made a member of the respective Councils of the American Colonies.

    In 1743, he was commissioned as "Inspector General," to examine into the duties of the Collector of Customs, of Barbadoes, West Indies. He got into bad repute with the Colony by enforcing certain fees for land patents. In 1754 the House of Burgesses sent Peyton Randolph who subsequently was first President of the Continental Congress-to England, as its agent, bearing a petition to the King for relief from these fees. It was under Dinwiddie's orders that Major George Washington was sent in 1753 to the French Commandant-Le Gardeur de St. Pierre-on the Ohio River to demand by whose authority an armed force had crossed the Lakes, and to urge their speedy return. This controversy ended with Braddock's appointment as Commander-in-chief in Virginia, and his defeat subsequently, near Fort Duquesne, on July 9, 1755. He died of his wounds on July 13, and was buried at a place called Great Meadows, on the roadside of his retreating army.

    John Campbell, Fourth Earl of Loudoun, was appointed Captain General and Governor-in-chief of Virginia, on February 17, 1756, and on the following March was also commissioned as Commander-in-chief of the British forces in America. He was another one of the Crown favorites who enjoyed the emoluments of Governor-in-chief of Virginia without ever having to place their feet upon its soil. On the July following the receipt of his several commissions he reached New York, and from thence he went to Albany to assume command of the British forces against the French at Forts Oswego and Ontario, but because of his inefficiency as commander he was recalled to England. It is said of him that he "was like Ding George upon the sign posts, always on horseback but never advancing." In 1763 he was succeeded by Sir Jeffrey Amherst as Governor-in-chief. He died at Loudoun Castle, Ayrshire, on April 27, 1782.

    John Blair, as President of the Council, was Acting Governor of Virginia from January, 1758, until the arrival of Lieutenant Governor, Francis Fauquier, on June 7th, following.

    Blair was the son of Dr. Archibald Blair, and a nephew of Rev. James Blair, the first President of William and Mary College. He was born at Williamsburg, V a., in 1689. In 1736 was a Burgess from James City County. He was Deputy Auditor of the Colony from 1761 to 1768. He again served as Acting Governor from the death of Fauquier, March 3, 1768, until relieved by the arrival of Lord Botetourt, in October following. It was said of him that he laid a foundation brick at the building of each of the two first capital buildings in Williamsburg, a period of fifty years intervening. He died November 5, 1771, and was buried at Williamsburg, Virginia.

    Francis Fauquier, was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, February 10, 1758, and reached the Colony June 7th, following, and died in office March 3, 1768. Writers disagree as to his character and usefulness as the Chief Executive of Virginia. By some he is classed as a dissipated gambler of frivolous tastes, and by Thomas Jefferson, he is noted as "the ablest of the Governors of Virginia." During his administration the House of Commons passed the notorious "Stamp Act," which was contested by the Assembly in strong-worded resolutions, one of which is as follows: "Resolved, therefore, That the General Assembly of this Colony have the only and sole exclusive right and power to lay taxes and impositions upon the inhabitants of this Colony, and that every attempt to vest power in any person or persons whatsoever, other than the General Assembly aforesaid, has a manifest tendency to destroy British as well as American freedom." These resolutions were debated by Patrick henry and passed in May, 1765, during which he eloquently advocated their passage, and in the debate which followed, used the memorable sentence: "If this be treason, make the most of it." Fauquier becoming alarmed by these resolutions dissolved the Assembly, instead of proroguing it to a future day. Fauquier died at Williamsburg, Va., on April, 1768.

    Sir Jeffrey Amherst was appointed Captain General and Governor-in-chief of Virginia, succeeding the Earl of Loudoun, in 1763. He was never in Virginia, and when the ministry insisted, at the instigation of the King, that Amherst should reside in the Colony, he resigned his commission, and was succeeded by Lord Botetourt, on October 28, 1768. Sir Jeffrey Amherst was born in Bent, England, January 29, 1717. In 1756 he was made Major General commanding an expedition against Louisburg. In 1753 he was appointed Commander-in-chief of the British Army in America. For his successes he was rewarded by thanks of Parliament, and created a Knight of the Bath. In 1771, was appointed Governor of Guernsey, and from 1778 to 1795 was commander of the British Army. He died in Kent, England, August 3, 1797.

    Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, was commissioned Governor-in-chief of Virginia, in July, 1768. He reached Virginia in the following October, and served until his death, October 15, 1770. He was born in North Gloucestershire, England, in 1718, and in 1"r'61 was Colonel of the militia of his native place, and represented that shire in Parliament. In 1767 he was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

    His coming to Virginia was pleasing to the people who were assured by the King that as a mark of honor to them the residence of the Governor-in-chief nor-in-chief should forever in the future be within the Colony.

    He was noted for his polished and affable manners, and although he was not possessed of large means, he nevertheless was extremely luxurious in his habits, as instanced by his attendance upon the convening of the Assembly, when lie was drawn by six horses to his coach, followed by a retinue of guards from the Governor's palace to the capitol.

    William Nelson, President of the Council, succeeded Berkeley as Acting Governor from October 15, 1770, until the arrival of Lord Dunmore, in February, 1772. Nelson died at Yorktown, York County, Virginia, the ancestral home of this distinguished family whose progenitor was "Scotch Tom" Nelson, who was born in Penrith, Cumberland County, England, and who subsequently came to the Colony and settled at Yorktown as a merchant.

    William Nelson's sons distinguished themselves in the service of the Revolutionary Army, and one of them, General Thomas Nelson, Jr., while in command of the battery which first opened upon Yorktown against Cornwallis, upon learning that his home, the "Nelson House," in that town was being occupied by British officers, offered five guineas reward to the gunner for every shot he should put into the house. This mansion is yet standing, and by the holes visible in its walls indicates the belief that guineas passed hands upon that occasion.

    John Murray, Fourth Earl of Dunmore, was the last of the royal Governors of Virginia. He was appointed Governor of New York in January, 1770, and Governor-in-chief of Virginia in July, 1771. He reached Virginia in February, 1772, and served until June 6, 1775, when he fled with his family, and took refuge on board the "Torrey" man-of-war. He then collected a band of tories, runaway negroes and a few British soldiers, and with a small naval force plundered the people along the James and York Rivers. On January 1, 17 7 6, he set on fire and destroyed Norfolk. He finally established himself on Gwynn's Island, Matthews County, which he was soon obliged to leave. He returnee, to England, and in 1786, was appointed Governor of Bermuda. He died at Ramsgate, England, in May, 1809.

    GOVERNORS OF THE COMMONWEALTH 1776-1907

    The list of Virginia's governors since 1776 includes some of the most prominent men in American history, embracing Presidents, Cabinet Officers, Senators, and Members of the National House of Representatives, and members of the State Legislature, together with famous orators, military commanders and jurists.

    Patrick Henry, born flay 29, 1736, in Hanover Co., Virginia, the first Governor of the State, was chosen Governor by the Assembly from June 29, 1776, to June 1, 1779.

    His education was mainly in the "Old Field Schools." He was a failure as a merchant and a farmer, and at the age of 29 years tool, up the study of law, in which occupation he developed extraordinary talent as an advocate of law, and won great fame a s an orator. He died at Red Hill, Charlotte County, Virginia, June 6, 1799.

    Thomas Jefferson, born April 2, 1742, in Albemarle County, Virginia, Governor from June 1, 1779, to June 12, 1781.

    He had served in the General Assembly, and was a member of the Continental Congress, and was for two terms President of the United States-1801 to 1809. His greatest honor was that of author of the Declaration of Independence. Died at his home Monticello, July 4, 1826.

    Thomas Nelson, Jr., born at what is now known as Yorktown, York County, Virginia, Dec. 26, 1738. Governor from June 12, 1781 to Nov. 30, 1781, when lie resigned on account of ill health. He was the son of Wm. Nelson, President of the Council and Acting Governor, 1770 to 1771. He was a renowed patriot during the Revolution, and contributed his ample means to the cause of freedom. Died in Hanover County, Virginia, Jan. 4, 1789.

    Benjamin Harrison born in Charles City County, Virginia, in 1740. Governor from -Nov. 30, 181, to Nov, 30, 1784. Ile subsequently served in the State Legislature. His third son, William Henry Harrison, was the ninth President of the Baited States, and his great grandson, Benjamin Harrison was the occupant of that exalated office from 1889 to 1893. Died April, 1791, in Charles City County, Virginia.

    Patrick Henry, served a second time as Governor, from Dec. 1, 1784, to Dec. 1, 1786 when he resigned.

    Edmund Randolph, born in Williamsburg , Virginia, Aug. 10, 1753. Governor from Dec. 1, 1786 to Dec. 1, 1788. Vas appointed by Washington the first Attorney General of the United Mates. In 1791, he succeeded Thomas Jefferson as secretary of State in Washington's Cabinet. Died in Frederick County, Virginia, Sept. 12, 1813.

    Beverley Randolph, born in Henrico County, Virginia, in 174. Governor from Dec. 1, 1788, to Dec. 1, 1791. It was during his term that a part of Virginia was ceded to the United Mates for the national seat of the Government. This was subsequently receded to the State, and is now in the County of Alexandria. Died at Green Creek, Feb., 1797.

    Henry Lee (Light Horse Harry), born Jan. 29, 1756, in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Governor from Dec. 1, 1791, to Dec. 1, 1794.

    HIS military career, in command of "Lee's Legion," during the Revolutionary War, gained him much distinction. He was familiarly known as "Light Horse Harry" Lee. Was severely wounded girded by a riotious mob in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1813, while in the attempt to aid his friend, the editor of the Federal Republican newspaper of that city. In 1813, Lee went to the West Indies to recover from his wounds, and on March 25, 1818, he died on Cumberland Island, Georgia, en route to his home.

    Robert Brooke, born in 1751, was Governor from Dec. 1, 1794 to Dec. 1, 1796. He was Attorney General of Virginia for many years. Died in 1799.

    James Wood, born in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1750. Governor from Dec. 1, 1796, to Dec. 1, 1799. During the Revolutionary War he gained a high reputation as an officer. In recognition of his services Wood County, nom in West Virginia, was named in his honor. Died in Richmond City, Virginia, June 16, 1813.

    James Monroe, born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, April 28, 1758. In 1825 removed to Loudoun County, Virginia, where he was chosen justice of the peace. Was the author of the famous "Monroe Doctrine." Was twice elected Governor; the first term from Dec. 1, 1799 to Dec. 1, 1802. During this term occurred what is known as "Gabriel's Insurrcetian," an uprising of slaves for their freedom, which he promptly quelled. Was one of the Commissioners (with Livingstone) to France to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. Was twice elected President of the United States. Died in New York City, July 4, 1831. His remains were brought to Virginia, July 5, 1858, to Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond.

    Johan Page, born at "Rosewell," Gloucester County, Virginia, April 17, 1743. This was the famous seat of the Indian Emperor, Powhatan tan, and the piece of rescue of Captain John Smith by Pocahontas. He was distinguished for his ardor in the cause of freedom during the Revolutionary War. It is said he stripped the lead covering from his mansion to mould into bullets for his command. Was Governor from Dec. 1, 1802, to Dec. 1, 180. Died in Richmond City, Virginia, Oct. 11, 1808, and was buried in St. John's Churchyard.

    William H. Cabell, born Dec. 16, 1772, at Boston Bill, Cumberland County, Virginia. Governor from Dec. 1, 1805, to Dec. 1, 1808. Was subsequently elected Judge of the General Court, and later Judge of the Court of Appeals. Died in Richmond, Virginia, January 12, 1853.

    John Tyler, born Feb. 28, 1747, in James City County, Virginia. Governor from Dec. 1, 1808, to January 11, 1811. Was subsequently appointed by President Madison Judge of the U. S. District Court of Virginia. Was the father of John Tyler who was Governor in 1825 to 1827, and Vice President, and subsequently President of the United States. Died Jan. 6, 1813, at his home.

    James Monroe, Governor from Jan. 11, 1811, to Nov. 25, 1811, when he resigned to accept the office of Secretary of State in President Madison's Cabinet. This was his second term as Governor. Served two successive terms as President of the United States, from 1817 to 1825.

    George William Smith, born in 1730, in Essex County, Virginia. Lieutenant Governor and Acting Governor from Nov. 25, 1811, to Dec. 26, 1811. Was one of the victims of the burning of the Richmond, Virginia, theatre, while trying to rescue his little son, on the night of Dec. 26, 1811.

    Peyton Randolph, born in Williamsburg, Virginia, was the son of former Governor Edmund Randolph.. He was Acting Governor and senior member of the Council of State, from Dec. 26, 1811, to Jan. 3, 1812.

    James Barbour, born in Orange County, Virginia, June 10, 1775. Governor from Jan. 3, 1812, to Dec. 1, 1814. During his term the second war with Great Britain occurred. It is said he was so patriotic as to pledge his own fortune to aid the State in raising funds to equip the soldiers of Virginia during that war. Was member of the United States Senate from 1815 to 1825. Barbour County, now in West Virginia, was named in his honor. Died at Barboursville, Barbour County, then in the State of Virginia, June 7, 1842.

    Wilson Cary Nicholas, born in Williamsburg, Virginia. Jan. 31, 1761.Governor from Dec. 1, 1814, to Dec. 1, 1816. Before his election as Governor he had served in the United States House of Representatives, and in the United States Senate. Died Oct. 10, 1820, at the home of Thomas Jefferson Randolph, his son-in-law, near Melton, Cabell County, West Virginia.

    James B. Preston, born in Montgomery County, Virginia, June 21, 1774. Governor from Dec. 1, 1816, to Dec. 1, 1819. His ancestors came from Londonderry, Ireland. Was Colonel of 12th U. S. Infantry during 1812-13, and eras severely ,v ounded in the war with Great Britain. The University of Virginia was established during his term. He was subsequently made postmaster at Richmond, Virginia. Died May 4, 1843, in Montgomery County. Preston County, now in West Virginia, was named in his honor.

    Thomas Mann Randolph, born in Goochland County, Virginia, Oct. 1, 1765. Governor. from Doe. 1, 1819, to Doc. 1, 1822. Was honored as one of Virginia's heroes during the war with Great Britain, 1812-15. His wife was Martha Jefferson, daughter of Thomas Jefferson. Was member of 'United States Congress from 1803 to 180'7. Died at Monticello, the home of his father-in-law, June 20, 1828.

    James Pleasants, Jr., born in Goochland County, Virginia, Oct. 24, 1769. Governor from Dec. 1, 1822, to Dec.1, 1825. Was member of Virginia, Legislature, 1789 to 1799 and subsequently was Clerk) of Virginia House of Delegates. Was member of the United States House of Representatives. Died in Goochland County, Virginia, Nov. 9, 1836.

    John Tyler, born at Greenway, Charles City County, Virginia, March 29, 1790. Governor from Dec. 1, 1825, to March, 1827, when he resigned to succeed John Randolph in the United States Senate, and in 1833 was re-elected to United States Senate. Was the son of former Governor John Tyler. Was member of Virginia House of Delegates in 1811 and 1823, and was member of United States Congress, 1816 to 1821. Was Vice-President of the United States from March 4, 1841, to April 4, 1841, when he succeeded to the office of President of the United States upon the death of President William Henry Harrison. Member of Confederate Congress during the Civil War. Died in the " Ballard " House, Richmond, Virginia, Jan. 17, 1862, and was buried at Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia.

    William B. Giles, born in Amelia County, Virginia, Aug. 12, 1762. Governor from March, 1827, to March, 1830. Was elected to the United States Senate in 1804. Died at the family seat, known as "The Wigwam," in Amelia County, Virginia, Dec. 4, 1830. Giles County was named in his honor.

    John Flood, born in Jefferson County, now in West Virginia, April 24, 1783. Governor from March, 1830, to March, 1834. Was surgeon in the army during the second war with great Britain, 1812 to 1815. Was a member of United States Senate before his election as Governor. During his term as Governor occurred what is known as the " Nat Turner Insurrection," of slaves, which terminated after the killing of a few of the whites. Died in Montgomery County, Virginia, Aug. 15, 1837. Floyd County, Virginia, named in his honor.

    Littleton W. Tazewell, born in Accomac County, Virginia, Dec. 17, 1774. Governor from March, 1834, to April 30, 1830, when he resigned because of disagreement with State Legislature. Was member of the United States House of Representatives at a very early age. Was subsequently a member of the United States Senate. Died in Norfolk, Virginia May 6, 1860.

    Wyndham Robertson, born near the site of Manchester Chesterfield County, Virginia, Jan. 26, 1803. Governor from April 30, 1836 to March, 1837, this being the remainder of the term of Governor Tazewell. Died at his home ins Washington County, Virginia, Feb. 11, 1888.

    David Campbell, born in Smyth County, Virginia, Aug. 2, 1779. Governor from March, 1837, to March, 1840. He gained distinction during the War of 1812 to 1815. Died March 19, 1859, at Abingdon, Washington County, Virginia.

    Thomas Walker Gilmer, born in Albemarle County, Virginia, April 6, 1802. Governor from March, 1840, to March 18, 1841, when he resigned because of disagreement with the State Legislature relative to controversy with Governor Seward, of New York, concerning the surrender of men accused of abducting slaves from Virginia. Was subsequently elected to the United States Congress, and Chairman of Ways and Means Committee in that body. Was Secretary of Navy in President Tyler's Cabinet. Was killed in the explosion of United States Steamer Princeton, in 1844.

    John Mercer Patton, born in Fredericksburg, Va., Aug. 10, 1797. On the resignation of Governor Gilmer, be was senior councilor, and as such Acting Governor, until the expiration of his term as senior councilor, March 31, 1841. Died in Richmond City, Virginia, Oct. 28, 1858.

    John Rutherford, born in Richmond City, Virginia, Dec. 2, 1792. Was Senior Councilor upon the expiration of Acting Governor John Mercer Patton's term, and as such served as Acting Governor, from March 31, 1841, to March 31, 1842, when his term also as Senior Councilor expired, and therefore his term as Acting Governor also expired. Died in Richmond City, Virginia, Aug. 3, 1866.

    John M. Gregory, barn in Charles City County, Virginia, July 8, 1804. At the expiration of Acting Governor Rutherford's term as Senior Councilor, he succeeded as Acting Governor and Senior Councilor, from March 31, 1842, to Jan. 1, 1843. This completed the unexpired term to which Governor Gilmer had been elected. He was know=n as a man of great energy, and perseverance. He began life as a farm hand, and by his own industry succeeded in obtaining the highest honor in the State. Died in Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1887, and was buried at Shockoe Hill Cemetery, Richmond City, Virginia.

    James McDowell, born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, Oct. 11, 1795. Governor from Jan. 1, 1843, to Jan. 1, 1846. Was subsequently elected to the United States House of Represen,tatives. Died at Lexington, Rockbridge County, Virginia, Aug. 24, 1851.

    William Smith, born in King George County, Virginia, Sept. 6, 1797. Governor from Jan. 1, 1846, to Jan.1, 1849. At the expiration of his term he emigrated to California, where he remained two years, after which he returned to Virginia, and was made a member of the United States House of Representatives four successive terms. Contracted for carrying United States mail from Washington to Milledgeville, Georgia, in 1831, and because of his repeated demands for extra compensation was given the nick name of "Extra Billy." Was Colonel of the 47th Virginia Volunteers during the Civil War, at the age of 64, and was promoted to Major General in the Confederate Army. Was again Governor of Virginia, at the date of the evacuation of Richmond City, by the Confederate Army. Died in Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia. May 18, 1887.

    John B. Floyd, born in that part of Montgomery County, Virginia, now Pulaski County, June 1, 1806. Governor from Jan. 1, 1849, to Jan. 1, 1852. Was son of former Governor John Floyd. Was Secretary of War in President Buchanan's Cabinet. May, 1861, was made Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. Died Aug. 26, 1863, near Abingdon, Washington County, Virginia.

    Joseph Johnson, born in Orange County, New York, Dec. 10, 1785. Governor from Jan. 1, 1852, to Jan. 1, 1856. He was the first Governor since the Revolutionary War born outside of the State, and the, first Governor of Virginia elected by popular vote, when the term of office was extended to four years. Prior to this election the governors of Virginia were elected by the General Assembly. He served eight terms in the United States House of Representatives Died Feb. 27, 1877.

    Henry A. Wise, born at Drummondtown, Accomac County, Virginia, Dec. 3, 1803. Governor from Jan. 1, 1856, to Jan. 1, 1860. His paternal grandfather was county Lieutenant of the Eastern Shore of Virginia Linder King George III. His maternal grandfather, General John Cropper, won distinction during the Revolutionary War. His family was greatly distinguished in Virginia. The Governor was highly educated, and prominent as a debater. During his term occurred the "John Brown" raid at Harpers Ferry to free the slaves. Was a member of the United States House of Representatives six terms. Was Brigadier General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. Died in Richmond City, Va., Sept. 12, 1876.

    John Letcher, born at Lexington, Rockbridge County, Virginia, March 29, 1813. Governor from Jan. 1860, to Jan. 1, 1864. During his term the State of Virginia seceded from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. He was a self made man, of Scotch Irish descent. Was a member of the United States House of Representatives prior to his election as Governor. Died in Lexington, Rockbridge County, Virginia Jan. 26, 1884.

    William Smith, Governor from Jan. 1, 1864, to May 9, 1865. This was his second term; his first term extended from 1846 to 1849. When Richmond City was evacuated by the Confederate forces, Apr. 3, 1865, he moved the seat of Government to Lynchburg, and subsequently to Danville. He finally surrendered to the Federal authorities.

    Francis H. Pierpont, born in Monongalia County, now in West Virginia, Jan. 25, 1815. Governor of the western counties of Old Virginia, now in West Virginia, which refused to secede from the Union. His headquarters were established at Wheeling, now in West Virginia, where he remained until these western counties were admitted into the Union as a separate State, under the name of West Virginia, June 19, 1863, when he established his headquarters at Alexandria City, Virginia, until May, 1865, when he moved to Richmond, Virginia, after its evacuation by the Confederate government. Here he continued to exercise the duties of the office until the appointment of Henry FL Wells as Provisional Governor under military rule, Apr. 16, 1868. Died in Pittsburg, Pa., .March 24, 1899. Was one of the Governors who was born in a log cabin.

    Henry I3. Wells, born in Rochester, New York, Sept. 17, 1823. Was Provisional Governor from April 16, 1868, to April 21, 1869. Appointed by General Schofield, of the Federal Army, commanding the First Military District of Virginia. Was Brigadier General in Federal Army during the Civil War. Was a practicing attorney at law in Richmond City, Virginia, when appointed governor.

    Gilbert C. Walker, born in Binghampton, New York, Aug. 1, 1832. Provisional Governor from April 21, 1869, to Jan. 1, 1870, appointed by General E. R. S. Canby of the Federal Army, who succeeded General Schofield as Commander First Military District of Virginia, under the Reconstruction Acts of the United States Congress. Walker was elected Governor by the Liberal, or Conservative Party, and served from Jan. 1, 1870 to Jan. 1, 1874. Was subsequently elected to Congress from Virginia on the Conservative Party ticket. He removed to New York City where he died May 12, 1885.

    James L. Kemper, born in Madison County, Virginia, June 12, 1823. Governor from Jan. 1, 1874, to Jan. 1, 1878. Served as a Captain in the Mexican War under General Zachary Taylor. Was Brigadier General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. Died in Orange County, Virginia, April 7, 1895.

    Frederick W. M. Holliday, born in Winchester, Va., Feb. 22, 1827. Governor from Jan. 1, 18 78, to Jan. 1, 1882. Was Colonel of the 33rd. Virginia infantry of the famous "Stonewall Jackson" Brigade. Was also a member of the Confederate Congress. His ancestors were of Scotch Irish descent. Died in Winchester, Virginia, May 29, 1899.

    William F. Cameron, born in Petersburg, Virginia, Nov. 29, 1842. Governor from Jan. 1, 1882, to Jan. 1, 1886. Was elected on the Readjuster ticket; his opponent was Hon. John W. Daniel, one of the present United States Senators from Virginia. Was Captain in the Confederate Army, and won fame as an editor at several respective periods, of the Index-Appeal, Norfolk Virginian, and Richmond Whig, of the public press, of Virginia. He is one of the living ex-governors of Virginia.

    Fitzhugh Lee, born at Clermount, Fairfax County, Virginia, Nov. 19, 1835. Governor from Jan. 1, 1886 to Jan. 1, 1890. He was of the famous family of Lees in Virginia. Governor Henry Lee, 1791 to 1794, was his paternal grandfather, and George Mason, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was his great grandfather on the maternal side. Was a graduate of West Point U. S. Military Academy, and subsequently Lieutenant of the Second U. S. Cavalry, doing service in the West prior to the Civil War, during which latter period he entered the Confederate Army and was appointed Brigadier General. After the close of the Civil War he enjoyed the unique distinction of again being appointed an officer in the United States Army. This latter appointment as U. S. Brigadier General-was made by President McKinley, who served in the Federal Army daring the period of the Civil War, while Fitzhugh Lee was a Brigadier General in the Confederate Army. Died in Washington, D. C., April 28, 1905.

    Philip W. McKinney, born in Buckingham County, Virginia, March 17, 1834.Governor from Jan. 1, 1890, to Jan. 1, 1894. Was Captain of the Buckingham Troop in the Confederate Army. Was member of State Legislature. His opponent in the election for Governor was the famous ex-Confederate General William Mahone. Died in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia, March 1, 1899.

    Charles T. O'Ferrall, born in Frederick County, Virginia, Oct. 21, 1840. Governor from Jan. 1, 1894, to Jan. 1, 1898. Enlisted as a private in the Confederate Army, and promoted to Colonel. Was elected several terms to the United States House of Representatives from his native State.

    J. Hoge Tyler, born in Caroline County, Virginia, Aug. 11, 1846. Governor from Jan. 1, 1898, to Jan. 1, 1902. Like many of the famous men of Virginia he attended the "Old Field Schools." Was formerly Lieut. Governor, and member of the Virginia Legislature. He was the third Tyler to fill the exalted office of Governor, and noted as his predecessors as an exemplar of the unpretentious, thorough Virginia gentleman. Living.

    Andrew J. Montague, born in Campbell Co., Virginia, Oct. 3, 1862. Governor from Jan. 1, 1902, to Feb. 1, 1906, the term extended under the new Constitution. His father, Robert L. Montague, a distinguished jurist and statesman of Middlesex County, Virginia, was familiarly nicknamed the "Red Fox of Middlesex" because of the color of his hair and the able manner in which he managed his cases in court. In 1893 was appointed by President Cleveland United States District Attorney for the Western District of Virginia. Was elected Attorney General of Virginia in 1888. Living.

    Claude A. Swanson-The present incumbent-was elected Governor to serve from Feb. 1, 1906, to Feb. 1, 1910. Is one of the energetic men who rise by self effort. Taught school, clerked in store, and graduated in law. Was member of the United States House of Representatives for six terms. Born in Swansonville, Pittsylvania County, Virginia.

    NOTES:

    1. In passing it is well to note some of the practices among Europeans at the opening of the 17th century and to compare with the Indian cruelties. Women were dragged about in public and ducked in ponds or rivers at the risk of their lives because they scolded or complained of their hardships and bad treatment. Men were imprisoned for debts which they could not pay, or condemned to die for their refusal or neglect to profess a religion which they could not believe in. Hell's fire, was constantly kept in the mind's view of the young and the old, while the pure love of God, and of man too often was trampled into the deep mire by superstitious teachers. The insane were believed to be possessed of the devil, and instead of receiving humane treatment they were chained to the floor in garrets or other isolated places. Stocks for punishment were in evidence wherever courts of law were held, and men were nailed to these instruments of torture within the public gaze to add to their punishment by becoming the laughing stock of passersby. Men's ears were cropped from their head, thereby forever fastening upon them a mark of disgrace to carry to their death, and much of these cruelties were inflicted for deeds such as are at present day admitted by the intelligent as so trivial that no provision of law is deemed necessary for their prevention.

    2. It is well at this point to recall how the English in colonial days hunted deer. The common method was by "driving" them. When the hunt began, men were stationed with guns at certain places---"stands" to the leeward of the locality of the deer's lair, or where they were supposed to be feeding. The hunters in charge of the hounds advanced from the windward side so that the animals would scent them, and so force the deer, in their attempts to escape, to run to the leeward "stands," without being able to scent the men stationed there. When the air was so calm that the "windward" and "leeward" could not be determined by its motion, a hunter would place his middle finger in his mouth long enough to moisten and warm it, and then hold it aloft, and the part which first became chilled would indicate the windward side.

    3. It is humorously related that it was the custom of a certain tribe at the burial of one of their members for each of the males to pass around the grave and drop a clod of earth upon it and say something of the good qualities of the dead. Upon the occasion of the death of one of this tribe who was despised because of his meanness, the members assembled as was usual, and each one passed around the grave, and dropped his clod of earth in silence. The chief whose duty it was to close the ceremonies picked up a handful of earth, and with solemn voice exclaimed, as he hurled the dirt with force upon the grave, "My brother was a good smoker."

    4. Sir Humphrey Gilbert was lost at sea while in the attempt to return to England.

    5. The latter named (Geo. Cassen) was one of the crew who accompanied Smith when he was captured up the Chickahominy River by Opechancanough, Powhatan's brother. Casson was first captured, and after he told of Smith's whereabouts he was stripped and tied to a tree, and his flesh torn off with clam shells, and his body burned.

    6. The largest vessel ever built was launched at the Clyde Bank Glasgow, Scotland, on June 7, 1906, named "Lusitania," of the Cunard Line. She is 790 feet long, and her greatest breadth is 88 feet. Her displacement is 40,000 tons, and she would therefore hold approximately, 31,250 cords of wood, as compared with the 15J cords which would load the colonist's ship named "Discovery."

    7. After settlements were made in the West Indies, and parts of South America, and vessels began to traverse the seas of the new world for commercial purposes, there arose a desperately criminal class of men Spaniards and English mainly-who sailed the seas and explored the shores of America for plunder. They made frequent forays along the coasts, and into adjacent waters to capture the natives, whom they would sell as slaves to the planters. Piracy was of such frequent occurrence for more than a century after Virginia was settled that a court was specially provided by the colony for trial of pirates. Gov. Spotswood did much to clear the coast of Virginia from the incursions of Pirates.

    8. The first colonists, whether at Roanoke or Virginia, were unfortunately ungrateful for past favors received at the hands of the aborigines of the new world as instanced in the killing of Wingina, and of Paspiha's wife and children, all of whom should have been the recipients of the best of treatment at the hands of the English.

    9. At the date of their seating at Jamestown, the only other settlements of whites within the present limits of the United States, including the territories, were at St. Augustine, Florida, founded in 1565, and at Santa Fe. New Mexico, settled in 1582. Prior to the naming of "Virginia" by Queen Elizabeth, the whole of the continent on the Atlantic shores was referred to indefinitely as Florida.

    10. The seat of government was maintained at Jamestown, from 1607 to 1698, ninety one years, after which it was removed to Williamsburg.

    11. It will be noticed that Percy does not mention the Pines. He mistook the pine trees far Cedars with which he was most familiar.

    12. Captain Smith describes in one of his narratives his crew of twelve men which he had with him on one of his voyages of discovery: "Not a mariner, or any that had skill to trim their sayles, use their ogres, or any business belonging to the Barge but 2 or 3. The rest being Gentlemen, or as ignorant in such toyle and labour, yet necessity, in a short time by their Captaines diligence and example taught them to become perfect."

    13. The story of Smith's adventure is graphically told by many of the early writers, amongst whom were Thomas Studley, the first Cape merchant of Virginia, and Stith, and Burke, the historians. They all agree as to the main facts, but Burke in his relation is the more florid in description of the several scenes in which Smith was the principal participant.

    14. Governor Page was born at Rosewell, Gloucester County, April 17, 1744. His great grandfather was an English merchant who emigrated to America and settled in Virginia. He was a member of the Colonial Council in the reign of William and Mary, was with Washington in his expedition against the French and Indians; was a member of the House of Burgesses, a delegate to the convention which framed the Virginia State Constitution, and a member of the Committee on public safety during the Revolutionary War. He raised a regiment of militia in his county, in the Revolutionary War, and was one of the first representatives in Congress from his state. In 1800, he was a presidential elector, and in 1802, he was the successor of James Monroe as Governor of Virginia. At the expiration of three years as governor, he was appointed by President Jefferson U. S. Commissioner of Loans for Virginia, which office he continued to hold until his death in Richmond City, October 11, 1808. He was a large land holder, a learned statesman and as admirable soldier.

    15. They superstitiously believed that to tell or speak aloud one's own name gave to the enemy, or the evil spirit, a power over the speaker which could be used for purposes of sorcery, or witchcraft. Such was the reason that Pocahontas' true name, Matoaka, was concealed from the whites. "To whom does this gun belong," was asked an Indian squaw. "It belongs to him," she replied. "And who is him," she was asked. "The man who sits there," said she pointing to her husband, whose name she would not call aloud fearing some harm might thus befall him.

    16. 'The following lines, though ludicrous, contain much truth:

      HIM

      He dressed himself from top to toe.
      He beat the latest fashion.
      He gave his boots an extra glow,
      His hat it glistened like the snow.
      He sleeked his hair exactly so.
      And all to indicate 'his passion'
      He tried his whole three ties before
      He kept the one that he wore.

      HER

      All afternoon she laid abed
      To make her features brighter.
      She tried on every gown she had,
      And rasped her nails until they bled,
      A dozen times she fuzzed her head,
      And put on stuff to make her whiter,
      And fussed till she'd a cried, she said,
      But that would make her eyes so red.

      THE TWO.

      "They sat together in the dark
      Without a light, except their spark,
      And neither could have told or guessed
      What way the t'other one was dressed."

      "The following story illustrates how easily a man is perturbed in his courtship:

      There was an old sailor captain in one of the Northern Neck unties who was addicted to the habit of talking in his sleep. He had a pretty daughter who was courted by a timid young man. One moonlight night while the young couple were seated together in the parlor, and the young man was making progress Cards "popping the question" which was to settle his matrimonial fate, there suddenly rang out in loud, gruff tones from the adjoining room:

      "You cussed land lubber, don't snub her so hard."

      The Young man Jumped up, grabbed his hat, and was upon the point of running out of the door when the daughter explained to him that her father was only dreaming he was getting his fastened to a wharf .

    17. The selection of the day for marriage was regarded as of some importance, preference being given to Wednesday.

      Monday for wealth,
      Tuesday for health,
      Wednesday the best day of all;
      Thursday for crosses,
      Friday for losses,
      Saturday no luck at all.

    18. "The fiddler tunes the strings with pick of thumb and scrape of bow;
      Finds one string keyed a note too high, another keyed too low,
      Then rosins up the light-drawn hairs, the young folks in a fret
      Until their ears are greeted with the warning words: `All set.'

      When he hugs his fiddle to his cheek and scrapes the bow along,
      In singing tones he gives the word and tells them:
      Go it strong.' S'lute yo'r pardners! Let her go!
      Balance all an' do-se-do!
      Swing yo'r gals an' run away?
      Right and left and gents sashay?
      Gents to right an' swing or cheat! On to next gal an' repeat!
      Balance next an' don't be shy!
      Swing yo'r pard' an' swing her high! Bunch the gals an' circle 'round! Whack yo'r feet ontil they bound! Form a basket! Break away! Swing an' kiss an' all git gay! All men left an' balance all!

      Lift yo'r feet an' let 'em fall!
      Swing yo'r o'p'sites! Swing a.-in!
      Kiss the same gals if yo kin!
      Back to pardners, do-se-do!
      Ail line hands an' off yo' go!
      Gents salute yo'r little sweets!
      Hitch an' promenade to seats.
      And tens the merry dance goes on till morning's struggling light.
      In lengthening streaks of gray breaks down the barriers of night.