The Flower Swift Militia Company Of Montgomery Co., Virginia 1779-1783

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The Flower Swift Militia Company Of Montgomery Co., Virginia 1779-1783

Reconstruction of a vanished community in today's Carroll and Grayson Counties.

By James A. Quinn

This article references several Internet websites that no longer exist or have new web addresses. The links to these old sites are highlighted in yellow. Copies of these pages may be available at http://archive.org/web/web.php. To search for these archived pages copy the link of interest from these pages to the address box on the WaybackMachine.

Introduction

Following the Battle of Alamance, 1771 a group of intermarried families left the Piedmont of North Carolina and moved just across the Virginia border into virgin wilderness along Chestnut Creek and its tributaries. These families were mostly Quakers or disowned Quakers and many of the men had been active in the Regulator movement and participated in the Battle of Alamance. Amongst them was a Baptist named Flower Swift. The largest extended family was the Quaker Cox family. The Cox family was related by blood to Herman Husband. Husband was the best known leader of the Regulation and was a fugitive after Alamance 1771, traveling under the pseudonym Tuscape Death. Possibly amongst the Chestnut Creek settlers was William Rankin, who had been declared an outlaw by North Carolina's Governor Tryon. Almost all of this group came from today's Randolph, Guilford, Alamance and Iredell counties. Before they were in North Carolina, most of their familiess had migrated thusly:

  • Chester Co., Pennsylvania and neighboring New Castle Co., Delaware and Cecil Co., MD then moving to York, Adams or Franklin Co., PA, thence to North Carolina
  • Harford or Baltimore Co., MD, thence to Monocacy, Frederick Co., MD, thence to North Carolina

A large percentage of the Quakers and non-Quakers were of Scotch or Irish ancestry. The non-Quakers were mostly Baptists.

The area to the west and east of them had been previously settled by Long Hunters and their relatives. The Long Hunters had a very diverse ancestry including: New England Puritans who had moved to New Jersey and then later to the Piedmont of North Carolina, Quakers like Daniel Boone from Pennsylvania, Germans from the Shenandoah valley, Eastern Virginians who were converted to Baptists and moved to old Bedford Co., VA, Presbyterians from Pennsylvania and old Augusta Co., Virginia and people of mixed race ancestry, possibly Saponi Indian mixed with European, many who came from old Lunenburg Co., VA. There were also some non-Quaker participants from the Regulator movement in the area to the west who were farmers, not Long Hunters. Some of the families from the Bedford/Amherst County VA, and some of the mixed race people from Lunenburg Co.,Virginia would be Loyalists for the duration of the Revolutionary war.

The Chestnut Creek community was probably fairly self-sufficient and almost everyone farmed and had a moderate amount of wealth. Some were also craftsmen and millers and Elisha Bedsaul was a blacksmith. In the entire community there were only two slaves, one owned by Elisha Bedsaul and one by David Fulton. They probably met for worship in someone's home, as no Friends meeting was established here until 1793 (Mt. Pleasant MM, later Chestnut Creek MM). Records of marriages seem mostly to have been entered at Cane Creek MM in today's Alamance Co., NC, which was the home meeting for many of the families.

The Revolutionary War in the upper New River can be divided into two parts. The first part, 1776-1779, was a war against the Cherokee. This war was likely to have been unpopular in the upper New River community served by the Osborne, Cox, Baker and Swift militia companies. Quakers preferred to send peace emissaries to the Indians instead of troops -- such as Thomas Beals (who lived in the Chestnut Creek community off and on from 1782 to 1795) . The Chestnut Creek neighborhood for the most part did not participate in the Osborne and Cox companies and Swift's militia company did not exist until 8 September 1779. The two companies to the west of Chestnut Creek, Capt. Osborne's and Capt. Cox's did partially participate in the Cherokee war, but the county commanders complained that they did so with no enthusiasm. In fact, it appears these companies mutinied in 1779 and captured their own commanders, Cox and Osborne. It is unclear if the people of the Chestnut Creek community participated in this revolt as none of them was named in the report of Capt. John Cox to his superiors, nor in the pension applications of James Cox and Benjamin Phipps later on. The exception to this may be James Blevins (but probably not). A James Blevins confessed to Tory activity in 1779, but there are three James Blevins in Montgomery County at this time, and it appears that the two James Blevins who were active Tory supporters are not the one in the Swift company. Captains Cox and Osborne were freed unhurt and the mutiny was put down by militia troops that came from the north, led by Colonels Preston and Crockett. By the end of 1780 the Tories in the upper New River had been defeated and in 1781 a pardon was offered to those who would change sides and a number of the men who had captured Cox and Osborne are found once again on their militia rolls. Many Tories who did not take the pardon fought a guerilla war and were killed in battle with local militias or hung by Benjamin Cleveland in his sorties across the Blue Ridge.

The second phase of the war begins with the attack of the British on the Carolinas and their initial victories at Camden and elsewhere. As they moved northwards into the North Carolina homeland of the Swift company, the cause of the Whigs became more popular with the Swift company. The cause of American Independence and the Regulator cause of 1771 are in many ways one. There is no evidence that Swift's company, as such, participated in the major battles in North Carolina, but several individual members of the company did go to North Carolina and joined with old neighbors there in the American army. We know they did this because a few of them filed pension applications in the 1820s and 1830s. We also have a surviving family tradition of the Quaker Ruddicks fighting in North Carolina. It should be pointed out, though, that letters form Col. Preston to his superiors noted a difficulty in recruiting troops for fighting throughout Montgomery Co., VA in 1781 as was the case through most of Virginia towards the end of the war.

After the war, the New River Valley saw a huge influx of people headed west, some staying in the New River, but most headed farther into the wilderness. Among the new comers to the New River were many Quaker families from New Jersey. A new meeting, Mt. Pleasant, was established there in 1793, the same year that Grayson County was formed. A tax list that year shows that none of the Quakers, including the Bedsauls owned any slaves. If number of horses is an indicator of wealth, the members of the Swift company had not much more in 1793 than in 1782. Not long after 1790, the members of the new Quaker meeting began to move west themselves, particularly to Jefferson and Greene Co., Tennessee and to Ross Co., Ohio. In the years 1800-1820 this out-migration increased, and most of the men of Swift's company departed for Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois with some of the non-Quakers also going south to South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama. In 1825 the Quaker meeting (now renamed Chestnut Creek MM) was laid down for lack of members. [Note: a newer brick Friends meeting house on the site of Mt. Pleasant meeting still exists and is probably still being used.]

  • Biographies and Genealogies of the men in Flower Swift's Militia Company 1779-1783

    Biography and Genealogy of the men in the Flower Swift Militia Company of Montgomery Co., Virginia 1779-1783

    Compiled by James A. Quinn, January 2003-September 2010

    Mt. Pleasant Scenery
    Rolling hills near Mt. Pleasant Meeting House, Carroll Co., Virginia on a cloudy day...

    The names of these men were obtained from two undated, poorly labeled militia musters. One of these is in the Lyman Draper collection at the University of Wisconsin (manuscript 5QQ70) and the other is kept in the archives at Christiansburg, Montgomery Co., Virginia (referred to here as List 3). The two muster lists are similar with 41 of the 64 names on the Draper manuscript repeated on the document at Christiansburg. The manuscript in the Draper collection has been mislabeled by him as a list of Tories and Quakers instead of as a militia roster. The Draper manuscript seems to be the older of the two and dates most likely to either 1780 or 1781. The second roster dates within a year of 1782, most likely. Two other militia rosters for Swift's company also exist, and I believe them to be from 1783 or later (referred to as List 1 and List 2 on the New River Notes Revolutionary War militia roster web page).

    The genealogies presented below were gathered in a four step process.

    1. Find individuals on RootsWeb WorldConnect database. My search strategy was first to search on the man's name with the date set to 1745 plus or minus 20 years. Next I would input the man's last name only and check for deaths in Grayson Co., VA. If this failed, I just input the man's name and looked at all the hits, possibly with Metaphone turned on. Finally, this failing, for rarer names I just input the last name and let Worldconnect give me everything.
    2. I consulted the family boards on GenForum and searched with Yahoo on the man's name.
    3. I contacted people by e-mail who gave expert opinions on Genforum or who had relevant GEDCOMs on Worldconnect.
    4. I submitted the results to the New River History Forum for criticism. Step 5 is up to you. Submit any corrections, additions or family stories to this site by contacting the author.

    AMMONS: Jacob (Quaker) (only on Draper's list) could this name be Hammons?

    Uncertain ancestry. Possibilities:

    1. There is a man by this name in Worldconnect and he was born 1720 in Scotland and dies in Virginia. His wife's name is Barbara. The genealogy looks confused as his father is supposed to be born Germany (and Jacob from Scotland!?). He is given one son, John Thomas Ammons, b. 1748 in Virginia d. 1817 Buncombe Co., NC. I looked at the variant Emmons (a German name) and found no matches. The German or Swiss name Ammon is not uncommon in Pennsylvania or northwest Virginia.
    2. The Hammons family of Surry Co., NC is another matter. They intermarry with the Simmons family (another name on this militia muster) (e.g. Elizabeth Hammons m. Jehu Simmons s/o Charles). The Hammons families in North Carolina have two origins. (2a) One is a Virginia origin and the other is (2b) Lumbee/Croatan Indians from the Robeson Co., NC area. None of these lines are well-defined on the internet. Both lines use Jacob. The Robeson County area line seems to intermarry with the Skipper/Skipworths (see below) and Simmons. The Croatans today spell the name Ammons as on the militia roster. See http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/butler/butler.html for a history of the Croatans. Discussions on Genforum support a Croatan origin for at least some of the Hammons of Surry County. The Virginia line is a Richmond Co., VA line (like Hanks, Edwards, Dotson, Cocke and many other Carroll Co., VA lines). Judy Rhodes has a Worldconnect database with some documentation for this line. Amongst her documentation is mention of a Revolutionary War pension for John Hammons which mentions a marriage in Lunenburg Co., VA to Martha Landrum. They have a daughter Elizabeth who marries a member of the Bryant family from the Swift militia roster.
    3. Jacob Harmon? This name was suggested as a possibility by an e-mail correspondent.
    4. A Quaker family from eastern Virginia? i.e. Lucy Ammon (d/o Christopher Ammon of Bedford Co., VA) m. James Johnson in 1779 of the Hanover Co., VA Quaker Johnson family (see Thomas Johnson below).

    I did not see any names similar to Ammons or Hammons on the lists of Regulators 1767-1771.

    He was not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list or the 1793 Wythe county tax list. The following Hammons are listed on the 1778 Surry Co., NC property tax list: Ambrose, John, John Jr., Robert as living west of the Blue Ridge.

    Hammons in 1790 Surry Co., NC census: Ambrose, James, John, John and William.

    BEDSAUL / BEDSOLE: John, Elisha - (not Bedfost - old s looks like f, old l looks like s) (Quakers) (Elisha is only on the Draper list, John is on both lists).

    Source of information: http://www.cottagesoft.com/~earl/history.html

    According to this web site, John is probably the brother-in-law of Flower Swift. John's father Elisha originally settled (1771) the place that became Flower Swift's home place in today's Carroll Co., VA (Iron Ridge/Hebron section on Chestnut Creek). It appears no accident that the Quakers are assigned to Flower Swift as they are related to him by marriage. After selling to Swift, Elisha moved to near what is now Galax, Grayson Co., VA. Elisha Bedsaul had a slave, 4 horse and 12 cattle in 1782. Records of John Bedsaul's marriage to Sarah Brown are from Cane Creek MM, NC on 9 Jun 1774. Cane Creek seems to have remained the home meeting for many of the Quaker families in Chestnut Creek during the Revolutionary War period. Sarah was the daughter of Daniel Brown and Grace Thompson. Her grandparents were Joseph Thompson m. Sarah Penton and Henry Brown m. Ann Richardson. Elisah Bedsaul is unlikely to be the son of Jacob Bedsaul and Elizabeth Coles as appears on Worldconnect because (1) Elizabeth Coles is more likely to have m. Elisha Birdsall of NJ (with a different set of children) and (2) the timeline of immigration from Germany, conversion to the Quakers, marriage to an English speaking Quaker and migration to NC in a few months is not very probable. Elisha Bedsaul's wife was Mary Edwards(?) (m. 16 Sep 1751, in probably Warrington twp., York Co., PA). Elisha's other children besides John were Amey (m. George Martin), possibly Mary (m. Flower Swift), Ann (m. Solomon Ruddick s/o Wm Ruddock m. Ann Cox - see Ruddick on this list), Elizabeth (m. Jesse Cox - see Cox this list). Family traditions say that the Bedsauls were originally from Germany (with a name that sounds similar but is spelled differently).

    There are family stories that besides being the community blacksmith, Elisha Bedsaul may also have been involved in hunting for sources of silver in the mountains, smelting it and even perhaps in counterfeiting silver coins. This would have been a most un-Quakerly activity, but could have been something he did before being converted to the Quakers. Since Elisha Bedsaul appears on the militia roster in 1774, it is likely he was not a Quaker at that time, but was converted later. This would also explain how he came to have a slave. One wonders if the silver mining stories and his German origin somehow connect him to the Swift silver mine legends (which feature an unnamed German silver miner).

    Quaker Records: Cane Creek MM - June 9 1774 John Bedsalt, s/o Elisha and Mary of Fincastle Co., VA m. Sarah Brown and April 1, 1775 - Sarah Bedselt (formerly Brown) dismissed from membership.

    Elisha and John Bedsaul are on the militia roster for William Herbert's company which served in Lord Dunmore's War.

    1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list: Elisha Bedsoul 1 tithe - 1 slave (only slave of all the Quakers)- 4 horse - 12 cattle; John Bedsoul 1 tithe - 0 slave - 4 horse - 9 cattle. In 1793 John Bedsole has 7 horses and no blacks, Elisha has 2 tithes, 4 horses and no blacks.

    1793 Wythe Co., land tax: Elisha Bedsol 60 acres worth 10 pounds and 200 acres to Daniel Cummins worth 20 pounds.

    Note: The Bedsauls are not in Swift's list of those fined for not showing up for militia duty. They appear to have made the musters and participated in the company.

    BLEVENS / BLEVINS: James (not a Quaker; Baptist I think, or unchurched) (not on Draper's list, only on list 3)

    James' genealogy is different from most of the rest of the group with the exception of Samuel Mehuren in that they have roots in New England. James' genealogy is the subject of some confusion, partly because there are three James Blevins in the upper New River during the Revolution and this James has been confused with James Blevins Jr. whose family were ardent Tories. In Worldconnect James' grandfather is thought to be William Blevins, born in Westerly, Rhode Island who married Ann Bunch. However, the real state of affairs (according to Ron Blevins) is that we have not yet placed James' parents or grandparents. The Blevins moved south to Monocacy, Frederick Co., MD and were there at the same time as the Swifts and Wards. It is probably the other James Blevins family that is found in old Lunenburg (now Leatherwood Creek, Henry Co.) county, VA about 1748. It appears that that the James in the Swift company went to now Persons Co., NC area as James' son Nathan says he was born on the Haw River area of North Carolina in 1762 (see Nathan's RW pension application). The other Blevins family moved to the head of Little River in 1771. The James in this sketch arrived later (end of 1770s?, early 1780s?). The Blevins family of Henry County, VA and Little River were Long Hunters and are associated by marriage with the great mixture of people who were also Long Hunters. However, the James Blevins in the Swift company may have been a miller, like Nathan Ward.

    It is suspected that the other James Blevins, along and his brothers and father (also named James), all sympathized with the Cherokee during the beginning of the Revolutionary War and refused to take part in the attacks on their villages in 1776-1779. Records exist of his father and brothers and possibly even James himself being called before Col. Shelby. The Annals of Southwest Virginia, page 718, records that on 3 August 1779 JAMES BLEVINS & JOHN BLEVINS being brought into (Montgomery County) Court and confessing that they were engaged in the late Insurrection in this County wherefore the Court taking the Case into Consideration & viewing them for many reasons as proper Objects of Mercy are of opinion that upon their voluntarily taking the State Oath as prescribed by Law be bound to the good behavior themselves in the sum of two hundred pounds each and their Securities in the sum of one hundred each and for twelve months and a day whereupon John Cox and James McDonald came into Court and acknowledged themselves Security for the said John and James in the sum of one hundred pounds each for their good behavior for twelve months and a day to be levied of their respective Lands and Chattels and to the Commonwealth rendered, Upon Condition &c. In fact, the lack of enthusiasm shown by the New River militia in these campaigns was noted in the records. John Blevins, in fact, was a notorious Tory and served in the Tory Regiments in North Carolina, and Capt. John Cox of the militia company immediately to the west of Swift's was the uncle of John Blevins' wife. We are not certain how the James Blevins in Swift's company is related to John and James Blevins the Tories. Note that, ironically, James Blevins is NOT on the Draper's so-called list of Tories.

    A James Blevins appears on the 1781 Loyalist Regiment of Captain Hamilton. This is the other James Blevins we think.

    A William Blevins, in a pension application in Indiana in 1832 says that at age 16 he participated, under the command of a Captain Swift, in the defense of the lead mines, about 1780. I don't believe that Blevins researchers have placed this William. The other statements in the application do not fall in line with all the facts.

    Yet another James Blevins (b. 25 Dec. 1762, d. Lawrence Co., IN) who moved as an infant with his father to Henry Co., VA and then about 1772 at age 10 moved to Montgomery Co., VA received a pension for fighting on the Whig side of the Battle of King's Mountain (1780) under Col. William Campbell. Also at King's Mountain on the Whig side (according to Bobby Gilmer Moss's compendium "The Patriots at King's Mountain") were a Daniel Blevins (pension, Roane Co., TN, 1832) who was "of Virginia" and a Henry Blevins (under Col. Isaac Shelby, pension granted Hawkins Co., TN 1832, m. Catherine Walling - her brother Wm Walling also got a RW pension (S1935) in Hawkins Co., TN). So there were Blevins on both sides, or perhaps this James is the same Tory sympathizer (James Jr.) form Little River mentioned above (his pension application makes no note of service on the Whig side before 1780), who it appears had a brother Daniel.

    The Blevins in Rhode Island were religious dissenters, perhaps Quakers or Quaker sympathizers. Like the long-hunter Walling family that they intermarried with, they originated in Salem, Massachusetts before going to Rhode Island. A possible line is Joshua Blevins (sea captain of Salem), then James m. Margery Cord, then James who moved to Maryland about 1733, the father of the James here. These were among the families that left Salem after the infamous witch trials and ancestors of the Wallings were among the accused witches.

    James married Elizabeth. She is possibly the daughter of Wells Ward, Nathan's brother and the sister of the Nathan Ward of Saddle Creek who is in the 1785 Osborne militia company.

    Children:Nathan 1761 Haw River, NC (d. 1834 Ashe Co., NC, m. Lydia Vaughn and Rachel Skaggs);Daniel 1763 (d. after 1830 Scott Co., VA, m. Sarah); Wells about 1765 (d. 1840 Ashe Co., NC, m. Sarah or Nancy Strunk d/o David Strunk); James about 1770 (d. 1820 Bridle Creek, Grayson Co., VA, m. Lydia Sizemore d/o George Sizemore and Anna Hart and granddaughter of "Tory Ned" Sizemore); Levi 1779 (d. 1869 Johnson Co., KY, m. Elizabeth).

    No Blevins are on the 1767-1771 Regulator list.

    Daniel, James and William Blevins are on the militia roster for William Herbert's Company, 1774, Lord Dunmore's War.

    1782 Montgomery Co. VA tax list: James Blevins, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 0 horse, 0 cattle. In the 1793 Wythe tax list, Dist. 2 is a James Blevans with 1 horse and no blacks. Was James' property confiscated during the Revolution? Although he is on the Swift muster, his name appears near that of Capt. John Cox on the 1782 personal property tax list.

    James Blevins was not in Swift's list of those fined for not participating in the militia.

    Source: Ron Blevins and the New River History Forum; Worldconnect

    BOND: Stephen (Quaker) (only found on the Draper list)

    Stephen was born 1738 in Bucks Co., PA and attended Richland MM there. He moved with his parents to New Garden MM, Guilford Co., NC. His parents were Joseph Bond (b. 1704 England) and Martha Rogers (b. England). He married Maiden (last name unknown). The Bond family is one of the main English families of the New Garden/Deep River MM and unlike many of the families on this list intermarried mainly with the other large NC/English Quaker families like the Mills and Mendenhalls and the families that came from Nantucket. It is likely that Stephen was a refugee from fighting in Surry County, NC in the 1780-1781 time frame, which is how he comes to be on the Swift militia company's roster (Draper's Tory and Quaker list). Many other refugees from Surry also appear on the list and Col. Preston records their presence in New River in a letter to the governor of Virginia. About 1794 he removed with his family to what is now Carroll Co., VA.. Some of his descendants still live in Carroll Co., VA (Rebecca Moore). Stephen died in Floyd Co., VA and his wife sued him for alimony in the 1808 March Court of Grayson Co., VA. (note - a slight conflict on Rootsweb Worldconnect, as there is a Stephen Bond there attached to the same parents with a death date of 1796 in Surry Co., NC [Westfield MM]. This Stephen Bond was a son of the Stephen who is referred to here and died young).

    On the 1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: James, John Bond

    He is not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list or on the 1793 tax list.

    This family is in the Quaker Records of New Garden MM (Tom's Creek Prepatory Meeting): Samuel Bond, Surry Co., s. Joseph, dec., m. Eliz Beales dt. Thomas, same place, 11-1-1775 at Mtg. at Tom's Creek. Wit: Thos Jessop, Thos. Mills, Thos. Carr, Isaac Jones, Joseph Hiatt, John Hiatt, Margaret Carr, Miriam Carr, Ann Hiatt, Lydia Bryant, Suanna Hiatt, Mary Jessop.

    BRYANT, James (probable Baptist from ex-Quaker family) (not on Draper's list)

    James appears to be the son of John Bryan and Sarah/Elizabeth Frances Battle. John Bryan was born Opequon Creek, Frederick Co., VA and is the son of Morgan Bryan and Martha Strode. Thus, if this deduction is correct, the James Bryant on the Swift list is the first cousin of Daniel Boone's wife Rebecca Bryan. Thomas Huey on the later Swift list is his brother-in-law. The Bryans are well-known to have been involved in the Regulator movement. The Bryans were originally a Quaker family, but like the Boones became Baptist in North Carolina. James' family is not on Worldconnect, if he had one. There are requests for information about people with this last name from Grayson Co., VA on the Genforum, but they have gone unanswered. Note a Mary Bryant m. the son of one of the non-Quaker Williams on the Swift musters. This Bryan family also had at least one prominent Tory leader in near-by North Carolina.

    The Bryant family that came to Cane Creek MM from Carteret Co., NC and then is found in the Wesfield MM records should be investigated. There are no James in this family on Worldconnect, but this family does intermarry with the Davis and Lundy families of the Chestnut Creek community of Grayson County in the 1790s. The John Bryan (b. 1742, s/o Nicholas) from this line married Lydia Allen 1760 in Carteret County and they both die in Grayson County. Their daughter Hope m. John Simcock 1796 in Grayson County and in turn Rebecca Simcock b. 1815 married Mounce Gore, an ancestor of Vice President Al Gore.

    To do: Examine pension applications of John Bryan (Wilkes), Reuben Bryan (Surry), Robert Bryan (Wilkes), Thomas Bryan (Surry)

    Quaker Records: New Garden MM: John received from Carteret Co., NC; Garner Bryant, son of John, Surry Co., m. Hannah Davies dt. Thomas, Montgomery Co., VA, 30-10-1782, at Tom's Creek Mtg. Witnesses, John Bryant, Thos. Davis, Charles Davis, Caleb Sumner, Moses Grigg, Daniel Beales, Elizabeth Davis, Elizabeth Ballard, Sarah Beales, Phebe Sumner, Mary Sumner, Mary Ballard.; 1782 Rebeckah d/o John of Surry Co., NC m. Thomas Davis. Westfield MM: 1797 - Thomas Bryant of Grayson Co., VA (s/o John Bryant and Lydia) m. Priscilla Lunday, In 1789 a Lydia Bryant m. John Davis.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: John Bryan

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 0 cattle. He has 3 horses and no blacks in 1793. He is not listed on the 1793 Wythe county land tax list (there is a John Bryant with 170 acres worth 17 pounds)

    James Bryant was not fined by Capt. Swift for not participating in the militia company.

    CARR: Thomas (Quaker physician) (on both lists)

    Thomas is the son of Benjamin Carr of Gunpowder, eastern Baltimore Co., MD and Juliatha. His grandfather was Nicholas Carr b. about 1670. His sister Juliatha marries Benjamin Cox, probably another person on the list. Thomas is married (July 15, 1756) to Miriam Jones who was born about 1731 in Chester Co., PA. They were married at Cane Creek Meeting, NC. In one genealogy and the Draper list, Thomas is referred to as "Dr.", so he may be the local physician. Juliatha and Thomas Carr were members of Gunpowder MM (Quaker) in Maryland. Thomas and Miriam's children: (1) Miriam (1759 - 1830 [TN]) m. Charles Davis (s/o Thos. Davis & Eliz. Knox - see Davis genealogy), (2) Benjamin (d. 1813, Highland Co., OH - in 1785 a member of New Garden MM) m.(1784, New Garden MM) Patience Beals (d/o http://www.the-roundup.com/quaker/beals/bealsthomas.html Thos. Beals and Susan Antrim), (3) Matthew (d. Pulaski Co., KY) m. Susannah, (4) Rachel (1771-1857 Vinton Co., OH) m. Thos. Cox (s/o Solomon Cox), (5) Juliatha, (6) Margaret m John Cox, (7) Moses and (8) Thomas.

    Quaker records: Thomas and Juliatha Carr were amongst the earliest members of Cane Creek MM, North Carolina, Juliatha coming in 1752 and Thomas in 1753 (both from Gunpowder MM). It appears that Thomas left Cane Creek about October 5, 1771 as on this date Cane Creek granted him a certificate to New Garden MM. Thomas appears soon after in the New Garden MM records. In 1779 he is said to be of Surry Co., NC when his daughter Miriam marries Charles Davis. In 1783, Miriam Carr and daughter Margaret and Juliatha Carr of Chestnut Creek were dismissed from the Society of Friends (New Garden MM). At Westfield MM in 1792 Thomas and Rachel Carr were dismissed from membership and in 1804 (Sept. 22), Benjamin Carr removes to Miami MM, Ohio from Westfield MM.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: Joseph Carr (not necessarily a relative of Thomas')

    1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list: 1 tithable, 0 slaves, 3 horse, 6 cattle. In 1793 he has no blacks and 1 horse.

    Fines for not making militia musters: Thos. Carr 0-2-6

    CHANEY: Samuel (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    Unplaced. He does not exist in Worldconnect. Also looked at Chany, Cheny, Cheyney and Cheney.

    The Francis Chaney who was the father of the Francis who signed the Regulator petitions lived in Randolph county, NC and married Margaret. He had daughters Margaret m. John Alred and Elizabeth m. Michael Harvey (Quaker). This is perhaps a Quaker line from Chester Co., PA. Unfortunately there is no Samuel attached to it.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: Francis Cheny

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA person tax list. Not on the 1793 Wythe Co., VA tax list.

    CLONCH: Jeremiah (not fit), Edmond, John (Lutherans in Pennsylvania) (on both lists)

    Jeremiah Clonch is the son or perhaps nephew of Hieronymous (Jerome/Jeremiah/Jerimy) Glantz, age 29, who arrived on the ship Adventure in 1732 in Philadelphia with wife Mary Magdalene, age 30, daughter Anne Margaret (age 9) and son Hans Michael (age 4) (passenger list). Hieronymous married second Erna Barbara Mack 15 October 1733 in a Lutheran Church in Philadelphia (George Mack is also on the Adventure passenger list and lives with Jeremiah Clonch in Mecklenburg Co., VA records). From Pennsylvania the Clonch's migrated to old Lunenburg (in 1755 granted a license to an Ordinary along Allen's Creek). Since no record exists of Hieronymous Glantz dying it is possible that he and Jeremiah (Swift Militia Company) are one and the same man instead of father and son. Cathy Meder-Dempsey provides a time-line and documentation in her WorldConnect pages. Note there is apprarently another Jeremiah Clonch who is also sometimes listed as a son of Hieronymus Glantz and this one married Sarah Catherine Rhine. This genealogy is unsettled. A comparison of the signatures on the ship Adventure Oath of Allegience and the various Lunenburg, Mecklenburg and Henry county deeds is needed.

    Jeremiah, possible son of Hieronymous migrated to Henry Co., VA. Jeremiah Clonch may well have died during the war (he is marked not fit) as there are no records of him after 1782. Jeremiah Clonch (or his son Jermemiah m. Jane McGuire) settled 400 acres along Chestnut Creek in 1776 (purchased from William Riddle and 3 others). Many Worldconnect sources say he was married to Sophia Erwin (note the William Erwin on this list). However, the supposed Irish marriage for her and Jeremiah is dubious based on the dates of birth of the children (starting mid 1750s when Jeremiah is in America). In fact, since Jeremiah's wife is named Margaret on land transactions with Thomas Moore in 1758, it is more likely he was married to a woman by this name. Jeremiah Clonch is on a list of Chestnut Creek men suspected of being "inimical to the government" on 7-8 Sept 1779 (L. P. Preston, 1929, Annals of Southwestern Virginia) just prior to the formation of the Swift company and was acquitted of this charge. It appears that after the formation of the Swift Company in 1779, this family faithfully attended militia musters.

    John Claunch, son of of Jeremiah migrated west to Grainger Co., TN, then south, ending in Alabama. Jeremiah, son of Jeremiah married Jane McGuire and moved to Pulaski Co., KY. Jeremiah's other sons - Barnett, Edmond - nothing further is known about them as far as I can tell. Jeremiah's daughter Violet married Thomas Haughey about 1815, and moved to Greene County, Ohio, on a Virginia military grant.

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: Edmund Clonch, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 0 horse, 0 cattle; Jeremiah Clonch Sr. 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 6 horse, 10 cattle. Jeremiah Clonch Jr., 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 13 cattle; Jacob Cloynch 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse, 1 cattle. They are not on the 1793 tax list. They were not fined for missing militia duty by Capt. Swift.

    1793 Wythe Co., land tax: Mathew Dickey to Jeremiah Clonch: 350 acres valued at 20 pounds.

    COOK: John (not sure of Religious background) (both lists)

    I am not sure who this is. There is a Quaker who is a possible match and several non-Quakers that can't be eliminated. The Quaker is the son of Abraham Cook and Lydia Hussey of the Guilford county area (note Christopher Hussey is on a Swift militia muster). He was born in 1765 which may be a bit young (he would be 16-18 years old when on the rolls). Cook is one of the Quaker names of Warrington, York Co., PA from which came many of the other families on the Swift musters.

    There are no Cooks on the Guilford/Randolph/Alamance Co., NC area Regulator petitions as far as I could determine.

    Quaker Records: The Cooks are amongst the earliest names at New Garden MM. 1748- Margaret, (d/o John of London Grove, Chester Co., PA) m. James Johnson in PA. 1758 - Mary, widow, late of PA m. Joseph Wells of Cane Creek MM. Jan. 1772 - Thomas Cook received at New Garden from Cane Creek.

    In L.P. Summer's Annals of Southwestern Virginia(1929): On 7-8 Sept 1779, John Cook is one of those who " were accused of being "inimical to the government" just prior to the formation of the Swift company.

    1782 Montgomery Co., tax list: there are two John Cooks. One has 1 tithe, 1 slave, 8 horse and 11 cattle; the other has 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse and 0 cattle. Not present in 1793 Wythe tax list.

    COX: William, Benjamin, Jesse, Richard (Quakers) and more family members below in the non-Quaker section...(on both lists), also there is a John Cox (Quaker) who is on Draper's list only.

    All of these Cox's are descendants of John Cox (abt 1665-1711, m. Rachel Carr) emigrated from Drayton, Berkshire to London Grove, Chester Co., PA. His off-spring are numerous and most seem to have gone to North Carolina with a first stop in Huntington twp., Adams Co., PA.

    -- Possiblities for Benjamin Cox (1) the son of William Cox and Juliatha Carr. He was born about 1758 and died 1791 in Hawkins Co., TN. William Cox was born 1726 in Hockessin, New Castle Co., DE and died 1801 in Knox Co., KY. He is the son of William Cox and Catherine Kinkey and this William Sr. is the son of John Cox b. abt 1665 of Drayton. (2) Another poaasibility would be Benjamin Cox b. 1752 in Randolph Co., NC m. Rebecca Cox on 20 July 1775 in Cane Creek MM. He is the son of Benjamin Cox and Martha Garretson. Benjamin Cox Sr. is the son of John Cox and Hannah Jenkins (see Jesse, next, and see Cox on non-Quaker list). It is likely that both of these Benjamins were on the Swift rolls as the Benjamin Cox on the non-Quaker side is probably a disowned Quaker/Regulator. 1782 Montgomery Co., tax list: 1 tithable - 0 slave - 2 horse - 2 cattle. There is no Benjamin Cox on the 1793 Wythe tax list. Neither the Quaker nor the non-Quaker Benjamin Cox were fined by Capt. Swift for not showing for militia duty. Therefore, it is likely that they participated in the militia.

    -- Jesse Cox is the son of Samuel Cox b. abt 1720 in Chester or York Co., PA, d. 1791 Randolph Co., NC, who was a member of the Regulators. Samuel was married to Hannah Wierman and migrated to Cane Creek, NC about 1757. Samuel was the son of John Cox and Mary Garretson, who in turn is the son of the original immigrant John Cox of Drayton. The David Herzog GEDCOM identifies this Jesse as the Jesse in Flower Swift's company and says he moved to Crooked Creek in NC and in 1810 may have removed to Grainger Co., TN with his brother Harmon (see below). Jesse married Elizabeth Bedsaul, which makes him the probable brother-in-law of Flower Swift.

    1782 Montgomery Co., tax list: 1 tithable - 0 slaves - 6 horse - 9 cattle; On the 1793 Wythe tax list Jesse has 6 horses and no blacks. Jesse Cox was not on the list of those fined by Capt. Swift for missing militia duties.

    -- Richard is unplaced. One possibility is the Richard who married Ann Hodgin and is the son of Thomas Cox (a son of John of Drayton) and Mary Cooke. This line goes from London Grove to York Co., PA to Wrightsboro MM, Georgia, then to SC and NC. In 1780 they remove to Bush River MM, SC but there are few records until 1812 when they appear in Greene Co., OH. All other Richard Cox's do not fit. Not on the tax list of 1782 Montgomery or on the 1793 Wythe tax lists. Richard was fined the most heavily of anyone in Swift's company for not showing up for militia functions: Richard Cox 0-12-6

    -- Here are the possibilities for William Cox: (1) William b. 1764 the son of Solomon Cox and Ruth Cox. He migrated with his family to Ross Co., OH. Solomon Cox is the son of William Cox and Katherine Kinkey. He was born abt 1730 in New Castle Co., DE and migrated in the 1750s to Cane Creek MM, Orange Co., NC. Solomon's son Solomon is known to have lived for a while in Grayson Co., VA. Solomon Sr. migrated to Ross county where he died. His wife Ruth Cox was the daughter of John Cox and Hannah Jenkins. Katherine Kinkey's sister Mary was the mother of Herman Husband, the best known leader of the Regulation. After Alamance 1771 Husband was outlawed and he eventually landed in what is now Somerset Co., PA where he lived before the Revolution under the pseudonym "Tuscape Death". This William's father Solomon is thus the first cousin of Herman Husband. (2) William b. 1757, the son of John Cox (1728 DE - 1803 Randolph, NC) & Mary Scarlett. This John Cox's son John (b. 1767) married Margaret Carr, daughter of Thomas Carr and lived in the Chestnut Creek neighborhood (He is John Cox (Chestnut) with 2 tithes, no blacks and 6 horses in the 1793 tax list. (3) There is also William b. 1761 the son of Benjamin Cox and Martha Garrettson. He married Ruth Cox, the daughter of Solomon Cox and Ruth Cox of Grayson Co., VA. William's brother Enoch Cox (b. 1752) and his wife Mary Mackey are buried in the Mt. Pleasant Friends Meeting House on Religion Rd. (off Old Quaker Rd.) in Carroll County. The DAR has placed a Revolutionary War veterans marker on both their graves.

    The second William Cox on the 1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: 1 tithable, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 5 cattle. On the 1793 Wythe tax list there is a William in District 2 with 1 tithe, no slaves and a horse. No one named William Cox is on Swift's list of thosed fined for missing militia duties.

    --End notes to Cox: The Cox men above and below are likely to be from two families, Solomon Cox m. Ruth Cox, and the family of Samuel Cox and Hannah Wierman. They were first cousins and both were disowned by Cane Creek MM, probably for their participation in the Regulator movement. Their parents, William Cox and John Cox were both sons of John Cox the immigrant. The possible exception is Richard Cox. The blood connection to Herman Husband, best known leader of the Regulation in the William Cox line is interesting.

    Quaker Records: Cane Creek MM: 1752- Catherine Cox received from Newark MM and marries Eleazar Hunt; William, Solomon and Thomas received from Newark MM 1753; 1754 - Herman received from Fairfax MM; Feb 2, 1767 - Isaac, Samuel, Solomon, William and William Jr. disowned; Feb 3, 1767 - Juliatha and Phebe Cox disowned; April 1, 1769 - Herman Cox disowned; June 1, 1771 Isaac, Samuel and sons Herman and Samuel are disowned. July 1771 Tamer Cox to Bush River MM; March 4, 1773 - Jesse Cox disowned. New Garden MM: 1779 - Rebeckah, Benjamin, Catharine and Juliatha, ch. Of William Cox, received from Cane Creek (certificate dated Dec 1778). They are not found in the Westfield MM records. Some of this family does appear from 1804 onwards in the Lost Creek MM, TN records.

    COX: Harmon (not on Draper's list), Benjamin, Samuel (not fit) (Benj. & Sam on Draper's list) (all are disowned Quakers)

    Harmon Cox was disowned by the Quakers at Cane Creek MM, 1 June 1771, after the Battle of Alamance (16 May 1771). The Samuel on the Swift rolls who is marked not fit is possibly his father, who was born about 1725 at London Grove, Chester Co., PA and moved to what is now Randolph county, NC or more likely Harmon's brother Samuel (Jr.). Samuel Sr. married Hannah Wierman. Samuel was also disowned by the Quakers on 1 June 1771 for activity with the Regulators. Jesse Cox on the Quaker part of Swift's militia list is another son of Samuel Cox (Sr.) and Hannah Wierman. Samuel was the son of John Cox and Hannah Jenkins. That John was the son of John Cox the immigrant of Drayton, England. Samuel returned to his home in Holly Springs, NC in 1791 and is likely to have migrated to Grainger Co., TN and left a will. See the Quaker list for a description of possibilities for Benjamin Cox. Harmon and Samuel Cox are also on Capt. John Cox's 1777 militia musters. Sam Cox was fined 0-3-0, a minimal amount indicating he made most of the militia musters or was excused for being "unfit". Harmon and Benjamin Cox were not fined by Swift or had paid their fines. It is likely that they participated in militia duties. Harmon is probably the one found with brother Jesse in Grainger Co., TN in the early 1800s.

    Samuel Cox Jr., son of Samuel and Hannah Wierman Cox married Martha Cox, daughter of Solomon Cox (son of John Cox and Mary Garrettson). Samuel Jr. died July 29, 1832 in Whitely Co., Kentucky. His children do not appear to have married Quakers and the family moved from Kentucky to Livingston Co., Missouri after his death where Martha died in 1845. Samuel Jr. was disowned with his father and brother Harmon on the same day in 1771 by the Quakers.

    Samuel Cox (Sr.) was a first cousin of the Harmon Cox who was convicted of High Treason and is one of the six to be "respited until the King's pleasure could be known." This is the trial at which the six who were condemned were to be executed by being hung, drawn and quartered (see next paragraph). The Harmon Cox who was captured after the Battle of Alamance 1771 by Governor Tryon was born about 1720 and married Jane Johns. He was the first cousin of Herman Husband, one of the best known leaders of the Regulation. It is doubtful that this Harmon would be on the Swift muster as he would be about 60 years old or more in 1782 and was one of the 12 wealthiest men in Randolph county, NC at its founding in 1779. He would have been about 50 at Alamance. This Harmon Cox was known to be a leader in the Regulation and many of the meetings of that movement were held in his mill. The Quaker Cox family is also known to have supported the Whig side in the Revolution. This wealthy Harmon had a son Harmon born in 1757 who married Catherine Cox, a daughter of Samuel Cox and Hannah Wierman (above) which unites these two branches of the Cox family. A listing of which side Regulators took in the Revolution can be found at : http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/nc/orange/military/revwar/regulatr.txt

    By far more people in the Regulator movement were Whigs than Tories. A very influential and mostly well-researched history of http://docsouth.dsi.internet2.edu/nc/bassett95/bassett95.html the Regulators came to the opposite conclusion and that erroneous conclusion has been passed down as part of the mythology surrounding the Regulation. One study has the count of former Regulators in Orange county, NC as 289 were Whigs, 34 were Tories and 560 avoided taking sides (data from Alamance Historic Site, also given in Leyburn's Scotch Irish History). My studies show similar ratios for those who left the Piedmont of North Carolina.

    In L.P. Summer's Annals of Southwestern Virginia (1929): On 7-8 Sept 1779, Samuel Cox is one of those who " were accused of being "inimical to the government" just prior to the formation of the Swift company.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions (Guilford county area): Harmon Cox, Thomas Cox, Samuel Cox

    1782 Montgomery Co., tax list: Harmon Cox 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 5 horse, 11 cattle. Benjamin (cannot tell if it is this Benjamin or the Quaker one), 1 tithe, 0 slave, 2 horse, 2 cattle. Samuel Cox: 1 tithe, 13 horse, 15 cattle. Harmon Cox is not on the 1793 Wythe tax list. Benjamin and Samuel Cox are apparently not on the 1793 Wythe list either. See http://www.tamu.edu/ccbn/dewitt/mckstmerreg.htm for more information on the trial of Harmon Cox.

    Connections of the Quaker Cox families to Herman Husband: Husband's first wife was Elsey or Phebe Cox, parents not known; Husband's aunt Catherine Kinkey was the mother or grand mother of several of the Cox's on the Swift militia roster - Catherine's father Herman is the origin of the Herman and Harmon name in the Husband and Cox families; the step-father of his third wife was Isaac Cox, s/o Thomas Cox and Elizabeth Fincher - and it was to Isaac's hunting camp in western Pennsylvania that Husband fled to after the Battle of Alamance.

    DAVIS: Thomas, Thomas Jr., Charles (Quakers) (on both lists)

    Thomas Sr. was born 18 Jan 1734 in Chester Co., PA and died about 1789 in Montgomery (probably now Grayson or Carroll) Co., VA. He married Elizabeth Knox (b. 30 Nov 1738, Perquimans Co., NC, d. abt 1837 in Jefferson Co., TN) on 15 Jul 1758 in Perquimans Co., NC. The Thomas Jr. and Charles on the Flower Swift list are their two oldest sons. Thomas Sr. is the son of Charles Davis (b. Luton, Bedfordshire, England, d. Chatham Co., NC, Quaker) m. Hannah Matson (b. abt 1720, Chester Co., PA, probably a descendant of Swedish immigrants). Elizabeth Knox was the daughter of Thomas Knox and Mary, who were Quakers in Nansemond/Isle of Wight Co., VA/Perquimans Co., NC. Thomas Sr.'s grandparents were John Davis m. Susanna Neely and John Matson m. Margaret. Records of this family can be found in the Cane Creek, NC minutes. Thomas moved with his parents from northwest VA (Fairfax MM) to NC (Cane Creek MM) about 1750. The family moved to the Chestnut Creek area of SW Virginia sometime before 1771 (Lynn Norton's Rootsweb Worldconnect notes). This family migrated to Jefferson Co., TN then went to Lawrence Co., IN. Thomas Sr.'s sister Sarah m. Thomas Cox, another son of William Cox and Catharine Kankey (sister of Herman Husband's mother and daughter of Herman Kankey). According to http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=kacydavis&id=I012720 Kacy Davis on Worldconnect Thomas Davis Sr. was at the Battle of Alamance in 1771.

    Children of (1) Charles Davis (s/o Thomas and Elizabeth Knox Davis) m. (1779) Miriam Carr include a Thomas Davis b. 1782 in Montgomery (now Grayson) Co., VA. Brother Thomas Davis (b. 1760) m. 1782 (New Garden MM) Rebecca Bryant (b. Carteret Co., NC, d/o John Bryant and Lydia Allen) and had children Elizabeth (m. Byrom Ballard) and Ruth (m. Berry Edwards). Charles died in Tennessee, and Thomas died in Lawrence Co., Indiana. Miriam Carr was the daughter of Thomas Carr, also a member of the Swift militia company.

    Children of (2) Thomas Davis are: (a) Elizabeth (b. 1784, m. Byrom Ballard); (b) Lydia Ann (b. 1786, d. 1859 Grayson Co., VA, m. Jeremiah Wilson); (c) Daniel Davis (b. 1786, d. Lawrence Co., IN) (d) Jesse (b. abt 1790); John (b. abt 1790); (e) Seliah (b. 1792, d. Lawrence Co., IN, m. Levi Mitchell); (f) Hannah (b. abt 1795, m. an Edwards); (g) Aaron (b. 1798, d. Lawrence Co., IN, m. Jane Ann Mitchell); (h) Ruth (b. abt 1799); Enoch (b. 1800, d. Lawrence Co., IN, m. Elizabeth Dean); (i) Wesley (b. 1802).

    Thomas (Sr.) and Elizabeth Knox Davis had several children besides Thomas and Charles: (3) Mary (b. 1762, d. Frost Bottom, Anderson Co., TN, m. first Benjamin Duncan 1776, then James Williams (s/o Amos) 1783); (4) Hannah (b. 1764, d. Mt. Pleasant, Cabarrus Co., NC, m. Garner Bryant 1782 New Garden MM); (5) John (b. 1766, d. Hamilton Co., IN, m. Lydia Bryant 1789, Surrey Co., NC, d/o John Bryant and Lydia Allen); (6) Daniel Davis (b. 1767, d. Grayson Co., VA, m. Jane Patton 1792, Surrey Co., NC); (7) Morris (b. 1769, m. Margaret Ward 1790, d/o Nathan Ward and Sarah Canoe); (8) William (b. 1771, d. Wayne Co., IN, m. first Elizabeth Huff, then Sarah Stokes More); (9) Harmon (b. 1773, m. Hannah Middleton 1796); (9) Moses (b. 1776, d. 1816 Grayson Co., VA, m. Anna Willits); (10) Elizabeth (b. 1778, d. 1816 Grayson Co., VA, m. Joshua Stoneman 1796, Westfield MM); Tamer (b. 1780, d. 1872, Morgan Co., OH, m. James Vernon 1796, Westfield MM).

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions from the Guilford county area: William David; Enoch, James, Jonathan, Matthew and Thomas Davis. Thomas Davies 1 - 0 slave - 6 horse - 8 cattle. Charles Davies 1 - 0 -slave - 1 horse - 1 cow; 1793 Wythe tax list: District 2: Thomas with 2 horses and no blacks, Charles with 2 horses and no blacks; Two more Thomas have no horses. On Swift's list of those fined for missing militia musters: Thomas Davis 0-3-6, Thomas Davis 0-1-6, Joseph Davis 0-2-6.

    Quaker Records:

    • Cane Creek MM: 1759 - John s/o Charles and Hannah m. Mary Chamness.
    • 1766 Charles Davies is disowned.
    • A Thomas Davis and family got a certificate to New Garden in 1778.
    • New Garden MM: Charles (s/o Thomas of Montgomery Co., VA) on 1 Feb 1779 m. Miriam Carr at Tom's Creek. Wit: Thomas Davis, Thomas Carr, Jacob Jackson, Thos. Beales, Wm. Hiatt, Bowater Beales, Sarah Beales, Patience Beales, Mary Carson, Miriam Cook, Ann Hiatt, Elizabeth Jackson.
    • New Garden MM: Hannah (d/o Thomas of Mont. Co., VA) on Oct 30, 1782 m. Garner Bryant and on the same day Rebeccah Bryant m. Thomas Davis.
    • New Garden MM: Thomas Davis, son of Thomas of Montgomery Co., VA m. Rebeckah Bryant, dt of John, Surry, 30-10-1782, at Tom's Creek Mtg., Wit: Thomas Davis, Curtis Jackson, Jacob Jackson, David Ballard, Isaac Jones, Moses Grigg, Elizabeth Davis, Lydia Bryant, Elizabeth Ballard, Sarah Beales, Mary Ballard, Hannah Bryant.
    • On Nov 1 1783 Thomas' daughter Mary m. James Williams.
    • Westfield MM: John m. Lydia Bryant (1789), Tamar (d/o Thomas dec'd of Grayson Co., VA) m. James Vernon (1796); Elizabeth (d/o Thos) m. Joshua Stoneman (1796).

    DAVIS: John (ex-Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    Same comments as for John Cook. Could be a Quaker or could be someone else. Lots of possibilities.

    1. John s/o James 1750 NC - 1818 GA. Son has middle name Cook.
    2. John (1757 NC - 1841 KY) m. Sarah Dillard in 1795 in TN. Daughter Sarah m. Dennis Hopkins of Randolph Co., NC.
    3. John Davis b. 1 Jan 1766 - another son of Thomas Davis and Elizabeth Knox (see under Quaker genealogy - this Thomas Davis' older sons are on Quaker part of the Swift lift). He married Lydia Bryant 1789 at Westfield MM, Surry Co., NC, so it appears he should be on the Quaker list if any, and he seems too young, but he may be the most likely since we know he lived in the Chestnut Creek community.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions from the Guilford county area: William David; Enoch, James, Jonathan, Matthew and Thomas Davis. He is not on the 1782 Montgomery Co. tax list unless he is named John Davidson. This could be an indication that he has gone to North Carolina with Henry Morgan to fight with the Regular Continental troops. He may be one of the John Davises on the 1793 Wythe list: there are 6 John Davises on the list and they had no slaves and either 1, 5 or 6 horses.

    DOTSON/ DODSON: John (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    There are many Johns to choose from and my confidence in the following is not high. I am choosing the one who is said to be of Wythe Co., VA. He is probably John Dodson, son of John Dodson b. 1722 in North Farnham Parish, Richmond Co., VA. This family comes from the same place as James Cock and possibly the Hanks so they may have migrated together. Son Solomon married Margaret Collins 1802 in Grainger Co., TN. John Dodson Sr. (father) was born 1722 in Richmond Co., VA and his parents were Lambeth Dodson and Sarah Harris. This line looks slightly confused in Worldconnect. An alternative is John Dodson (b. on the Staunton River, VA d, Hawkins Co., TN) who marries Catherine Grissom. This is also of the North Farnham line.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: no Dotsons or Dodsons

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list.

    Not on the 1793 Wythe Co., VA tax list.

    ELLIOT/ELLET: Jacob, Israel and William (not Ellis) (Quakers) (both lists, except William only on the Draper list)

    Israel Elliot b. 28 Jul 1759 in York Co., PA, d. abt Apr 1819 in Wayne Co., IN is the son of Jacob Elliot and Eliabeth (?). He married Willmet Lamb abt 1784 in North Carolina. The migration path seems to be York Co., PA to Center MM, Guilford Co., NC to Lost Creek MM, TN to Wayne Co., IN. Wilmet Lamb is the daughter of Joseph Lamb (Nansemond Co., VA --> Perquimans Co., NC --> Randolph Co., NC) and Frances Beeson. Frances Beeson is the daughter of Benjamin Beeson and Elizabeth Hunter (Chester Co., PA/New Castle Co., DE --> Frederick Co., VA -->Randolph Co., NC). Benjamin was the son of Richard Beeson and Charity Grubb. Richard was the son of Edward Beeson and Rachel Pennington, who are the immigrant ancestors. The Jacob Elliot on Swift's list is the brother of Israel.

    Quaker Records (Hinshaw, Vol. 1): New Garden MM -- Jacob and Elizabeth Elliot with sons Jacob, Israel and William (1763, not long after the migration from Warrington MM, PA). In 1782 and 1784 sons William and Abraham (B. 1765, Rowan Co., NC, d. 1821 Vigo Co., Indiana) are named viz. "Jacob Ellot produced a certificate to this meeting [New Garden] from the MM of Center dated 21 7mo 1781 for himself his wife Elizabeth and four children named Wm, Abraham, Eliz and Rachel "- Received March 1782 by New Garden MM (NC). Note that this is Jacob Senior. Jacob Elliot Jr. (probably the one on the Swift militia musters), also married an Elizabeth "Betty" Beeson, about 1775, according to Marsha Moses. This Elizabeth Beeson was born July 30, 1754 in Frederick Co., VA and is another daughter of Benjamin Beeson and Elizabeth Hunter.

    The Beesons were among the most common names on the Regulator petitions, but no Ellets or Elliots are found in the Guilford area petitions. There was a James Ellis also (same last name as on the Swift militia roll.) On the list in Guilford Co.: Isaac Beeson, William Beeson, Benjamin Beeson, William Beeson. Isaac, William and Benjamin are the names of the three oldest sons of Benjamin Beeson and Elizabeth Hunter. The other William could be their uncle.

    Deed research by Marsha Moses shows that the Elliots lived starting in 1763 or thereabouts in what is now Randolph Co., NC. On 14 October 1782 Jacob Sr. and wife Elizabeth deeded land to Jacob Jr. (who at this time appears to have been living in the Chestnut Creek community & Israel and Abraham were witnesses on the deed). It is likely that Jacob then moved back to Randolph County in late 1782, but Israel stays in Virginia and is joined by brother William. In the 1790s the Elliot brothers (Jacob, Israel, William, Abraham) remove to Lost Creek Monthly Meeting in Tennessee. From there they soon dispersed to Ohio and Indiana.

    The following story is from Joab Elliot's biography (late 19th century, a grandson of Jacob and Elizabeth): "His people in early times were Quakers. His grandfather being called upon to fight by the Tories in the Revolutionary times refused, on account of his religious scruples, where upon the Tories tied him to a tree and gave him his choice to fight or die. He preferred death to a violation of his oath. The Tories arranged themselves in line sixty step distance, preparatory to shooting the steadfast man. All was ready when a son of the doomed man, and brother to Joab's father, interfered with these words: "Men, if you must shoot anyone, shoot me, as father has a family to support." Saying this, the brave son placed himself in front of his father to shelter him. Even the Tory heart was moved, and both father and son were allowed to live." (Marsha Moses believes the son was Jacob Jr., although it could also have been Israel or William).

    1782 Montgomery Co., tax list: Jacob Jr. 1 tithe - 0 slaves -3 horse - 6 cattle; In 1793 there are no Ellets or Elliots in District 1 or 2 of Wythe county.

    Fined by Capt. Swift: Israel Ellet 0-2-0

    Note: Some information provided by Marsha Moses via e-mail.

    ERWIN: William (Arwin in the records) (associated with the Quakers probably, but listed as non-Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    Possibilities: William Erwin appears likely to be another with Irish Quaker roots, whose father was William Erwin/Irvin of (now) Randolph Co., NC whose children migrated to Wilkes Co., GA and Ohio. William Sr.'s children (b. 1735 - early 1750s) are apparently named William, John, Samuel, Jane (of Surry Co., NC) m. George Wales, Robert, Michael and Nancy. There is another possibly Quaker William Erwin in Randolph (intermarries with Lamb, Beeson - see Elliot genealogy on Quaker list) whose descendants end up in Floyd and Lawrence Co., IN and Clay Co., Illinois [his father was William b. Ireland, d. Iredell Co., NC m. Jane) and a non-Quaker William Erwin (son of James Erwin and Agnes Patterson) in Rowan. They look like they could be possibilities too. All of these familes have traditions of service in the American Revolution, despite 2 of the 3 being Quaker. Note also that Jeremiah Clonch (on this list) is suspected to have married a Sophia Erwin.

    To do: Examine the pension application for William Erwin, aged 80 of Buncombe Co., NC which was granted and commenced on 7 Oct 1833 for service in the infantry and cavalry in the NC militia.

    A John Erwin is on the 1767-1771 Guilford Co., NC Regulator petitions.

    No one with this name on the 1782 tax list - closest is Joseph and George Ervin

    I did not find him on the 1793 tax list either. Jeremiah Clonch married Sophie Erwin, so this may be one of her relatives from South-side Virginia.

    GRIGGS / GREGG: Jacob (Quaker, only on Draper's list)

    The closest fit for Jacob so far is Jacob Gregg who was born 1741 in Newcastle Co., DE m. 26 April 1762 Susannah Underwood, had children born in Randolph Co., NC (perhaps) and died April 1801 in Londonderry, Ross Co., Ohio. He was the son of Richard Gregg b. 6 February 1713/14 in Ardmore, Co. Waterford, Ireland - d. Oct 1754 in New Castle Co., DE who married 14 May 1735 in New Garden MM, Chester Co., PA Anne Haddley b. 7 Dec 1717 in Chester Co., PA. The Greggs and Hadleys are both Irish Quaker families. Anne Hadley's parents are Simon Hadley b. 1675 in Co. West Meath, Ireland and Ruth Miller b. December 1677 in Co. West Meath. Richard Gregg was the son of George Gregg, b. 10 July 1674 in Co. Armagh, Ireland and Sarah Hogg b. 1694 in New Castle Co., DE. Through the Hadleys this Jacob Gregg would be a cousin of the Stanfields also on this militia muster.

    The name Griggs is not unknown in North Carolina. There is a Charles Griggs of Currituck County who receives a RW pension granted 23 May 1834 at age 76.

    To do: Investigate the name Gragg/Graggs

    1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: Jacob Grigg

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list, nor the 1793 Wythe Co., tax list

    FLEMING / FLEMMING: John (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    There was nothing in the two lines I found that tied it to the Grayson/Carroll Co. area: (1) John Fleming b. 1743 Virginia, d. 5 Sep. 1803 in Iredell Co., NC; s/o Peter Fleming and Nancy Mann(?). and (2) John Middleton Fleming b. 1732-1740 VA, d. 12 Oct 1794 in Surry Co., NC - m. Nancy Jane Hord (b. Henry Co., VA). He is the son of William Fleming (d. 1767 Westmoreland Co., VA) and Abigail Smith. William is the son of Alexander. Daughter Martha m. Matthew Jouett and migrated to Overton Co., TN.

    A branch of the New Kent County, Virginia Fleming family had been converted to the Quakers at the end of the 1600s or beginning of the 1700s (i.e Charles Fleming m. Susannah Tarleton). The Martin and Johnson families on the Swift list were converted in this same period and also have New Kent county roots. All of these families are associated by blood or business relations to important families in the Piedmont of Virginia who were investors in the Loyal Company (original owners of the Chestnut Creek area after the Indians). The Quaker branch of the Flemings intermarried with the Quaker branches of the Woodson, Bates, Jordan, Randolph and Bolling families, all well-known large land-owners in Tidewater Virginia. The Tarleton ancestor of this Fleming line was a participant in Bacon's Rebellion. Dolly Madison (originally Payne) was another Quaker descendant of this line. Any connection between the John Fleming on the Swift muster and this family are at this time unknown.

    Regulator petitions 1767-1771: John Flemming

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list. Not on the 1793 Wythe Co., VA tax list.

    FULTON: David (not a Quaker) (on both lists) (Some information provided by Patrice Fulton Stark).

    David's parents are unknown, although his father's name has been listed as Samuel. The Samuel Fulton and Elizabeth Stewart of Donegal twp., Lancaster Co., PA are not his parents (this has been disproven). His wife was Nancy, last name unknown. His children were Ann (m. 12 Jan 1797 to John Whited or Whitehead), Isabella (m. Robert Hill), Samuel (m. Martha Jones, d/o Minitree Jones), Arthur (m. Naomi Anna Jones, d/o Minitree Jones), Jane (m. Mark Johnson), James (m. Cynthia Jones, d/o Abner Jones), William (m. Cenia Jones, d/o Abner Jones), Margaret (aka Peggy and Nancy), and David (m. Violet). David Sr. died in Grayson county in 1822, having acquired some property and slaves and left a will. He does not appear to be connected to the Quakers, except as a neighbor. His son Samuel married Martha Powell Jones, daughter of Minitree Jones and his grandson Creed by Samuel, Creed Fulton (b. Nov 1802) was a Methodist preacher and a founder of Emory and Henry College. The children of David Fulton (except Samuel) moved from Grayson County to Illinois, Missouri and Texas (staying together through these moves for three generations).

    There are no Fultons on the Guilford NC area Regulator petitions, but we believe David Fulton came to Virginia from the Piedmont of North Carolina about the same time as the other folk from North Carolina. In North Carolina he was a neighbor of George and Andrew Finley who did sign the petitions. There is a possibility that he is a descendant of the Fultons of Cecil Co., Maryland where they may have known the family of Herman Husband. David recorded 200 acres on the New River below George Jones on Walnut Bottom on 12 September 1773 (Fincastle Co., VA).

    Although a member of Capt. Cox's company prior to the formation of the Swift company, David Fulton was not an enthusiastic participant in the Whig cause prior to 1779. This can be seen by the following from L.P. Summer's Annals of Southwestern Virginia (1929): On 7-8 Sept 1779, "David Fulton, Jeremiah Clounch, Isaac Winfrey, John Cook, Samuel Cox and Peter Clove" were accused of being "inimical to the government" and on 6 Feb 1781 the Court ordered "that all property taken from David Fulton be retained and not disposed of until March Court and that witnesses be summoned." On 7 Feb 1781: "On reconsidering the matter relating the property of David Fulton by the Militia of this County, as it does not appear from his allegiance so far as to join the Enemy and as he has a large family it is ordered that the several articles taken from him be restored on his making application for the same and removing them again to his own house and the Court earnestly requests and hopes that the several persons in whose possessions the articles are within this State or in North Carolina will readily give them up to the said Fulton on his applying for them...."

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: David Fulton, 1 tithe, 1 slave, 5 horse, 20 cattle. On the 1793 Wythe tax list he has 1 black and 7 horses.

    HANSON: Jacob (Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    I only saw one possibly in all of Worldconnect and that is Jacob Hanson, son of Jacob Hanson and Margaret Hughes. This family is from Baltimore Co., MD (see also Thomas Carr) and was connected to various Quaker families (Hanson Genforum #1493). The Hansons are apparently descendants of original Swedish settlers of Delaware (to America before 1653). This Maryland line appears to descend from Hans Hanson of Kent Co., MD, a descendant of the Delaware line (Hanson Genforum #496). An alternative Hanson Genforum posting #589 gives some Ashe county connections but not to the Maryland line: Celia Hanson b.1781 m. Henry Graybeal in Ashe Co., NC. Celia was the daughter of William Hanson and Celia Tuckwiler who immigrated from northwest Virginia to Botetourt county. This William is the son of John Hanson (b. 3 Apr 1721 Ireland - d. 15 Nov 1783). Unfortunately John's list of children includes no Jacob. This family went to Lawrence Co., IN. There is nothing to indicate this line is Quaker as William (1753-1824) served in the Battle of Pt. Pleasant (1774) and in the Revolution (7th VA Regt from Botetourt Co., VA). Note: Tried also Henson and Hinson. 1782 Montgomery Co., tax list - closest name is Jacob Harmon or John Henson (who is also on the 1778 Surry, NC list of those owning land west of the Blue Ridge). I am wondering if this is not the name Harmon who were both early settlers of the Upper New River and came from Rowan Co., NC. A Zachariah Harmon is on the Regulator petitions.

    To do: Examine RW pension application of Elijah Henson of Buncombe Co., NC

    HUSSEY: Christopher (Quaker, only on Draper's list)

    Christopher (b. 1746, Warrington twp., York Co., PA) was a cousin of the Cox's through his mother. His parents, with their Cox and Garrettson cousins are among the first settlers of Warrington twp. His parents are Christopher Hussey (b 1706, Rockingham Co., NH d. 1774 Guilford Co., NC) and Ann Garrettson (b. 1720 New Castle Co., DE d. 1801 Alamance Co., NC). His New England grandparents are John Hussey and Ann Inskeep and his other grandparents are Casparus Garretson and Ann Cox. Ann Cox is another daughter of John Cox of Drayton. The Husseys apparently were Essex Co., MA Puritans who were converted to the Quakers (a perilous undertaking in that time and place). The children of Christopher Hussey's brother and sisters end up in Tennessee, Missouri and mostly in Indiana, leaving NC in the 1810-1830 time frame. Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list or the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    HUST: James (non-Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    This name appears in American genealogies in Worldconnect in Virginia and Tennesse starting about 1774.

    Nothing is known before this point. Absalom Hust b. 1774 has two children who marry grandchildren of George Adam Salling. Salling ran a trading post/tavern that was one of the main meeting points for the Regulators and signed their petitions.

    1782 Montgomery Co. Va tax list: James Hust, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 8 cattle. He is not on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    JIORTH: John (non-Quaker) (not on Draper's list) [John North?]

    A mystery name. Nothing containing the characters "rth" in any surname except Duckworth was found amongst the Regulator petitions.

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list - I could not find anyone with a name that looked like this, nor on the 1793 tax list either.

    JOHNSON: Thomas (Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    Thomas (b. 11 Jan 1749/50, Camp Creek MM, VA) is the son of Benjamin Johnson and Mary Moorman. He married Ann Varnum about 1776. His children were Elizabeth (b. Montgomery now Grayson Co., VA 13 Sep 1783 who m. James Lundy), John, Samuel, Jesse (m. Jane Simcock), Susanna (b. 1785, m. John Schooley), Rachel (b. 1792 m. Samuel Schooley), Rebecca (b. 1794, m. Benjamin Schooley), Isaac and Ann (m. Benajah Nordyke in Clinton Co., Ohio). His father, Benjamin Johnson was the son of Benjamin Johnson and Agnes Clark who was the son of John Johnson and Lucretia Massie. Mary Moorman was the daughter of Thomas Moorman and Rachel Clark. Agnes and Rachel Clark were daughters of Christopher Clark and Penelope Johnston, a wealthy family that with Nicholas Meriwether bought thousands of acres of land in the Piedmont of Virginia in the early 1700s and were converted to the Quakers at Sugar Loaf Mountain in the 1740s (the Meeting House was built on their land). Through this relationship, Thomas Johnson is related to many of the famous and wealthy Virginia Piedmont families. The Louisa county origins of the Johnson family are different from the other Quakers on the militia list. Before Louisa County, this family is supposed to have come from New Kent Co., VA and Aberdeen, Scotland. It is possible that Thomas' connections with families involved in the Loyal Company (who were after the Indians, the original owners of the land in the Upper New River) may have paved the way for the migration of the other Quaker families from North Carolina after their defeat at Alamance (this should be investigated). Another daughter of Christopher Clark, Sarah, married the wealthy Irishman Charles Lynch. She converted to the Quakers with the rest of the Clark family. Lynchburg, VA is named after her son John. Her son, Col. Charles Lynch was a leader (Clerk) in South River Quaker MM until the outbreak of the Revolution when he became a member of the Virginia Convention of 1776 and an officer on the Whig side [some say the "Lynch Law" is named after him - in those days this referred to an extra-legal whipping, usually not a hanging, and referred to his treatment of Tories]. This Col. Charles Lynch was an executor of the will of Benjamin Johnson, Thomas' father (Russell Parish, Bedford Co., VA 1769). A sister of Charles, Sarah Lynch, was one an early leader of the anti-slavery movement in Virginia. Charles Lynch also became the owner in part of the lead mines located just to the north of the Chestnut Creek community during the Revolution, taking over from the Callaway family. These are the same lead mines which the Swift militia company was said to have helped defend.

    Thomas Johnson was a direct ancestor of William Wade Hinshaw, the editor of the Encyclopaedia of Quaker Genealogy. He was a member of South River MM (now in Lynchburg, VA). He was disowned for frequenting places of diversion and following the customs of the world in 1771 along with cousin Micajah Clark. Not only was he in the militia, but he served as an Ensign and Captain of the Continental line (National Sons of the American Revolution # 57068). According to Hinshaw this family removed to Grayson county from the Lynchburg area for good in 1796 (because of this some further research should be done to make sure the Thomas Johnson on the Swift list is this same man since our subject is there in 1782). Thomas Johnson and family migrated to Greene Co., Ohio about 1810.

    Quaker Records show two Johnson families moving into the New Garden MM area (James, 1758 from East Nottingham MM, PA and Tarlton s/o Charles in 1764 from Cedar Creek, VA and Robert & William 1766 from Cedar Creek). The Robert Johnson (s/o Ashley Johnson and Martha Woody) who came from Cedar Creek in 1766 did have a son Thomas of the right age to be the Thomas on the Swift muster (b. March 17, 1761 Hanover Co., VA - d. March 2, 1855 in Morgan Co., IN m. Jane Brooks). This Thomas is a second cousin of the Thomas who married Anna Varnum.

    Westfield MM Records: 1796 - Thomas and children John, Samuel, Elizabeth, Susann, Jesse, Rachel and Rebecca received on request; 1798 - John (s/o Thomas and Anna of Grayson Co.) m. Lydia Ballard; 1801- Samuel disowned; 1801 - Elizabeth (d/o Thomas and Anna) m. James Lundy. Mt. Pleasant MM: Susanna m. John Schooly in 1804; Rachel m. Samuel Schooly in 1809 as did Rebekah m. Benjamin Schooly in the same year. 1813 - John and Lydia removed to Center MM, Ohio and 1814 - Thomas and Ann removed to Elk Creek MM, Ohio.

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: Thomas Johnson, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 13 cattle. There is no one named Johnson on the District 1 or 2 Wythe county 1793 tax list. 1793 Wythe Co. land tax: Thomas Johnson 190 acres worth 14 pounds/10 s. There is a John and a Joseph Johnson on the Regulator petitions.

    JONES or JOHNES, William (not fit) (non-Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    Its really hard to say who this William is. There is a Quaker family from Concord MM, Chester (now Delaware) Co. that uses the name Aquilla (on Regulator list) that could be examined. This family intermarries with the Buffingtons and is also associated with Gunpowder MM, Baltimore Co., MD so fits the pattern. No North Carolina William has been traced back to them. Worldconnect will not help people much on this line or any of the Orange Co., NC Jones lines either. There appears to be a mess with the usual problem of Welsh Quaker lines from Pennsylvania being assigned an east Virginia ancestry. I would also look at the Jones families from Amity twp., Berks Co., PA as they have children Andrew and Aquilla of the right age to be the Andre and Aquilla on the Regulator petitions. They are not Quakers. There are Williams in both of these families that would fit. There is a William Jones m. Jane Sturgill and there is conflicting information about him (b. 1758 would be good, but b. in the 1780s and m. 1815 is more likely). I did not identify this William or the one who signed the Regulator petition or even the Jones with more unusual names on the petitions.

    1767-1771 Regulator petition signers: Aiken, Andre, Aquilla, Charles, Thomas, Stephen, William

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list. There are some William Jones on the 1793 Wythe tax list. Dist. 1 has one with 1 horse. Dist. 2 has one with 2 horses and one with 5 horses. None of them have blacks.

    Fined by Capt. Swift: William Johns 0-1-6, James Johnes 0-1-6

    KENWORTHY: Thomas and John (Kimworthy does not appear to be a real name) (Quakers) (on both lists)

    These appear to be unknown sons of Joshua Kenworthy (b. Cheshire England, d. Lancaster Co., PA) who is the ancestor of the Quaker line of this name. His known children are David m. Tamar Comer, William m. Mary Everett, and Joshua m. Mary Comer or Cox. David's children were born in Orange (now Chatham?) Co., NC and the Kenworthy clan later migrated to Ohio. 1782 Montgomery Co., tax list: John Kenworthy 1 tithe, 0 slave, 3 horse, 0 cattle; Thomas Kenworthy: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 3 horse, 4 cattle. The Kenworthys are not on the 1793 Wythe tax list. Not on the list of those fined by Capt. Swift.

    LAREY or LEARY: John (non-Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    I was unable to find any information on this family. The Leary family of Chowan/Bertie Co., NC seems to have stayed put and does not fit the Piedmont pattern although this family (the family of Cornelius Leary m. Susannah Charlton) does have children named John and William of the right age.

    1767-1771 Regulator List: William Leary

    Is he John La..?, if so then on the 1782 tax list he is 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 11 cattle. I did not see him on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    LAWSON: John (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    I am not positive about who this is. No John Lawson had associations with Grayson/Carroll County, VA as far as I could determine. This is likely to be another Surry County, NC refugee of 1780-1 inducted into Swift's militia.

    1. John b. 1740 d. Orange Co., NC s/o Francis Lawson (b. Ireland) and Isabell Boyd
    2. John b. 1740 Halifax Co., VA d. 19 March 1818 Lawsonville or Snow Creek, Stokes Co., NC m. ? Bryant; children b. Surry Co., NC. & s/o John Lawson b. abt 1720 Brunswick Co., BA and Priscilla.

    To do: Examine pension application of Thomas Lawson of Iredell county.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: no Lawsons

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list, nor is he on the 1793 Wythe list (there is a James)

    LITTLE: Isaac (not Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    Isaac was b. about 1760 Wilkes Co., NC - d. about 1824 Pike Co., KY m. Winny (Roberts ?, last name assumed because a James Roberts was administrator of the will of Isaac Little). Children: Elizabeth m. David Branham b. 1779 in Montgomery Co., VA. David Branham s/o David Branham and Frances Basket; son William m. Elizabeth Swinney (Sweeney?) and 2nd m. Elizabeth Terrell.

    From Leo W. Little of Austin TX: Isaac Little is found on the following records: 1773, Fincastle Co., VA tithables; 1778 Surry Co., NC tax list owning land west of the Blue Ridge; 1778 Wilkes Co., NC tax list on the south part of New River; 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list; 1787 Wilkes Co., NC tax list in Capt. Brown's District. From 1788 to 1802 he is on the Russell Co., VA tax list and he is on the 1810 and 1820 Floyd Co., KY federal census. He is associated with a Charles Little (1778 Wilkes tax list who stays in Ashe Co., NC through 1810), and James (Montgomery 1782), Thomas (1778 Surry/Wilkes NC), John (of Rowan Co. who appears next to Charles in Ashe Co.) and Peter who also appears next to Charles. DNA testing shows that Peter and Isaac are closely related and it is thought that Peter is likely a son of Charles and that Isaac is a first cousin of Charles. Charles is the son of a Charles Little Sr. Charles Sr. was listed in Pittsylvania Co., VA along with an older Isaac Little. Both Charles Sr. and the older Isaac are thought to be sons of Abraham Little who was in the Pittsylvania/Halifax County area since 1730. Leo Little of Texas believes this older Isaac is likely to be the father of the Isaac on the Flower Swift militia muster. Edmund Little (m. Joannah Pennington b. 1765) who died in a logging accident in Montgomery (now Grayson) Co., VA in 1788 is also shown by DNA to be of this line and is another likely son of Charles Jr.

    The Littles above are also by DNA testing closely related to William Little of Pendleton District, SC. This William may be a brother of the Isaac in the Swift militia company. DNA testing shows this line of Littles is not related to William Little of Surry Co., VA and his wife Mourning. Nor are these Littles related to Joseph Little of Pitt Co., NC (DNA testing shows the difference).

    Family lore says that Isaac's wife, Winny could be Cherokee, although this has not been proved. There is similar Cherokee lore in the Peter Little and also the William Little of Pendleton Dist. SC families. The latter William's son William was squatting on Cherokee land in Wofford's Settlement in Georgia in 1800 and may have also been married to a Cherokee woman.

    Some of the families they migrate with from New River were well known Loyalists in the Revolution (Roberts, Riddle, Ingram, Wells, Blevins, and many of the mixed race people [mixture of Virginia Indians and Europeans]).

    Isaac Little reappears on the "2nd" Flower Swift Militia List.

    Some Littles move to Ross Co., Ohio with the settlers from Grayson and intermarry with the Greggs.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: No Littles, no Branhams; James and Joseph Sweaney

    On the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list Isaac Little has 0 slaves, 0 horses and 0 cows, and he is not on the 1793 Wythe tax list. No Branhams either. Isaac and Thomas Little also appear on the 1778 Surry Co., NC land tax list of those owning land west of the Blue Ridge (land now in Ashe, Alleghany or Watauga counties).

    LOE: Daniel, John & another John (non-Quaker) (only on the Draper list)

    I did not find Daniel and John Loe with residence in old Montgomery Co., VA.

    The John Loe who signed the Regulator petition is probably a Quaker with roots in Baltimore Co., MD or Perquimans/Pasquotank Co., NC who migrated to today's Randolph Co., NC. They are possibly refugees from North Carolina who have come to Chestnut Creek for the safety of their families.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: John Loe, Samuel & Isaac Low (James Low indicted for riot at Hillsborough)

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list, nor are they on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    LOGGINS: Samuel (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    No Samuel Loggins was found with any association with Upper New River Samuel in this time:

    1. Samuel b. 1750 (confusion usually he is said to be born after 1770) Halifax Co., VA s/o John Loggins and Sarah Majors.
    2. Samuel b. 1741 s/o John Loggins of Augusta Co., VA and Mary - nothing more known.

    No Loggins on the 1767-1771 Regulator petitions

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list, nor is he on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    MARTIN: John (Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    I'm not sure. He could be a descendant of the Quaker Thomas Martin and Margery Mendenhall. Thomas' son Moses migrated from Chester Co., PA to Lancaster Co., PA to Surry Co., NC in the mid-1700s. There is also a Quaker Martin line associated with the Johnson/Moorman line (see Thomas Johnson above) in Bedford Co., VA that is different, and there are matching John Martins there too. As an example of the problem, George Martin (Chester, PA) m. Sarah Hollingsworth(Dixon) is not to be confused with George Martin (Albemarle, VA) m. Sarah Derkee. Both Georges are Quakers and both had sons John of the right age in North Carolina. George Martin (non-Quaker) on the Draper Swift muster is probably a relative, and married Amey Bedsaul. This George (b. abt 1740-1745) is said to be the son of a John Martin. The Albemarle/Bedford Co., VA Quaker Martins have been said to be distant cousins of General Joseph Martin, who was chief Indian agent for Virginia and North Carolina after the Revolution and are also cousins of Thomas Johnson of the Swift company.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: Joseph, Zachariah

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: John Martin, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 0 cattle.

    1793 Wythe list: not present.

    Not on the list of those fined by Capt. Swift.

    McCOY: John, David and Daniel (probably Baptists) (on both lists)

    There are two conflicting lines on Worldconnect for this family I think. I will let the descendants figure it out. I note that there may be two pension claims for Daniel McCoy as well: one granted 1818 to a Daniel who lived in Kentucky and one obtained 1833 in Jackson Co., IN. If the pension application can be located, then this mess can probably be straightened out - the men will tell us who they were in their own words.

    Line 1: In this line, the three men on the Swift muster are brothers and sons of a Scotch or Scotch-Irish immigrant named Daniel McCoy who, according to family legends emigrated through the port of Philadelphia then moved South through North Carolina and then ended up in South Carolina. All of the brothers went to Kentucky and John was killed by Indians there. David and Daniel continued on to Jackson Co., Indiana. Daniel married Eliza Ryle and John m. Nancy Kelly Hayes, while David married Mary Kelly Hayes. Daniel obtained a pension in 1818 we think for his Revolutionary war service. John's family says he was with General Greene in his mopping up of Tories in South Carolina after Yorktown.

    Line 2. Since this line matches the Regulator petitions and intermarries with the Norton family, it seems more likely to be the one on the Swift militia muster. In this line, Archibald, Daniel and John migrate with the other Regulator Refugees to Chestnut Creek after the Battle of Alamance. Their parents are not known.

    One of these McCoys is supposed to have married Margaret Norton, and Elizabeth Norton (d/o William on the Swift muster) married David McCoy. There is some confusion around who Margaret married, and she is not on all lists of William Norton's children. Descendants end up in Christian Co., MO, Monroe Co., IL and perhaps Hancock Co., TN.

    Regulator Petitions from the Guilford county area 1767-1771: We find these names: Daniel McCay, John McCoy, Archibald McCoy. Also . Also John Ryle (line 1) and William Norton (line 2).

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: John McCoy 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 12 cattle

    1793 Wythe list: Daniel has 1 horse and no blacks and the other has 2 horses and no blacks; There are 2 Davids one has 2 horses and no blacks (District 1), and the other (District 2) has three horses and no blacks. There is a Daniel in District 1 with 1 horse and no blacks. The Chestnut Creek neighborhood is in District 2 I think. There is also a William McCoy in 1793 in District 2. A John McCoy was a Captain in the Grayson militia formed in May of 1793, Flower Swift commanding.

    1793 Wythe Co., land tax: John McCoy 232 acres worth 10 pounds.

    The McCoys were not on the list of those fined by Capt. Swift.

    MEHURIN: Samuel (not fit) (Baptist) (on both lists)

    Samuel was born 31 July 1748 in Morristown, NJ, the son of Stephen Mehurin/Mehuran and died about May 1814 in Shelby Co., KY. A GEDCOM was marked Revolutionary War service and nothing more. Stephen was born 9 November 1720 in Raynham, MA. Stephen's parents were Ebenezer Mehurin d. 1755 in Pequannock, Morris Co., NJ and Bathsheba Joyce. Ebenezer's parents were Hugh Mehurin born Scotland or Ireland and Mary. Samuel's children settled in Shelby Co., KY and Illinois. His wife's name is not known. His children were Priscilla (b. abt 1781), John (m. Sarah Proctor), Phebe (m. Samuel Mehurin, s/o Silas Mehurin and Sarah - Silas is Samuel of Swift's company's brother), Abigail, Sarah (m. Thomas Scott), and Silas (m. Lucy Galloway).

    1782 tax list: Samuel Mehusein 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 4 cattle. He is not on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    Fined by Capt. Swift for missing militia musters: Samuel Muheren 0-2-6

    MICKREL/ MC KRILL / MAKEREL: John (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    There is no demonstarted attachment of the following to the Upper New River. He is the only possiblity found:

    John Joseph McKrill was born 21 April 1755 in Pennsylvania and married Martha. He is the son of Benjaimin McKrill b. 16 Feb 1720/30 in Ireland and Sarah. His children are born Virginia. He migrates to Fairfield Co., Ohio abt 1800-1805 and his children to Lawrence Co., IL.

    No Mickrels on the 1767-1771 Regulator petitions

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list, nor is he on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    MORGAN: Charles, Henry (Baptists perhaps) (not on Draper's list)

    The ancestry of Charles and Henry is still unclear. They may be descendants of John Morgan and Mary Jones of Perquimans Co., NC (who were Quakers). There is a Charles (m. Mary Atkins) from this family who left a will in 1792 in Chatham Co., NC and names Charles, Edward John, Zachariah, William, Hannah West and grandchild Rachel Stewart (married to John Stewart b. 1762). The Charles Morgan of Chatham county does not seem to have a son named Henry as far as anyone knows and he does not appear on the Regulator petition lists. There is a Ruddy Morgan on the Regulator petition lists and a Rudd(y) Morgan appears on later Grayson Co., VA tax lists, and may well be a relative. Question: Is Ruddy actually Ruddick, and indicative of a family ties to the Ruddicks? Question: Is Mary Atkins a relative of William Atkins who is implicated in the mutiny of the Cox Company? (Some information above provided by Mary Sheffield on the Morgan Genforum, but the ancestry of this line is still in need of work). In any case, a Charles Morgan is one of the first settlers of the Upper reaches of Crooked Creek/Little Reed in what is now Carroll County Virginia (about 1781-2), living near the Nortons and a James Stewart.

    Charles Morgan was made a Captain of the Elk Creek Militia, Montgomery Co., VA. (militia muster). This militia company also contained John Cooke from the Swift company and about a dozen men or more accused of Tory activities.

    Henry received a pension for his Revolutionary War activities in White Co. IL in 1833 (W3709, applied 4 Sep 1832). In Henry's pension application he details fighting he did in battles at Weltzell's Mill and elsewhere in North Carolina. Henry was born 7 Dec 1758 in Rowan or Guilford Co., NC and he first enlisted in Guilford Co., NC. Later he moved to Montgomery Co., VA, about 1782, and enlisted in Swift's company. Henry lived in Montgomery/Grayson county for 16 years then moved to Grainger Co., TN (for 11 years), Warren Co., KY (4 years), Logan Co., KY (5 years) and finally settled in White County, IL where he died on 22 Feb 1849. He married Susannah Poe in Montgomery Co., VA in September of 1785 (married by William Porter) and had children: Rebecca (m. Absalom Melton), Susan (age 54 in 1851), Sarah (m. ? Jackson), and Mary. Henry's widow applied for a pension application in 1851 and she lived until 25 Oct 1854.

    It is believed that these two are not related to the William and Morgan Morgan who appear on the "1st" and "2nd" Swift militia musters. William and Morgan are probably the sons of Nathaniel Morgan who lived in today's Wythe county and is found on the 1782 and 1793 tax lists (District 1). See the pension applications of Morgan Morgan and Nathan Morgan.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petition signers: Goin, John, James, Ruddy and Solomon Morgan.

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list, Charles Morgan: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 3 horse, 0 cattle. Henry Morgan: not on the list - Henry appears to go to Guilford county at this time and join the regular army. Charles and Henry Morgan are not on the 1793 tax list, but do reappear in 1794 in Grayson County when Henry has 1 horse. Charles reappears in 1795 and has 2 horses, but Henry disappears.

    Charles and Henry Morgan are not on the list of those fined by Capt. Swift.

    NORTON: Henry, William (not fit) (they are not Quakers, but have a Quaker background) (on both lists)

    William Norton b. abt 1740 (Fairfax Co., VA) m. Jemima Pickerel (b. 1742 in Virginia). He died in Pickens Co., Cravens Ford, Pickens Co., SC in 1829. He had a son named Henry b. 1761 who was his oldest and married Martha. William's parents were Edward Norton b. in Co. Armagh, Ireland and died 13 September 1778 in North Carolina and Elizabeth Brown b. 16 December 1718. They were Quakers and were married 16 October 1739 at Nottingham MH, on the Chester Co., PA/Cecil Co., MD border. Elizabeth's parents were William Browne b. 1689 in Chester Co., PA and Elizabeth Cowgill. The Browns are a very large Chester Co., PA Quaker family. The immigrant ancestor was William Browne b. 29 March 1658 in Ruddington, England and his wife Ann Mercer. The Nortons had an intermediate stop in Loudoun Co., VA between Nottingham and North Carolina. William and Jemima Pickerel Norton's children: Henry, Elizabeth m. David McCoy (s/o Archibald), Margaret m. Daniel McCoy, Edward, Lydia, Susannah, Gideon, Katherine, Barak, Sampson and Jeptha. It is likely that Henry Norton's wife (Jemima) is a child of Henry Pickrell, b. abt 1725 in England who d. probably Guilford Co., NC. He had a son John who married Catherine Wireman the daughter of Naomi Cox, a cousin to the Coxes on the Swift militia muster.

    Jemima Pickerell's brother John is found on 13 May 1783 buying land as the assignee of William Norton, assignee of James Clerk's attorney, on treasury warrant, 200 acres on Cold [Coal] Creek, branch of Chestnut Creek, to begin at the headwaters of a small branch below his plantation to include his improvements (Johnny Long).

    According to John P. Alderman, the area of Upper Crooked Creek and Little Reed was first settled in 1772 by William Duncan on the West Fork of Crooked. By the early 1780s William and Henry Norton and Henry Pickerell had settled there too, along with Absolom Burton, James Stewart, Byrd Pruitt, James Jarrell, Jacob Cock, Charles Morgan, John Dockery, Elliott Buchanan and John Royalty.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: William Norton, Henry Pickral (probably Jemima's father).

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: Henry Norton 1 tithe, 0 slave, 1 horse, 2 cattle; William Norton 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 5 horse, 14 cattle. There are no Nortons on the Wythe 1793 tax list. Henry Pickerel and John Pickerell are on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    1793 Wythe Co., land tax: William Bradley to William Norton 183 acres worth 15 pounds.

    The Nortons were not on the list of those fined by Capt. Swift.

    PEARSON: Thomas and Samuel (Quakers) (not on Draper's list)

    Could this be Thomas Pearson m. Elizabeth Ballard and his son Samuel m. Phebe Farmer? The records in Hinshaw are silent from the period 1778-1788, so they could have been in New River during this time. From 1788 to 1796 they are in the Quaker records of 4 different Guilford/Randolph/Alamance Quaker meetings and in 1796 Samuel goes to Jefferson and later Greene Co., TN. Thomas and Samuel are amongst the first settlers of Randolph Co., Indiana in 1821. Did not find him on the tax list (incl. Pierson, Peerson etc.) in either 1782 or 1793.

    Fined by Capt. Swift for missing militia duty: Thos. Pearson 0-1-9, Samuel Pearson 0-1-6

    PENDRY: James and Henry (Quakers) (James on both lists, Henry not on Draper's list)

    James m. Jemima Ruddick (see Ruddick below). The one line I found for him on Worldconnect did say he was a Quaker, but not much more. James returned to the Piedmont after the war and his will was filed in Rowan Co., NC in 1796. His children went to Jefferson Co., TN and Greene Co., Ohio. Henry Pendry is not listed in Rootsweb Worldconnect. Ralph Pendery (1753) of Berkeley Co., VA was born Ireland. Its possible that James and Henry also came directly from Ireland as there is less information on this family name (and many variants) than most Quaker lines. There is a web site for James and Jemima Pendry at http://home.att.net/~Pendroy/pendry.html by Don Pendroy, a descendant. This site has lots of information on the Ruddick family as well.

    No Pendry/Pendrye on the Regulator petition lists.

    1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 4 cattle. There appear to be no Pendrys on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    Fined by Capt. Swift: Henry Pendrye 0-1-6

    RAMSON: Thomas

    (Quaker) (only on Draper's list)

    The name Ransom is not a Quaker name. Ramson is a very rare name in Colonial America. The name Thomas Panjon (same fellow?) on the Capt. John Cox's 1781 militia list, is probably the same man with a poorly transcribed name.

    The real name of this man is probably Thomas Branson (Bramson, Bransom) who is a Quaker and is on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list. Thomas Branson came to the New River Valley after 1779 when he gets a certificate from Crooked Run MM in the Shenandoah Valley to New Garden MM in North Carolina, although land records show him buying land at Blue Stone, Fincastle Co. (now Giles Co.) earlier in 1775. According to the Harlow Lindley narrative found on the internet, the Branson family was among those who moved with Thomas Beals in 1781 from West River MM (NC) to Blue Stone, in now Giles County, VA in 1781, with the objective of doing some missionary work with the Indians. They established a Quaker community there, in the wilderness, of about 20-30 families, but the Quakers in North Carolina urged them to come back to West River. Most of the Quakers then left, but the Beals, Bransons, and James Horton stayed and did a lot of hunting. The Shawnee caught some of the young men of the settlement who were hunting, including Horton and Thomas Branson's son John, and took them to the Ohio country to be burned at the stake. John Branson escaped, but arrived home in bad shape and died three years after his ordeal. The Branson family is often found with Thomas Beals and likely removed with him about 1785-90 to what is now Greene or Jefferson Co., Tennessee. Note that Thomas Beals has connections to both Nottingham, PA (his birth place) and Monocacy, Frederick Co., MD, in common with much of the Swift Company.

    Thomas (b. about 1735) was a son of John Day Branson (b. Burlington Co., NJ, d. VA) and his wife Isabella who in turn was the son of Thomas Branson (b. Berkshire, England, d. Springfield twp., Burlington Co., NJ). Thomas married Jean Painter (b. about 1740, d. 1811, Highland Co., OH) the daughter of John Painter and Hannah Braddock of Crooked Run MM, VA. Thomas and Jean's children were John; Lois (m. John Bowater Beals, she d. 1830 Highland Co., OH, John is a nephew of Thomas Beals); Robert (d. abt 1823, Highland Co., OH, m. Beulah Painter; Hannah m. Richard Trenary; Thomas; David (d. Grant Co., IN) m. Hannah Jackson; Eunice (d. Randolph Co., IN) m. Abraham Clevenger; and Jacob.

    A cousin of this family was Eli Branson, son of Thomas' uncle Thomas of Chatham County, NC. Eli was a Regulator who is said to have fought at Alamance. It is also said that he became a Tory Captain during the Revolution, was taken prisoner at Yorktown, and went to London, England where he married Jane Rankin, a daughter of William Rankin while his first wife was still living. He may have later returned to Abbeville District, SC and rejoined his first wife, Keziah Hough there.

    1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list: Thomas Branson was assessed at 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 3 horses, 6 cattle. His name appears between John Corder and Thomas Bails (Beals). The name is not among the Swift roster names on the tax list, indicating they lived outside the Chestnut Creek territory. John Corder is Thomas Branson's brother in law (married his sister Elizabeth). Montgomery County Survey Book A, page 214: 3 Apr 1775 Surveyed for John Corder 117 acres in Fincastle County in Wrights Valley on Blue Stone Creek Branch of New River ... being part of the Loyal Companie's grant ... This land adjoined Thomas Branson's 123 acres which was surveyed the same day. (This land is now in Tazewell County, VA just southwest of the city of Tazewell.) If Thomas Branson is living in the Chestnut Creek community at the time of the Draper list, it is likely this corresponds with the Indian attack on the Blue Stone settlement (he is a temporary refugee). Hopewell Friends history 1734-1934, page 498: 1 July 1765 Elizabeth (Branson) Corder married contrary to discipline (records obtained from Ken Dyer's Worldconnect database).

    Also on the 1782 personal tax list and land tax list is Jarret Bransom assessed at 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horses, 2 cattle and 100 acres valued at 7s10d and taxed at 1s6d. Jarret is thought to be related to Thomas Branson, but nature of the relationship has not been established. A biography of one of Jared's descendants in Missouri states that his father's name was John. Sandy Young:  "He is thought to be a Baptist, but associated with Quakers. In 1782 he lived at Burks Fork, Montgomery Co., VA and bought land later at Big Reed Island, Patrick Co., VA, as did some Quakers who were probably related to him or his kin....with connections to Beals who were in Surry, NC just across the border. (Sumner, Jessop, Hollingsworth, & Williams - all connected to Beals - were also taxed in 1782 Montgomery, VA. Thomas Jessop owned land at Big Reed Island...originally in Montgomery...but then in Patrick. Abram/Abraham McMillan was taxed in Surry 1784-87 listed on the same page with John Bowater Beals who married Lois Branson....Abram's descendants were allied with Jared's in Patrick, VA. Rev. Thomas Beals' son Daniel has a http://www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/bealesdiary.html diary on the internet that mentions Fruit Hill MM at Burks Fork and Big Reed Island, in Montgomery Co. on New River. He may have been in Wythe, VA in 1793 with Jarott." According to John Perry Alderman, this Jarrett Branson in the Spring of 1780 informed the Montgomery County authorities that Aaron Collier, Francis Hamilton, the Dickens settlers and others were Tories and that they had taken an oath of allegiance to the King.

    1793 Wythe County, Virginia Personal Property Tax List: Bales, Daniel; Branston, Jerard; Branston, James; Bales, John

    For more information on this line contact Sandra Branson Young who provided much of the information found here and has a web site for the Branson family. Also used was a short biography of Thomas Branson that was put on Worldconnect by Vicki Ely.

    RANKIN: William (Quaker) (on both lists)

    There is one Quaker family with this last name in York Co., PA (more below). There are also many Presbyterians by this name, marrying other descendants of lowland Scots. Tthe migration path of some members of this Presbyterian family was very similar to the Scotch-Irish Quakers on this list and there are close relatives nearby in the New River valley (non-Quaker Cox family). These Rankins go from Chester/Lancaster Co., PA to Franklin Co., PA to Guilford Co., NC. They seem to frequent the same Tennessee counties (Greene and Jefferson) as the Quakers on this militia list. Searching for "Quaker" in the Rankin Genforum yields no Quaker Rankins.

    A William Rankins signed some of Regulator petitions and was excluded from Governor Tryon's pardon in 1771 (he was declared an outlaw). There are two different Rankin lines claiming this William Rankin and a third possibility.

    1. William Rankin (m. Jane Chambers) is a Revolutionary War veteran from Guilford Co., NC. General Cornwallis camped on the property of William Rankin and his brother John and plundered them just before the battle of Guilford Court House 1781. William's father was Joseph Rankin b. 1704 in Ireland. William Rankins was born near Newark, New Castle Co., DE and died 6 June 1858 in Rowan Co., NC. If this William Rankins is our man, then he was only hiding out in Virginia while first Governor Tryon and later British army played havoc in North Carolina, because he retained title to his Guilford Co., NC property during this time. He is Presbyterian, not Quaker and buried at Greensboro. The Irish background, the New Castle DE origins and the Regulator connections make selecting him tempting, but the connection is tenuous at best.
    2. The second man claimed as the RegulatorWilliam Rankin is of Orange Co., NC (prob. Born Ireland, migrated to NC from Hamilton twp., Cumberland Co., PA) and he married Victory Alcorn. He was a French and Indian War veteran and he died in Caswell Co., NC. About 1797 children of this family migrated to Sumner Co., TN. This William, like the other one above is involved in land purchases in 1772 and does not appear to be hiding out after Alamance 1771. He is not the one in the Swift company.
    3. A third idea is that this William Rankin could somehow be related to Capt. John Cox, whose mother was a Rankin. She appears to have a brother named William Rankin, mentioned in the will of Joshua Cox of Cumberland Co., PA (to whom she was married). Otherwise her lineage is somewhat obscure, since in the line proposed on the internet (John Rankin m. Margaret, will, Lancaster Co., PA 1748/9) her proposed father mentions neither a Mary or a William in his will, but does mention eight children. Similarly the proposed parentage of Joshua Cox (Sir Richard Cox of Ireland) looks suspect.
    4. Eli Branson (see Ransom above), was a Tory possibly from North Carolina and he married a Jane Rankin in St. Anne's Church, Soho, London, England after the Revolution. She was a daughter of a William Rankin, but not the one on the Swift list. However, this William Rankin, b. about 1735, father of Jane, is married to a Quaker woman named Jane Rhoads from Warrington/Newberry MM, York Co., PA, which suggests some connection to the Swift Company. He and his two brothers, James and John were all Whigs at the outbreak of the Revolution. However, after the British victories at Brandywine and Germantown they switched sides and became Tories, even though William Rankin was the Colonel of the York Co., PA militia. This family was quite wealthy (unlike the William Rankin of Montgomery Co., VA) owning much land and some slaves, and William Rankin was a judge in York County, and member of the Pennsylvania Assembly too. William Rankin of York Co., PA fled to England after the war and his property and that of his brothers was confiscated (brother John was pardoned and returned to Pennsylvania in 1790). There is no indication that any member of this family went south as far as I have been able to determine. This William is said to have had a son of the same name, but if his wedding to Jane Rhoads took place about 1764 then the William Rankin of the Swift company is probably too young to be his son.

      A quick search of Quaker records shows no mention of William and James Rankin in the minutes of Warrington MM (which included Menallen, York, Huntingdon and Newberry Preparative Meetings). Their wives Rebecca (nee Bennett, m. James Rankin) and Jane (m. William) are mentioned and William's children who stay in America marry Quakers. They did not marry in Warrington either, and I would preliminarily conclude that they are not Quakers, but their children might be. Their brother John becomes a Quaker on marrying and is mentioned frequently in the minutes. His marriage to Abigail Rhoads is recorded in the Quaker records in 1761. John was asked to manumit his slave in 1778 and sent back a reply indicating he had done so saying also that he was doing so because he was "convinced of the Injustice of holding our fellow men in Bondage, and that Liberty is the Natural right of mankind in general." John was the only one of the three brothers pardoned by Pennsylvania after the Revolution. A search through the marriage certificates of Warrington MM shows this family (either the Rankins or Rhoads) is related to the family of Richard Carson (m. Mary Passmore) somehow.
    5. There is a Quaker Rankin family in Chester Co., PA that was created when a man named William Rankin (son of William and Elizabeth Hamilton Rankin) married a Quaker woman named Elizabeth Few. This William did not become a Quaker (marriage out of unity). At present the list of children in this family is Elizabeth (m. William Harlan) and Margaret (m. Jacob Chandler) who are Quakers. Elizabeth Few (b. 1726) is about the right age to be a mother of the William on the Swift list. Records show her traveling between Kennett, New Garden and Wilmington Meetings. Elizabeth Few is the first cousin of James Few, who was hung by Tryon after the Battle of Alamance.

    The Rankins of the Swift militia company stayed in Grayson County after the Revolution and there is a cemetery east of Galax, Virginia for this family. William apparently had a son named William b. 1789 who married first Nancy Mullen, and second Isabella (all three are buried in the Rankin Cemetery). He may also have had a daughter named Mary who married David Cornett in 1814.

    Quaker Records: A Jane Rankin is dismissed from membership at Cane Creek MM on May 3, 1777. (could this be William's wife?)

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 5 cattle. 1793 Wythe list: not present.

    On Capt. Swift's list of those missing militia duties and fined: William Rankin 0-1-9.

    REESE: David, Caleb and Francis (not Pease as it appears on the list) (Quakers) (Caleb and Francis on both lists, David not on Draper's list)

    These brothers were born in Chester Co., PA. Their parents were Caleb Reese (b. 1716 Chester Co., PA) and Hannah Yarnall (b. 1718, Chester Co., PA). Grandparents were Francis Yarnall and Mary Baker, both born in the 1690s in Chester County and Thomas Rhys, b. 1681 in Wales whose wife's name was Margaret. David (m. Hannah Williams) moved to Lost Creek MM, TN in 1800. This David Reese is not the signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration (although one database makes that suggestion). Caleb of Swift's Militia list m. Sarah Osborn (Quaker Osborn line - not the Grayson line). 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list - Caleb Rease 1 tithable - 0 slave -0 horse - 0 cattle.

    1793 Wythe tax list: Not present.

    The Reeses were fined by Capt. Swift: David Rease 0-3-0, Calop Rease 0-2-0

    RUDDICK: William Sr., William Jr., Solomon and John (not Buddick as it appears on the list) (Quakers) (on both lists)[some times spelled Reddick]

    William Ruddick (Ruddock, Reddick) was born 1723 in Chester county, PA and d. 1796 in what was later Carroll Co., VA. He was married to Anna Cox. His sons were Joseph (b. abt 1747, Warrington, York Co., PA, d. abt 1800 Randolph Co., NC, m. Phebe Alice Mecca), Benjamin (disowned for marrying out of unity, b. abt 1749, Warrington, York Co., PA), Solomon (b. York Co., PA, d. Jackson Co., IN, m. (1) Ann Bedaul - divorced when she ran away with Colonel William Spurgeon to Canada & (2) Amy), William (b. York Co., PA, d. 1798 Grayson Co., VA, m. Lydia) and John (b. PA, d. Muskingum Co., OH, m. Catherine Cox [daughter of William Cox and Juliatha Carr]). He had a daughter named Jane (m. Levi Coleman). The Jemima who married James Pendry (see above) is the daughter of William Sr.'s brother John and his wife Jane. William Sr.'s parents were William Ruddock (I) b. Ireland, d. Lancaster (now Warrington twp., York Co.??) Co., PA and possibly Alice Garretson. William Sr. (II)'s wife, Anna Cox is from the London Grove, Chester Co., PA Cox family, and is likely the daughter of John Cox (b. Chester Co., PA & d. Orange Co., NC) and Hannah Jenkins. John Cox in turn is the son of John Cox of Drayton, Berkshire, England and Rachel Carr (b. England, d. Kennett, Chester Co., PA). Solomon and William Ruddick are two of the men who refused to swear the oath of Allegience to Virginia in Capt. Cox's company in 1777. Note that Quakers refuse to take oaths as a matter of Religious principles (their name is spelled REEDICK on this document). I believe that the Ruddicks lived in the Chestnut Creek area of now Carroll Co., VA, not far from Flower Swift. See http://home.att.net/~Pendroy/pendry.html for more information.

    Grandchildren of the Ruddicks in Jackson Co., Indiana were actively involved with the Underground Railroad. Solomon (son of Solomon's son William) took a strong stand in this cause and put up many runaway slave families in their home. A story passed down in the family relates that one such black family arrived at the Ruddick home late on a rainy night in March of 1843 and were taken into safety. Their captors were in hot pursuit and by the next day were inquiring at the Ruddick place. The strangers apparently demanded the return of the slaves, but were refused and a struggle ensued. Solomon was put in a position to fight one of the party , but was successful in driving off the intruders, at least for a time, and the escaping slave family soon after continued their journey north to freedom. Because of the methods used in this situation, Solomon was visited by the meeting the following June for "striking his fellow man in anger". He renounced his use of violence and retained his membership.

    1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list - John Riddick 1 - 0 slaves - 2 horse - 6 cattle; William Riddick Sr., 1 - 0 slaves - 4 horse - 7 cattle; In 1793, William Sr. has 2 horses and no blacks. William Jr. has 7 horses and no blacks and Solomon has 3 horses and no blacks. John is not on this tax list.

    1793 Wythe Co., VA land tax list: Solomon Reddick: 250 acres worth 20 pounds. In 1796 Solomon was taxed for 86 acres and both William "Ridick"s were taxed for 190 acres.

    The Ruddicks were not fined by Capt. Swift for missing militia duties. They either participated or paid their fines. According to Grady Loy, the tradition in the Ruddick family is that they participated in the fighting in North Carolina in the 1780s on the Whig side.

    Children of Solomon Ruddick and Amy Bedsaul: Elisha 1779; Jesse 1784 d. Bartholomew Co., IN m. Katherine Baker ; William 1784 d. Jackson Co., IN m. Rachel Cox; Mary 1787; Ann 1789. Moved to Knox Co., KY before moving to Indiana.

    Children of William Jr. and Lydia: Nancy Ann 1779; Catherine 1780; Solomon 1786; Mordecai 1789; Thomas J. 1792 d. Jackson Co., IN m. Elizabeth Line; Lydia 1796.

    Children of John Ruddock and Catherine Cox: William 1785 d. Benton Co., Arkansas m. Elizabeth Wilson; Lydia 1787, d. Savannah, MO m. John Parker. This family removed to Knox Co., KY.

    Quaker Records:

    • Moses Mendenhall, Son of Mordecai, Deep River, Roan Co., married Dinah Rudduck, same place, 18-1-1764. Wit: Mor. Mendenhall, John Rudduck, Jaas. Mendenhall, Benj. Beeson, Thos. Kendal, Wm Kersey, Charity Mendenhall, Jane Ruddock, Grace Mendenhall, Hannah Kersey, Ruth Hoggatt, Mary Kendal.
    • Thomas Mendenhall son of Mordicai, Deep River, Roan Co., married Phebe Rudduck, dt. John, same place, 17-1-1764. Wit: Mordicha Mendenhall, John Ruddock, Jas. Mendenhall, John Hoggatt, Thos. Kendal, Wm Kersey, Charity Mendenhall, Jane Rudduck, Grace Mendenhall, Ruth Hoggatt, Ann Floyd, Dinah Ruddock.
    • John Ruddocks, son of John, Guilford Co., married Sarah Tomlinson, dt. Josiah, deceased, Craven Co., 8-12-1774 at Camden. Wit: Sarah Russel, Martha Tomlinson, Beulah Gaunt, Ann Kelley, Mary Millhouse, Sarah Pidgon, Samuel Milhouse, Zebulon Gaunt, Wm Tomlinson, Wm Ruddock, Jesse Kersey, Josiah Tomlinson.

    SHELLEY: Nathan (probably Baptist) (not on Draper's list)

    Nathan was born 14 April 1746 and died 16 June 1816 in Jefferson Co., TN. He married Elizabeth Davis, possibly b. 15 April 1753 - d. 1836 in Jefferson Co., TN. I don't know whether she is related to the other Davises on the Swift rolls. Nathan's parents were John Shelly and Elizabeth who lived in Guilford Co., NC. Nathan Shelley's grandchildren: Col. James Shelley, CSA, AL, was killed in front of Petersburg in the Civil War, Charles Miller Shelley was a Brigadier General (CSA) and US Congressman from Alabama and Nathan George Shelley was Attorney General of Texas. Others of his grandchildren were peaceful Quaker farmers in Iowa as he traveled west to Jefferson Co., Tennessee with Guilford/Grayson county Quakers and one of his daughers married a Quaker.

    Reference: http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Pines/6283/JohnShelley.html.

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse, 2 cattle. He is not on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    Fined by Capt. Swift for missing militia musters: Nathan Shelley 0-2-0

    SIMONS or SIMMONS or SYMONS: John (non-Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    I could find no one with this name upper New River connections in Worldconnect. There is also a John and Joseph Simmons in Capt. Osborne's company. I believe that John is likely to be connected to the Simmons family of Surry Co., NC which is from Brunswick Co., VA and has Quaker connections. Examples of this line: Charles Simmons b. 1760 Brunswick Co., VA m. Elizabeth Jackson at New Garden MM, Guilford Co., NC. This family became Baptist in Surry County. This family may be connected to the Hammons and Skipworths. The presence of numerous Surry County people on the Draper muster corresponds to a letter from Col. Preston to the governor of Virginia noting the presence of refugees from Surry in New River during late 1780 and early 1781. Preston notes that he expects them to join local militia companies.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: John Simmons, Lewis Simmons

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: John Simmons, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 0 horse, 0 cattle. John Simmons is not on the 1793 Wythe tax list, but there is a Charles, Easher and Zachariah.

    1782 tax list also has near the other Flower Swift Militia company names a Joshua Simmons, 1 tithe, 2 horses.

    Simmons marriages at Tom's Creek (under care of New Garden MM):

    Charles Simmons, son of Peter & Elizabeth, Surry Co., married Elizabeth Jackson dt. Samuel & Catherine deceased, 8-3-1786, Tom's Creek Mtg. Wit: Peter Simmons, Jacob Jackson, Caleb Sumner, Daniel Beales, David Ballard, Moses Grigg, Elizabeth Simmons, Susanna Beales, Ann Beales, Phebe Jackson, Ruth Jackson, Mary Sumner.

    Ryal Simmons, son of Peter, Surry Co., NC m. Ruth Hiatt dt. Wm., of same place, 6-12-1781 at Tom's Creek. Wit: William Hiatt, Joseph Hiatt, Jacob Jackson, John Briant, Wm. Jessop, Caleb Sumner, Susanna Hiatt, Ann Hiatt, Elizabeth Simmons, Miriam Jones, Elizabeth Jackson, Rebeckah Briant.

    Simmons in 1790 Surry Co., NC census: Charles, Peter and Rial.

    SKIPWORTH / SKIPPER: Jonathan (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    Jonathan Skipworth or Skipper is not mentioned in Worldconnect. This might mean he was killed during the Revolution.

    A Nathan Skipper or Skipworth b. Onslow Co., NC received a pension in Maury Co., TN 1827 for service in the North Caroline Line (Col. Armstrong's Regt) seeing battle at Germantown and Brandywine. The other choice for Skipworth is an old Henrico Co., VA family that intermarried with the Randolphs. I believe the Onslow Co., NC family to be more likely. The Skippers, Hammons, Simmons and Spencers of Surry Co., NC may all be interrelated somehow, and I have not figured it out yet, but I think there is a Croatan/Lumbee Indian connection in here somewhere. This connection could explain some of the lack of information on these lines.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: Barnaby and George Skipper sign. Members of the Skipper family of Onslow Co., NC changed their name to Skipworth when they moved west. Barnabus Skipper is known to be partially Native American and some of his descendants are listed as free persons of color in the 1790 NC census. Free persons of color (native Americans) had full citizenship rights in North Carolina until 1835.

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list, nor is he on the 1793 Wythe tax list, nor are there any on the 1790 Surry Co., NC census.

    SPENCER: Timothy (non-Quaker, only on the Draper list)

    I was not able to identify the ancestry of Timothy. There are many Spencers in the area that are probably related. Isabell Spencer b. 1751 m. Robert Goad and d. 1845. This Goad is probably related to the ancestor of Lieu. James Cock on the Swift musters whose mother was named Elizabeth Goad. Isabell d. 1845 in Grayson County. There is a Spencer family group in Grassy Creek, Ashe Co., NC whose first ancestor I have not seen. There is a John Spencer on the 1793 Wythe county personal tax list who may be the John Spencer who married the widow of William Little (see above). A prayer meeting held in the 1820s at the home of "old" Timothy Spencer of Fisher Creek, Surry Co., NC is likely to refer to this man (http://www.webroots.org/library/usahist/frsacnc4.html, p. 206 ). Fisher Creek is directly south of the Chestnut Creek community, over the Blue Ridge. This is probably the Timothy Spencer who filed a pension application in 1832 in Grayson Co., VA at age 74 (this is not a common name). He was granted the pension in 1833 receiving 33.33 per year (he collected a total of 83.32) for his services as a private in the North Carolina militia (see Appendix 6 for the transcript). Most of his service was in North Carolina.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: No Spencers

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list, nor is he on the 1793 Wythe Co. personal tax list. He is not on the 1790 census for Wilkes or Surry Co., NC (There is a William in the part of Wilkes that became Ashe).

    STANFIELD: Thomas and Samuel (Quakers) (Thomas on both lists, Samuel not on Draper's list)

    Samuel was born 1745 in Chester Co., PA or adjoining New Castle Co., DE and died 1832 in Greene Co., TN. His brother Thomas was born 1747 in the same place and died in Logan Co., OH. They were members of Cane Creek MM in North Carolina before migrating to the Chestnut Creek Community. Samuel married Lydia Vernon (another Chester Co. Quaker name). Both are the children of John Stanfield (b. Co. Armagh, Ireland & d. 1755 Orange Co., NC) and Hannah Hadley (b. Co. W. Meath, Ireland, d. 1783 Chatham Co., NC). Thomas married Hannah Vernon. Hannah Vernon was the daughter of Mordecai Vernon and Mary Elliot or Ellet who may be related to the Elliots on the Swift militia roster. Before migrating to Rushcreek twp., Logan Co., OH, Thomas and Hannah went to Greene Co., TN with brother Samuel.

    1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list: Samuel Stanfield, 1 tithable, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 14 cattle. In the 1793 Wythe tax list, there are no Stanfields (There are a John and a Thomas Standfield in the 1790 Surry Co., NC census). The Stanfields were not fined by Capt. Swift for missing militia musters. James Few, who was hung after the Battle of Alamance was a Stanfield descendant and very distant cousin.

    STEWART: William (non-Quaker) (on both lists)

    None of the William Stewart/Stuarts seem to fit this William.

    James Stewart was another of the men convicted of High Treason in the trial at Hillsborough after the battle of Alamance (1771) along with Harmon Cox. He was given a respite at the King's pleasure after being dragged in chains for 100 miles after the battle. One guess is that he is the son of James Stewart of Iredell county, NC. The names James and John Stewart are found on the Regulator petitions. John is possibly John "Of Fourth Creek", brother of James of Iredell. This James, if it is him, is Presbyterian and was a bit of a roust-about, with records in court showing various legal problems including fathering an illegitimate child (he seems to have some of the same qualities as Col. Benjamin Cleveland). James died abt 1780 while mounting a horse in the service of the American cause in the Revolution. These Stewarts were neighbors of Daniel Boone's. There is also a James Stewart who was an early settler of the Crooked Creek area of Carroll County, VA and whom presumably Stewart's Creek there is named.

    There is a Quaker Stewart line in the Orange/Guilford county area that originated in southern Chester County, PA. It is not particularly well known but is connected to the Regulators. There is no William from this line that fits though. An Elizabeth Stuart from this line married Jesse Pugh, brother of James Pugh who was executed after the Battle of Alamance. Herman Husband, the best known leader of the Regulation married Jesse's sister Mary. The connection between Herman Husband and the Cox family has been noted above (first cousins).

    The presence of the Boone connected John Stewart (d. KY 1770) family nearby in Osborne's company (e.g. Richard Pennington and the Osborne men who will marry two Stewart daughters) makes connecting to a William in this family something to consider. However, at this time I don't have enough data to even say if he was alive at this time or that there was such a man.

    There is a Stewart connection to the Morgan line (see above, John Stewart m. Rachel Morgan) but it is not known if this is a connection for William.

    Quaker Records: Cane Creek MM - 1758 - Martha & daughters Mary, Cartharine and Rachel received from Exeter MM, PA (Daniel Boone's home meeting). 1 mo 1772, New Garden MM: Deep River informs that John Stewart requests cert. to Cedar Creek VA

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: William Stuart 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horses, 0 cattle. He is on the 1793 tax list with 2 horses and no blacks. No Stewarts were fined by Capt. Swift for missing militia musters.

    STUDENAN: John (not Quaker) (not on Draper's list)

    Probably this name has not been interpreted correctly.

    1782 tax list: not on list as far as I can tell. There are two Johns with illegible names, one with only a tithe and the other with only a tithe and a horse. No name like this appears on the 1793 Wythe tax list either.

    SWIFT: Flower (Captain of the militia company) (Baptist) (on both lists)

    Flower is the son of Thomas Swift and Martha. Thomas was born in St. George's Parish, Baltimore Co., MD and moved to the Monocacy area of today's Frederick Co., MD, then relocated to what is today Randolph Co., NC near Sandy Creek. Thomas' parents were Flower Swift, merchant of London who immigrated to Baltimore and Elizabeth Whitaker. Flower Swift of Chestnut Creek, New River (now Carroll county) married Mary Bedsaul, the daughter of Elisha Bedsaul, a Quaker in his militia company (see Quaker chapter). The Bedsauls with Flower Swift moved to the Chestnut Creek Community in 1771. Swift received a certificate on this land, as an assignee of Elisha Bedsaul - 400 acres on East Chestnut Creek - on 3 September 1782. He continued to buy land on Chestnut Creek and New River (13 May 1783, 40 A 13 June 1786 [includes iron ore bank], 40 A 20 Oct 1792, 80 A 16 June 1792). He and his family moved to Whitley Co., Kentucky about 1810 and after his death his family later moved to Henry Co., Missouri. His children were Amy (m. John Hanks), Jestina (m. a Jones), Martha (m. George Currin), Thomas (m. Mary Catron), Margaret (m. Robert Nuckolls), John (m. Catherine Bird), Elisha (m. Elizabeth Ailsworth), Elias, Elizabeth, Cynthia and William Thomas (m. Rachel Walker). Flower Swift was a Baptist. See a more lengthy discussion of Flower Swift by clicking HERE. Flower's paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Whitaker was the first cousin of http://members.tripod.com/%7Ejack0204/gen/teague/joshua_teague.html Joshua Teague, another of the 15 Regulators outlawed by Tryon after 1771. Elizabeth Whitaker's parents were Catherine Teague and Mark Whitaker. Catherine Teague was a brother of William Teague, Joshua's father and was the daughter of Edward Teague who was transported to Maryland about 1675 by Thomas Jones.

    A much more detailed description of Flower Swift's genealogy, from Grady Loy, can be found at http://www.continuitypress.com/mullins.html on a page constructed by Pat Spurlock Elder, authorof Melungeons, Examining An Appalachian Legend. Flower Swift was made a magistrate of Wythe county before Grayson was formed and was the first magistrate sworn in after the formation of Grayson in 1793. He was also the first commander of the Grayson county militia after the county was formed (Lt. Col. Commandant) on May 22, 1793. Two names found on the Swift Revolutionary militia rosters are found as officers in the first battalion of Grayson militia, 1793: John McCoy and George Martin.

    One of the grandchildren of the Regulator propagandist Herman Husband was named Flower Husband. One wonders if one of Husband's sons married a daughter of Flower Swift. If so, this is one of numerous connections between the Swift Company and Husband.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: The signature of Thomas Swift, Flower's father is on two petitions. Another branch of the Swift family married the Patick Mullen line and Patrick is also on the Regulator petitions.

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: Flower Swift, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 12 cattle; On the 1793 Wythe list he has 1 black (>16) and 5 horses (did he acquire father-in-law Elisha Bedsaul's slave? The Quakers were passing rules against slave ownership during this time frame). In 1810 (Grayson Co.) Flower Swift had 3 whites, 0 slaves and 5 horses and Thomas Swift had 1 white, 0 slaves and 6 horses.

    1785: Along with many of the prominent Presbyterians of Montgomery Co., VA, Flower Swift (a Baptist) signs a petition for Religious Freedom in Virginia. Also possibly signing the petition are William Norton and Samuel Cox (names partially illegible), non-Quakers on the Swift militia lists. No Quakers seem to sign this petition. (Library of Virginia)

    1793 Wythe Co. Land tax: Matthew Dickey to Flower Swift, 303 acres worth 30 pounds. In 1796 he owned 80 acres.

    More can be found in Pioneer Settlers of Grayson County, Virginia (by Benjamin Nuckolls)

    USSERY/ESSERY: Jonathan and Thomas (not Quakers) (on both lists)

    The Ussery line listed on Worldconnect has been traced back to Belton Isle, Axholme, Lincolnshire England where the name was spelled Eure. John Thomas Richard Ussery d. 7 February 1685/86 in New Kent Co., VA, emigrating after 1672, His son William b. 1672 died October 1750 in Lunenburg Co., VA. His son William b. 1692 in Lunenburg and d. abt 1772 in Orange Co., NC. It is three children of this William or perhaps of his son William's, namely William, John and Welcome whose names are found on the Regulator petitions. I cannot tell which generation it is or a mix of generations as this family recycled names. I found no mention in the GEDCOMS that this family was Quaker. Thomas is a family name and there are a couple who could be the man on this militia list. I did not find a Jonathan, but John is a common family name too. There is some confusion amongst the various William Ussery genealogies as two brothers (John and William) have sons of similar ages (b. abt 1740) and their genealogies have been crossed and co-mingled. After the war this family was largely found in Anson or Montgomery Co., NC and some migrated south to Warren Co., Georgia or Randolph Co., Alabama or west to Tennessee then north to Anna, Illionis or Missouri.

    There is a Jonathan Essery in Abbeville Co., South Carolina in the late 1790s along with Abner and Joseph Essery (Jonathan is >45 years of age on the 1800 census and Abner and Joseph are younger). By the early 1800s they relocated to Ross Co., Ohio. This family intermarried with the Comer, Cox and Dixon families all who were Quakers from Warrington twp., York Co., PA who moved to the Shenandoah valley of Virginia and Ross County, OH (correspondence on New River History Forum). These associations are highly suggestive that this may be the man listed here.

    There is also a John Esary b. 5 July 1744 in Chester Co., PA who was a Revolutionary War veteran who obtained a land grant in Nelson Co., KY from Virginia (DAR #2535). He is associated with families in Kentucky with Quaker surnames. His wife was Sarah Hester Clark. This family migrated from Hardin Co., Kentucky (he is there in 1810) to Indiana and Illinois. (correspondence on New River History Forum)

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: Thomas, Welcome and William Ussery

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list or the 1793 tax list.

    Cindy Casey maintains an http://www.geocities.com/%7Ecindycasey/ Ussery research web site

    WARD: Nathan (not fit) (Probably a Baptist, listed as a non-Quaker on the Swift lists) (on both lists)

    He lived on Coal/Cole Creek, a branch of Chestnut Creek in today's Carroll Co., VA. Ward's Mill Run is named after his family. It is thought that he is the son of another Nathan Ward and the brother of Wells Ward who lived to the West on Saddle Creek in today's Grayson county. Many researchers are also looking at connections to Ward lines from Baltimore (now Prince Georges) Co., MD (where the names Nathan and Wells are also found) and it is possible that the Ward family co-migrated with the Swift and Carr families or with the Blevins family. A Nathan Ward was made a captain on the formation of the 78th Regt of militia in August 1793 soon after the formation of Grayson county. Nathan settled on Coal [Cole] Creek in present day Carroll County by at least 1773 and had his land surveyed in 1774. He purchased his land from the Loyal Land Company and it was a conflicted purchase not validated until 1802. He died March 14, 1803 in Grayson County.

    Nathan's daughter Margaret married Morris Cox, another son of Thomas Davis and Elizabeth Knox (see the Quaker Davis family). Other children: Nathan m. Anne Williams [see below] and removed to Hawkins Co., TN, Enoch (removed to Rutherford Co., NC), Elizabeth m. Jeffrey Clark [Quaker Clarks?], William m. Elizabeth Wilson (and remained in Carroll Co., VA) and Wells.

    James, Nathan, Wells and Zachariah Ward were on the 1774 militia roster of the William Herbert company (Lord Dunmore's War)

    1782 tax list: Nathan Ward, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse, 8 cattle. In 1793, District 2 of Wythe there is a Nathan Ward with 7 horses and no blacks and another Nathan Ward with 3 horses and no blacks (one of these is his nephew by brother Wells). In the 1796 Grayson county land tax list there is a Nathan Ward with 217 acres worth 50 pounds. Nathan Ward was not on the list of those fined for missing militia musters.

    WILLIAMS: Amos, James (Quakers) (Amos on both lists, James not on Draper's list)

    This is Amos Williams married 1762 at Sadsbury MM, Lancaster Co., PA Phebe Allen [d/o Morrell Allen and Alice Scarlett] and the James on the militia rolls is his son James or his brother James. His parents were Zacharius Williams b. 1700 in Chester Co., PA and Anne Ellett (possibly Elliot - see Elliots on this militia list). Zacharius' father was James Williams of New Castle Co., DE. Is the Anne Williams who married Nathan Ward Jr. his daughter? I could not find her ancestry. Amos moved to North Carolina in 1765, to Virginia some time before 1782 [1771-2?], to eastern Tennessee between 1793 and 1795 and to Wayne Co., Indiana before 1820 [on census there]. Children: James m. [under care of New Garden MM] Mary Davis; Thomas (served in RW, filed a pension app. in Chester Co., PA) m. Rachel Longacre and lived in Jefferson Co., TN and Greene Co., IL; Rachael m. [1795, Jefferson Co., TN] John Woodward and was in 1820 in Wayne Co., IN; Joel ; Allen m. [1794, Jefferson Co., TN] Jean Woodward and moved 1816 to Wayne Co., IN; Ann [m. Nathan Ward?]; Aaron m. 1803, Jefferson Co., TN Charity Nation and went to Greene Co., IL and Conway Co., AR; Elsie.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petition signers: Ishmael, James, John, John, Nehemiah, Samuel, Solomon and Theophilus Williams

    1782 Montgomery Co., tax list: Amos Williams 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 4 horse, 9 cattle. On the 1793 Wythe list James has 2 horse and no blacks and there is a William Williams with 4 horses and no blacks, another with 0 horses and two William Williams with 2 horses and no blacks and yet another with 3 horses and no blacks and one more with but a single horse and a final one with 6 horses.

    New Garden MM records:  James Williams, son of Amos, Montgomery Co., VA m. Mary Davis dt. Thomas, same place, 1-11-1783, at Tom's Creek Mtg. They had declared marriage intentions at New Garden MM. Wit: James Williams, Thos. Davis, William Reddocks, Solomon Reddocks, Thomas Williams, Thomas Ballard, Phebe Williams, Ann Reddocks, Elizabeth Davis, Lydia Bryant, Ann Williams, Lydia Sandfield.

    WILLIAMS, William, John (not fit) (not Quakers) (William on both lists, John not on Draper's list)

    These two are probably father and son (John is the father and he married a Mary). Alternatively William and John are brothers (William's father is alternatively given on Worldconnect as William Williams Sr.).

    William Williams (b. 1758 - d. 1838 in Grayson Co., VA) m. Nancy Safewright (children William, John (1772-1854) (m. Mary Bryant), Henry b. 12 Dec 1787, d. 1871 in Logan Co., OH m. Nancy Paxson [of the Bucks Co., PA Quaker Paxson family], Absalom, Jesse and Jonathan d. 1865 Carroll Co., VA m. 1821 Grayson Co., VA to Elizabeth Bobbitt)

    William has a brother named John, b. after 1760 m. Mary (children Obediah b. Jan 1786 Grayson Co., d. 22 Apr 1852 Logan Co., OH m. Susannah Short) and Jeffrey b. abt 1789 Grayson Co., VA d. 26 Apr 1848 Logan Co., OH m. (abt 1811, Grayson Co.) Elizabeth Cooley).

    With the exception of the Jonathan Williams line, much of this Williams family migrated to Logan Co., Ohio, possibly with the Quaker Stanfield family and the Pickerels. They seem to marry Quaker associated families.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petition signers: Ishmael, James, John, John, Nehemiah, Samuel, Solomon and Theophilus Williams

    1782 Montgomery Co. tax list: John Williams 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse, 3 cattle; William Williams 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse, 9 cattle; William Williams Jr. 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 2 cattle. In the 1793 tax list there is a William Williams with 4 horses, 1 with no horses, two with 3 horses, 1 with 1 horse and 1 with 2 horses - all in District 2 and all with no blacks.

    1793 Wythe Co. land tax list: William Williams 270 acres worth 40 pounds.

    In 1793, a William Williams is an officer in the Grayson county militia.

    Fines by Capt. Swift: Thomas Williams 0-2-0

    WINFREY: Caleb, Isaac (non-Quakers, only on the Draper list)

    Caleb was born 1760 and died 16 January 1837. He married Nancy Bowles about 1788 in Surry Co., NC. His parents were Isaac Winfrey (abt 1735-1817) and Sarah Brown (d/o Samuel) who were married 25 May 1756 in Cumberland Co., VA. Isaac (b. 1735) is the son of Jacob Winfrey (b. abt 1705 of New Kent Co., VA). The Winfreys stayed in Surry Co., North Carolina for some time after the Revolution. Nancy Bowles is the daughter of Thomas Bowles and Sarah Burch of Caroline Co., VA. Her sister Mary married Pleasant Branch Roberts. Caleb Winfrey is also the "1st" Flower Swift militia list (probably after 1783). In the Annals of Southwest Virginia (1929) by L. P. Summers, Isaac Winfrey is one of several persons who appear on the Draper list considered to be suspected of being inimical to the government on 7-8 September, 1779.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: no Winfreys

    Not on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax list, nor is he on the 1793 list.

    A few men from the other Swift militia Musters

    These list are called the first and second lists, but probably later than the ones presented above. This is only a sampling of the men on these militia lists. I have included everyone who was on the 1782 personal tax list. Their absence from the militia roster may be an indication that they were elsewhere, perhaps serving in the Regular army. One thing noted with this list, is that the men on it had fewer possessions. Also, their family names were not found on Regulator petitions nearly as often and they seem to come from places other than the North Carolina Piedmont. Very few of the men on the "first" and "second" Militia musters are on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA personal tax lists. I suspect these are mostly young men coming to the area after the Revolution ended.

    COCK, COCKE: James (Lieutenant)

    In one database it gives his father as John Cock and his mother as Mary Elizabeth Goad b. 1726 in North Farnham Parish, Richmond Co., VA d/o John Goad b. 1700 and Catherine Jennings. James' wife is given as Nancy and James died in Lincoln Co., TN. James is said to have (1) a brother Reuben (b. after 1760) who died 30 June 1840 in now Carroll Co., VA (formed 1842) m. Rhoda, (2) a brother Andrew Cock who married Penelope Ward (d/o James Ward and Nancy "Bird" Brown) and (3) a sister named Susannah (d. abt 1847 Carroll Co., VA) who married Henry Webb (b. Franklin Co., VA) and (4) a sister Mary [Millie] who married Thomas Dickens.

    There are no Cocks on the 1767-1771 Regulator petitions.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 5 horse, 9 cattle; in 1793 a James Cock has 4 horses and no blacks.

    COALSON, COLSON, COULSON: Jacob, Isaac

    Jacob was born 1754 in Lancaster Co., PA and died 1811 in Grayson Co., VA. He married Elizabeth Jennings about 1776. His parents were Isaac Coulson (b. 1731 in West Nottingham, Cecil Co., MD and died 1784 in Guilford Co., NC) and Elizabeth Paine. Isaac and Elizabeth were married 18 Jul 1752 in Lancaster Co., PA. Jacob's grandparents were Thomas Coulson (15 April 1703 in Derbyshire, England - 17 August 1763 West Nottingham, MD) and Martha Wiley (b. 1705 West Nottingham) who were married under the care of New Garden MM, Chester Co., PA. His maternal grandparents were Josiah Payne (b 1696, England d. Chester Co., PA) and Martha Shepard. The only Isaac found was Jacob's father.

    1767-1771 Regulator petitions: No Colsons, no Jennings.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: Jacob Coleson, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 0 cattle; They are not on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    COLE: Charles

    Charles (b. abt 1760) m. Quaker Elizabeth Stoneman. I believe Charles and Elizabeth migrated to Carroll/Grayson Co. shortly after the Revolution, but the property he lived on may have been purchased as early as 1774 by another Charles Cole who may have been his father (or it could have been him if the birth date is wrong), but may not have lived there.

    There are no Coles or Coals on the 1767-1771 Regulator petitions.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: not present. 1793 list 1 horse and no blacks (Dist. 2).

    DAVIS: Joseph

    Judie Schatz thinks that Joseph may be the son of John Davis and Mary of the Reed Creek area of Montgomery Co., VA.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: Joseph Davies, 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse, 2 cattle; District 2, 1793 Wythe list. Joseph Davis 3 horses, no slaves.

    DOCREY, DOUGHERTY: George, John

    1782 Montgomery tax list: John Dougherty 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 5 horse, 18 cattle; they are not on the 1793 Wythe tax list.

    EDWARDS: Isaac (disowned Quaker)

    He was born 24 Dec 1747 in Chester Co., PA, moved to Rowan (later Guilford) Co., NC as a boy and died 2 July 1825 in Grayson (now Carroll) Co., VA. His actual name may have been Alexander Isaac Edwards. His parents were Thomas "Hannuel" Edwards (b. 1706 in Orange Co., NJ - d. 17 Nov 1783 in New Garden, NC) and Eleanor Scaife (b. Bucks Co., PA). The Edwards family were Quakers. Isaac's grandparents were John Edwards and Mary Ingram. Isaac married Catherine Boone, possibly a first cousin of Daniel Boone, possibly the daughter of Joseph Boone and Catherine Brown of Exeter, Berks Co., PA. She was not Quaker but joined the Quakers after her marriage to Isaac (who had been disowned for marrying her in 1770). Children were born 1770-1799: Annuel Isaac, m. Mary Cox, d. Carroll Co., VA; Henry m. Letitia Richardson, d. Carroll Co., VA; Margaret m. Elisha Bedsaul in 1794; Mary b. 1776; Eleanor b. 1778 m. John Bass Dalton; William m. Elizabeth Bryson and d. 1869 in Carroll Co., VA; Nancy m. Esau Worrell in 1837; Joshua m. Nancy Hill; Catherine m. James McCue; John m. Mary Hague d. 1873 in Carroll Co., VA; Hannah m. a Stearman; Amy "Ann" m. William Osborne; and Isaac m. Mary Beamer and d. Caroll Co., VA in 1869.

    Isaac had been a representative to the Provincial Congress of North Carolina in New Bern in 1774. Family legends say that Isaac participated in the Battle of Guilford Court House on the American side. His family moved to Little Reed Island in Virginia in 1781.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: Isaac Edwards 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse, 2 cattle.

    1793 Wythe personal tax list: Isaac Edwards 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse

    FANNIN: John, Thomas (does not appear on Draper's list of Tories and Quakers)

    John Fanning in 1760-1779 was on tax lists and court records in Orange and later Randolph Co., NC and Thomas is his son. In 1782 John is on the Montgomery Co., VA tax list. In 1789 he is living in the area of the Big Falls of Cole (Coal) Creek and the head of Gordon Creek near John Murphy, the Reddicks, George Martin and others. Son John Jr. lived on Chestnut, Meadow and Crooked Creeks along with the Bedsauls, Samuel Blevins, Jeremiah Clonch, Timothy Murphy and others. Jacob Fanning lived on Chestnut Creek/Crooked Creek area near John Clonch, the Farmers and others. In 1788 Thomas moved somewhere near Fishers Mountain in Surry Co., NC where he appears on the 1790 census. Thomas' wife is though to have been Ann Howard a daughter of Abraham Howard and Jane Howard Allen, who in her will probated 1805 in Surry Co., names a daughter Ann Fanning. Another son of John's was Joseph Fanning who married Barbara Davis (d/o John and Mary Davis) and later migrated to Giles Co., TN (1809), Lauderdale Co., AL, Morgan Co., Illinois and finally to Madison Co., Arkansas. The Fannings were "Hard Shell" Baptists. Jacob and Nathan are the names of two more sons of John (and brothers of Thomas on the Swift list). Of John's 5 sons, only John Jr. lived out his life in Virginia. John Jr. married Mary "Polly" Davis, another daughter of John and Mary Davis. John Sr.'s daughter Mary married Jacob Lineberry (originally of Randolph Co., NC and a son of Mary Catherine Youngblood [Jungblut]) and they bought out the other heirs and lived on John's place after he died. (Judie Schatz)

    There are two rather famous Tory Fanning lines. According to Judie Schatz these lines are not related to the Swift militia company Fannings as far as she can determine. (1) Judge Edmund Fanning was the famous victim of the Regulators. He was actually a Yale educated New Englander and his surviving writings show him to be a fawning courtier. (2) There was a famous Tory officer, David Fanning Jr., who he led the Tory militia in the old Guilford Co., NC area. This Fanning appears to be the cousin of the Bryant Fannin, son of Achilles Fanning Sr. of today's Wythe county who confessed to the Virginia commanders of his involvement with the Tories. A Bryant and Achilles Fanning are listed in Thomas Ingles' militia company. This line is descended from Bryant Fanning Sr. of Amelia Co., VA. Many Worldconnect lines have the John Fanning in the Swift company as a brother of Bryant Jr. and Achilles Sr. Fanning. Judie Schatz shows that Bryant Sr.'s son John was in Amelia county at the same time as the Grayson county John Fanning shows up in North Carolina. There is a James Fanning who co-migrates with John of Grayson and may be his brother.

    The name John Fannin appears on Regulator petitions in the Guilford/Randolph Co., NC area.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: John Fanning 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 5 horse, 16 cattle; Thomas not on the list. Not on the 1793 tax list for Wythe.

    HANKS: Joshua, Jonathan (Quakers, later Baptists)

    Joshua is one of the persons who donated land for the Mt. Pleasant MM meeting house in the 1790s. He purchased land in what is now Carroll Co., Virginia in 1783, which is when David Sturgill's history says he first arrived (this helps date the 1st and 2nd Swift militia musters). He married his wife, Ruth Bryant in Surry Co., NC in 1784. She was the daughter of John Bryant and Lydia Allen who were Quakers. Joshua settled on Cole Creek and was active in Grayson County politics before Carroll County was set up. Many Hanks are buried in the old Quaker Cemetery near Piper's Gap.

    This family is supposed to be from the (Anglican in eastern Virginia/Baptist on the frontier) Richmond Co., VA Hanks line, although the Quaker religious orientation would be a better fit for the Exeter MM, Berks Co., PA Hanks associated with the Boone and Lincoln families or with the Maryland/Loudoun Co., VA "William the Quaker" Hanks line. In fact, recent DNA testing is beginning to make the latter possibility (Maryland origin) seem quite likely. However there is an alternative explanation for the DNA evidence that would give a Richmond Co., VA origin for this family (which requires separating the William Hanks m. Hester Mills lines from the other Richmond Co., VA lines). In David Sturgill's http://www.geocities.com/marianapolis99/sturgill.htm History, Joshua Hanks is the son of Richard Hanks Sr. and his wife Mary Hinds of Richmond Co., VA, Amelia Co., VA, and old Guilford Co., NC and this is the line universally given on Worldconnect. The Cock and Dodson lines above are also North Farnham, Richmond Co., VA lines. Other New River pioneers besides Joshua include Abraham, John and Felix (perhaps, or are these men named Hawks?). Sturgill also claimed that Abraham Lincoln's mother Nancy was a daughter of Abraham Hanks and was born near Piper's Gap in present day Carroll Co., VA. This is hotly disputed and probably incorrect. This is almost surely a different Nancy Hanks (see messages 1305, 2009, and 2019 on the Hanks Genforum from Nancy Royce for a different view - [message 2019 refutes message 2009]). Hanks genealogy is currently in a state of confusion largely caused by the great interest in Nancy Hanks Lincoln and the dozens of legends surrounding her origin. These problems will only be resolved with DNA testing, particularly maternal mitochondrial DNA testing.

    Children of Joshua and Ruth: Patience m. William Davis; Mary m. William Davis; William m. a Moore; Zachariah m. Susan Rector; Rhoda m. Enoch Moore; Nancy m. George Moore; Ruth m. John Vaughn; Thomas m. Jenny Moore; Lydia m. James Moore; Richard m. Tamer Bryant; David; James; John m. Delia Carrico; Susannah m. John Mooney; Joshua m. Rosamond Carrico; Thursa.

    1767-1771 Regulator Petitions: No Hanks were found by me.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: not present.  1787 Montgomery Co., VA Personal Property Tax Lists-List "A": Hanks, Joshua Self 0, 0, 0, 3, 4; Joshua is on the 1793 tax list, Dist 2, 1 tithe, 3 horses, no blacks.

    The only Jonathan Hanks that fits this time period is a son of William "the Quaker" of Maryland and Ruth Ryan. If it is him, then he is married to a woman named Jemima and migrates to Kentucky.

    HARTGRAVE: Benjamin (from a Quaker family)

    Susanna Hargrave m. Nathan Shelly's brother John. Benjamin was Susanna's brother. They are the children of Jesse Hargrave and Naomi Sebrell of Surry Co., VA. Benjamin was a near neighbor of Flower Swift's on 8 November 1785 (Matthew Dickey's treasury warrant). A Lucretia Hargrave married Thomas Hanks, brother of Joshua above. Her relationship to Benjamin has not been established yet.

    There are Quaker connections in the Hargrave family in Virginia as well as North Carolina, especially in this particular line. Benjamin's father Jesse is a brother of Samuel Hargrave the Quaker who marries Martha Cheadle. Samuel's children marry mostly members of the Quaker Johnson and Terrell families (see Thomas Johnson biography above). The Jesse who married Naomi Sebrell is not a son of Joseph as often depicted on Worldconnect. His father's name is unknown (possibly from land records it is Lemuel Jr.), but Jesse is a grandson of Lemuel Hargraves Sr. (source, Nancy Royce - see proof, next paragraphs).

    From the will of Lemuel Hargraves of Surry 2 May 1740 (proved 15 Sept 1742)

    "to grandson Jesse Hargrove that plantation where on his mother now dwells provided he or his heirs (when he or they shall be of lawful age) convey unto my son Samuel upon request all right which sd. Jesse hath by inheritance to the plantation and land that my son Benjamin was possessed of at the time of his death on south side Roanoke River in N. C." Another line in the will names grandson Samuel of Caroline Co., VA (the one that marries Martha Cheadle).

    Jesse Hargrave married Naomey Sebrell 16 Jan 1748/9 and moved with his family to North Carolina. In Granville Co. NC Deed Book A 12 Feb 1746 Jesse Hargrave of Surry Co. to Moses Myrick of Granville sells all right to the land "that ever did belong or in any wise appertain unto Benjamin Hargrove his uncle, late of NC deceased." This means that Benjamin Hargrave could have had no children as his land went to his father as heir at law and his father, Lemuel Sr., left it to his grandson Jesse. There is no record of Lemuel's wife's name. There is a record of a Susanna Hargrave in the right time period to have possibly been his wife and there was a Susanna Cornwell (correspondence with Nancy Royce). Lemuel Sr. is the son of Richard Hargrave who joined the Quaker movement and belonged to a forerunner of the old Pagan Creek Meeting.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 3 horses, 1 cattle, among the Swift company names, the last part of his name is illegible. Could not find him on the 1793 Wythe list.

    HUGHEY: Thomas

    Thomas Huey m. Mary Bryan (daughter of John Bryan b. 9 April 1730 Opequon Creek, Frederick Co., VA, and she was a first cousin of Daniel Boone's wife.). This Bryan family was known to have participated in the Regulators. They were, like the Boones, originally Quaker, but had become Baptists in North Carolina. Thomas was the son of John Huey and Elizabeth Morgan. The Huey family is from Rowan Co., NC and married with the Bryan family that also intermarried with the Boones. The Hueys had come from the Opequon Creek, Frederick Co., VA area with the Bryans. It does not appear that the Hueys were Quakers, but they seem to associate with them. Some of this family migrate to Clinton Co., IL from Iredell Co., NC. Thomas' children were Elizabeth, Maria, John, Joseph, James, Samuel and Rebecca.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: not present. 1793 Wythe list not present.

    JOHNS: Abraham (Not a Quaker)

    The most likely Abraham Jones (b. after 1751, VA) is the son of Robert Jones and Maria van Meter of Lunenburg/Halifax and Bedford Co., VA. He married Rachel Greer d/o Capt. Wm Greer d. perhaps Grayson Co., VA and Sarah Freeland. The van Meters are a New Jersey family of Dutch origin that are well-known for pioneering in western Pennsylvania and the Wheeling WV area. Abraham had a brother John b. abtr 1733 (m. Mary Rentfro) who was in Halifax County in 1766 and in Franklin Co., VA in 1789. Nothing more is known about Abraham, but brother John's family goes to Shelby Co., KY, then disperses throughout the midwest. There is no William in this family, so the William on Swift's muster is likely not to be related.

    1767-1771 Regulator petition signers: Aiken, Andre, Aquilla, Charles, Thomas, Stephen, William Jones and William Greer(s)

    1782 Montgomery tax list: Abraham Joans 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 2 horse 6 cattle (no Greers - in NC). On the 1793 Wythe tax list he may be the Abraham Jones with 5 horses and 1 black (<16) (Also Robert and Shadrach Greer).

    JULIAN: Isaac, Jesse

    The Julian family lived in present day Randolph Co., NC at the time of the Regulation as did so many other members of the Swift company. This land was just southeast of the present day city of Randleman, NC near Polecat and Bush Creeks [tributaries of Deep River]. The Julian family intermarried with the Ashe Co., NC (New River) Long family (e.g. Isaac Julian [son of Isaac Julian and Barbara White, grandson of Rene St. Julian and Mary or Margaret Bullock] m. Sarah Long [this Isaac Jr. is the one on the Swift muster]; Solomon Long marred Catherine Julian; George Julian m. Eleanor Long). The Longs are yet another Quaker associated Maryland/Randolph Co., NC family whose names appeared on Regulator petitions [mother Martha Robinson Long was raised a Quaker and one of her children, Israel was a member of Deep River and later Westfield MM. Martha had been disowned for marrying Tobias Long]. The Longs lived west and a little south of the Chestnut Creek community and served in Capt. Cox's company, probably 1782. Jesse Julian on the Swift muster was the son of George and Hannah Julian, a grandson of Peter Julian [Regulator petition, lived at Sandy Creek, Randolph Co., NC] and Mary Beals and a great grandson of Rene St. Julian, mentioned above.

    The names of Peter Julian Sr. and Jr. appear on the Regulator list. Like the Swifts, Carrs and Wards, this is another Baltimore Co., MD family with Quaker associations. Rene St. Julian was a French Huguenot refugee.

    The Isaac Julian who married Sarah Long was the grandfather of George W. Julian, a candidate for the Vice Presidency of the United States (1852, Free Soil Party), a well known abolitionist and a founder of the Republican Party. While in congress, he proposed an amendment to the US Constitution giving women the right to vote in 1868.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: not present. Not on the 1793 Wythe list either.

    MARTIN: George (non-Quaker)

    This is probably the George Martin who married Amey Bedsaul. He is the son of a John Martin and possibly the brother of John Martin (Quaker) who is also on the Swift militia muster.

    According to Barbara Martin (e-mail) this is probably the same George Martin who died intestate in 1831 in Roane Co., TN. If so he was born in 1761-1770 (according to the 1830 Roane Co., TN census). His heirs (1835 court record) were James, Elijah (or Elisha) m. Catherine Howard, Mary (wife of Daniel Bedsaul), Alsey (wife of George Blackwell), Tamer (wife of Richard Blackwell), Matilda, Peggy and George (of Smith Co., TN). He also had two other sons Moses (d. 1832/3) and John (d. abt 1842). This George may be the son of Moses Martin b. 12 Jan 1755 in Bedford Co., VA who married Anna Heath abt 1777 in Surry Co., NC and had a brother John b. 1757 in Bedford Co., VA who may be the John on the Swift list above. In this case, George would be John's nephew, not his brother.

    See also the Martin discussion above. George is a common name in the Quaker Martin lines.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 0 cattle. 1793 Wythe tax list: 4 horses, no blacks.

    MURPHY: Timothy

    Timothy's ancestry is unknown. His tombstone says he was born in Dublin, Ireland and further states that he is the Timothy Murphy who shot Simon Frazier, a British commander at the Battle of Saratoga, 1777 and says he was a member of Boone's company of Morgan's rifles (this is disputed in DAR records according to Murphy descendant Len Chapel). His name does not appear on Regulator petitions, but there is a John Murphy. Timothy Murphy bought his land in partnership with James Blevins. When he died the part of the land in North Carolina went to the Blevins and the part in Virginia to the Murphys.

    1782 Montgomery tax list: 1 tithe, 0 slaves, 1 horse, 3 cattle. In 1793 Timothy has 2 horses and no blacks.

    The rest of the men on musters 1 and 2 are not in the Montgomery Co., VA 1782 personal tax list.

    References:

    1. Rootsweb WorldConnect (all databases) http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi
    2. Genforum (e.g. http://genforum.genealogy.com/cox/) [to get a surname, replace 'cox' with whatever is appropriate]
    3. The Quakers in the American Colonies(by Rufus Jones, 1911)
    4. http://www.newrivernotes.com (New River Notes) is a resource for the History of the area.
    5. Grayson County, A History in Words and Pictures(by Bettye-Lou Fields and Jene Hughes, Grayson County Historical Soc., Independence VA, 1976). The militia company lists in this book were the starting point for this study. There is some other Revolutionary war material in there as well, particularly for the Capt. John Cox militia company which seemed to have the most trouble with local Tories.
    6. Montgomery Co. 1782 tax list: http://www.newrivernotes.com/montgomery_enumerations_1782_personal_property_tax_list.htm
    7. 1793 Wythe tax lists for Districts 1 and 2. http://www.newrivernotes.com/wythe_enumerations_1793_personal_property_tax_list.htm
    8. Carroll 1765-1815 The Settlements, by John Perry Alderman would be a good book to read to round out this story and contains the sort of detail on deeds and tax lists that many genealogists find useful.The Carroll County Genealogical Club is on-line and selling a Carroll county history too.
    9. Revolutionary War pension application images are courtesy of Billy Markland.
    10. The Encyclopaedia of Quaker Genealogy, Volume VI (Virginia), edited by William Wade Hinshaw.
    11. The Encyclopaedia of Quaker Genealogy, Volume I (North Carolina), edited by William Wade Hinshaw.
    12. Roster for William Herbert's Company in Lord Dunmore's War, 1774 (New River Notes by Jeffrey Weaver). By colonial Virginia law, Quakers were exempt from militia duty if they could find a substitute. The Bedsauls served nonetheless. Other names found on the Swift roster and the Herbert roster are James Blevins and Nathan Ward. No other member of the Swift company served. Considering the Quaker minister, "http://www.the-roundup.com/quaker/beals/bealsthomas.html" Thomas Beals, of Surry Co., NC went on a peace mission to the Shawnee (the target of Lord Dunmore's War) during the Revolution, perhaps this is not surprising. Many of the Tories of the New River area are on Herbert's roster as are the commanders of the other Whig New River militia companies.
    13. Some marriages relevant to the Chestnut Creek settlement from New Garden Monthly Meeting have been placed on-line.
  • About the Regulators of North Carolina

    About the Regulators of North Carolina

    In the late 1740s settlers with roots in Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey came down the Great Valley of Virginia and crossed the Blue Ridge from west to east into the Carolina Piedmont. They brought with them their own forms of worship and of government. First entering the Great Valley of Virginia in the late 1720s these people, Quakers, Baptists, Presbyterians and various German sects, were largely left alone by the older established eastern Virginia culture. In fact, along the border between the cultures, in Albemarle and Bedford and Amherst counties the two cultures began to mix and form great men like Jefferson, Madison and Washington: the product of the best of both worlds. North Carolina had been briefly run by the Quakers 50 years before, when the population was sparse and confined to the Northeast corner of the state, but was during the time of the present study, run as a Crown colony, as if it were a part of England. This is the England where the aristocracy still ran the government. It was the England of rotten boroughs - where a powerful man would control one or several parliamentary seats. It was the England where commoners were expected to stop, remove their hats and bow before the mighty as they passed in their carriages, where servants followed their Lords and waited on their every need. The Church was accountable to the King and was established as a State Religion. The Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania, West Jersey and Delaware was a different matter. The laws were based on the golden rule. Freedom of speech, press and religion was found there (after some minor trials and tribulations it is true). The make-up of the legislature was based on population. Most political control was local and taxes were low.

    Imagine what would happen if you had all your life enjoyed this freedom and then moved to a place where those in power would visit your farm, collect taxes at whatever rate they saw fit and pocket half of it. Then, if you refused to pay, they would, at gunpoint take your livestock and property. These same people then deny you equal representation in the state legislature and tax you for support of a Church that barely has any members in your area. They deny your ministers the legal right to marry you. They pack the juries and the courts with their friends. The Regulators were formed to fight these abuses. They printed petitions and advertisements and pamphlets. The Governor of North Carolina listened tolerantly but did nothing. The Regulators contained all sorts of people. The Presbyterians and Baptists were prominent. The German Reformed and Lutherans were heavily represented. Even the peace churches were involved. And there were frontier rowdies of course, spoiling for a fight. Governor Tryon smelled a revolt and outlawed the movement about 1768. The movement continued to grow. Judge Fanning, a fawning courtier more intent in winning Tryon's favor than in administering justice, was removed from his court by a mob, was beaten and pushed down the stairs after which the Regulators took over the courthouse in Hillsborough. The rebellious farmers refused to pay the taxes. A law was passed in January, 1771 making membership in the Regulators an act of treason. Governor Tryon called up the militia in the eastern counties and in May 1771 marched on the Piedmont. He crushed the movement at the Battle of Alamance. Thirty of the men on the losing side were placed in irons and dragged through several of the western counties to discourage further rebellion. Twelve of them were then put on trial for their life and all were convicted of High Treason. The governor offered them a reprieve. If they would swear allegience to the King, then their lives would be spared. Six of them took the oath including a man named Harmon Cox and were "requited to await the King's pleasure". Six did not and they were hung, including James Pugh, who on the gallows pointed out that the Regulators had not killed one man until Alamance and prophesied that the blood spilled that day on the gallows would be paid for a hundred fold. Resistance continued, but at a much lower level as the King's troops went through the western counties administering the Oath of Allegience to the Crown.

    After the Battle of Alamance, Quakers and Baptists began to buy property in 1771-2 in the vicinity of Chestnut Creek in Carroll County, Virginia, just over the border from North Carolina. Many of the settlers were relatives of the disowned Quaker, Herman Husband, the best known leader of the Regulation (and who was himself a fugitive). They were part of a mass exodus of 1500 people or more who left the Piedmont after the Battle of Alamance. In 1779 they formed the Flower Swift Militia Company. Governor Tryon had offered a pardon to most of the participants in the Regulator movement but he made exceptions found in the Proclamation dated 11 June 1771 which reads as follows: (From the Colonial Records of North Carolina - Vol. 8)

    A PROCLAMATION:

    "Whereas I have been informed that many persons who have been concerned in the late Rebellion are desirous of submitting themselves to the Government, I do therefore give notice that every person who will come in either to mine or General Waddell's camp, lay down their arms and take the oath of Allegiance and promise to pay all taxes that are now due or may hereafter become due by them respectively and submit to the law of this Country, shall have his Majesty's most gracious and free pardon for all Treasons, Insurrections and Rebellings done or committed, on or before the 16th of May last, provided they make their submission aforesaid on or before the tenth of July next.

    The following persons are however excluded from the benefits of this Proclamation, viz, all the outlaws, the prisoners, all those concerned in the blowing up of General Waddell's ammunition in Mecklenburg County, and the undernamed persons, to wit:

    Samuel Jones Joshua Teague Samuel Waggoner
    Simon Dunn, Jr. Abraham Greson http://www.rootsweb.com/%7encrevwar/ncrev_story.htm Benjamin Merrill
    James Wilkerson Edward Smith John Bumpas
    Joseph Boring William Rankin William Robeson
    John Winkler John Wilcox Jacob Felton
    Thomas Person    

    Given under my hand and the Great Seal of the Province, this 11th day June, A. Dom. 1771.

    Wm. Tryon

    God Save the King

    References and Links:

    1. Regulator petition names were found on Rootsweb's RowanRoots RootsL archives for 1997 and 1998. Here is an example for Guilford County.
    2. Information on the Regulators: http://www.tamu.edu/ccbn/dewitt/mckstmerreg.htm.
    3. Another list of Regulators can be found at http://www.tamu.edu/ccbn/dewitt/mckstmerrindivid.htm
    4. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Regulation
    5. Official Alamance Battleground web site by the folks who run the Alamance Battlefield Historic Site
    6. A History of the Regulators is on-line: The Regulators of North Carolina (1765-1771) by John S. Bassett, pps 141-212, Government Printing Office, 1895, Call number C970.25.B31r c. 3 (North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). His assertion that the Regulators favored the Tory side in the Revolution has since been proven false. Of 883 persons in old Orange County, NC (includes Alamance) who had supported the Regulation, 289 were rebels, 34 were Tories and 560 avoided taking sides (Data from Alamance Historic Site, repeated in The Cousin's Warsby Kevin Phillips - note that Quakers and some Baptists had anti-war testimonies and would not be expected to fight). This assertion of his has been repeated in many subsequent histories of North Carolina as well in books like Leyburn's The Scotch-Irish. See the "http://www.ncgenweb.us/orange/oc_regulators.html" ncgenweb for Orange County for more Regulator information, including some indication on the stand of individual Regulators during the Revolution. The assertion that there may have been some reluctance to support the Revolution because many of the leaders were the wealthy oligarchy of eastern North Carolina who had led Tryon's militia at Alamance, though, may well be true. The leadership of the militias of southwest Virginia were also mainly wealthy Presbyterian land-speculators, but were not necessarily unsympathetic to the Regulation. Presbyterian ministers from Mecklenburg county, NC had been instrumental in convincing many of their parishioners to drop their support for the Regulation and some of these ministers supported the Tory cause too. So the relationship of the Chestnut Creek Community to their Presbyterian neighbors may have been complicated and uneasy. The fact that many of the Quakers were Scotch-Irish may or may not have helped.
    7. The Conquest of the Old Southwest by Archibald Henderson (Chapters 11 and 12 deal with the Regulation)
    8. Newspaper articles dealing with the Regulation are on-line from the North Carolina Office of Archives and History at "http://www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/sections/hp/colonial/newspapers/Subjects/Reg.htm". Amongst the newspaper articles on this page is one from the Edinburgh Evening Courant, dated 14 September, 1771 that says, "Most of the Regulators, who had been tried and convicted, it was imagined would not be executed, they having the choice either to inlist (sic) in the regular service, or receive 500 lashes; some of them have chosen the former. Neither of the outlaws had been taken, it was thought they were fled to some of the back mountains, and had secured themselves in such a manner, that in all probability they could not be easily discovered."
    9. Herman Husband, the best known leader of the Regulation was also a leader in the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania 20 years later.
    10. Another on-line account of the Regulators from the viewpoint of the Watauga settlement can be found on-line at http://www.webroots.org/library/usahist/tcotos04.html.
    11. Some of the minutes of New Garden MM (NC) from just after the Battle of Alamance are found here.

    James A. Quinn, March 2003, updated December 2007 and again September, 2010.

  • About the Participation of the Flower Swift Company in the Revolution

    Regarding Flower Swift and his Militia Company

    A letter from descendant Grady Loy

    Dear Dr. Quinn:

    I read with some interest the posts you placed recently on the New River List.

    Sent: Wednesday, January 15, 2003 1:22 AM

    To: ncnr@yahoogroups.com

    Subject: [NewRiver] Flower Swift Quaker list - final draft coming

    A list member put me on to your posts.

    I appreciate anyone who brings clarity to an often muddled area of history as you have. I learned several new things about the subject from reading your work and find nothing that is not correct, or at least to the best of our knowledge, which is a rare treat. I can add some additional information concerning this group that in some cases may be informative.

    The controversy of the list. I do not know why Lyman Draper is supposed to have made the comments he did. Elizabeth Arndt recently went to Wisconsin and looked at a list from the Draper collection and on Flower's list or the cover of it (I can send it by e-mail later were a couple of words I think "Tories? Quakers?" and - well I had just better send it and let you see what you think. Mary Kegley published a series of Militia lists for the Whig side from Montogmery and Washington Counties during the revolution (including as an extra the loyalty oath lists where the Ruddicks declined to sign) and lists with the exact membership of the the "Tory/Quaker" lists are given as standard militia lists that she found stored at Christianburg. Lyman Draper did not make that connection apparently.

    Another reason for the designation is apparently that there is a letter to William Crockett who was Flower Swift's colonel for the first 9 months of his service to the effect that he was to go down the New River and disarm the companies of Swift, Cox and Osbourne (this is listed in abstract on the New River Site) It is one of three letters that Flower Swift either wrote or was mentioned in. The other two are a letter from William Preston's nephew Colonel Breckenridge I think reporting that around April 1780, Flower Swift had been captured and then was released or escaped from a Tory camp where he had seen red coated British officers among the Tories.

    The second letter is approximately late 1781/1782 and is to Colonel William Preston concerning "delinquents" from his company. This was the period after Yorktown had fallen and General Greene was putting all his effort into removing remaining British units from South Carolina. He called the Montgomery (among other) militias to service but Preston noted that he was only able to field 1/7 of his recorded strength. The letter from Swift appears to be an answer to an order to call up as much of the local force as possible so that it could be sent on to aid General Marion and others in South Carolina. (The Montgomery militia had been "disaffected since the battle at the beginning of March 1781 when the Montgomery Militia was in front on a march with some North Carolina Militia and Maryland line to join general Greene at Guilford for that battle. The infamous Colonel Tarleton attacked - I think this was Ramsour's Mill - and the Montgomery Militia fired off a couple of rounds and began to fall back as was the general Militia Custom. While they were taking the brunt of the attack the Maryland regulars retreated with the wagons carrying the militia's supplies. The North Carolina Militia was thrown into confusion and Colonel Preston was thrown from his horse. The Montgomery men feeling they had been used as sacrificial lambs to preserve the Maryland Regulars (not far from Greene's actual feelings on the subject) got angry and began to melt away. At the next camp the assembled captains told Preston he did not have a fighting force and they returned home. Preston shamed and broken, though his superiors did not hold it against him, spent the remainder of the war and his life trying to rebuild his militia.)

    I have the text of these two letters and the second may be more interesting for you (if you have not got it already) as it has lists of names of people in service. This is probably the last of the Swift lists.

    The letter I do not have, to Walter Crockett, I would love to have in facsimile or text if you have it or know where it is. I do not think it has been properly interpreted yet.

    As to why there is so much confusion concerning the Swift lists, I will mention a little background of Flower Swift. He was the grandson of a man (Flower Swift) born into a London Merchant family apparently with interests in Jamaica. For whatever reason he appeared in Maryland in what is now Harford County (there is a high possibility he may have been in Cecil near the Chester Co. border first) marrying (Church of England) the daughter of Mark Whitaker. When Mark Whitaker died Flower and the children of Mark's first wife relocated to present day Frederick County to the west of Frederick where the family of one of the Whitaker brother's in law lived. He had gotten land from his wife's father Thomas Wilson. Swift's wife died and he married a Wilson also and became a constable of Monacacy hundred (Frederick Co., MD), and was responsible for the upkeep of the road from Frederick to the west, a job that rotated in his family and that his son may have held (these are positions his eponymous grandson emulated in Grayson Co.) Flower according to family legend for what it is worth went back to England in 1742-1744 to collect an inheritance, presumably that of his merchant father, another Flower Swift (his uncle Peter had died in Jamaica ca 1710). He was lost at sea and apparently the land had always belonged to his in-laws. His wife gave some land to his son Thomas as an inheritance and Thomas soon sold this and migrated to present day Randolph County NC at Sandy Creek where he bought some land during the Granville distribution. His next door neighbor and possibly brother in law by a previous wife (we are working on this) was fellow Harford County citizen Herman Husband. Herman had been Church of England but had converted and become Quaker in North Carolina. He is well known as the North Carolina land holder, provincial legislator and regulator leader of 1771. He railed against the harsh taxation policies of the English governor Tryon in the late 1760's and as a result the Quaker community was split in North Carolina, the majority sticking to more traditional and obedient Quaker values but a vocal minority supporting his cause. He did not want a violent situation, but in addition to his small group of militant Quakers, a large group of Baptists (Thomas Swift was a Baptist) opted for a confrontation. Husbands fled a day or two before the British Governor's militia struck at Alamance and Thomas Swift (who also did not participate at Alamance) and his family may have aided Husband's escape. Husband's children by his earlier wives remained and kept his North Carolina properties but one of the children of his third wife named one of her children Flower and this grandson lived with some other Swift descendants in Illinois many years later.

    We do not know how the Alamance Battle and the resulting looting by militia troops against known or suspected Regulators affected the Quakers who moved to Grayson but there may have been a connection.

    Captain Flower Swift was about 16 or 17 at the time of Alamace and whether he was one of the mob and had to relocate is not known. His father was able to keep his homestead until he died in 1806 when it passed to his second oldest son Thomas. The looters did some damage but he was unable to obtain state compensation having been judged to have taken the part of the Regulators.

    Swift was reasonably literate as the existence of his letter will attest but not at the same level as his superiors William Preston or William Campbell and this is probably because Thomas' higher education was neglected by the early death of his father and Flower's frontier upbringing.

    He was very suspicious of outsiders and this may have arisen from his experiences during the Regulator era. He was certainly with his family in 1770 but for us the period between 1770 and September 1779 remains a blank. He and his circle were very likely involved in counterfeiting various silver coins during this period - the Bedsauls were blacksmiths and had been since they were up north. There is an old Bedsaul family legend about how they made bells by day and coins by night and moved on when the silver ran out. The early homestead at Iron Mountain may have had a little native silver lying in a surface deposit and they did all move on after the war. Flower must have had some qualities or connections because Preston pulled him seemingly from nowhere to place in command of the expansion company made by dividing the Osborne and Cox companies in what was regarded as the single most dangerous Tory district in Virginia in 1779. Osborne and Cox were both men with proven loyalties and military abilities at least in frontier fighting. So one idea was probably to put the novice between the two senior men so that there would not be too weak a spot in the line [acutally Swift's company is east of both Cox and Osborne - JQ]. However it is doubtful that even with his attractiveness to the Quakers - Flower Swift was probably married to Mary Bedsaul (We have information on her headstone in Missouri so the name Mary is correct) - that he would have been made captain there without some other reason. But I have no idea at this point.

    I would deeply appreciate it if you could send me any references to him as captain or in any capacity prior to September 8, 1779 as I have never been able to find anything about him in Virginia prior to that date.

    Back to the topic. Since Swift was very suspicious, it appears likely that he did not date his militia lists or write anything else on them (such as "militia list") that could later be used against he or his men. Unlike many of the Virginians, Swift had been on the losing side and had seen the leaders of his side hung by the British authorities and his being captured in April 1780 may have deepened this impression. He also had the example of his neighbor and senior Captain Cox who had been captured in an earlier year but who did not get away so easily as Swift did. And if Major Ferguson was making a sortie a little early (though Tarleton does not indicate that Ferguson went into North Carolina before the British victory at Camden in August) Ferguson was known for his "hanging speeches" regarding those in the backcountry that would not submit. Such a thing would also have made an impression on Swift. In any case, he alone of all the commanders I am aware of did not date or label the militia musters and he probably handed them to Preston himself as opposed to using the post.

    In summary I think those factors

    1. Swift's unwillingness to document his lists
    2. The William Crockett Letter
    3. The point you raised about the Ruddicks not signing the loyalty oath all combined to give an impression that Swift might have had a Tory list. But I can tell you as a matter of oral tradition, he was on the Whig side at least from the time he joined Preston.

    Another factor that I do not think is well known in circles looking at this area, though Lyman Draper was passingly aware of it, was the fact that in response to Swift's report through Breckenridge, William Preston became so greatly worried that he wrote Jefferson and asked Jefferson to commandeer William Campbell from Washington County to lead an expedition. Preston was a pretty good judge of men and while Walter Crockett was reliable as home guard leader, both Preston and Crockett felt that Campbell was better to lead an expedition. Campbell had been planning to lead an expedition against certain pro-British Cherokee towns in Tennessee with his brother-in-law and cousin Arthur Campbell and probably Colonel Sevier. Arthur and William did not get along well. Arthur was the Washington Militia Commander and resented William who had married well (Patrick Henry's daughter) received formal military training in the tidewater (prior to 1779) and frankly was a far better soldier. Arthur and William had an understanding that William could only lead Washington County Militia as part of a mixed force where Washington forces made up less than half. Otherwise Arthur was to command. Arthur had been the intended leader of the summer campaign against the Cherokee. Thomas Jefferson however, instructed William Campbell (can show the letter where he does this) to postpone his campaign and go to Montgomery County with such men as Arthur would spare him and do something about the Tory situation that worried Preston so. William, only too happy to command his own expeditionary force and somewhat enjoying Arthur's discomfiture at losing his summer expedition, rushed to Montgomery with somewhere between 50 and 100 men (I am guessing here) from Washington. He was put in charge of Crockett's southern frontline (Swift, Osbourne, Cox) with around 100 men. Whether the Montgomery force was larger (120) or the Washington force was 100 is difficult to say without knowing whether William Neal was a Washington Commander or a Montgomery Commander. The force was rounded out to about 300 men by a couple of companies Preston was able to get from Botetourt County (Still don't have their names) and such men on the North Carolina border as would join the force for 30-60 days (pension of Henry Blevins NC recruit where Campbell is given as Swift's commanding officer) Campbell moved south up the New River burning out and disarming Tory settlements as he went. At some point he headed east into North Carolina and marched as far as Guilford where he joined Cleveland and together they attacked and may have eliminated the Tory forces of Captain Fanning. This campaign lasted from mid July - Crockett was in the field with his men when Campbell arrived having done the same the previous year - and lasted until the end of August. Swift is recorded as obtaining supplies for the troops at Wilkes County NC in August 1780.

    History then says that Campbell went home and was called by Shelby and others to Watauga shoals where he brought the Washington County Militia. After his arrival Arthur Campbell showed up with 100 or so more men from Washington apparently including Colonel Edmonton. After that there is the King's Mountain Battle saga that everyone well knows. Crockett was said to have been present at that battle and it is unlikely Preston would have let him go as an observer since no one knew whether they would even meet the enemy much less prevail.

    The historical account is based on the account of Shelby who repeatedly sent letters to Campbell asking him to join. Campbell was probably at the Moravian towns with his forces intact when Shelby's call came. General Gates, having just endured savage defeat at Camden and knowing Cleveland and Campbell to be leading intact bodies of men in not insignificant numbers sent orders to Moravian Town ordering Campbell to submit to his command, turn his militia over to him and march to the Dan River at the Virginia border to resist Cornwallis anticipated northern march. Campbell's first response to Shelby declining to join him at Watauga mirrors these orders perfectly (One modern historian has sniffed that this just goes to show what a bad strategist Campbell really was. He may have been. His victories were all at the tactical level but this time he was following orders) He had not answered Gates and when Shelby's second letter came he opted to join Shelby and the others against Ferguson. After the battle Shelby drew up a history of the campaign and the other officers all signed it. The history said that Shelby's messenger found Campbell at home. Campbell signed it but in a letter to Jefferson later explaining why he went to Kings Mountain (some apparently accused him of overreaching his authority). He refers to Jefferson's orders of July and states that in his pursuit of Tories he invaded North Carolina as per his orders and did not cease campaigning there until Ferguson was defeated. The reason was that had he laid down his command and returned home, he would not have had the authority to raise a new force and cross into North Carolina. The other flaw in the Shelby account is that Arthur Campbell brought 100-200 or so more men to William Campbell at Watauga Shoals. Had William Campbell ever returned to Abington he would have brought them himself. Additionally if he had 200-300 with him and Arthur brought him 100-200 more, The entire Washington County Militia would have been in the field in South Carolina. The Cherokee raids that year were severe and it is unthinkable that Arthur Campbell would have given away more than half his experienced frontier militia for any reason much less the glory of his hated brother in law.

    The fact is that William Campbell's account is correct - he never left the field, he took the 300 men from Washington, the Chestnut and Upper New River Districts of Montgomery and from Botetourt and went directly to Watauga Shoals. Arthur there brought him what consisted essentially of Colonel Edmonton's command (three companies?). Additionally, Walter Crockett's presence at the battle and stories in the Osborne family (albeit with a preposterous sequence of a long hard ride by a messenger to find Osbourne just returned from the summer campaign and hard at work Cincinatus-like at his plow rather unceremoniously lifted from the pages of Livy) and the Reddick family (Swift company) has traditions apparently of being not only at King's Mountain but following Campbell all the way to Guilford Courthouse. He never wrote a fuller account of what he did because of his untimely death before Yorktown and the only thing he ever did write suggests he was on campaign continuously between the middle of July 1780 and the middle of April 1781.

    Whether some or all of the Swift companies participated in the battle is not stated clearly in historical sources beyond the family stories I have mentioned (More pension information might be instructive) however, Campbell did leave Captain William Neal behind with stragglers. These companies -including the Swift company- were mounted horseback and it may be that Campbell left the men on foot (except the fast ones) so that they could make better time tracking Ferguson. The weak and ill from each company were probably given to Neal and all other companies went forward, else there is no reason to only mention his command as having stayed. It is also unlikely that Campbell sent any men back as being unnecessary for the campaign. Before catching up with Ferguson Campbell sent a message to Preston asking for more men and Preston sent Captain Francis who was killed by Tories in a battle as his unit sought to catch up to Campbell.

    The month after Kings Mountain Swift and other unidentified Montgomery and Botetort men were left on guard duty in the frontier forts in Powell Valley and other western points to defend against raids. Swift was again listed as being subordinate to Campbell in a pension application where the applicant indicated he had fought Tories and Indians under these commanders. (I only have two pension applications so far from this group - I have mentioned both. If you do not have them I could send copies. Do you have some others? It is amazing what information is in them.) Arthur Campbell again in command of the entire Washtington Force left others in Powell Valley while he led William and the others into Tennessee to carry out the destruction of the Cherokee villages that had been planned for summer. That may have lasted into early February.

    Campbell emerges again with a force in late February early March and joins Preston on his March to Guilford Courthouse. Campbell's force was behind the Montgmery units under Preston's direct command and did not engage the enemy at Weltzel's Mill this group, which now included in addition to Botetort Men also Men from Augusta and Rockingham Counties probably present at the request of either Preston or Campbell. This force met and held Colonel Tarleton's dragoons for an hour or so, long after Light Horse Harry Lee's cavalry had retreated (a fact that led Campbell to resign in fury ending at last his militia command. Jefferson and I supose Preston saw that he got a General's commission but I do not know that he ever saw action again) As to whether his Chestnut Creek units were present history so far says nothing outside of the Reddick family story. Flower Swift barely even talked about the war (to judge by the dearth of direct information from any branch of the family - though they were and in many cases remain a taciturn people in regard to family matters) There is an old heirloom that the family always said he wore into war against the British and that his son Thomas in turn did likewise in the war of 1812.

    There has been almost no memory of the Montgomery participation in the war outside of some earlier battles against Tories and Captain Francis' heroic stand - so much so that on New River Notes the comment is made that it is not clear that the Montgmery militia ever saw action. Part of the reason may have been the shame of what happened at Ramsour's Mill. Another part of the reason may have been that many of the people in militia units were part of that group of people headed to the frontier -Montgomery/Grayson was on the main East West Road to the Cumberland Gap - and people moved on so much that except for the Quakers and a few other old families no one has anything to remember from that period (The Swifts were all moved out by 1813 except for a few of the daughters and most of them were gone by 1825). Whatever happened to make the Montgomery situation confused and obscure, Swift was richly rewarded as soon as the threat of combat had ebbed (Osborne and Cox were rewarded as well but less so and later in spite of their clearly longer and very likely more substantial military contributions). Swift was made the Montgomery County magistrate in 1781 for the area around Grayson and Carroll Counties at the unlikely age of 27-28 (Assuming a 1755 birth date. His father Thomas was born 1727 and appears to have married 1752-53. Flower was probably not more than 25-26 when made captain, 30 at the very most). He was also given the coroner's job. When Wythe County was created out of southern Montgomery he was the first justice named and again when Grayson was named (At which time Minitree Jones and Enoch Osborne also became magistrates). He was at all times until he left for Knox County Kentucky (to join the Reddicks to whom he was related through his wife) commander of the Grayson militia and may have been commander of the Wythe militia as well (don't know). The Reddicks reprised the Swift role in Knox county but saw that Swift, whose health was apparently failing, was given a very high rank in the militia leading up to the war of 1812 together with a major's commission for son Thomas in the riflemen and a tax collector's job. There were many people who had far more property or education but for 20 years court records suggest the Swift organization ran Grayson County. The only jobs Swift did not take were legislative jobs that required him to leave the county but his associates took these. Whatever was the source of his good fortune (unless he was just a natural at politics) stemmed from something he did while Preston was the chief political authority of that area, and since Swift's activities were almost entirely military at that point, it was something done together with the militia units and my guess would be it was something in 1780-1781. (Part of the reason that the Swifts left may have been accusations and an acrimonious trial where Sheriff McKenzie was forced to sue Thomas Swift for county funds in Swifts care that disappeared. The case is complex. Thomas had a large number of guarantors with enough money to easily cover the lost funds but somehow Sheriff McKenzie who was primarily liable (meaning guilty or not he had to come up with the funds) was apparently financally ruined. This case appears to have had something to do with an inheritance case that P. Gaines was involved in for about the same amount of money. One suspects that Thomas' performance was part of some factional dispute occurred and it may be the Swifts either lost or were disheartened and elected to move on. About the time the Swifts left a Daniel Bedsaul was sent to jail for 5 years accused of horse theft. He later got out, moved west and died early leaving an orphan Isaac in Indiana)

    I am not writing from home so some dates may be slightly inaccurate. I can provide original sources if you are interested from any of it. At one point I had dated some of the Flower Swift lists more or less and may still have the information. I had worked out that the Swifts, Reddicks, McCoys and Bedsauls were pretty consistently present and I think there was a Samuel Meherin as well. I will read your list again with interest as it appears you have taken things a lot further, particularly with the Quakers.

    I apologize that this was a lot of Swift and not so much the others. The spirit of what I write was that where Swift went, his core associates likely went as well and you appear to have begun to work out the structure of the group of families in his unit.

    Might I ask you if you could let me know what the references to Captain Swift prior to his obtaining a company on Chestnut Creek were. That would be very valuable to me. Also, have you seen the letter to Colonel Crokett? Do you have the Revolutionary War pensions of any of the group? I would love to see any you have.

    Thanks

    Grady E. Loy

    Yokohama Japan


    J. Quinn:

    For another opinion about the participation of Montgomery County in Battles in North Carolina see Jerry Roger's account at "http://rogers-ben.com/bits/rev/battleshallowford.php" Benjamin "The Immigrant" Rogers

    He documents the fact that the Montgomery county militia was asked to join the forces descending upon King's Mountain, but that they did not make it and were diverted to the Battle of Shallow Ford, where one of the Montgomery militia captains, Henry Francis was killed. Jerry's web site also has several pension applications and other documentation showing that many men from today's Wythe county (just to the north of the Swift territory) participated in Whitzell's Mills and the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. Documentation of this sort for the Osborne, Cox and Swift companies is lacking as far as I know except for men who joined Swift's company after 1780.

  • Historical Documents pertaining to the Swift Militia Company

    Historical Documents relating to the Swift Company

    Received by e-mail from Grady Loy with comments by the same...

    Here are the letters by and about Flower Swift during the Revolution. They are from the publication of the Preston Papers in the Virginia Historical Magazine. I do not have the dates and volume (I will see if I can find these through a periodical index and post it later) but the Breckenridge letter was on pp 157-58 and the Flower Swift letters and the Clinch river petition were on pp 32-33. I seem to remember the publication was in the late 1950's or early 1960's and I was researching in spring 1979.

    First is a reference to (Flower) Swift (He was the only Captain Swift in the Militia in the New River area under Preston) by J. Breckenridge to his Uncle Colonel William Preston, Swift's commander. The Mines referred to are doubtless the lead mines. I have preserved the original spelling and punctuation:

    J Breckenridge to Colonel William Preston, Fort Chiswell June 25th 1780

    Dr Uncle:

    Yesterday an Express was Sent you informing you that the Tories were about to rise up New River & that they had killed some persons: the same accounts have since been brought to the Mines & confirmed, so that I believe there is no disputing the certainty of it. Yesterday there was one Husk came to the Mines who Capt Quirk supposed to be a Spie & detained him he informed them of a Body that is gathered up the New River near the Glades; and also that the Chief of His friends are with them & of nine Light horsemen that was killed who attempted to take a parcel of Tories in Carolina.

    There was also a captain of Militia taken by them of the name of Swift who brings the same accounts, adding that there was a good many British officers among them but could not ascertain the number. All these accounts seem to alarm the people very much and are chiefly believed. I make no doubt but some of your neighbors will be very active upon this occasion. I am doubtful there is something astir among them now, as Sam'l Ingram has been up in this Quarter and has just returned.

    The Express who was sent you is a relation of James Bain and I suppose will give them news before he reaches you.

    I am your very affectionate Newphew (sic)

    J. Breckenridge June 25th 1780

    [Addressed] Col'o William Preston

    To the care of Capt. Byon

    [Endorsed] J. Breckenridge to Col. Preston

    J. Breckenridge June 25th 1780


    Richmond July 3, 1780

    Sir

    I have received advice from Colonel Preston of a dangerous Insurrection on New River. He thinks the insurgents will attempt to destroy the Works at the Lead Mines and has called on the Militia of Washington and Botetourt to oppose them. As this is an object requiring more immediate attention than the one which you were lately appointed, I am to desire you will a second time take in hand these ??? and if they have proceeded as we have heard, to actual murder, to take such Effectual Measures of Punishment as may secure the future safety of that Quarter. The Militia of Washington, Montgomery and Botetourt are already called out by Colonel Preston and you will therefore put yourself at their head and apply to this Object the Means and Powers ???? made for the Indian Expedition.

    I am YT Thomas Jefferson


    Here is a letter from Captain Flower Swift to Colonel Preston (Date unknown - Swift did not apparently care for dates but is is included among a series of letters from late Spring of 1783. Hostlities were over but I am not sure word had reached American forces of the Peace Agreement. In any case the real difficulty lay in relations with the Cherokee)

    Capt. FLOWER SWIFT to COL. WM. PRESTON

    Sir--After my best Compty Compliments to you I have to inform you that I should have made a better return to you of these but I was Disappointed by a your man that I ordered to Carrey the money down But I hope your Onner will Excuse me this time I also have to inform you that there Seven names in the Lists that is not liveing in the distrits I also shall give you A exact list of the Dilinkquents you will be pleased to furnish me with warrants agreable to this list and Sind them to Mr. Sams McGaffacks and from there I can get them Ameditely

    Swifts Company--Dr--

    Sir there is Some few names on the lists that is not liveing in this distrits--

    John Lashley 0-1-6
    Munl. Whitmor 0-3-0
    Joseph Walter 0-2-0
    William Sugs 0-2-0
    Nemiah Daniel 0-1-6
    Daid Bohanin 0-4-0
    Mashak Laws 0-1-6
    William Harmon 0-1-6
    William Allen 0-2-6
    Isac Loser 0-1-3
    These are the Delinkquents of the Company--
    William Johns 0-1-6
    Nathan Shelley 0-2-0
    Absolm Burton 0-2-0
    William Morgin 0-2-6
    Morgin morgin 0-2-0
    Samuel Muheren 0-2-6
    Jacob Cock 0-1-3
    Valentine Vanhooser 0-1-3
    Thomas Williams 0-2-0
    Richard Sharkley 1-3-3
    James Johnes 0-1-6
    Joseph Davis 0-2-6
    Isac Edwards 0-2-6
    John Knight 0-1-6
    Sam Cox 0-3-0
    Jeremiah Cloushemer 0-3-0

    Sir--this list of names to the best of my knowledge was not in the distret when I received my orders first--

    These from your Friend and umble Sart--

    Flower Swift, Capt.


    (Another letter from Swift to Preston about the same time or a continuation of the first - it is not clear GEL)

    To Col William Preston

    Also agreable to your orders I appoint James Cock to Collect the quakers distrect and he has colect part of the destrit of every one that willing to pay S(ai)d Cock desire that your Onner would grant him Warrents for the other part of the distrect agreable his list

    Siner

    Thomas Davis 0-3-6
    Thomas Davis 0-1-6
    Thos. Carr 0-2-6
    David Rease 0-3-0
    Calop Rease 0-2-0
    Thos. Pearson 0-1-9
    Samuel Pearson 0-1-6
    Israel Ellet 0-2-0
    Henry Pendrye 0-1-6
    Richard Cox 0-12-6
    William Rankin 0-1-9

    [Address] To Colonel William Preston

    [Endorsement] Capt. Swifts Letter abt Districts


    (Certain of the idiosyncratic spellings of names like "Calop" for Caleb and "Ellet" for "Elliot" suggest to me that Lyman Draper's "Tory list" may have been written in Swift's own hand. Since the Preston papers preserve Swifts original handwriting and no doubt the so-called Tory list is preserved in Draper's materials at Wisconsin it is an experiment which ought to be possible to try)


    From Johnny Long - Reference to the Swift Militia Company's Muster Ground on Cramberry Creek:

    "May 18, 1785: Daniel Carlen, assignee of Patrick Henry, on warrant of 1,000 acres, 1781, enters 50 acres on west side of John Fanning's line; 100 acres on Cramberry Glade beginning at a white oak marked DC and running up and down Cramberry Creek at CAPTAIN SWIFT's muster ground: 50 acres on military warrant, 1780, "the first entry is made by virtue of this military warrant and the second by ye land office treasury warrant. It is a mistake in making the entry, Preson SMC (Surveyor of Montgomery County)."


    After the Battle of King's Mountain General Horatio Gates suggested that the Tory prisoners be taken to Fort Chiswell under Col. William Campbell's command. Colonel Preston responded, "I am sorry to inform you that we have more Tories in the County than any other place I know of in Virginia the suppressing of whom has cost the officers and the well affected militia much time and Trouble and put the state to a considerable expense. Add to this the vicinity of that Place to Surry and the other disaffected Counties in North Carolina as also the savages and the safe retreat that Deserters from the prisoners might have through the mountains to their friends in Carolina."

  • About Lyman Draper's list of Tories and Quakers and the confusion surrounding the Swift Company

    The Flower Swift Militia List Controvery: A list of Tories or a militia roster?

    Lyman Draper (the famous nineteenth century Historian and Collector) thought that the older of the Flower Swift militia rosters was a list of Tories and Quakers, not a militia list. In "Grayson County, a History In Words and Pictures", a very similar list (referred to as the third undated Flower Swift militia list) is given as a militia roster. Elsewhere on New River Notes it is given as Draper saw it -- as a possible list of Tories and Quakers. Draper's assumptions are based on an order from General William Campbell, the local American commander, to construct such a list. That this is a militia list instead is supported by the following:

    1. The overlap between the lists is high with 41 of 64 men accounted for.
    2. Men are marked as unfit for duty on the third undated roster, and it appears to be a militia roster
    3. Flower Swift was known to be a militia captain, his company forming on 8 September 1779 - a few other lists of this militia company exist with him noted as the captain
    4. The persons on the list mostly remained in the New River area after the war and their property was not confiscated.
    5. Known Tories are not on the list. Capt. John Cox and others named many of the Tories active in the area and the names of many more are known.
    6. This appears to be a neighborhood list of persons living in the vicinity of Chestnut Creek (today SE Grayson and western Carroll Co., VA). Most or all of the named Tories lived outside this community.
    7. None of the men on the list are among those mentioned by John Cox as those involved capturing him or by any of the New River men who filed pensions, nor any of the regional history books, nor are any in the gang associated with William Riddle;
    8. Some of the non-Quakers filed for Revolutionary War pensions where they described serious fighting in the major battles and skirmishes in North Carolina and proven enlistment in Regular North Carolina troops starting in 1779. Timothy Spencer, for instance filed a pension claim in Grayson County in 1832, Henry Morgan in Illinois in 1833, Daniel McCoy in 1818 in Kentucky and maybe again in Jackson Co., IN in 1833. Charles Morgan got a Bounty Land Warrant in Grayson County in the 1790s. A William Blevins, in a pension application in Indiana, says he fought with Swift against Tories while guarding the lead mines.
    9. Family tradition in the Ruddick family says that these Quakers also participated in some fighting in North Carolina.
    10. Flower Swift was among the first court magistrates of Grayson County when it was formed in 1793.
    11. There is no tradition of Toryism in any of the families of the men from Swift's unit, other than the Blevins. Quite the contrary. The Blevins were not on Draper's list.
    12. Flower Swift's name is the first name on the list, which is where the Captain's name should be.
    13. See more in Grady Loy's commentary on Flower Swift.

    On the other hand, this does not look even remotely, at first glance, like an effective fighting force. The majority are marked unfit or are probable religious pacifists. Quakers were actively seeking peace with the Indians after the start of the Revolution. It is likely that they did not want to participate in the Indian War. And this is a sentiment likely to be shared by many of their neighbors to the west in Osborne's and Cox's companies. Indians never mounted a major attack on settlers in the upper New River Valley and this is not typical of the experience of the Appalachian frontier. Its true the Osborne and Cox companies did go on the Cherokee campaign, but their officers wrote of a lack of enthusiasm. For after all, Sevier's Watauga settlement in today's Tennessee was on Indian land. And the villages they were destroying were not necessarily those of the hostile Chickamauga, but were mostly of Cherokee who had opted to remain neutral. However the Swift company was perhaps more willing to fight the British. Given their background in the Regulator movement and their participation in the Battle of Alamance, it seems likely that some of them would fight. The cause of the Revolution and of the Regulators in the end was one. In a way the Revolution started at Alamance in 1771.

    The militia muster roll in the Grayson County: A History in Words and Pictures, and Draper's Tory and Quaker list on the New River Notes web site do not match perfectly. There appear to be two slightly different lists, accounting for a change in the make-up of Flower Swift's militia company over time. The Draper list on New River Notes with the Tory label was not made in 1782 as none of the additional Quakers on it are on the 1782 tax list (while almost all the Quakers in the list in the Grayson history book are on the tax list). The so-called "Tory" list may have been taken from the Montgomery county archives by Draper and is now stored at the University of Wisconsin. On it, probably in Draper's hand-writing, are the words "Tory?" over one column and "Quaker?" over the other. There is no date on the list and very little to identify what it is. The other list (#3) I have used is still archived in Christiansburg (the county seat of Montgomery county).

    Examining the non-Quakers who are on the Draper list, but not on list "3" we find that the few whose genealogy can be traced come from Surry Co., NC (Timothy Spencer, Isaac Little, the Winfreys, Quaker Stephen Bond). Some of the other names are SE North Carolina Indian names and that the Croatan/Lumbee Indian genealogies and are not on the internet, although, again families with these names settled in Surry/Stokes Co., NC. Not one of these men appears on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA tax list. My guess is that the Draper list dates from the time of the most intense fighting in the Piedmont about 1780-1781. The men on that list likely brought themselves and their families over the border to escape some of the fighting. Some may have returned to participate when General Campbell called for the Montgomery troops to join him in North Carolinia (see appendix on participation of southwest Virginia in the war), although the Timothy Spencer pension application does not support this view.

    At least four (and maybe more) veterans of the Flower Swift militia applied for pensions (two of which I have not read): Timothy Spencer, Daniel McCoy, "http://www.geocities.com/%7Erewoodham/morganrev.html" Morgan Morgan [list 1] and "http://www.geocities.com/%7Erewoodham/morganrev.html" Henry Morgan (all non-Quakers). In addition, Charles Morgan (non-Quaker, Swift's Co.) received a Bounty Warrant Land for his service in 1790. From the two that I have read so far it appears they left home and fought with North Carolina units or fought with other units before joining Swift's company. Swift's company, as such, appears to have been a home guard. There may be more applications that I do not know about, but most of these were not applied for until the 1830s when most of these men would have passed.

    There are other Flower Swift militia lists (marked 1st and 2nd militia rolls on the New River web site and listed first in Grayson County: A History in Words and Pictures). By finding out when the men in these later rolls obtained property or were taxed, it appears that these lists date from after the Revolution (see later section on dating the lists). The rolls in this study are the Swift militia company rolls that I believe date from the Revolution.

    1. Discussions of the Swift militia can be found on the Swift Genforum.http://www.genforum.com/swift
  • How the different militia musters were ordered and dated in this study

    The Flower Swift militia company: Ordering and dating the lists

    Based on the similarities between the lists (see table 1 below) the oldest list is the Draper list. Next is list "3", then list "1", then list "2". This is reinforced by Table 2, which shows that list 3 is probably closest in time to the 1782 tax list. The Draper list predates that list. List 2 has no new recruits who were on the 1782 Montgomery County personal tax list, reinforcing the view that it is most distant from 1782. There may exist additional militia rosters and additional tax lists that I have not seen. If the exact date that men moved into the area could be learned from deeds or other methods it would help pin down the dates more exactly.

    Table 1. Similarity between the militia musters
    Number of matches
      Draper List 3 List 1 List 2
    Draper X 41 14 10
    List 3 41 X 18 13
    List 1 14 18 X 33
    List 2 10 13 33 X

    Notes:

    1. J. Clonch on 1777 Cox militia
    2. Samuel Cox on 1777 Cox militia
    3. J. Hill on Cox 1782, Cox abt 1783 and Swift #2
    4. C. Morgan on Elk Creek 1782
    5. J. Cook on Elk Creek 1782 and 9/6/1782
    6. Harmon Cox on 1777 Capt. John Cox muster
    7. Sgt. John Hill (list 2) on Capt. John Cox 1782
    8. The company totals were 64 men on the Draper list, 68 men on list 3, 57 men on list 1 and 48 men on list 2.
    9. Most of the non-Quakers that are on Draper's list, but not list 3 are very difficult to find genealogies for. I suspect that most of them are from Surry/Stokes Co., NC. Not one of them is on the Montgomery Co. 1782 tax list. The men on list 3 seem to have mostly survived the war.
    10. Very few of the men who are on List 1 and List 2, but not on list are on the 1782 personal tax list or the 1793 list. Those that I could find seem to have little property and are probably young men.
    Table 2. Percent of muster members on the personal tax lists
      % of all on the muster % of new recruits
      1782 1793 1782 1793
    Draper's list 50 30    
    List 3 62 28 61 22
    List 1 37 32 22 24
    List 2 35 29 0 25
    1. 1782 Montgomery County, Virginia Personal Property Tax List
    2. 1793 Wythe County, Virginia Personal Property Tax List

    Rosters are found HERE.

  • The New River in the Revolutionary War

  • Historical documents relating to Southwest Virginia in the Revolution

    Selected Documents: Southwest Virginia in the Revolution

    With explanatory comments by Grady Loy

    In a letter to Col. Arthur Campbell in July of 1780 following a local Tory uprising, Col. William Campbell wrote: "I then detached between sixty and seventy men under the command of Captain Francis" [killed in October at Shallow Ford. This letter refers almost certainly to the earlier expedition in 1780 when young James Cox was captured], with instructions to collect all the stocks of horses and cattle belonging to the insurgents they possibly could, only leaving to each family one horse creature and what milch cattle were necessary for its support."


    No 55

    To Colonel Campbell Commanding the Volunteer Riflemen from Virginia at the Moravian Settlements, Hillsborough 2 September 1780. I have just received information from General Smallwood that you are arrived with a Detachment of 400 Militia, at the Moravian Settlements in Surry County.

    upon Receits of this Letter, I must request you to march with your Command to the Post occupied by General Smallwood, upon the East Side of the Yadkin near the Ford where you will soon be joined by very considerable Reinforcements, General Sumner marches tommorow with 1400 men from Ramfay's Mills on Deep River, and will be at Salisbury in a few Days. Upon your arival at the Yadkin you will detach patrols of Horse to gain Intelligence and observe the Motions of the Enemy, which upon every occasion you will report to me. When you leave the Moravians, I desire you will take as much Flour as you can obtain Waggons to carry. assure them that your Receits shall paid ????? with the Depreciation allowed to them. I am H

    HG (Horatio Gates)


    Extract of a letter from his Excellency Thomas Jefferson, Governor of Virginia, dated

    Richmond, Feb. 17, 1781.

    Your proposition to the Cherokee Chiefs to visit Congress, for the purpose of preventing or delaying a rupture with that nation, was too late. The storm had gathered to a head when Major Martin got back. It was determined therefore to carry the war into their country, rather than wait it in ours; and I have it in my power to inform you that, thus disagreeably circumstanced, the issue has been successful. I inclose the particulars as reported to me.

    Colonel Campbell's report of the expedition against the Cherokees, dated Washington County,

    Jan. 15, 1781.

    SIR,

    THE << militia>> of this and the two Western North-Carolina Counties have been fortunate enough to frustrate the designs of the Cherokees. On my reaching the frontier, I found the Indians meant to annoy us by small parties, and carry off horses. To resist them effectually, the apparently best measure was to transfer the war without delay into their own borders. To raise a force sufficient, and provide them with provisions and other necessaries, seemed to be a work of time that would be accompanied with uncommon difficulties, especially in the winter season. Our situation was critical, and nothing but an extraordinary effort could save us and disappoint the views of the enemy. All the miseries of 1776 came fresh in remembrance, and to avoid a like scene men flew to their arms, and went to the field. The Wattago men, under Lieut. Col. Seveir, first marched, to the amount of about 300; the << militia>> of this, with that of Sullivan, made 400 more. The place of rendezvous was to be on this side the French river. Col. Seveir with his men got on the path before the others, and by means of some discoveries made by his scouts, he was induced to cross the river, in pursuit of a party of Indians that were coming towards our settlements. On the 16th of December he fell in with the party, since found to consist of 70 Indians, mostly from the town of Chote, killed 13 and took all their baggage, &c. in which were some of Clinton's proclamations, and other documents expressive of their hostile designs against us.

    After this action the Wattago corps thought proper to retreat to an island in the river. The 22d I crossed the French river, and found the Wattago men in great want of provisions. We gave them a supply from our small stock, and the next day made a forced march towards the Tenasse. The success of the enterprize seemed to rest on our safely reaching the further bank of that river, as we had information that the Indians had obstructed the common fording places, and had a force ready there to oppose our crossing. The morning of the 24th I made a feint towards the Island town, and with the main body passed the river at Timothee. We were now discovered; the Indians we saw seemed to be flying in consternation. Here I divided my force, sending a part to attack the towns below, and with the other I proceeded towards their principal town Chote. Just as I passed a defile above Toque, I observed the Indians in force stretching along the hills below Chote, with an apparent design to attack our van, then within their view; but the main body too soon came in sight for me to succeed in decoying them off the hills, so they quietly let us pass on in order, without firing a gun, except a few scattering shot at our rear at a great distance from the cliffs. We soon were in possession of their beloved town, in which we found a welcome supply of provisions. The 25th Major Martin went with a detachment to discover the route the enemy were flying off by. He surprised a party of Indians, took one scalp, and 17 horses loaded with cloathing, skins and houshold furniture. He discovered that most of the fugitives were making towards Telico and the Hiwassee. The same day Captain Crabtree, of the Virginia regiment, was detached with 60 men to burn the town of Chilhowee. He succeeded in setting fire to that part of it which is situated on the south side of the river: Although he was attacked by a superior force, he made good his retreat.

    The 26th, Major Tipton, of the Carolina corps, was detached with 150 mounted infantry, with orders to cross the river, dislodge the enemy on that side, and destroy the town of Telassee. At the same time Major Gilbert Christian, with 150 foot, were to patrole the hills on the south side of Chilhowee, and burn the remaining part of that town. This party did their duty well, killed three Indians and took nine prisoners. The officer of the horse, by an unmilitary behaviour, failed in crossing the river. This trip took two days. In the mean time the famous Indian woman Nancy Ward came to camp. She gave us various intelligence, and made an overture in behalf of some of the Chiefs for peace; to which I then evaded giving an explicit answer, as I wished first to visit the vindictive part of the nation, mostly settled at Hiwassee and Chistowee, and to distress the whole as much as possible by destroying their habitations and provisions. The 28th we set fire to Chote, Sietego and Little Tuskeego, and moved our whole force to a town on Telico river, called Kai-a-tee, where I intended a post, to secure a retreat and to lay up provisions in. This evening Major Martin, on returning from a patrole, attacked a party of Indians, killed two, and drove several into the river. The same evening, in another skirmish, we lost Capt. James Elliot, a gallant young officer, being the first and only man the enemy had power to hurt on the expedition; the Indians lost three men on the occasion.

    The 29th I set out for Hiwassee, distant about 40 miles, leaving at Kai-a-tee, under Major Christian, a garrison of 150 men. The 30th we arrived at the Hiwassee, and found the town of the same name abandoned. In patroling the environs we took a sensible young warrior, who informed us that a body of Indians, with McDonald, the British Agent, and some tories, were at Christowee, 12 miles distant, waiting to receive us. I had reason to believe the enemy had viewed us from the hills above Hiawassee; for which reason I ordered our camp to be laid off fires kindled, and other shews made, as if we intended to stay all night. At dark we set out with about 300 men (the Wattago men refusing to go further) crossed the river at an unexpected ford, and that night got near the town. Early in the morning of the 31st, we found that the enemy had fled in haste the evening before, leaving behind them, as they had done at the other towns, almost all their corn and other provisions, together with many of their utensils for agriculture, and all their heavy houshold furniture, with part of their stocks of horses, cattle and hogs. These towns I expected would have been contended for with obstinacy, as most of the Chickamogga people had removed hither after their visitation in 1779. Our troops becoming impatient, and no other object of importance being in view, it was resolved to return homewards. Major Martin, with a detachment, was ordered to pass by Sattoga, and the other towns on Telico river. In his route he took four prisoners, from whom he learnt that several of the Chiefs had met a few days before, to consult on means of procuring peace. As I found the enemy were humbled, I took the liberty to send the Chiefs a message, of which I send your Excellency a copy.

    Our whole loss on this expedition was, one man killed by the Indians, and two wounded by accident. It would have been very pleasing to the troops to have met with the whole force of the nation at once on equal ground, but so great was the panic that seized them after seeing us in order over the Tenassee, that they never ventured themselves in sight of the army but on rocky cliffs, or other ground inaccessible to our mounted infantry. By the return of the officers of different detachments, we killed 29 men, and took 17

    prisoners, mostly women and children; the number of wounded is uncertain. Besides these we brought in the family of Nancy Ward, whom for their good offices we do not consider as prisoners. The whole are in Major Martin's care at the Great Island, until the sense of government is known how they are to be disposed of. We have destroyed the towns of Chote, Seitego, Tuskeego, Chilhowee, Toque, Mieliqua, Kai-a-tee, Sattoga, Telico, Hiwassee and Chistowee, all principal towns, besides some small ones, and several scattering settlements, in which were upwards of 1000 houses, and not less than 50,000 bushels of corn, and large quantities of other kinds of provisions, all of which, after taking sufficient subsistance for the army whilst in the country and on its return, were committed to the flames, or otherwise destroyed. No place in the Over-Hill country remained unvisited, except the small town of Telassee, a scattering settlement in the neighbourhood of Chickamogga, and the town of Calogee, situated on the sources of the Mobile. We found in Okanastota's baggage, which he left behind in his fright, various manuscripts, copies of treaties, commissions, letters, and other archives of the nation, some of which shew the double game that people have been carrying on during the present war. There seemed to be not a man of honour among the Chiefs, except him of Kai-a-tee, whom I would willingly have discriminated, had it been in my power. Never did a people so happily situated act more foolishly, in losing their livings and their country at a time an advantageous neutrality was held out to them; but such are the consequences of British seduction. The enemy in my absence did some mischief in Powell's Valley and on the Kentucky path, near Cumberland Gap, besides three children that they scalped on Holstein; one of the perpetrators of which we killed on our return, and retook a number of horses. The Botetourt and Montgomery << militia>> were too slow in their movements to do any service.

    Your Excellency will please to excuse the length of this narration. I thought it my duty to give a circumstantial detail of facts, as the undertaking had something singular in it, and may lead to important consequences.

    I am, Sir, Your most obedient and very humble Servant,

    ARTHUR CAMPBELL.


    Thomas Jefferson, Esq;

    Message to the Indian Chiefs.

    Chiefs and Warriors,

    We came into your country to fight your young men; we have killed not a few of them, and destroyed your towns. You know you began the war, by listening to the bad councils of the King of England, and the falshoods told you by his agents. We are now satisfied with what is done, as it may convince your nation that we can distress them much at any time they are so foolish as to engage in a war against us.

    If your desire peace, as we have understood you do, we, out of pity to your women and children, are disposed to treat with you on that subject, and take you into friendship once more. We therefore send this by one of your young men, who is our prisoner, to tell you if you are also disposed to make peace, six of your Head men must come to our Agent Major Martin, at the Great-Island, within two moons. They will have a safe passport, if they will notify their approach by a runner with a flag, so as to give him time to meet them with a guard on Halstein river, at the boundary line. The wives and children of those men of your nation that protested against the war, if they are willing to take refuge at the Great-Island until peace is restored, we will give them a supply of provisions to keep them alive.

    Warriors listen attentively,

    If we receive no answer to this message until the time already mentioned expires, we shall then conclude you intend to continue to be our enemies, which will compel us to send another strong force into your country, who will come prepared to stay a long time, and take possession thereof as conquered by us, without making any restitution to you for your lands.

    Signed at Kat-a-tee the fourth day of January, 1781, by

    ARTHUR CAMPBELL,

    Col. JOHN SEVEIR,

    Lieut. Col. JOSEPH MARTIN, Agent and

    Major of the << Militia>> .

    Published by Order of Congress,

    C. THOMSON, Secretary.


    Deposition to Thomas Jefferson June 1780

    I hereby certify that when I was ordered by my Executive last summer to take Command of an expedition against the Cherokee Indians, it was left to my own Choice whether to take the Troops down the Tenasee by water or on horseback if the Men had gone on horseback, they were to be paid for such horses as might be lost without default of the owners. That expedition not being carried on, I was directed by his Excellency the Governor, to take command of the Militias ordedred to Suppress the Tories who were at that time rising in Arms and to apply to that purpose the same Means and Powers which I was invested with for Carrying on the Cherokee Expedition, under which Directions I march'd a number of Mounted Militia to Kings Mountain in South Carolina.

    William Campbell Colonel


    Letter from William Preston, July 18, 1779, Regarding Capture of Captains Cox, Osborne and Henderson

  • Biography of Col. William Campbell, overall commander of Montgomery Co., Virginia

    Biography of Col. William Campbell

    The following is from a biography of General Campbell printed in the middle of the nineteenth century. Note that it was given to me without a citation, so I am unsure of the author or the title...

    [Starting on p. 385 at William Campbell II.tx]

    of the danger"--hence "that William Campbell, Walter Crockett, and other liege subjects of the Commonwealth, aided by detachments of the militia and volunteers from the County of Washington and other parts of the frontiers, did by timely and effectual exertion, suppress and defeat such conspiracy," and they were declared fully exonerated and indemnified for the act.(*)

    In April, 1780, Colonel Campbell was promoted to the full rank of Colonel, in place of Evan Shelby, Sr., whose residence, it was now determined, was in North Carolina. He served a term in the House of Delegates from early in May, until the twentieth of June, when he obtained leave of absence for the remainder of the session, to engage in an expedition against the Chickamauga towns, Governor Jefferson and his council authorizing him to embody two hundred and fifty militia from Washington and Montgomery counties, and unite with a conjunctive force from the Carolinas.(+)

    But soon after his return home, he found a dangerous enemy in the midst of the white settlements. Two hundred Tories of the New river region, within what is now Grayson County, Virginia, and Ashe County, North Carolina, had risen in arms, with some British officers aiding them, with a view of seizing the Lead Mines, near the present Wytheville; when Colonel Campbell, by order of Colonel Preston, took the field in August at the head of one hundred and forty or fifty men, and scoured that wild, mountainous country; and at a place known as the Big Glades, or Round Meadows, approaching a large party of Tories, the latter under cover of a thick fog, fled, dispersing in every direction, and hiding themselves in the mountains, losing only one of their number in their flight. Colonel Cleveland on a similar service, had captured Zachariah Goss, one of Plundering Sam Brown's gang of murderers, horse-thieves, and robbers, who was tried and immediately hung at Peach Bottom, on New River, in the presence of Cleveland's and Campbell's parties; while two other villains were very well whipped.

    (*)Statement of Colonel Samuel Newell?? December 9. 1833, in The Land We Love, May, 1867; MS. Correspondence of Governor D. Campbell and John B. Dysart; conversations with Colonel Patrick H. Fontaine, a grandson of Patrick Henry, and General Thomas Love; Henning's Statutes of Virginia, x, 195. In Atkinson's Casket, for September, 1833, is an interesting story founded on the hanging of Hopkins, having, however, but little resemblance to the real facts in the case.

    (+)Journal of House of Delegates, 1780; Gibbes' Doc. History, 1776-82, p. 135.

    Colonel Campbell then marched to the old Moravian town of Bethabara, in North Carolina, where he made head-quarters for some time, sending out detachments in quest of Tory bands--one penetrating into Guilford County, surprised and dispersed two companies of Tories at night, and captured Captain Nathan Read, one of their leaders, and seventeen others--Captain Eli Branson, another of their leaders, narrowly escaping. Read was tried, Colonels Cleveland and Martin Armstrong, and Major Lewis sitting upon the court-martial, was found guilty of crimes and misdemeanors, and condemned to be hung--with the alternative presented him of joining the patriots, and serving faithfully to the end of the war, which he declined, meeting his death heroically. Another party of Tories was dispersed above the Shallow Ford of Yadkin.(*) [(*) Colonel William Campbell's MSS.; statement of John Spelts, who was out in this service; MS. Pension statements of Colonel Robert Love and James Keys, of Campbell's men; Gibbes' Doc. History, 1776-82, p. 137.]

    Returning from this expedition, Colonel Campbell led four hundred brave riflemen from Washington County across the Alleghanies to meet Ferguson's Rangers and the united Tories of the Carolinas. Their utter discomfiture has been fully related; and too much praise cannot well be accorded to "the hero of King's Mountain" for his gallant bearing during the campaign generally, and especially for his heroic conduct in the battle. It is a matter of regret, that such patriots as Shelby and Sevier should have been deceived into the belief that the chivalric Campbell shirked from the dangers of the conflict, mistaking, as they did, the Colonel's servant in the distance for the Colonel himself; when well-nigh forty survivors of the battle, including some of Campbell's worthiest officers, and men of Shelby's, Sevier's, and Cleveland's regiments as well, testifying, of their own knowledge, to his personal share in the action, and specifying his presence in every part of the hotly-contested engagement, from the beginning to the final surrender of the enemy at discretion. It is evident that such heroes as Shelby and Sevier had quite enough to do within the range of their own regiments, without being able to observe very much what was transpiring beyond them. And what Shelby honestly supposed was a vague confession by Campbell of unaccountable conduct on his part in the latter part of the action, simply referred to his too precipitate order to fire on the unresisting Tories when Colonel Williams had been shot down after the close of the contest. But in such a victory, without unjustly detracting from Campbell's great merits and rich deservings, there is both honor and fame enough for all his worthy compatriots also.(*)[ (*) Both Colonel William Martin and Elijah Callaway, who were intimately acquainted with Colonel Cleveland, state that he frequently spoke of Campbell's good deportment in the battle; Major Lewis, of Cleveland's regiment, declared that, had it not been for Campbell and his Virginians. Ferguson would have remained master of King's Mountain; and General Lenoir, also of Cleveland's men, testified to Campbell's gallant conduct in the action. ] It may be proper to note, that the sword that Colonel Campbell wielded at King's Mountain, and subsequently at Guilford--his trusty Andrea di Ferrara--more than a century old, was used by his Caledonian ancestors in the wars of the Pretenders, and is yet preserved by his Preston descendants.(+)[ (+) Colonel Arthur Campbell's Memoir; Campbell's History of Virginia, 1860, p. 700. ]

    Colonel Campbell would have been more or less than mortal, had he not felt a sense of satisfaction for the high praises showered upon him and his associates for the decisive triumph achieved at King's Mountain--emanating from Gates, Washington, the Legislature of Virginia, and the Continental Congress. The latter august body voted, that it entertained "a high sense of the spirited and military conduct of Colonel Campbell" and his associates; while the Virginia House of Delegates voted its "thanks to Colonel Campbell," his officers and soldiers, for their patriotic conduct in repairing to the aid of a distressed sister State, and after "a severe and bloody conflict," had achieved a decisive victory; and that "a good horse, with elegant furniture, and a sword, be purchased at the public expense, and presented to Colonel William Campbell as a further testimony of the high sense the General Assembly entertain of his late important services to his country." To these high compliments of the Legislature, Colonel Campbell returned the following modest acknowledgment:

    "Gentlemen--I am infinitely happy in receiving this public testimony of the approbation of my country for my late services in South Carolina. It is a reward far above my expectations, and I esteem it the noblest a soldier can receive from a virtuous people. Through you, gentlemen, I wish to communicate the high sense I have of it to the House of Delegates. I owe, under Providence, much to the brave officers and soldiers who served with me; and I shall take the earliest opportunity of transmitting the resolve of your House to them, who, I am persuaded, will experience all the honest heart-felt satisfaction I myself feel on this occasion."(*) "" [Journals of Congress, 1780, 367; Journal of the Virginia House of Delegates, 1780, Fall session, pp. 13, 18. The Virginia Legislature subsequently called a County after him, to perpetuate his name and memory]

    Now hurrying to his frontier home on the Holston, he found that the restless Cherokees had again been at their bloody work, and Colonel Arthur Campbell had in December, 1780, aided by Colonel Sevier and Major Martin, led forth a strong force for their chastisement. Colonel William Campbell at once raised additional troops, and marched as far as the Long Island of Holston,(+)[ (+) MS. correspondence of Colonel William Martin, one of William Campbell's men, and of Governor D. Campbell; Haywood's Tennessee, 98.] to succor his kinsman if need be; but it was not necessary, for the Cherokees were pursued in detached parties by their invaders, many of their warriors were killed, and their settlements desolated.

    On the thirtieth of January, 1781, General Greene wrote to "the famous Colonel William Campbell," reminding him of the glory he had already acquired, and urging him "to bring, without loss of time, a thousand good volunteers from over the mountains." Notwithstanding the Cherokees were still troublesome, and threatening the frontiers, the noted Logan, with a northern band, was committing depredations on Clinch, while others were doing mischief in Powell's Valley, yet Colonel Campbell raised over a hundred of his gallant riflemen, and moved forward on February twenty-fifth,[Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 548, 555. ] others joining him on the way, until he brought General Greene, about the second of March, a re-enforcement of over four hundred mountaineers (Calendar of Virginia State Papers, 542; Johnson's Greene, i, 438.). Lord Cornwallis had imbibed a personal resentment towards Colonel Campbell, as the commander at King's Mountain, threatening that should he fall into his hands, he would have him instantly put to death for his rigor against the Tories--evidently designing to hold him personally responsible for the execution of the Tory leaders at Bickerstaff's. This, instead of intimidating, had the contrary effect; and Campbell, in turn, resolved, if the fortunes of war should place Cornwallis in his power, he should meet the fate of Ferguson.[ Colonel Arthur Campbell's memoir of General William Campbell. ]

    Could anything have served to give additional spirit to Colonel Campbell, and nerve him to almost superhuman exertions, it was just such a dastardly threat as that uttered by Lord Cornwallis. Campbell and his men were soon called into action. Taking advantage of a thick fog, Lord Cornwallis sent forward a strong force to beat up the quarters of Greene's advance parties--or, as Greene supposed, either to intercept his stores, or cut off the Light Infantry, including the riflemen, from the main body. These advance columns met at Whitzell's Mills, on Reedy creek, some seven miles from Greene's camp, where Colonel Otho H. Williams, with Campbell's and Preston's riflemen, and Washington's and Lee's corps, formed on the southern bank of the stream, in front of the ford, and some two hundred yards below the mill. The main object was to protect the mill as long as possible, and enable Greene's provision wagons to load with flour and meal, and get off with the needed supply, which they barely effected. As the British, with their short Yager riflemen in front, approached, they fired in the distance; and when within eighty yards, descending towards the creek, the American riflemen opened on them with deadly effect, one of the officers of the enemy, when shot, bounding up several feet, fell dead; a second discharge on the advancing foe, when only some forty-five yards off, was also very destructive. The enemy had opened their field pieces, but, like the fire of their small arms, was too high, and only took effect among the limbs of the trees. As the atmosphere was heavy, the powder smoke obstructed the enemy's view; while the Americans, below them, had a better opportunity. The fighting was chiefly done by the riflemen, and Lee's Legion, while covered by the regulars; and "Colonel Campbell," says John Craig, one of his riflemen, "acted with his usual courage."

    Having accomplished the object they had in view--the security of the flour and meal,--the Americans retired over the ford, which was some three feet deep, with a rapid current, over a slippery, rocky bottom, with a steep brushy bank on the northern shore to ascend. While effecting this passage, the gallant Major Joseph Cloyd, of Preston's riflemen, observed his old commander on foot, who had been unhorsed in the conflict, and dismounting, aided Colonel Preston, who was now advanced in years and quite fleshy, into the saddle, when both escaped.(MS. notes of conversations with Thomas Hickman, of Davidson County, Tennessee, said General Greene) The enemy were handsomely opposed, and suffered considerably.

    After no little manoeuvring, the battle of Guilford took place on the fifteenth of March. It was brought on by a sharp action, in the morning, by the advance, consisting of Lee's Legion, and a portion of Campbell's riflemen--in which Lee was supposed to have inflicted a loss of fifty on the part of Tarleton; while the Light Infantry of the Guards were so hard pressed by the riflemen, losing a hundred of their number, that a portion of Tarleton's cavalry went to their relief. In the main battle that soon followed, Lee's Legion and Campbell's riflemen formed the corps of observation on the left flank--the riflemen occupying a woodland position. During the obstinate contest, Campbell's corps fought with the heroic bravery characteristic of their noble leader, and of their own unrivalled reputation. When the enemy charged the Maryland Line, Campbell with his riflemen made a spirited attack on the regiment of Boze, on the British right wing, and drove it back; and when the riflemen, in turn, were charged with the bayonet, having none to repel them, they were obliged for the moment to retire, still loading and firing, however, on their pursuers, and thus, whether charging or retiring, kept up a destructive fire on these veteran German subsidiaries. So severely did Campbell's riflemen handle his right wing, that Lord Cornwallis was obliged to order Tarleton to extricate it, and bring it off. By this time Lee had retired with his cavalry, without apprising Campbell of his movement; and the result was, that the riflemen were swept from the field and Major Herndon Haralson, of Brownsville, Tennessee, in 1844, and Benjamin Starritt, all participants in the action; Tarleton's Campaigns, 135; Stedman, ii, 336; Lee's Memoirs, revised ed., 265-67; Greene, in Letter to Washington, iii, 260; Johnson's Greene, i, 462-63; Greene's Greene, iii, 188.[ MS. Notes of conversations with Benjamin Starritt, of Lee's Legion; Tarleton's Campaigns, 270-71, 275-76; Stedman, with MS marginal notes by Captain J. R. Whitford, ii, 337, 343; Lee's Memoirs, new ed., 276-83; Johnson Greene, ii, 6; Lossing's Field Book, ii, 402, 403; Bancroft, x, 476-79; Dawson's Battles, ii, 665-67, MS. Letter of Hon. W. C. Preston, to the author, July 10th, 1840.]

    Lee commended Colonel Campbell for the bravery displayed in the action by his battalion; and Greene assured him, that his "faithful services" claimed his General's warmest thanks, and his "entire approbation of his conduct"--adding: "Sensible of your merit, I feel a pleasure in doing justice to it." Displeased with the treatment shown to himself and riflemen--who were the first in the engagement, and the last in the field--Campbell retired in disgust from the service. At his home on the Holston, he announced himself, on the thirty-first of March, as a candidate for the House of Delegates, saying: "The resignation of my military commission, which I could not longer hold with honor, after the treatment I have received, puts it out of my power to serve my country as an officer."( MS. Letter of Colonel Campbell to Colonel Daniel Smith, on Clinch.) Campbell and his, men felt deeply aggrieved--feeling that Lee had abandoned them without notice, and left them to maintain the unequal contest unprotected by cavalry, when Tarleton directed his dragoons against them.

    "You have no doubt observed," wrote General William R. Davie, "that Campbell's regiment of riflemen acted with Lee on the left flank of the army. After the main body of the army had been pushed off the field, these troops remained engaged with the Yagers of the regiment of Boze, near the Court House, some of them covered by houses, others by a skirt of thick wood. In this situation, they were charged by the British cavalry, and some of them were cut down. Lee's cavalry were drawn up on the edge of the open ground, above the Court House, about two hundred yards off, and, as Colonel Campbell asserted, moved as this charge was made on his riflemen. On the day after the action, Campbell was extremely indignant at this movement, and spoke freely of Lee's conduct. Lee was, however, sent off the same day, to watch the enemy's movements, and Campbell's regiment were soon discharged."( Johnson's Greene, ii, 16-17, 20) Lee's abandonment of Campbell's riflemen," said the late William C. Preston, "at twilight, and without giving notice of his withdrawal, was long regarded by the survivors with the most bitter feelings, which were subsequently revived by the manner in which he sunk their services and sufferings in his published account of the battle."( MS. letter of Gov. David Campbell to the author, Dec. 12, 1840) This, at least, is expressive of the sentiments of Campbell and his men; and, at this late day, it is difficult to determine whether Lee was excusable, or culpable, for the course he pursued. But well-merited compliments and soothing words, on the part of General Greene, did not change Colonel Campbell's determination to withdraw from the service. He accordingly left camp on the morning of the twentieth; and returning home resigned his commission in the militia.


    There was something akin to rivalry between Colonel Arthur Campbell and his brother-in-law, William Campbell, whose sister Margaret he had married. She was a woman of excellent mind, and of uncommon beauty and sprightliness; and withal she possessed no little ambition, which she endeavored to turn to good account in her.husband's behalf. This young wife encouraged him in all his plans by which he might acquire distinction as a public man. Her whole mind seemed completely absorbed in this one great object of her life, to which every other must bend; no privation, however great, annoyed her in the smallest degree, if she believed it would contribute to the acquirement of either military or civil reputation for her husband. Her extreme solicitude and promptings to push him up the ladder of fame, caused him sometimes to make false steps, and involved him in unnecessary altercations with his brother-in-law and others. Except these ambitious efforts, and they were always promoted in a manner to gratify her husband, she was among the most exemplary of women, never having a thought in opposition to his upon any subject, and believing him to be the greatest man in the country, not excepting her brother, of whose abilities she entertained a very exalted opinion. ( MS. Notes of conversations with Benjamin Starritt, of Lee's Legion; Tarleton's Campaigns, 270-71, 275-76; Stedman, with MS marginal notes by Captain J. R. Whitford, ii, 337, 343; Lee's Memoirs, new ed., 276-83; Johnson Greene, ii, 6; Lossing's Field Book, ii, 402, 403; Bancroft, x, 476-79; Dawson's Battles, ii, 665-67, MS. Letter of Hon. W. C. Preston, to the author, July 10th, 1840.

    (Page 393)

    Colonel Arthur Campbell was some three years the senior of William Campbell; this fact, and his having been in youth a prisoner with the Indians, had given him the precedence in martial affairs. His military talents, however, were not of the first order, while William Campbell thought that the experience he had gained on the Point Pleasant campaign, and during his year's service in the Williamsburg region, in 1775-76, fairly entitled him to lead his brother-in-law, who would not acquiesce in this view, and jealousies were the consequence, and sometimes open ruptures. There appears to have been a sort of quasi understanding between them, that they should take turns in commanding the Washington force on military expeditions against the enemy. While Colonel William Campbell led the troops against the Tories up New river, the men composing the command were only in part from Washington County; and, hence he was permitted to go on the King's Mountain campaign, heartily seconded in his efforts by Colonel Arthur Campbell. The latter led the expedition in December following against the Cherokees; and when, shortly after, William Campbell received the urgent invitation from General Greene to join him with a band of riflemen, Colonel Arthur Campbell interposed objections, nominally on the ground of danger from the Indians, but probably prompted in fact somewhat by his jealousy of his brother-in-law's growing fame as a leader in expeditions against the enemy.

    General Campbell had a very imposing personal appearance--the beau ideal of a military chieftain with those who served under him, He was about six feet, two inches high, possessing a large, muscular, well-proportioned frame--rather raw-boned; with an iron constitution, capable of almost incredible endurance--and he was as straight as an Indian. His complexion was ruddy, with light colored or reddish hair, and bright blue eyes. His countenance presented a serious--nay, stern appearance; and when not excited expressive of great benevolence; but when his ire was stirred, he exhibited the fury of an Achilles. On such occasions he would commit violent and indiscreet acts; he was, however, easily calmed, particularly when approached by those in whom he reposed confidence--to such he would yield his opinions without the slightest opposition. In conversation he was reserved and thoughtful; in his written communications, expressive and elegant. He was bland in his manners, and courteous to all with whom he had intercourse, whether high or low, rich or poor. At preaching in the country, it was his constant custom to look around after sermon was ended, and assist all the women of the neighborhood, especially the more aged, who were not attended, on their horses.

    Of Scottish descent, he inherited the principles and predilections of his persecuted Presbyterian ancestors of that northern land. His religious zeal--certainly in theory--and his devotion to liberty, were alike deep, fervent, and exclusive. In his domestic and social relations, he was the most amiable of men. He would send his servants to aid a poor neighbor, while he would himself plow through the heat of the day in his fields, giving his spare moments to his Bible and his God, endeavoring scrupulously to live up to the golden rule in all his dealings with his fellow men. But he set his face like a flint against the enemies of his country and of freedom, proving himself almost as inflexible as a Claverhouse or a Cumberland toward those who betrayed or deserted the holy cause for which he contended, and for which he died and Major Herndon Haralson, of Brownsville, Tennessee, in 1844, and Benjamin Starritt, all participants in the action; Tarleton's Campaigns, 135; Stedman, ii, 336; Lee's Memoirs, revised ed., 265-67; Greene, in Letter to Washington, iii, 260; Johnson's Greene, i, 462-63; Greene's Greene, iii, 188.

    Lee commended Colonel Campbell for the bravery displayed in the action by his battalion; and Greene assured him, that his "faithful services" claimed his General's warmest thanks, and his "entire approbation of his conduct"--adding: "Sensible of your merit, I feel a pleasure in doing justice to it." Displeased with the treatment shown to himself and riflemen--who were the first in the engagement, and the last in the field--Campbell retired in disgust from the service. At his home on the Holston, he announced himself, on the thirty-first of March, as a candidate for the House of Delegates, saying: "The resignation of my military commission, which I could not longer hold with honor, after the treatment I have received, puts it out of my power to serve my country as an officer."(*) Campbell and his, men felt deeply aggrieved--feeling that Lee had abandoned them without notice, and left them to maintain the unequal contest unprotected by cavalry, when Tarleton directed his dragoons against them.

    (*)MS. Letter of Colonel Campbell to Colonel Daniel Smith, on Clinch.

    "You have no doubt observed," wrote General William R. Davie, "that Campbell's regiment of riflemen acted with Lee on the left flank of the army. After the main body of the army had been pushed off the field, these troops remained engaged with the Yagers of the regiment of Boze, near the Court House, some of them covered by houses, others by a skirt of thick wood. In this situation, they were charged by the British cavalry, and some of them were cut down. Lee's cavalry were drawn up on the edge of the open ground, above the Court House, about two hundred yards off, and, as Colonel Campbell asserted, moved as this charge was made on his riflemen. On the day after the action, Campbell was extremely indignant at this movement, and spoke freely of Lee's conduct. Lee was, however, sent off the same day, to watch the enemy's movements, and Campbell's regiment were soon discharged."(+)

    (+)Johnson's Greene, ii, 16-17, 20.

    But it was as a military genius that he shone pre-eminent. He had the ability to form able plans--confidence in himself, and indefatigable perseverance to execute them; and the rare capacity to inspire all under his command with his own confidence and indomitable courage. Had he acted on as conspicuous a stage as Warren or Montgomery, his name and fame would have been as illustrious as theirs. With inferior numbers of undisciplined volunteers, embodied with great celerity, led forth, with scanty supplies, nearly two hundred miles over rugged mountains, he totally defeated Ferguson, one of the most experienced and enterprising of the British partisan leaders--gaining, as he expressed it, "victory to a wish." At Guilford he fully sustained his high reputation, and had the North Carolina militia behaved with the firmness and courage equal to his riflemen, the army of Cornwallis would not have been crippled only, but would, in all probability, have met with irretrievable disaster.

    General Campbell never balanced between military duty and prudential maxims. Himself a hater of vice and treason in every form, he was by some deemed too severe in punishing the deviations of others--yet his acts, in his own estimation, were the result of the purest patriotic impulses. Wherever the story of King's Mountain and Guilford is read, and the services of their heroes fully appreciated, it will be found that William Campbell has "purpled o'er his name with deathless glory."

    Of such of General Campbell's officers as served with him at King's Mountain, and concerning whom facts have been obtained, brief notices will be made. Major William Edmondson--or Edmiston, as frequently written in early days--the second in command of the Virginia regiment in the battle, was descended from Irish ancestry, and born in Cecil County, Maryland, in 1734. While he was yet young, his father removed to what is now Rockbridge County, Virginia, where he grew to years of manhood, receiving a limited education. He early engaged in the old French and Indian war.

    Learning of Colonel Byrd's expedition down the Holston, destined against the Cherokees, in 1760, William Edmondson, and his brother Samuel, concluded to enlist, so as to give them an opportunity to examine the lands of the Holston country with a view to future settlement. While on this service, William Edmondson was guilty of the high crime of addressing an officer without taking off his hat, as was required of all soldiers, for which he was severely rebuked, and threatened with punishment. Reaching his comrades in great wrath, Edmondson loaded his rifle, and swore he would shoot the officer who had so grossly insulted him; and it was with great difficulty, that his brother dissuaded him from it. One of the Virginia officers, who knew Edmondson, wrote to Governor Fauquier, that there was a high spirited soldier in his corps, who, unless commissioned, was likely to get into trouble.(+) On the first of August, in that year, the Governor sent (*)These salient points in the character of General Campbell are drawn from Colonel

    Arthur Campbell's memoir; Governor D. Campbell's MS. correspondence; and the recollections of Colonel Walter Lewis, who had served under him, in Atkinson's Casket, September, 1833, 387.

    (+)MS. letter of Hon. Benjamin Estill, August 21st, 1845.

    [this document supplied to me by Grady Loy]

  • About the Quakers in the Chestnut Hill Community 1771-1825

    Notes on the Quakers in the Chestnut Creek settlement 1771-1825

    Quakers formed a congregation east of Galax along Chestnut Creek in what is now Carroll Co., VA about 1782. A monthly meeting was not formed until 1801 (Hinshaw, Vol. 1). This meeting was established after most of the Quakers on the Swift list had already left old Grayson county and had been replaced by Quakers migrating from central New Jersey (Lundy, Schooley etc.) and elsewhere (e.g. Stoneman). It was attended by persons from what is now Grayson (formed 1793) and Carroll (formed 1842) counties (Mt. Pleasant MH). The deed for the meeting house was recorded in 1798 in Grayson county with Joseph Middleton, John Lundy and Amos Lundy providing their seal. There is a large cemetery on the hill beside the meeting house. Mt. Pleasant was renamed Chestnut Creek MM (there was, I think, another Mt. Pleasant in northern VA) . Chestnut Creek Meeting was laid down in 1825 due to the migration of most of its members to Tennessee, Ohio and Indiana. Before 1793 the Quakers would have met at someone's home or gone to Westfield meeting in Surry Co., NC. During the Revolution some had maintained their membership at Cane Creek MM in North Carolina.

    Mt. Pleasant MM meeting was part of North Carolina Yearly Meeting (not Virginia). Many of the families found at Chestnut Creek 1771-1782 were amongst the earliest families at Cane Creek MM in North Carolina, arriving in the years 1751-3. Included in this migration to the Piedmont of NC were the Cox, Carr, Davis and Ruddick families. After their removal to Chestnut Creek they remained members of Cane Creek until 1778. The area they were in became part of that served by New Garden MM about 1778. Many of the Chestnut Creek names are also shown by Hinshaw to be present at New Garden at its founding including Beals, Cook, Ruddick, Williams, Cox, Pearson and Edwards. About 1786, at the founding of Westfield MM (formerly Tom's Creek Preparative Meeting) the Chestnut Creek Quakers are found in records there. Their membership was then transferred to Mt. Pleasant MM at its establishment in 1801.

    Several associated Preparative meetings formed in the New River valley of Virginia, according to the map on the fronts piece in Hinshaw's Encyclopaedia of Quaker Genealogy (Volume 6). Maple Spring meeting was formed in Grayson county about 1802, Pine Creek in Wythe county, Fruit Hill about 1797 in eastern Carroll county and Ward's Gap about 1802 in eastern Carroll county. All of these individual "Prepatory" meetings were part of Mt. Pleasant monthly meeting. Hinshaw gives the date of founding of Chestnut Creek Prepatory meeting (not monthly meeting) as 1781. Amongst the founding families of Mt. Pleasant MM in 1801 were Ballard, Betts, Bond, Cadwallader, Chew, Coffin, Commons, Green, Hiatt, Jessop, Lerow, McCane, Middleton, Morris, Newby, Overman, Parishaw, Peal, Pickrell, Pierce, Pike, Reese, Robinson, Stoneman, Talbot and Williams (Hinshaw, Vol. 1). The minutes of the women's meeting and a volume of birth, death and marriage records survive, but the records of the men's meeting has been lost.

    Most Quakers, whose founder, "http://www.gwyneddfriends.org/fox.htm" George Fox, was a pacifist, would have officially been neutral in the Revolution while privately supporting one side or the other. Rural Friends (Quakers) typically favored the American side. In the area of Virginia to the north of the New River area (Bedford and Campbell county), the Quakers were mainly "fighting Quakers" who fought on the American side. Friends in Philadelphia engaged in trade with England would have favored the British. From the list of fines handed out by Captain Swift about 1783 and family traditions it appears that about half the Quakers may have actively participated in the militia company, but that after 1783, this number declined to include only some of the disowned Quakers and Jacob Elliot. The Baptists appear to have actively participated, including some going to North Carolina to fight in some of the more well-known battles. The militia company after the war became composed of the local Baptists, a few disowned Quakers, and a large influx of young, mostly land-less young men passing through the area after the Revolution on their way west.

    The position of Quakers against war seems to have been the main contributing factor in their decline from being one of the most numerous people in America to a much smaller group today. In the period of peace (1675-1755) their membership was growing, their political influence was great and they were well respected. In this period, not only did the Indians not attack the people in the Quaker colonies (PA, NJ, DE and western MD and VA), but the Quakers acted as peace makers amongst the Indians themselves. Then the French and Indian War broke out, thousands were killed in western Pennsylvania and neighboring Virginia and the Quaker response in Pennsylvania was unsatisfactory to most people. Acting towards your neighbor with love is tough to do when he is burning your home and killing your friends and relations.

    Quakers have a Bible-based testimony against taking oaths of any kind (including the Revolutionary War era Oath of Allegiance). Some Baptists may well have shared this belief as there was a schism amongst the Quakers in Pennsylvania 1692-1700 called the Keith controversy. Many Quakers left the movement and became Baptists at this time and they largely migrated west and south. The Quakers and Baptists lived side by side in the upper New River area and in the Piedmont of North Carolina. They were political allies and Religious competitors. Both denominations more or less date from the mid-seventeenth century. They suffered persecution in Great Britain together. In America, they both were strong proponents of democracy, civil liberties, local control of government, and separation of church and state. The plainness of their churches, of dress and demeanor were similar. They had some theological difference as the Baptists were Calvinists and the Quakers were not. The differences can be summed up as follows: (1) Primary authority of the Bible (Baptist) versus Primary authority of the Spirit (Quakers); (2) Total depravity of mankind (Baptists) versus Perfectibility of mankind (Quakers); (3) the vicarious atonement (saving by grace, being born again etc.)(Baptist) versus salvation by living your life as Christ lived his (Quaker); (4) No women ministers (Baptist) versus everyone can preach if moved by the Spirit (the Quakers were unique in this respect); (5) Adult Baptism (Baptist) versus all sacraments are inward (Quakers). The Baptists that separated from the Quakers in the Keith schism shared the Quaker's pacifist beliefs and were the first Religious denomination to absolutely forbid slavery amongst their members. They primarily split with the Quakers over issues 1, 4 and 5 above. Their leader, after Keith went back to England was John Hart and some of his descendants went south as Baptist missionaries (and are one possibility for ancestors of the New River Hart line).

    Quakers would also be reasonably skilled woods-men. The first settlements west of the Blue Ridge in Virginia were made by Quakers and the Church of the Brethren (German Baptists). They also were proud of their record of peaceful relations with the Indians (which is the reason they and the German Baptists were first into the Shenandoah Valley). It is said, at least in legend, that when Daniel Boone was a Quaker lad growing up in Pennsylvania, he went on hunts with the Lenni Lenape and learned from them. He would not have been the only one. The peace with the Indians lasted from about 1682 (founding of the colony) to 1752 in Pennsylvania.

    Quakers prided themselves in their history of friendship with Native Americans then as they do now. From their coming to New Jersey in the 1670s until the Walking Purchase of 1737, the Quaker led governments respected the treaty boundaries. With Pennsylvania's open immigration policy, this soon led to no new farmland for new settlers. Pennsylvanians then expanded into the Shenandoah Valley (about 1730), but also some began to "squat" on Indian land in Pennsylvania. When the French and Indian War broke out about 1752-3, the Quakers tried to mediate peace with the Indians and were thoroughly unprepared for the string of massacres in which thousands of Pennsylvanians were killed. After 1755, unable to govern effectively during time of war, Quakers began to withdraw from government and this movement, part of a phenomenon called "Quietism," would have been in play during the Regulation and the Revolutionary War. This led to the disownment of members (e.g. Herman Husband, Harmon Cox) of this denomination who were particularly vocal in movements like the Regulation or American Independence. The onset of the French and Indian War began a period of decline in Quaker membership and evangelism.

    Quakers did own some slaves in the early period of their stay in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. By the Revolution, owning slaves had become controversial within the Religious Society of Friends (the actual name of the Quakers). In the Chestnut Creek community of 1781-3 (the Swift militia roll) only two men owned slaves: Elisha Bedsaul (who probably became a Quaker some time between 1774 and 1782) who had 1 and David Fulton (non-Quaker) who had 1. In 1768 and again in 1772 the Virginia Friends agreed that any Friend who purchased slaves was to be disowned (existing slaves were grand-fathered in). By the Revolution this practice had spread to all of the Southern colonies. In the 1793 property tax list for Wythe County, none of the Quaker members of the Swift militia company owned slaves including Elisha Bedsaul. It should be added that in the period just after the Revolution, slavery was questioned throughout western and central Virginia, which were also the most populous parts of the state (at least in white population). However, the eastern counties were disproportionately represented and attempts to introduce legislation for its abolishment went nowhere.

    The antislavery view of Quakers at the time of the Revolution was not necessarily the view of all of their forefathers. A number of large slave holding families from the Virginia Tidewater were converted to the Quakers in the late seventeenth century and some of the names of these families (Johnson, Martin, Fleming) appear on the Swift muster rolls. The Quakers on the Swift musters whose families hailed from Pennsylvania were most likely never owners of slaves.

    Opposition to slavery is one of the two reasons given by Hinshaw (Vol. 6 in his description of South River MM) for the migration of Quakers from Virginia to the Northwest Territory after 1800. The other reason was that a great number of them participated in the Revolution on the American side. Because of this, they received free land in Ohio (the Virginia Military District). Ohio Counties to which Quakers from the New River area migrated which were at least in part within the Virginia Military District include Ross, Logan, Greene, Clinton and Highland. The Lundy family who moved to Grayson Co., VA after the Revolution were first cousins of Benjamin Lundy, sometimes called the Founder of American Abolitionism. He is known to have visited his kin in southwest Virginia on his way to Deep River meeting house, North Carolina where he gave the first public lecture on the abolition of slavery in 1824 (The Lundy Family, 1902 by W.C. Armstrong). The out-migration of those opposed to slavery from Virginia to the old Northwest Territory likely preserved slavery in America, as the abolishment of slavery in Virginia failed by only a few votes in 1835 in the Virginia legislature.

    Quakers from the part of Chester County from whence came the Quakers in New River were, in the early eighteenth century, radical democrats. They helped create in colonial Pennsylvania a democracy that included the freedoms found in the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution. In the end, the political freedoms, radical in their time, advocated by the Quakers and Baptists were adopted as the law of the land. They came gradually. The Bill of rights was enacted in 1787-1790. One man one vote came about the time of the election of Andrew Jackson. The end of slavery was achieved only in the bloodshed of 1861-5 and the Reconstruction following. Quaker women made up much of the early movement that resulted in woman's suffrage. The Quakers, though, were less successful as a religious movement as their membership has not grown much since Revolutionary War days. In America today we enjoy the political freedoms brought by the Quakers and Baptists, but we also enjoy the personal freedom that in those times was part of the culture of very wealthy men in the southern states [Thomas Johnson {probably} on the Swift list actually was descendant of both these groups]. In a way there were two Revolutions, the one fought by the common farmers of the Regulation that continued for 200 years, and one led by the elite in 1776-1783. The cause of freedom, in time, was victorious in both.

    Mt. Pleasant Friends Fellowship still seems to exist and a newer brick meeting house is next to the old cemetary. Directions to the meeting house and cemetary are HERE. There is also a Quaker fellowship meeting near Fancy Gap, and they have put an on-line history of the North Carolina Friends HERE.

    Mt. Pleasant Church
    Mt. Pleasant Church and Cemetery

     End Notes:

    1. One of the first unpaid Quaker ministers at Mt. Pleasant MM was Thomas Beals. This web site contains a brief biography ("http://www.the-roundup.com/quaker/beals/bealsthomas.html" or http://www.rootsweb.com/~genepool/bealthom.htm). He was a minister to the Indians during the Revolution and is said to have been the first Quaker minister in Ohio. Many Friends from Chestnut Creek migrated with him to Ross Co., Ohio about 1798-9.
    2. If you are interested in learning about Quaker's religious beliefs in this time period you might try "http://www.gwyneddfriends.org/hillman.htm" Friends Early Use of the Bible.
    3. A very interesting article on the Quaker settlement of northwest Virginia can be found at http://patp.us/reading/5.aspx (by Pat Patterson)
    4. The Encyclopaedia of Quaker Genealogy, Volume I (North Carolina) and Volume VI (Virginia), edited by William Wade Hinshaw was consulted as referred to above.
    5. Some of the minutes of New Garden MM (North Carolina) just after the Battle of Alamance.
    6. Some marriages relevant to Chestnut Creek from the records of New Garden MM have been placed on line.

    Contact the author, James A. Quinn, February, 2003 - revised Feb. 2009

  • A brief note about the war against the Cherokee

    A Brief note about the Cherokee war of 1776-1777

    At the beginning of the Revolution the Cherokee received a delegation from the Indians north of the Ohio (Shawnee, Iroquois, Ottawa) inviting them to join in a war against the white settlements over the Blue Ridge. The British offered guns, ammunition and cash payments for scalps and sent officers among the Cherokee. Most of the Cherokee declined this invitation and declared neutrality. However, the Chickamauga faction, led by Tsi'-yu-gunsi-ni ("http://victorian.fortunecity.com/rothko/420/aniyuntikwalaski/people/canoe.html" Dragging Canoe) did join in this war. Nancy Ward, the "beloved woman" of the Cherokee sent runners to the settlements in northeast Tennessee and Virginia's Clinch River valley warning of this attack. Forewarned, the settlers at Watauga and Eaton's Station forted up and beat off the attacks of 250-700 warriors in July of 1776 (estimates widely vary on the number of Chickamauga). Many of the women and children in the Carter's Valley and Watauga settlement left and temporarily found refuge in the New River settlements.

    In retaliation, militia companies from southwest Virginia, western North Carolina and the settlements in Tennessee gathered together and attacked the Cherokee. The 1500 Virginians were led by Colonel William Christian, they left for Cherokee lands in October of 1776, returning in December, and then attacking again in April of 1777. They destroyed homes, livestock and crops of over 30 villages, both hostile and neutral. Most of the Cherokee fled the villages before the militia arrived and put up little resistance. According to Cherokee legend the inhabitants that remained were slaughtered regardless of age and sex. On the other hand, according to the reports of the militia officers and later pension applications there were few killed on either side and there is no mention that I have found of killing women and children. Those women and children they found [and did not kill] were according to official Virginia documents made prisoner and Nancy Ward was brought back to Virginia (but was not considered a prisoner according to official documents). However, there were also attacks made on the Cherokee by the state militias of North and South Carolina and Georgia and there are indications that these men behaved in a less restrained fashion (e.g. 20 years later in western Georgia Cherokee children still fled at the sight of a white man [Henderson, 1920]). The Cherokee "made peace" (most had never been at war). A peace treaty was signed with the Carolinas and Georgia at DeWitt's Corner on 20 May 1777 and with Virginia on 20 July 1777 at the Long Island of the Holston. With the peace was a cession by the Cherokee of over 5,000,000 acres of land.

    The Chickamauga faction remained hostile and moved away from the Cherokee villages to the area near present day Chattanooga, TN where the British had a trading post that supplied them with guns and ammunition. This split in the Cherokee nation occurred in March of 1777. Another expedition was mounted against the Chickamagua in 1779 from Virginia and Enoch Osborne's company from New River participated in this expedition. Ephraim Osborne Jr.'s pension application indicates that they did not molest peaceful villages on that occasion, and burnt Dragging Canoe's town after finding it empty. The Chickamagua eventually went north and joined the Shawnee in the 1780s in their attacks on settlements and travelers in Kentucky, Virginia and Pennsylvania. They did not make peace until the 1790s.

    The "http://www.rootsweb.com/%7Evawise2/sketches/HSpubl35.html" Long Hunters had long hunted and traded with the Cherokee. In many cases they had fathered Cherokee children and been in semi-married relationships with Cherokee women. In these cases, by Cherokee custom, a man who supports his wife and children honorably is inducted into the woman's clan. European-American hunters on Cherokee land not attached to the clans in this way were in a perilous occupation. That the New River men, many of whom had been Long Hunters and Indian traders, would hold back in the attack on the Cherokee in 1776-1777 is to be expected, considering the way in which the war was conducted and their past ties to the Cherokee. As an example, Capt. Enoch Osborne's brother Ephraim married Mary Brock who is the daughter of Aaron Brock, sometimes called by his Cherokee name Cutsawah or Red Bird (after which a tributary of the Kentucky River is named), and one of the Blevins married a granddaughter of Doublehead, a Cherokee head man. Long Hunters not allied with the Cherokee would have been regarded by the Cherokee as thieves and would have lost their harvest of furs if caught (one such dispossessed "thief" was the famous Benjamin Cleveland, scourge of the New River Tories). The Revolutionary War was an economic disaster for the long hunts as many of the furs and skins destined for England now had no market.

    It appeared that the long-hunting Blevins brothers may have warned the Cherokees of the impending attack by Col. Christian's forces as this charge appears in Montgomery County court records. These Blevins brothers later are found participating in Tory regiments in the Carolinas. The Blevins brothers (James, William, John and father James) lived near Capt. John Cox to the west of Swift's company and are cousins of the James Blevins on the Swift militia roles (who moves into the Chestnut Creek neighborhood probably sometime near the end of the Revolutionary War).

    By 1800, the Cherokee had become largely mixed race and by the Revolution this process was well under way. Their houses, agricultural practices, and industry were a mixture of European and traditional Cherokee methods as well. Soon they would be converted to Christianity, would be educated in missionary schools and form a government based on that of the neighboring states. The Cherokee national anthem, sung on the Trail of Tears was a version of Amazing Grace. They had supported the European-American community in several wars before the Revolution, notably the war with the Tuscaroras in North Carolina and the French and Indian war where they served as scouts in Pennsylvania (under Christopher Gist and William Trent). The one war they had fought with the settlers and British in 1760-1, had been a disaster for them with villages, crops and livestock destroyed. Also, many of their headmen were killed when the Cherokee attacked an English fort where they were held hostage.

    The leaders of the militia in southwest Virginia were primarily of lowland Scotch Presbyterian ancestry and were generally wealthy slave holders. A lot of their wealth had been acquired in large land purchases (such as the 120,000 acre James Patton purchase, the Lewis family's Greenbrier company, and the 800,000 acre purchase of the "http://wolves.dsc.k12.ar.us/cyberace/sbgone/gen/fam1/history/va/loyalco.htm" Loyal company - the latter included the upper New River area as well as land in Cherokee country, and was in partnership with men of English ancestry from Albemarle Co., VA like Peter Jefferson and Thomas Walker). These wealthy Presbyterian families intermarried with one another (Col. "http://members.fortunecity.com/fpreston/sfwilliam.htm" Preston's son Francis m. Gen. William Campbell's daughter Sarah, and William Preston was the grandson of James Patton above. Col. William Campbell was married to Patrick Henry's sister and Col. William Christian was married to another of Patrick Henry's sisters -- Patrick Henry himself was a speculator in frontier land). The lowland Scotch-Americans had suffered greatly in the French and Indian War and in Pontiac's rebellion, and had been targets of Logan in Lord Dunmore's war. These attacks were often unprovoked [at least by the victims] massacres, scalpings and torture of whole families. The Scotch-Irish were not disposed to be friendly to Indians because of these previous encounters (although these encounters were not generally with the Cherokee). However, it should be noted that General (then Major) Andrew Lewis and Col. William Preston served with Cherokee Indians in the unsuccessful ""http://www.access.wvu.edu/class/wvhistory/documents/Introduction.pdf" Big Sandy Campaign" against the Shawnee in 1756 during the French and Indian War, so were not always on unfriendly terms with the Cherokee. The Scotch-Irish also may have had issues with Quakers, who while in power in Pennsylvania, had been unable to deal with the Indians during the French and Indian War. In the war of the Regulation in North Carolina, the Presbyterians of Mecklenburg Co., NC switched sides just before the Battle of Alamance, dooming the movement. A good number of the Scotch-Irish who came to America in the first wave of their settlement (about 1720) were people with a military background from the war between William of Orange and James II. This background was evident in the way they conducted themselves on the frontier. The Irish wars had their share of massacres too. The Holston River valley was largely first settled by people of Scots Presbyterian ancestry while the Clinch River valley was settled by people similar to those on New River (long hunters of diverse ancestry, including mixed race people).

    The settlers in the New River area had numerous kin on the Clinch River frontier and in Kentucky. Many of the names in Boonesborough are also present in the upper New River Long Hunter community including Boone and Calloway. These two communities were being attacked from the north by the Shawnee and their allies, so there would have been concern in the upper New River about Indian attacks. One idea is that the Cherokee had ceded the land in Kentucky to first John Donelson in 1771 and later to Henderson's Transylvania company in 1775, in order to place a buffer between themselves and the Shawnee. According to Donelson, he did not seek the cession of Kentucky, but included it at the request of Attakallakalla, the Cherokee headman. The Shawnee were raiding Cherokee villages and may have wished to return to their Kentucky homeland. The Cherokee had played the same game (putting a buffering people between them and an enemy) a century earlier when they placed the Shawnee between themselves and the Choctaw (south-central TN) and the Catawba (western NC) after the Shawnee had been driven from Kentucky by the Iroquois about 1660. In the early 1700s the Cherokee had joined in an alliance that drove the Shawnee north into Pennsylvania (one result of this war was that the Shawnee were denied the return to Kentucky). In 1776, the Shawnee may have been looking to go full circle back to their original homelands (they lived in southern Ohio by permission of the Miami). The Shawnee were a much smaller tribe than the Cherokee (population of about 5,000 versus about 25,000). All tribes were greatly outnumbered by the settlers. There were over a half million European-Americans on the Appalachian frontier and west of the Blue Ridge at the time of the Revolution.

    Although the upper New River was spared attacks by the Chickamauga, some faction of the Cherokee did attack Tory settlements in South Carolina later in the war and the Chickamaugua continued as a threat along the Clinch and Holston rivers. Other part-Indian, sometime Cherokees collected American Revolutionary war pensions after the war, having served in the militias on the frontier. Still others served as scouts under Nathaniel Gist, the father of Sequoia in Washington's continental army after the peace treaties of 1777 were signed. The alliances and roles played by people on the frontier are often poorly documented and hard to follow and more complicated then reported. Be suspicious of any comments that infer all Cherokees did something or believed something as, in the Revolution, they were as divided in what to do as their white neighbors. The Cherokees were not ruled by one chief, but each village and clan had its own separate leaders and were free to choose their own path.

    The feud between some of the Scotch-Presbyterians, in particular those led by "http://www.patriotresource.com/people/sevier.html" John Sevier, and the Cherokee continued for many years after the Revolution. This feud was kept alive by the murder of the Cherokee leader Old Tassel (in retaliation for the murder of a settler's family) by militia led by Sevier in 1788. It continued through the "http://www.users.mis.net/%7Echesnut/pages/bobbenge.htm" Robert Benge attacks in the 1790s (Benge was a relative of Old Tassel's), through the murder of Sevier's nephews by Doublehead (brother of Old Tassel) to the massacre of Cherokee women and children on the way to a mission school at Ywahoo Falls in Kentucky in 1810. At Ywahoo Falls, on the Cherokee side were several white men with upper New River names like Blevins and Osborne. Throughout most of these troubles the majority of Cherokee maintained neutrality (I think). By Cherokee custom it was up to Old Tassel's family to avenge his death. It appears that as many of half the people of Cherokee ancestry did not go on the Trail of Tears, most blending into the white population by 1810-1830 (only about 12,000 Cherokee were removed to Oklahoma, plus some had removed earlier [the "Old Settlers"], leaving about 10,000-20,000 not removed of which 1,000 settled at Quallah in the Smokey Mountains of North Carolina and the rest melted into the general population).

    References:

    1. Henderson, Archibald 1920. "The Conquest of the Old Southwest: The Romantic Story of the Early Pioneers into Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, and Kentucky 1740-1790. published by The Century Co.
    2. The book, Cherokee Proud, 2nd edition, by Tony Mack McClure was consulted in preparing this document. Also consulted wasThe Cherokees, by Grace Steele Woodward, 1963, The University of Oklahoma Press.
    3. Letters to and from William Preston and William Campbell to the Governors of Virginia were consulted in preparing this document as were numerous Revolutionary War pension applications.
    4. There's much information from a descendant's point of view for Doublehead, Robert Benge, Ywahoo Falls etc. at "http://www.geocities.com/jillserenamatthews/doubleheadlinks.html"
    5. Related topic: "http://www.rootsweb.com/%7Evawise2/sketches/HSpubl27.html" Frontier Forts by Emory L. Hamilton, Historical Sketches of Southwest Virginia Publication 4 - 1968; describes the forts in the Clinch and Powell valleys to which the Swift militia company (and other New River companies) may have been posted to guard against incursion by the Chickamaugua and Shawnee.
    6. Part of L. P. Summer's account of the Cherokee expedition in 1776 can be read on the Col. Charles Cocke web site: http://home.southwind.net/~crowther/Cocke/CherokeeEx.htm (from Annals of Southwest Virginia, Vol. 2, p. 1419)
    7. Some of the information about the Blevins family is from e-mails received from Ron Blevins who is writing a Blevins family history.

    James Quinn, January, 2003

  • How to get to Chestnut Creek, the Mt. Pleasant Meeting House and the Crooked Creek Primitive Baptist Church

    The Flower Swift Company: Locations and Directions

    Where is Chestnut Creek?

    Chestnut Creek begins its journey in Alleghany Co., North Carolina, south of 18 to the east of the Parkway. It runs through the valley land once owned by the Murphys. Descendants still live there on Murphy Bend Road. The locals call it Murphy Highway.

    It then meanders along the Parkway, flowing northeasterly into VA and then turns more northerly and heads to the left of the Parkway near the Parkway's intersection with 89.

    It next appears just as you enter into Galax, and it is quite a bit larger than back at the Parkway. Cole Creek, and other tributaries in extreme SW Carroll Co., have now dumped into the Chestnut. It then runs parallel to the bypass and northerly, eventually emptying into the New River. The old train track runs beside it as it heads towards Fries. (Len Chapel)

    Chestnut Creek runs by Galax on the south and east sides of the town. You can actually ride adjacent the river, if you exit east off of 89 before you enter the town and follow along the creek until you enter the road on the east side of Galax that runs between Galax and Hillsville, Chestnut Creek then runs almost straight North as it enters Carroll County. It almost parallels the New River for a few miles before you reach the confluence of the streams. (Johnny Long)

    Thus the Creek begins in Alleghany County, flows into Grayson, then into Carroll where it empties into New River.

    Location of Chestnut Hill/Mt. Pleasant Meeting House and Crooked Creek Primitive Baptist Church:

    Mt. Pleasant/Chestnut Creek MH: From Galax, go south on 89 to the edge of town (just past Chestnut Creek) and make a left onto Piper's Gap Road. A short ways you will turn right onto Old Quaker Road. It is just past Coal Creek Road. Go about 1/2 - 1 mile, and on top the hill and in a very sharp curve, turn left onto Religion Road. There is a church at the end of the road, but I don't know if it is the original old Quaker Meeting House or not. The graveyard there contains many, many of the old area Quakers, including many of the Stoneman clan.

    Crooked Creek Primitive Baptist: Located between Galax and Hillsville on 58, near the mobile home park (it used to be named Midway, and still may be) is a small meandering creek in a most beautiful area of farmland nestled in a shapely valley. That is Crooked Creek. If you travel upstream (south), it goes back to some of the best stocked trout fishing Virginia has to offer. Up over the hill from the stocked section of the creek (can't think of the specific name of the fishing area...maybe a local can assist with that) is Crooked Creek Primitive Baptist Church. It has many of the early Quakers (Stoneman, Burcham, etc.) buried there.

    (Len Chapel)

    Note added later by J. Quinn: A newer brick meeting house stands at the site of Mt. Pleasant Friends Meeting on Religion Road. The author of this web site easily found the place using Len Chapel's directions. Most of the older stones in the attached cemetary have weathered to the point of being unreadable or are probably gone. The stone of Enoch Cox (b. 1752) and his wife Mary are still readable and the DAR has placed Revolutionary War markers next to their graves. Religion Road is as of May 2007 a one lane gravel/dirt lane leading from a Baptist church back to Mt. Pleasant Friends Fellowship (which has no sign pointing the way to it, nor any indication of when it meets). The brick building says simply "Mt. Pleasant, founded 1801" (which is the date of the founding of the monthly meeting). Mt. Pleasant prepatory meeting goes back into the 1780s.

  • Timeline

    Upper New River Time line for the Revolutionary War

    Date New River Elsewhere
    May 1771-1772 Founding of the Chestnut Creek Community by participants of the Battle of Alamance Battle of Alamance, defeat of the Regulation16 May, 1771
    1774 Local militia participates in Lord Dunsmore's War against the Shawnee. Osborne's militia company is formed from Cox's company.  
    Jan 1775 Fincastle Resolutions are passed. The future Montgomery Co., militia leaders such as Wm Preston and Wm Campbell are signers.  
    June 1776   Isaac Thomas sent to the Indians to maintain peace. The Cherokee attack the Watauga settlements in NE Tennessee
    July 1776 Indians attack settlements in the Clinch River valley in Fincastle Co. & kill 2 men American Independence Declared
    Oct 1776 Col. William Christian's leads a retaliatory attack on the Cherokee.  
    1777 Osborne list - Quaker Ruddicks refuse to sign. Roving bands of Tories from eastern Virginia and North Carolina cause disturbances in Southwest Virginia (robberies, horse thefts, occasionally murder). The militia is called out to respond.  
    Apr 1777 to Dec 1777 Troops under Wm Christian resume the Cherokee campaign, destroying their towns and making all but the Chickamaugua faction sue for peace.  
    Sep 1777   Indian Attack on Ft. Patrick Henry, Wheeling VA is unsuccessful.
    1778 Wm Campbell on tour against Tories in present day Grayson and Ashe Co. (James Keys deposition). Capt. Gambill leads troops in pursuit of Tories in the Spring through "Cox's Settlement" (Amos Church pension app) & execute an Ingram. Col. Charles Lynch (of present day Campbell Co.) beats off an attack at the lead mines (month unknown to author).  
    4 Mar 1778 The Capt. John Henderson company is formed by dividing Capt. Cox's company.  
    Sep 1778   Siege by Indians on Ft. Patrick Henry; Siege by Shawnee of Boonesborough, KY -both unsuccessful
    Oct 1778   Daniel Boone acquitted of treason.
    June 1779 Capts. Cox and Osborne are captured by men from their own companies (mutiny) and are later freed unharmed. Tories assemble at Round Bottom.  
    July 1779 Col. Wm Campbell at the lead mines. He breaks up a large body of Tories at Baywood. Col. Wm Ingles to march against mutineers and Tories in the New River settlements.  
    Sept 1779 Swift's Company is formed.  
    May 1780 Capt. Swift escapes from Tories and warns of an impending Tory attack. Buford Massacre (So. Carolina), 29 May
    June 1780 Militia are needed to guard the frontier from Indian attack (Collier pension app). Swift's company defends lead mines from Tory attack. Battle of Ramsaur's Mill, June 20
    July 1780 Tory insurrection. Instructions for disarming of Tories on the New River (letter, Crockett to Preston). Greers company goes after Indians. James Cox is captured and escapes. Battle of Huck's Defeat, July 12
    Aug 1780 Walter Crockett to march with 250 men on the Tories on New River and in adjoining North Carolina Defeat at Camden, SC, 16 August.
    Oct 1780 Cleveland in Ashe/Alleghany area looking for Tories. Some New River men have left with Campbell for King's Mountain. Cleveland hangs Edward Sizemore. Battle of King's Mountain, Oct. 7 Battle of Shallow Ford (Yadkin Co.) Oct 14
    Jan 1781   Battle of Cowpens, Jan. 17
    Mar 1781   Wetzell's Mills, March 6 Guilford Court House, March 15
    May 1781 New River Tory William Riddle hung on the Tory Oak by Benj. Cleveland  
    Oct 1781   Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown.
  • Data about Quakers in North Carolina and Virginia

    Data on Colonial Quakers in VA, NC and SC:

    1. Founding dates of the Quaker monthly meetings in the Carolinas (from Rufus Jones [1] and Http://www.rootsweb.com/~quakers/quakmtg.htm)

    Bush River SC 1770 Newberry SC
    Cane Creek NC 1751 Alamance
    Cane Creek SC 1773 Union SC
    Carver's Creek 1746  
    Center 1757 or 1772 Guilford
    Contentnea 1743/8 Wayne
    Core Sound 1733 Carteret
    Deep River 1778 Guilford
    Dunn's Creek 1746  
    Falling Creek 1748  
    Fredericksburg (Waterie) 1750 Kershaw SC
    Little River 1713 Perquimans
    New Garden 1754 Guilford
    Perquimans 1680 Perquimans
    Pasquotank 1698 Pasquotank
    Spring 1773 Alamance
    Springfield 1790 Guilford
    Rich Square 1760 Northampton
    Wells 1764  
    Westfield 1786 Surry

    2. Founding dates of Quaker monthly meetings in Virginia

    Back Creek 1777 Frederick
    Bear Garden 1767 Hampshire
    Black Water 1757 Surry
    Camp Creek 1747 Louisa
    Cedar Creek 1739 Hanover
    Chuckatuck Before 1672 Nansemond
    Curles (Henrico) 1698 Henrico
    Denby 1716 1716
    Fairfax 1744 Loudoun
    Hopewell (Opequan & Providence) 1735 Frederick
    Isle of Wight 1767 Isle of Wight
    Middle Creek 1775 Berkeley
    Nansemond 1702 Nansemond
    Pagan Creek 1702 Isle of Wight
    Piney Grove 1755 Marlborough SC
    South River 1757 Bedford
    Surry 1702 Surry
    Wainoak 1702 Charles City
    Warwick 1702 York
    White Oak Swamp (alias) Abt 1700 Henrico

    3. Origin of members of New Garden MM (Guilford Co., NC) (1754-1770) (from Rufus Jones [1])

    Pennsylvania 45
    Virginia 35
    Maryland 1
    NE North Carolina 4
    Total 85

    After 1770 a large influx of persons from Nantucket Island, MA occurred.

    Commentary by the author of this page (James Quinn)

    1. Most of the Quakers from Virginia in the above table are from the northern end of the Shenandoah Valley and settled there from Pennsylvania or Maryland, so further reinforce the Pennsylvania origin of Quaker settlers in the Piedmont of North Carolina.
    2. From my studies of Quaker frontier genealogy I would say that Quakers in Virginia during the Revolution could be divided into 4 groups.
      1. The oldest group were in the southeast corner of Virginia (e.g. Norfolk, Isle of Wight Co. etc.) and date from the founding of the Quaker movement. This group owned slaves and spread into the northeast corner of North Carolina. This is perhaps the oldest Quaker colony in America.
      2. The second group started in Henrico Co., VA. A few of these families may have been Quakers from the time of their emigration to America (e.g. Jordan, Womack), but most of these families appear to have be converted in the 1690-1730 time-frame. Some of these families were very wealthy and they were related to many of the leading families of the Virginia Piedmont. This group spread north to Hanover and Louisa counties, then west to the Lynchburg VA area. Some of them were large slave owners. For instance, a John Pleasants freed over 1000 slaves on his death a few years after the Revolution.
      3. The third group came from Pennsylvania and adjoining Maryland to the Northern Shenandoah and the adjoining Potomac Valley beginning about 1728. This became the largest Quaker settlement in Virginia. This group generally disapproved of slavery.
      4. The fourth group is the Chestnut Creek settlement in southwest Virginia which is the subject of this study.

    References and Links:

    1. The Quakers in the American Colonies, by Rufus M. Jones (1911)
    2. If you are interested in learning about Quaker's religious beliefs in this time period you might try "http://www.gwyneddfriends.org/hillman.htm" Friends Early Use of the Bible.
    3. A very interesting article on the Quaker settlement of northwest Virginia can be found at "http://www.patp.us/reading/5.shtml" (by Jay Worral on Pat Patterson's web site)
  • Members of the Flower Swift Company from about 1780-1785

    Consolidated Flower Swift Militia Musters (alphabetical)

    Numbers in the tables refer to number of horses owned on the 1782 Montgomery Co., VA or 1793 Wythe Co., VA personal tax lists.

    NF = not found on the personal tax list; (Q) = marked Quaker on the muster roll; x = not on that particular muster.

      Draper List3 List 1 List 2
    Name 1792 1793 1792 1793 1792 1793 1792 1793
    David Amis x x x x x x NF NF
    Jacob Ammons (Q) NF NF x x x x x x
    James Armstrong x x x x 0 NF x x
    William Erwin x x NF NF x x x x
    Jonathan Ashworth x x x x NF NF x x
    William Bowman x x x x x x NF 1
    James Barnett x x x x NF 3 x x
    John Bedsaul (Q) 4 7 4 7 x x x x
    Elisha Bedsaul (Q) 4 4 x x x x x x
    James Blevins x x 0 1 x x x x
    Stephen Bond (Q) NF NF x x x x x x
    James Bryant x x 1 3 1 3 x x
    Absalom Burton x x x x NF 2 x x
    Thomas Carr (Q) 3 1 3 1 x x x x
    Samuel Chaney NF NF x x x x x x
    Edmund Clonsh 0 NF 0 NF 0 NF 0 NF
    Jeremiah Clonsh 4 NF 4 NF x x x x
    John Clonsh 2 NF 2 NF 2 NF 2 NF
    Isaac Coulson x x x x NF NF NF NF
    Jacob Coulson x x x x 1 NF 1 NF
    James Cock x x x x 5 4 5 4
    Chas Cole x x x x x x NF 1
    William Conner x x x x NF NF NF NF
    John Cook NF NF NF NF x x x x
    Benjamin Cox (Q) 2 NF 2 NF x x x x
    Benjamin Cox NF NF NF NF x x x x
    Harmon Cox x x 5 NF x x x x
    Jesse Cox (Q) 6 6 6 6 x x x x
    John Cox (Q) 2 6 x x x x x x
    Richard Cox (Q) NF NF NF NF x x x x
    Samuel Cox 13 NF 13 NF x x x x
    William Cox (Q) 4 4 4 4 x x x x
    Charles Davis (Q) 1 2 1 2 x x x x
    John Davis x x NF 1 to 6 x x x x
    Joseph Davis x x x x 2 3 2 3
    Thomas Davis Sr. (Q) 6 NF 6 NF x x x x
    Thomas Davis Jr. (Q) NF 2 NF 2 x x x x
    John Dodson NF NF x x x x x x
    George Dorcey x x x x NF NF x x
    John Dorcey x x x x NF NF x x
    Christopher Dutton x x x x x x NF NF
    Edmund Eagin x x x x NF NF x x
    Isaac Edwards x x x x 2 1 2 1
    Jacob Elliot (Q) 3 NF 3 NF 3 NF 3 NF
    Israel Elliot (Q) NF NF NF NF x x x x
    William Elliot NF NF x x x x x x
    Pealor Elrod x x x x NF NF NF NF
    Jonathan Essery NF NF NF NF x x x x
    Thomas Essery NF NF NF NF x x x x
    Jonathan Essery NF NF NF NF x x x x
    John Fannin x x x x 5 NF 5 NF
    Thomas Fannin x x x x NF NF NF NF
    Thomas Fields x x x x NF NF x x
    John Fleming Jr. NF NF x x x x x x
    David Fulton 5 7 5 7 x x x x
    James Gosnt x x x x x x NF NF
    Jacob Griggs NF NF x x x x x x
    Jonathan Hanks x x x x x x NF NF
    Josh Hanks x x x x NF 3 x x
    Jacob Hanson x x NF NF x x x x
    Benjamin Hartgrove x x x x NF NF NF NF
    John Hill x x x x x x NF NF
    Thomas Hughey x x x x NF NF x x
    Christopher Hussey (Q) NF NF x x x x x x
    James Hust x x 1 NF x x x x
    Samuel Jason x x x x NF NF NF NF
    John Jiorth x x NF NF x x x x
    Abraham Johns x x x x x x NF 5
    William Johns NF 5 NF 5 NF 5 NF 5
    Thomas Johnson x x 4 NF x x x x
    Isaac Julian x x x x NF NF x x
    Jesse Julian x x x x NF NF x x
    John Kenworthy (Q) 3 NF 3 NF x x x x
    Thomas Kenworthy (Q) 3 NF 3 NF x x x x
    John Lashley x x x x NF NF x x
    Thomas Laughon x x x x x x NF NF
    Joseph Laws x x x x NF NF NF NF
    John Lawson NF NF x x x x x x
    John Leary x x 4 NF x x x x
    Isaac Little 0 NF x x x x 0 NF
    Daniel Loe NF NF x x x x x x
    John Loe NF NF x x x x x x
    John Loe NF NF x x x x x x
    Samuel Loggins NF NF x x x x x x
    George Martin x x x x 1 4 1 4
    John Martin (Q) x x 1 NF x x x x
    John McLain x x x x NF 2 x x
    John Mickrel NF NF x x x x x x
    Daniel McCoy NF 1 NF 1 NF 1 NF 1
    David McCoy NF 3 NF 3 NF 3 NF 3
    John McCoy 4 NF 4 NF 4 NF 4 NF
    Samuel Mehuren 1 NF 1 NF 1 NF 1 NF
    George Melvin x x x x x x NF NF
    John Mevel x x x x x x NF NF
    Charles Morgan x x 3 NF 3 NF 3 NF
    Henry Morgan x x NF NF NF NF NF NF
    Morgan Morgan x x x x NF 3 x x
    William Morgan x x x x NF NF NF NF
    Timothy Murphy x x x x 1 2 1 2
    Pearse Nolan x x x x x x NF NF
    Jasper Nolan x x x x NF NF x x
    Henry Norton 1 NF 1 NF 1 NF x x
    William Norton 5 NF 5 NF x x x x
    Thomas Pearson (Q) x x NF NF x x x x
    Sam Pearson (Q) x x NF NF x x x x
    Henry Pendry (Q) x x NF NF x x x x
    James Pendry (Q) 1 NF 1 NF x x x x
    Joseph Powell x x x x x x NF 4
    Samuel Priest x x x x x x NF NF
    Edmund Pugh x x x x x x NF NF
    Charles Quillen x x x x NF NF NF NF
    William Rankins (Q) 1 NF 1 NF x x x x
    Thomas Ransom (Q) NF NF x x x x x x
    Caleb Reese (Q) 0 NF 0 NF x x x x
    David Reese (Q) x x NF NF x x x x
    Francis Reese (Q) NF NF NF NF x x x x
    John Ruddick (Q) 2 NF 2 NF x x x x
    Solomon Ruddick (Q) NF 3 NF 3 x x x x
    William Ruddick Sr. (Q) 4 2 4 2 x x x x
    William Ruddick Jr. (Q) NF 7 NF 7 x x x x
    Nathan Shelley x x 2 NF 2 NF x x
    John Simmons x x 0 NF 0 NF x x
    Jonathan Skipworth NF NF x x x x x x
    Timothy Spencer NF NF x x x x x x
    Samuel Stamey x x x x x x NF NF
    Samuel Stanfield (Q) x x 4 NF x x x x
    Thomas Stanfield (Q) NF NF NF NF x x x x
    Elisha Stearns x x x x NF NF x x
    William Stewart 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
    John Studenan x x NF NF x x x x
    John Swaney x x x x NF NF NF NF
    Flower Swift 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5
    Abraham Vanhosen x x x x NF NF NF NF
    Nathan Ward 2 3 or 7 2 3 or 7 2 3 or 7 x x
    Amos Williams (Q) 4 NF 4 NF x x x x
    James Williams (Q) x x NF 2 x x x x
    John Williams x x 2 NF x x x x
    William Williams 1 to 2 0 to 3 1 to 2 0 to 3 1 to 2 0 to 3 1 to 2 0 to 3
    Caleb Winfrey NF NF x x NF NF x x
    Isaac Winfrey NF NF x x x x x x


      Draper List3 List 1 List 2
      1792 1793 1792 1793 1792 1793 1792 1793
    Number on tax lists 32 19 42 19 21 18 17 14
    Total in Company 64 64 68 68 57 57 48 48
    Percent on tax lists 50 30 62 28 37 32 35 29









    Number of new recruits on the tax lists 11 4 8 9 0 4
    Total new recruits from the previous muster 18 18 37 37 16 16
    % new recruits on tax list 61 22 22 24 0 25
    Turnover % 26
    65
    33
    1. 1782 Montgomery County, Virginia Personal Property Tax List
    2. 1793 Wythe County, Virginia Personal Property Tax List
  • Some weaknesses in this study

    Gap Analysis of the Flower Swift Study

    This study and analysis has many weaknesses. One of the objectives is to see what can be done solely on the internet. However, clearly there are gaps in my knowledge and the knowledge of the people willing to correspond with me.

    • The proposition that the residents of upper New River are long-time allies of the Cherokee is somewhat speculative and is based primarily on genealogy and migratory patterns and the knowledge that many of the men had been hunters on Cherokee land (e.g. I can to some degree answer these questions: Who migrated with the Riddles and Roberts and other Tories? Who married them?, Which families are thought to have intermarried with the Cherokee?). Is friendship with the Cherokee really the cause of the mutiny in Cox and Osborne's companies? Alternative explanation: why fight in a losing cause where the enemy is threatening to hang you (the mutiny occurred about the time of the British victories in South Carolina).
    • The mutineers? Tories or just refusing to fight? Of the men named as mutineers some appear on later Cox and Osborne militia rosters - so they do not appear to be dedicated Tories. The men named as being actual Tories in other documents do not appear on any militia rosters after 1777 and many not on any roster (possibly because they are not from the area covered by these companies).
    • I believe that the people who were dedicated to the Tory cause were never on the Cox and Osborne militia rolls (e.g. James/Cornelius Roberts, Sizemores, Perkins etc.). However, maybe they lived outside the area covered by these companies and are on Wilkes (now Ashe and Alleghany) Co., NC musters?
    • Where are the militia rosters for the Andrew Baker company and other militia companies in adjoining North Carolina? Do they exist?
    • Some of the mixed race Saponi-Europeans appear on militia rosters in 1777 but are not seen after 1779. Mixed race names of this group are Riddle, Collins, Bunch, Bollins, Goins, Gibson, and maybe Sizemore (according to Saponi and Riddle genealogy web pages and a detailed note I read on the New River History Forum and my knowledge of the settlers of Newman's Ridge, Hancock Co., TN and detailed studies on Melungeons published on the web by a Historian with the Federal government's Indian Bureau). Does this mean that they switched sides? Sizemores were consistent Tories, but I am not so sure about the Riddles, Collins and Bunch families. The documents in the Sevier vs. Wm Riddle law suit in 1779 might exist and throw some light on this? Wm Riddle's brother John seems to have collected a pension for his service in the Revolution.
    • Reports of trials of men who rebelled (e.g. John and James Blevins) have filtered to me through the New River History Forum. Are there more reports in existence that I have not read?
    • Three to five men that appear on the Draper Swift militia roster appear to be part Croatan/Lumbee Indian and 1 or 2 of the names are in the Quaker part of the list. Is it known that there was a Croatan community in Surry (now Stokes?) Co., NC and is it known what side they participated on in the Revolution? Was Timothy Spencer part of this community? Are the Quakers known to have made Croatan converts in the Piedmont (or earlier in SE North Carolina)?
    • There is document, found by Draper, where an order is given to disarm the Cox, Osborne and Swift companies (?). I have not found this document and am not sure of its date.
    • An in-depth genealogical study of the Cox, Baker and Osborne companies would shed more light on the Swift company. For instance, the Phipps and Long family seem to have very similar backgrounds to the men in the Swift company (Quaker and Regulator). Apparently the Phipps family was one of the families that remained on the American side in the mutiny (James Cox pension application). Similarly an in-depth genealogical study of the people who were consistent Loyalists might shed some light.
    • The identification of William Rankin on the list with William Rankin the Regulator of Guilford is highly speculative. It assumes that he kept his property in Guilford while hiding out in Virginia after Governor Tryon made him an outlaw following the Battle of Alamance 1771. Alternatively, he could be hiding out with this group in 1781 because it is known that General Cornwallis used his farm as the camp for his troops just prior to the Battle of Guilford. However, the fact that this William Rankin is marked as a Quaker on the list is puzzling, if it is him, because he is believed to be Presbyterian. I was unable to find any person named Rankin anywhere in this time period in any Quaker records on the Internet - I need to take a quick peek at Hinshaw. When it comes down to it, the only real connection between this man and the Quakers at Chestnut Creek is Alamance 1771 and process of elimination with men named William Rankin on Worldconnect (he seemed most likely).

    Key books have been published that I have not read (and should):

    • Carroll County 1765-1815 The Settlements by Alderman
    • I have not Mary Kegley's books on colonial southwest Virginia
    • Annals of Southwest Virginia 1769-1800, by Lewis C. Summers, Kingsport Press, Kingsport, Tn, 1927 (unread)
    • Draper's account of the Revolutionary War in the area (he wrote a book)
    • The county and regional histories of Ashe, Alleghany and Wilkes counties
    • The account of the Revolution published in any Carroll County History
    • Any in-depth study of the Revolution in the Randolph, Alamance, Guilford and Iredell counties - the counties of origin of the people on the Swift muster.
    • I have not acquired the pension applications of Daniel McCoy, Henry Morgan (I have seen the abstract), William Erwin, Nathan Blevens (son of James Blevens) or Morgan Morgan (who probably served elsewhere as he is not on the Draper list or list 3 - this could help date list 1). Nor have I seen any paper work surrounding the Bounty Land Warrant acquired by Charles Morgan in Grayson County in 1790.
    • I wonder if any obituaries or records exist of the key players in Alamance 1771 such as Harmon Cox and William Rankin.
    • A trip to Guilford College to peruse the Quaker records of Cane Creek, Deep River and Westfield MM for relevant entries could add to this study.